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IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction

A long structural member subject to a compressive load is called a strut.

generally fail under compressive stress and the conventional failure criteria apply. When the cross section area is not large compared to the length i.e the member is slender, then the member will generally fail by buckling well before the compressive yield strength is reached.

The notes below relate to uniform straight members made from homogeneous engineering materials used within the elastic operating range. It is assumed that an end load is applied along the centroid of the ends. The strut will remain straight until the end load reaches a critical value and buckling will be initiated. Any increase in load will result in a catastrophic collapse and a

reduction in load will allow the strut to straighten.

fixing conditions. The slenderness ratio (λ )is defined as the effective length =Le / the least radius of gyration = k of the section The principal end fixing conditions are listed below

Struts with large cross sections compared with the length

The value of the critical load depends upon the slenderness ratio and the end The principal end fixing conditions are listed below

Pinned (hinged) at both ends

Fixed (built-in) at both ends

Fixed at one end and free at the other

Fixed at one end and pinned at the other SymbolsSymbolsSymbolsSymbols

 A = Area (m 2 ) = radius of gyration of section (m) W = End force on strut. (N) k I = Moment of inertia (m 4 ) σ e = Euler stress (N/m 2 ) σ c = compressive failure stress (N/m 2 ) σ R = compressive failure stress (N/m 2 ) λ = slenderness ratio W e = Euler end force on strut. (N) W R = Rankine end force on strut. (N) L = Length of strut (m ) L e = effective length of strut (m) x = position along strut = strut deflection at x

EulersEulersEulersEulers TheoryTheoryTheoryTheory

The simple analysis below is based on the pinned-pinned arrangement. The other arrangements are derived from this by replacing the length L by the effective length Le.

For the pinned-pinned case the effective length Le = L. For the Fixed -Fixed case the effective length Le = L/2. For the Fixed-Free case the effective length Le = L x 2. For the Fixed-Pinned case the effective length Le approx. L x 0,7.

Curvature

Quick derivation for curvature (1/R)  Beam equation

Note: The derivation below is based on a strut with pinned ends. A similar method can be used to arrive at the Euler loads for other end arrangements which will confirm the basis for the factors in arriving at the equivalent length b.

M / I = σ / y = E / R When x = 0 y = 0 and therefore A cos µ.0 + B sin µ.0 = A = 0 therefore A = 0 When x = b , y = 0 and so B sin µb = 0. B cannot be 0 because there would be no deflection and no buckling which is contrary to experience. Hence sin µ Le = 0. therefore µ Le = 0, π, 2π, 3 π etc

(W/EI)(W/EI)(W/EI)(W/EI) LLLLeeee 2222 ==== π 2222 ,,,, 4.4.4.4.π 2222 ,,,, 9.9.9.9.π 2222 etcetcetcetc thereforethereforethereforetherefore WWWW ==== π 2222 E.IE.IE.IE.I //// LLLLeeee 2222 ,,,, π 2222 E.IE.IE.IE.I //// (L(L(L(Leeee //// 2)2)2)2) 2222 ,,,, π 2222 E.IE.IE.IE.I //// (L(L(L(Leeee //// 3)3)3)3) 2222 TheTheTheThe lowestlowestlowestlowest valuevaluevaluevalue ofofofof WWWW resultsresultsresultsresults fromfromfromfrom π 2222 E.IE.IE.IE.I //// LLLLeeee 2222 The lowest value of W resulting from this procedure is called the Euler load (We ) and failure of long slender beams due to buckling results from this much earlier than failure due pure compression. As the moment of inertia I = A.k 2 and the end force W = σ A. The formula can be rewritten Important Note: The value of I and the equivalent value of k are assumed to be the minimum values for the section under consideration

ValidityValidityValidityValidity ofofofof EulersEulersEulersEulers theorytheorytheorytheory

This theory takes no account of the compressive stress.

Young's Modulus of about 200 kN/mm 2 .

80. Therefore for steel Eulers equation is not reliable for slenderness ratios less than 80 and really should not be used for

slenderness ratios less than 120.

For a metal with a compressive strength of less than 300 N/mm 2 and a

The strut will tend to fail in compression if the slenderness ratio (Le/ k) is less than

RankineRankineRankineRankine ---- GordonGordonGordonGordon CriteriaCriteriaCriteriaCriteria

This criteria is based on experimental results.

This criteria suggests that the strut will fail at a load given by.

1 / W R = 1 / Wc + 1 / We Substituting c = σ c / ( π 2 E) - A constant for each material This design criteria provides more accurate buckling loads than the euler theory especially at lower slenderness ratios. At higher slenderness ratios the two methods yield similar results. The experimental values for c are not in direct agreement with the theoretical values. BS 449-2:1969 includes tables for the safe working stresses for all slenderness ratios and a range of steel specifications.

 TableTableTableTable showingshowingshowingshowing approximateapproximateapproximateapproximate valuesvaluesvaluesvalues ofofofof cccc Material c Mild Steel 1/7500 Wrought Iron 1/9000 Cast Iron 1/1600 Wood 1/3000

PerryPerryPerryPerry RobertsonRobertsonRobertsonRobertson formulaformulaformulaformula (BS(BS(BS(BS 449449-449449--2-222 ))))

Important

refer to the identified standards.

The

notes and equation and table below is provided for general guidance. For detail structural design it is important to

The information below is only a trivial relative to the level of detail provided in the standard.

The equation below is used as the basis for the allowable design stresses as provided in the relevant tables in BS 449 and is

considered the most reliable of the methods available for buckling loads for long slender struts that provided in appendix B of BS 449 part 2 :1969

The

equation below is similar to pc = Permissible average compressive stress k2 = Load coefficient ( normally 1,7)

σ y = Yield stress N/m 2

σ y = Euler stress N/m 2

η = 0,3 ( Le / 100k ) 2

TableTableTableTable ofofofof AllowableAllowableAllowableAllowable stressstressstressstress valuesvaluesvaluesvalues ppppcccc forforforfor structuralstructuralstructuralstructural steelssteelssteelssteels

The table is based on table 17 in BS 449 and relates to BS 4360 steels. Which is superseded by BS EN 10025 the grades of which are identified (). 43 50
55
43 50
55
(S275)
(S355)
(S420)
(S275)
(S355)
(S420)
Le/ k
MPa
Le/ k
MPa
0
170
215
265
95
89
100
108
5
167
212
262
100
82
92
99
10
165
210
258
110
71
78
83
15
162
207
255
120
62
67
71
20
159
205
252
130
54
58
61
25
157
202
248
140
47
50
53
30
154
200
245
150
41
44
46
35
152
197
241
160
37
39
41
40
150
193
236
170
33
35
36
45
147
189
230
180
29
31
32
50
144
184
222
190
26
28
29
55
139
177
212
200
24
25
26
60
135
169
200
210
22
23
24
65
129
160
186
220
20
21
22
70
123
150
172
230
18
19
20
75
116
140
157
240
17
18
18
80
109
129
143
250
16
16
17
85
102
119
130
300
11
11
12
90
95
109
118
350
8
8
9