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WATER DISTRIBUTION

1.0

GENERAL
This work shall consist of furnishing all materials, labour and equipment necessary to
construct the water supply distribution system to the lines, grades, dimensions and details
shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer, all to conform with the
requirements of the Drawings, the Specifications and the Contract Documents.

2.0

MATERIALS
(i)

Polyvinyl Chloride pressure pipes and fittings with integral wall-thickened socket
joints shall be made of unplasticised polyvinyl chloride Type PVC 100 without
plasticizer and fillers and according to DIN 19532 or an approved standard.

(ii)

Rubber sealing rings shall be flexible and resistant to aging and conform to an
approved standard.

(iii)

Cast iron pipes and fittings shall be Class C; shall be to ASTM A377 or BS 1211,
BS 78, BS 2035 and BS 10.

ADEQUATE SAFEGUARDS TO BE TAKEN


Depending on the type of pipes, inadequate safeguards in respect of transport, handling,
stacking and stringing could cause damage to the pipe. The following precautions shall
be taken to prevent such damage.
Loading: Pipes shall be loaded at the works for transport in such a way that they are
secure, and that no more than an absolute minimum of movement can take place on the
vehicle during transit. The same care is required if pipes are to be transferred from one
vehicle to another, however short the journey may be.
Off Loading: Adequate precautions shall be taken when off loading, and pipes less than
30mm nominal bore may be rolled down skid timbers under restraint of ropes tossed
around both ends of the pipe. If cranes are used the whole sequence of operations shall
be carried out smoothly and without snatch. Rope or nylon slings, lifting beams with
flattened hooks or scissor dogs shall be used. Hooks and dogs shall be well padded to
prevent the pipe being damaged and shall be fitted with a locking device. Steadying
ropes are essential.
Stacking:
Pipes being taken to a central compound for storage and held pending
further distribution shall be arranged in stacks. The first layer of pipe shall be laid on
firm foundation consisting of solid timbers set level on the ground. Subsequent layers
shall be placed according to the method of stacking adopted, which shall be approved by
the Engineer. Pipes shall not rest on their sockets. The height of any stack shall not
exceed 2.13M unless agreed in writing by the Engineer.
Stringing: Stringing consists of placing the pipes on the ground in line ready for laying.
adequate care shall be taken to prevent damage during this operation and gaps shall be
left at intervals to permit access to the land on either side.

WS/1

TRENCHING

5.0

6.0

(i)

Trenching includes all excavation which is carried out by trenching machine,


excavator or by hand to prepare the trench to the required dimension for the
pipeline. The trench shall normally be dry and to a minimum width of 300mm
plus the diameter of the pipeline where this is 150mm or more; each case should
however, be considered on its merits subject to the approval of the Engineer
having regard to the safety of the trench, method of laying and jointing the pipe
and the need to avoid damage to the pipe.

(ii)

Where pipes are to be bedded directly on the bottom of the trench on approved
granular material, the trench shall be trimmed and levelled to permit even bedding
of the pipeline and shall be free from all extraneous matter which might cause
damage to the pipeline.

(iii)

In rocky ground the trench shall be excavated 150mm deeper than the invert of
the pipe and made up to the required level by the addition of well compacted soft
granular material.

(iv)

Allowance shall be made at each joint to provide sufficient room for the joint to
be properly made and to ensure that the pipe rests on the barrel and not on the
socket.

(v)

Additional excavation shall be required where a change in direction is being made


by utilizing the lateral deflection available with certain joint types. Here the joint
shall be made with the pipes in line and the pipe being deflected after the joint has
been made.

PIPELAYING AND INSTALLATION


(i)

Buried pipe and fittings shall be laid in the trench to the true alignment and grade
and in accordance with the Drawings and these Specifications. Adequate tools
and equipment shall be provided and used by the Contractor in executing the
work. Exceptional care shall be taken in handling and laying the pipe and in
making the field joints. All pipes, fittings, valves and accessories shall be cleaned
and inspected for damage prior to the installation in the trench. All damaged
materials shall be repaired or replaced with new materials at the expense of the
Contractor. Repairs and replacement shall be in accordance with these
Specifications. At all times when the work of installing pipe is not in progress all
openings into the pipe and the ends of the pipe in the trench shall be kept tightly
closed to prevent entrance of animals, foreign materials and trench water.

(ii)

Concrete thrust blocks shall be provided at all dead ends, tees and bends in
accordance with the Drawings provided by the Engineer.

(iii)

The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to prevent the pipe from
floating due to water entering the trench from any source. He shall assume full
responsibility for any damage due to this cause and shall at his own expense
restore and replace the pipe to its specified condition and grade if it is displaced
due to floating.

(iv)

Gate valves shall be encased in concrete and set with their stems in a vertical
position.

INSTALLATION OF PVC BELL & SPIGOT PIPE DIAMETER 100mm and OVER
6.01
WS/2

Handling & Care: Notwithstanding the specifications in Clause PVC pipes and
fittings shall not be thrown or dragged along the ground. They shall be protected

against solar radiation by covering them.


Rubber sealing shall also be treated in a like manner and if kept in store for any
long period, they shall be kept free of tension and in a cool place free from any
radiation or electrical or mechanical equipment in operation. No dirt, chemicals,
grease or fuels shall come in contact with these rings.
6.02

Inspection of Pipe and Fittings: All pipes and fittings shall be inspected prior to
installation in the trench for any visible damage whatsoever. Any damage to the
pipes or fittings which, in the opinion of the Engineer will affect the integrity of
the pipeline shall be rejected and all costs therein shall be met by the Contractor.
Should the damage, however, be confined to the spigot end of the pipe, it can be
removed by cutting off the damaged portion of the pipe subject to Clause 6.04.

6.03

Cleaning of Joints:
The grooves and the inside of the bell, the spigot and the
rubber rings shall be thoroughly cleaned prior to jointing of any pipes. In the
case of joints of dissimilar materials, it may be necessary subject to the decision
of the Engineer, to wirebrush or otherwise clean the other type of pipe from rust,
grease, dirt or moisture prior to jointing.

6.04

Cutting and Preparation of Cut Pipe: P.V.C. pipe shall be cut on site with a fine
tooth saw, e.g. hacksaw, and any burrs resulting shall be removed by a file or rasp,
otherwise damage to the sealing ring will occur. In order to get a square cut, the
Contractor shall use a mitre box.

After the pipe is cut it shall be chamfered and it is recommended that a course file or rasp
be used. All chamfers shall be approximately fifteen (15) degrees at the spigot end and
the length of chamfer shall be as specified below:
Nominal Diameter
m.m

Inches
100

6.05

Length of Chamfer
m.m

8.0

150

11.5

.5

200

16.0

.6

250

10

20.0

.8

300

12

20.0

.8

400

16

20.0

.8

Inches
.3

Making a Bell Spigot Joint: After all the requirements dealing with the
inspection, preparation, cleaning and cutting of the pipes have been met, the
rubber sealing ring with the thick end of the rear of the Bell shall be deformed
into a heart-shape and inserted into the grove. It is absolutely essential that the
ring is clean and dry to prevent displacement of the ring.
The spigot end shall be then lubricated with "Gabofix" or equivalent approved by
the Engineer and shall be pushed into the socket containing the sealing ring to the
specified depth, .the depth of insertion shall be marked in accordance with the
table below:

WS/3

Nominal Diameter
m.m

6.06

Inches

Depth of Insertion
m.m

Inches

100

114

4.5

150

139

5.5

200

160

6.3

250

10

182

7.2

300

12

194

7.6

400

16

249.5

9.8

Laying of Pipes: After complying with the requirements of Clause 6.05 of this
Specification the pipe shall be backfilled by hand only, to a height of 300mm
above the top of the pipe with soft granular material free from stones and
approved by the Engineer and compacted in 150mm layers by approved hand
tampers. Only after this has been done shall any further backfilling be done by
machine.
In the case of pipes laid on curves, it is not possible to obtain any curvature in the
socket but the barrel shall be bent in accordance with the following table to the
degree of curvature specified or as approved by the Engineer.
Nominal Diameter
m.m

6.07

Inches

Degree of Curvature
(Degrees)

100

12

150

200

250

10

300

12

400

16

Laying Pipes in Steep Terrain: Pipes laid in steep terrain shall be laid with their
sockets uphill and achored to suitable abutments to prevent sliding in accordance
with the Drawings or as ordered by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall provide adequate drainage to prevent the subsoil, backfill
and pipe bedding from being washed away..

6.08

Laying Pipes in Poor soils: Where poor soils or unstable soils are encountered,
local supporting of the pipe shall not be permitted.
In cases of varying subsoil with different bearing capacities the Contractor shall
bring it to the attention of the engineer and shall provide an adequate transition

WS/4

between the two types of material subject to the approval of the Engineer.
Alternately the Contractor may prefer to use solvent welded unplasticised P.V.C.
pipe in difficult conditions subject to the Engineer's approval of the
manufacturers' recommendation on the installation of these pipes. No additional
payment shall be made to the Contractor above that which would have been
required for laying bell and spigot pressure pipes under this Contract unless
authorized in exceptional circumstances by the Engineer.
6.09

Laying pipes under Railway Lines: When pipes are laid under railway lines, they
shall be encased in a protective tube and the pipe supported on spacers every one
(1) meter for pipes less than 200mm in diameter and every 1.4M for pipes greater
than 200mm inches in diameter. Such spacer supports shall have an elastic
support around the pipe and the clearance between the protective tube and the
pipe kept to a minimum that is just adequate to insert the pipe and spacers into the
protective tube. all work to be done under and in the vicinity of railway lines
shall conform with the Earthworks section of the specification. Prior to entering
on to the works all arrangements shall be made by the Contractor with the
Jamaica Rail Corporation.

6.10

Types of Connection:
used:

(a)

Double Socket: Pipes without sockets may be jointed using double sockets in
accordance with Clause 6.05.

(b)

Sleeve Joints:
Sleeve joints are used to repair damaged pipes or where a fitting
has to be inserted into an existing pipe. The sleeve shall be pushed completely
over the pipe after cutting the pipe and removing enough of the backfill to deflect
the pipe adequately to insert the sleeve in accordance with Clause 6.05.

Flanged Connections:
These shall be used for connection to valves, hydrants,
etc, and for connections to other types of pipe. Extreme care shall be taken not to
over tighten the flanges and work shall be done in accordance with the
manufacturers' instructions.

(d)

Saddle Connections:
These shall be used for connections from the main water
pipe to the pipes serving the lots. All saddle connections shall be approved by the
Engineer.

the following are the main types of connection to be

When making saddle connections to P.V.C. pressure pipes square bits with large flutes
shall be used to prevent over stressing of the walks of the pipe. Conventional drills shall
not be used. After making the whole, the inside and the outside of the protective inlay
and the rubber sealing ring shall be lubricated with "Gabofix" or equivalent lubricant
approved by the Engineer to assist in the proper bedding of the saddle on the pipe. The
bolts shall then be tightened evenly, with care being taken not to over stress the bolts, the
saddle or the pipe.
6.11

7.0

Pipes Laid to Instructions: Notwithstanding the requirements of Clause 6.0, the


Contractor is required to comply with the supplier's instructions where special
precautions not listed in this document apply, subject to the approval of the
Engineer.

INSTALLATION OF P.V.C. PRESSURE PIPE - SCREWED & SOLVENT WELDED


Notwithstanding the general requirements of the preceding section of the Contract, the
following procedure shall be adhered to:
WS/5

(i)

All joints in P.V.C. piping except where otherwise called for on the drawings or
where required to permit installation of screwed valve or fitting shall be made
with socket type fittings solvent cemented to the pipe. On pipe having P.V.C. to
metal connections, threaded joints shall be used on all pipes of 50mm nominal
size and smaller, except where otherwise called for on the Drawings. Whenever
threaded connections are indicated on the Drawings, Schedule 80 pipes shall be
used.

(ii)

Cutting of P.V.C. pipe shall be done preferable by a fine 6 to 9 teeth per 25mm
hand saw with little or not set. When a circular cutting saw is used cutting speed
shall not exceed 1.83M per minute. A mitre box or similar guide shall be used
when supported and protected from nicks and scratches by wrapping in canvas or
similar material. No rotary cutters shall be used for cutting P.V.C. pipe. The ends
of the pipes shall be cut square and smooth and wiped clean of dirt, oil or grease.
The burrs shall be removed from both the internal and external edges of the cut.

(iii)

Before proceeding with a cemented joint care shall be taken to have the surfaces
to be cemented, cleaned and dried. If necessary the pipe and fitting surfaces to be
cemented shall be wiped lightly with a cloth moistened with methyl-ethyl-ketone
or acetone. Fittings shall be tried prior to coating with solvent cement. If the pipe
is too large to insert into the fitting, it shall be dressed down with emery cloth.
Care shall be taken to keep clearances very close. Solvent cement shall be
applied with a clean ordinary paint brush to the end and outside surface of the
pipe and to interior surface of fittings , and socket including socket end. Only
solvent cement furnished by the same supplier who furnished the pipe fittings
shall be used. Immediately after the cement is applied the pieces shall be pushed
snugly and carefully together and rotated one-quarter to half turn to distribute the
cement uniformly. a slight bead of cement shall be allowed to remain at the joint.
Care shall be taken not to disturb the joints and to avoid relative motion between
the pipe and the fitting for several minutes during the initial set. Succeeding
joints on the pipe shall be made only at the end of the initial set period. A period
of not less than thirty minutes shall be allowed after making the joint to develop
handling strength.

(iv)

Pipes shall be treaded in accordance with B.S. 31: 1957 "Pipe threads" as past
revised. In order prevent distortion of the pipe wall and to hold the pipe round a
wood or metal tapered plug of greater length than the cutting dies shall be inserted
in the pipe during threading operations. When using a vice, chuck or other pipe
tool the pipe or fitting shall be protected with a light metal sleeve or canvas wrap
or by rounding the chuck jaws to prevent marking. Flanges or closed nipples
shall be threaded in jigs, or tapping fixtures. Pipe joint compound shall be Teflon
ribbon Dope thread Sealant Permacel Anchor No. 1175 or approved equal.
Screwed joints shall be started carefully and hand tightened. For further
tightening strap wrench shall be used. Joints shall be made up only until tight, (<
to > turn past hand tight.) Excessive torque, blows or strain of any kind shall be
avoided. In no case shall Stilton type wrench be used.

(v)

Supports shall be spaced as indicated in the following table for horizontal lines of
P.V.C. pipe without major concentrated loads:Maximum span of
Nominal Pipe Size
Supports in feet
(Schedule 80 pipe)

WS/6

12mm diameter

1.4M

20mm diameter

1.52M

25mm diameter

1.7M

38mm diameter

1.83M

50mm diameter

2.0M

Care shall be taken not to clamp the pipe tightly. Wherever tight clamping of the pipe
for the purpose of anchoring is required the clamps shall be fitted with rubber or P.V.C.
tape lines. Supports shall be provided at all points of directional change especially from
horizontal to vertical regardless whether such supports are called for on the Drawings.
Valves, check valves and other devices in the line shall be supported so that the weight or
tongue applied to the device does not place undue stress on the pipe. All P.V.C. pipes
shall be installed and supported to permit contraction and expansion from temperature
change without damage.
8.0

INSTALLATION OF CAST-IRON PIPE


8.01

Inspection of Materials:
All cast-iron pipe and fittings prior to installation in
the trench, shall be inspected for cracks and damage to exterior coating and
interior lining. Damaged exterior coating shall be touched up in accordance with
Clause 12.0 of these Specifications. Pipe and fittings with damaged interior lining
shall be rejected and removed from the job site, except insofar as damage is
confined to the spigot and of a pipe length, in which case such portion shall be
discarded after being cut off as specified in Subsection (8.06) herein.

8.02

Cleaning of Joints
The outside of each spigot and the inside of each bell shall
be wire-brushed clean and shall be free of oil, grease and moisture before
installation.

8.03

Lowering Pipe and Accessories into Trench


All pipe, fittings, valves and accessories shall be carefully lowered into the trench
in such a manner as to prevent damage to pipe, pipe coatings and lining, and
fittings. Under no circumstances shall pipe or accessories be dropped or dumped
into the trench.

8.04

Laying Cast-Iron Pipe


Cast iron pipes shall be laid without support of any kind along the grade of the
trench with back holes dug at proper intervals. The pipe shall be laid with bell
ends facing in the direction of work unless otherwise ordered by the Engineer.
After placing a length of pipe in the trench, the spigot end shall be centered in the
bell and the pipe forced home and brought to the correct line and grade. The pipe
shall be secured in place with approved backfill material tamped under it except at
the bells. Pipe and fittings which do not allow a sufficient and uniform space for
joints shall be removed and replaced with pipe and fittings of proper dimensions
to ensure such uniform space. Precautions shall be taken to prevent dirt from
entering the joint space. Backfilling shall be done in accordance with Clause 6.06
of these Specifications.

8.05

Maximum Deflection of Bell and Spigot Cast-Iron Pipe


Whenever it is necessary to deflect bell and spigot cast-iron pipe from a straight
line, either in the vertical or horizontal place, the amount of deflection measured
4.9 M from a joint, fitting or valve shall not exceed the following:

WS/7

Nominal Size of Pipe

Maximum Deflection Center


Line of Pipe to Center Line
of Deflected Pipe

100mm diameter

14.8" or 4 25'

150mm diameter

14.8" or 4 25'

200mm diameter

12.9" or 3 51'

250mm diameter

12.4" or 3 42'

300mm diameter

10.5" or 3 8'

The above table of maximum deflections is based upon the following limiting factors:
1)

Joint opening shall not exceed 19mm in width.

2)

Caulking space at face of bell shall not be less than 6.3mm in width.

8.07

Cutting Cast-Iron Pipe


The cutting of cast iron pipe for inserting valves, fittings or closure pieces shall be
done in a neat workman manner without damage to the pipe and so as to leave a
smooth end at right angles to the axis of the pipe. The Contractor shall make all
allowance in his rates for the cutting and jointing involved in laying the pipes
between fixed points and the Contractor shall be entitled to no additional
compensation under any contract item or otherwise on account of the cutting and
jointing of pipes.
Flame cutting of cast-iron pipe by means of an oxyacetylene torch shall not be
permitted.

8.07

Jointing Cast-Iron Pipe:


Joints of each type shall be made in full compliance with the manufactures`
instructions. Special care shall be taken to ensure the absolute cleanliness of the
pipe ends and joints components and to use only the recommended lubricants.
The rubber ring shall be placed around the spigot of the pipe and, when the spigot
is shoved home, the ring shall be driven tightly against the inside base of the bell.
When a single strand of asbestos type packing is used, it shall have an overlap at
the top of not more than 50mm. When more than a single strand is required for a
joint, each strand shall be cut to sufficient length so that the ends will meet at
without causing overlap. The ends of the strands shall meet at the horizontal
diameter of the pipe, and not at the top or bottom. Successive strands shall be
driven home separately.

WS/8