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Great eloquent words can describe Houston. It is a multicultural city with a lot of soul and a lot of
individuals who possess compassion and human generosity. It, being the largest Southern city in America, is
noteworthy. Also, it is noteworthy to note that the people of Houston make up a great part of American
culture and American strength. Houston has over 2.2 million people and it has almost 600 square miles in
its land size. Health care, aeronautics, engineering, computer sciences, transportation, energy,
manufacturing, and other industries are found in Houston. That is why so many people work in jobs in the
city of Houston. The city of Houston is involved in international trade as it is a global city. It is home to many
cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District.
Also, a very important point must be mentioned. Houston is home to a large part of black culture. Many
black people have come from the North and the Midwest to live in Houston for economic opportunities, to
live close to relatives, and to just enjoy life in general.
Houston has a long history. In the beginning, Houston was filled originally with Native Americans. The Paleo
Indians lived in Texas between 9,200 B.C. and 6,000 B.C. these nomadic people hunted mammoths and
bison latifrons using atlatls. What is an Atlatl? Atlatls are ancient weapons that preceded the bow and
arrow in most parts of the world and are one of humankind's first mechanical inventions. The word atlatl
(pronounced at-latal or atal-atal) comes from the Nahuatl language of the Aztec, who were still using them

when encountered by the Spanish in the 1500s. The Paleo Indians may have links to the Clovis and Folsom
cultures. By the 4th century millennium B.C., the population of Texas increased.
The climate changed and the giant mammals became extinct. Native Americans who lived in Texas for
thousands of years were the Pueblo, the Mound Builders of the Mississippi Culture, and there were
influences of the Mesoamerica cultures, which was centered in the south of Texas. By 500 B.C., Native
Americans in East Texas were in villages. They were farming and building the first burial mounds. They
influenced the Mississippian culture. Different Native
American peoples lived in Texas like the Alabama, Apache,
the Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Coahuiltecan, Comanche,
Cherokee, Coushatta, Hasinai, Jumano, Karankawa,
Kickapoo, Kiowa, Tonkawa, and Wichita. The name Texas
comes from the word taysha. That word in the Caddoan
language of the Hasinai means friends" or "allies.
The first European to see Texas was Alonso Alvarez de
Pineda. He led an expedition for the governor of Jamaica
Francisco de Garay in 1520. While searching for a passage
between the Gulf of Mexico and Asia, lvarez de Pineda
created the first map of the northern Gulf Coast. This map is
the earliest recorded document of Texas history. Later,
French colonists traveled into Texas back during the late
1600s. La Salle led an expedition to Louisiana back in 1684.
From 1684-1689, there was French Texas, Spanish Texas
existed from 1690-1821, Mexican Texas existed from 1821
to 1836, the Republic of Texas existed from 1836 to 1845,
and from 1845 to 1860, they experienced Statehood before
the Civil War.

The Mount Builder civilization in

North America centuries ago
represented complexitiy,
strength, and great human
organization. The more that we
acknowledge and appreciate
the great history including
culture of Native Americans, the
better we apprciate ourselves
as human beings in general.

French colonization was mostly gone in Texas by 1690. The

Spanish controlled Texas from 1690 to 1821. On January 23,
1691, Spain appointed the first governor of Texas, General
Domingo Tern de los Ros. Many of these Spanish colonists
wanted control, conversion of the Native Americans to
Catholicism, and an expansion of the Spanish Empire. Spain
and France would fight for control of North America. Also,
Texas is a known place where Native Americans resisted
both French and Spanish occupation. The Spanish couldnt
convert the Hasinai tribe of East Texas, but they were friendly with each other. The Hasinai were enemies
of the Lipan Apache. The Apache attacked the Spanish in San Antonio and in other places of Texas.

A temporary peace was finally negotiated with the Apache in 1749, and at the request of the Native
Americans a mission was established along the San Saba River northwest of San Antonio. Later, Louisiana
was given to France by 1799. Although the agreement was signed on October 1, 1800, it did not go into

effect until 1802. The following year, Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States. The original agreement
between Spain and France had not explicitly specified the borders of Louisiana, and the descriptions in the
documents were ambiguous and contradictory. The U.S. wanted most of West Florida and all of Texas.

Soon, the drive for Mexican independence developed. Revolutionaries in Mexico wanted independence and
Spain wouldnt give up Texas without a fight. Some of the leaders of the Mexican independence movement
were Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Jos Mara Morelos. They were both executed by Spanish authorities.
Many of the Latin American revolutionaries were inspired in part of the Enlightenment scholars (like
Voltaire, Montesquieu, Locke, etc.) who wanted free speech, an end to absolute monarchs, and a
separation of powers of government. Spain had a rigid class system that oppressed black people (including
Native Americans via the encomienda system, etc.) the worst while the Peninsulares (or those Europeans
born in Spain. The Creoles were Europeans born in the Americas. Many Creoles would support many Latin
American revolutions) had most of the political power.
Spanish troops reacted harshly, looting the province and executing any Tejanos accused of having
Republican tendencies. By 1820 fewer than 2,000 Hispanic citizens remained in Texas. The situation did not
normalize until 1821, when Agustin de Iturbide launched a drive for Mexican Independence. Texas
became a part of the newly independent nation without a shot being fired, ending the period of Spanish
Texas. The Mexican nation wanted more settlers to come into Texas to prevent Comanche raids. So,
Mexican Texas liberalized its immigration policies and allowed more immigrants from outside Mexico and
Spain to come into Mexican Texas. Settlers would be granted large pieces of land to empresarios. The first
grant was to Moses Austin and he passed it to his son Stephen F. Austin after his death. Texas grew quickly
as more settlers came into the land.
The population of Texas grew rapidly. In 1825, Texas had about 3,500 people, with most of Mexican
descent. By 1834, the population had grown to about 37,800 people, with only 7,800 of Mexican descent.
Mexican law banned slavery, which was good. The bad news is that the Anglo settlers used slavery in Texas
territory, which was illegal. America wanted to purchase Texas. Mexican authorities decided in 1830 to

prohibit continued immigration from the United States. New laws also called for the enforcement of
customs duties angering both native Mexican citizens (Tejanos) and recent immigrants. The Anahuac
Disturbances in 1832 was a revolt against Mexican rule. Then, the revolt happened against the nations first
President. Texians sided with the federalists against the current government and drove all Mexican soldiers
out of East Texas. They took advantage of the lack of oversight to agitate for more political freedom.
Texians met at the Convention of 1832 to discuss requesting independent statehood, among other issues.
The following year, Texians reiterated their demands at the Convention of 1833. The Federalists and the
centralists wanted power and they debated. The Battle of Gonzales started the Texas Revolution. The
Texians won and defeated Mexican troops. The government collapsed originally in 1836. Mexican President
Antonio Lpez de Santa Anna personally led an army to end the revolt. The Mexican expedition was initially
successful. General Jos de Urrea defeated all the Texian resistance along the coast culminating in the
Goliad massacre. Santa Anna's forces, after a thirteen-day siege, overwhelmed Texian defenders at the
Battle of the Alamo. The Battle of the Alamo was when the Texians were defeated by the Mexican forces.
News of the defeats sparked panic among Texas settlers. So, the Texas declared itself an independent
republic in March 2, 1836.

The Texian Army, commanded by Sam Houston attacked and defeated Santa Annas forces in the Battle of
San Jacinto. By December 29, 1845, Texas became an U.S. State. During the Texas Revolution, New York
real estate promoters (John Kirby Allen and Augustus Chapman Allen) wanted a location to be built a city of
government and commerce. They purchased 6,642 acres (27 km) of land (on a site adjacent to the ashes of
Harrisburg) from T. F. L. Parrot, Austins widow for $9,428. In August of 1836, the Allen Brothers named the
city after Sam Houston whom both brothers admired. The city of Houston was granted incorporation by the
state legislature on June 5, 1837. The town had only about 1,500 people and 100 houses back then. Early
Houston had issues of prostitution, profanity, dueling, brawling, etc. So, people in Houston wanted to fight
against these things. The President of Texas was Sam Houston. He moved the capital to Houston on June
27, 1842. Later, the capital of Texas would be in Austin by 1844. Germans came into Texas and Houston

during the Revolutions of 1848 in German states. Mexican workers would build railroads. Houston shipped
cotton, lumber, and other manufacturing products. Alexander McGowen established the iron industry, and
Tom Whitmarsh built a cotton warehouse.
In the 1850s, Tejanos faced expulsion from Central Texas hoes on the accusation theat they helped slaves
escaped to Mexico. So, racism is a serious problem in Texas now and back then. A fire ravaged Houston on
March 10, 1859, but the city rebuilt itself soon after the fire. Enslaved African Americans lived near Houston
in the thousands before the civil war. Many of them worked in sugar and cotton plantation. Most were
domestic and artisan workers in Houston. In 1860, forty-nine percent of the city's population was enslaved.
Frost Town, a nearby settlement south of the Buffalo Bayou, was swallowed by Houston.

The Civil War

Houston has a long history with the Civil War. In 1860, most Houstonians supported John C. Breckenridge
or the independent Democratic candidate for President. He lost the election to the Republican Abraham
Lincoln. Texas was one of the first states to vote to secede from the Union and joined the Confederacy in
1861. General E. Tiggs or the commander of federal forces in Texas surrendered the federal arsenal in San
Antonio to secessionist volunteers led by the famed Texas Ranger Ben McCulloch, along with additional
army posts, etc. in Texas. Governor Sam Houston refused to take a loyalty oath to the Confederacy. He was
a slave owner and he opposed secession. He died in 1863 while living in Texas. In Houston, there were
tensions between the Confederacy and the few Union sympathizers. The Chamber of Commerce kept the
city together during the conflict. Galveston was blockaded on October 4, 1862, which in turn soured
Houston's economy. On January 1, 1863, John B. Magruder's Confederate forces recaptured the city.
However, the war was won by the Union forces in 1865. The Union and Confederate battles in the land and
via the water have been fierce. The Confederates once regain control of Galveston after the Battle of
Galveston on January 1, 1863. Federal union people attacked Laredo on March 19, 1864. The Confederates
in Texas were some of the toughest forces to be defeated during the Civil War. There was fighting in
Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville, Texas in May 13, 1865.

I am glad that the Confederacy was defeated in 1865. I thank God for that.
Federal troops entered Texas to enforce Reconstruction efforts under the military of General Philip
Sheridan later on. On June 19, 1865, General Gordon Granger (commander of U.S. troops in Texas) arrived
in Galveston, Texas and issued an order that the Emancipation Proclamation is in effect. This ended slavery
in Texas. The event is later celebrated as Juneteenth, especially by Black Americans. Texas was governed
under a military command during Reconstruction, but Federal forces could not control the anarchy and
lawlessness that broke out after the war. Civilians settled old grudges and several counties were essentially
without civilian government. In 1869, the Ship Channel Company was formed to deepen Buffalo Bayou and
improve Houston as a shipping port.

The grievances of which we complain, be assured, sir, are not imaginary, but real not local, but universal - not occasional, but continual, everyday matter-of-fact things
and have become, to the disgrace of our common country, matters of history.
-Charles Lenox Remon (who was an African American abolitionist and civil rights

Reconstruction and the late 19th Century

Despite the postwar social unrest, migrants flocked to Texas for new opportunities. Texas businessmen
joined together to expand the railroad network, which contributed to Houston's primacy in the state and
the development of Dallas, Fort Worth, San Antonio and El Paso. In May 1870, Houston was the site of the
Texas State Fair. The fair remained in Houston until 1878. Texas was admitted to the Union on April 16,
1870. Houston grew as a city. It became a port of entry on July 16, 1870. Its new charter grew to eight
wards. Many freed slaves opened businesses and worked under contracts in Houston. The Freedmens

Bureau stopped the abuse of the contracts in 1870. Many African Americans during that time were in
unskilled labor jobs. From the 1870s to the 1890s, black people were almost 40% of Houston's population.
Between 1910 and 1970 the black population ranged from 21% to 32.7%.

African American Texans have fought for civil rights for over 100 years. The struggle continues, but the
truth is on our side.
Many freed black people legalized their marriages after the Civil War. White legislators wanted segregated
schools. After the white Democrats regained power in the state legislature in the late 1870s, they started
to pass laws to make voter registration more complicated. This caused the disfranchising of African
Americans. The elections of 1876 were accompanied in many southern states with fraud and violence to
suppress black voting. White Democrats secured their power and then they passed Jim Crow laws to
establish and enforce legal segregation in Houston and throughout Texas. By 1874, Houstons first
permanent public transit system was operated by the Houston City Street Railway Company. From 1874 to
1891, all of the transit service was operated using mule-driven streetcars, when electric streetcars began to
be implemented in their place. The conversion to electric streetcars was completed in 1892. Lumber
became a large part of the port's exports, with merchandise as its chief import. The Houston Post was
established in 1880. The Houston Chronicle followed on August 23 of that year. Former U. S. President
Ulysses Grant came to Houston to celebrate the opening of the Union Station, which had rail links with New
Orleans. Fifth Ward residents threatened to secede from Houston because they felt they already had been
separated. An iron drawbridge built in 1883 pacified them, and they did not secede.
During the 1880s, white men in East Texas used violence as a method of political control and lynching too
against black people and Latinos. It is a historical fact that during the 19th century, the Ku Klux Klan, the
White Caps, law officials, and the Texas Rangers all regularized terrorized both Mexican Americans and
Black Texans. Freedmen were barred from most public places and schools and they were forced to live in
certain residential areas of town in Texas. In 1887, the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word established
a hospital that would become St. Joseph Hospital. In 1893, George H. Hermann donated a site for the
purpose of a charitable hospital, which later became Memorial Hermann Hospital in the Texas Medical
Center. In 1898, Houstonians appealed before Congress for permission to turn the Buffalo Bayou into a
deep-water port, prompted in part by the SpanishAmerican War. The construction of the Port of Houston
was approved by Congress in 1899.

The Early 20th century

In the beginning of the 20th century, Houston has gone throughout huge changes. The Galveston Hurricane
of 1900 tore apart of the city of Galveston, Texas on September 8-9. This caused many investors to invest in
Houston instead of Galveston. Texas developed a huge oil and railroad industry after the oil discovery in
Spindletop, in Beaumont, Texas in 1901. The oil trade transformed Houston. Houston was the railroad hub
of east Texas and Houston would go from a smaller town into a large city. In 1902, Theodore Roosevelt
approved a one million dollar fund for the Ship Channel. This was the year when Houston saw the arrival of
the first Japanese in Texas. This came about after Sadastsuchi Uchida gave a fact finding tour of the Gulf
Coast region. He helped to establish rice as a major crop of the Gulf Coast region. A grant from Andrew
Carnegie came the Houston Lyceum and Carnegie Library (which would later be known as the Houston
Public Library), which was founded in 1904. Houston had a larger population than Galveston by 1910. Many
Mexicans came into Houston as a product of the Mexican Revolution after 1910. Since that time, Mexican
human beings have had a huge influence in the city ever since. Rice University opened in the West
University area in 1912. It was once called Rice Institute.
25 buildings from six to 16 stories high came about in Houston in the same year. Office buildings extant in
1912 include the eleven-story Scanlan Building, the marble-clad South Texas National Bank Building, the
eight-story First National Bank Building, the twelve-story Union National Bank, the ten-story Houston
Chronicle Building, and the Southwestern Telephone Company Building. The sixteen-story Carter Building
was the tallest in Houston in 1912. Oil companies grew in power in Houston. 12 oil companies were located
in Houston in 1913. Also, one company was Humble Oil Company, which is now ExxonMobil. That oil
company was started by Howard Hughes (who was born in Humble, Texas). Howard Hughes was a
notorious despicable male who was a racist and an anti-Semite. President Woodrow Wilson opened the
Port of Houston in 1914, 74 years after the digging started. Service started with the Satilla, a ship that ran
from Houston to New York, New York. World War I put the gasoline-combustible automobile into
widespread use, causing oil to become a precious commodity. After WWI the rice businesses fell down. So,
many Japanese Americans find other work or moved out of Texas.

From 1900 to 1910, white Texans lynched about 100 black men, which included sadistic torture. Many
racial riots came about when black Texans witnessed their homes and neighborhood destroyed. Tejanos
were victims of assault and death too. African Americans and Mexican Americans criticized segregation,
lynching, and other injustices via their own newspapers, labor organizations, and self-help societies. Black
state conventions protested in the 1880s and in the 1890s. Tejanos, for one, rallied behind Juan N. Cortina
and Catarino Garza, and contributed to the Gregorio Cortez Defense Network, which campaigned for the
defense of a tenant farmer named Gregorio Cortez, who killed a sheriff in Karnes County in self-defense in
Many African American soldiers were in the all black 24 Infantry Regiment to guard the construction site at
Camp Logan. Racial tensions were increasing as black soldiers received bad treatment in the racially
segregated city of Houston. There was a full blown riot in August 1917 called the Camp Logan Riot. Many
black people and white people died in the riot. This rebellion happened because 2 Houston cops stormed
into a home of a black woman. They were looking for someone in the neighborhood. Later, the cops fired a
warning shot outside. They or the cops physically assaulted the Sister and dragged with without some of
her clothes out in the street. They did this evil action in front of her 5 small black children. The woman was
screaming and she said why she was being arrested. A soldier from the 24th Infantry, Alonso Edwards
stepped forward to ask what was going on. The police officers promptly beat him to the ground and
arrested him as well.
Later that afternoon, Corporal Charles Baltimore went to the Houston police station to investigate the
arrest, as well as the beating of another black soldier, and also to attempt to gain the release of the soldier.
An argument began which led to violence, and Corporal Baltimore was beaten up, shot at, and arrested by
the police before being sent back to camp. The policeman hit Baltimore over the head. The MPs fled. The
police fired at Baltimore three times, chased him into an unoccupied house, and took him to police
headquarters. Though he was soon released, a rumor quickly reached Camp Logan that he had been shot
and killed. A group of soldiers decided to march on the police station in the Fourth Ward and secure his
release. The infantry became angry, and decided to strike on the evening of August 23. The black infantry
people have every God given right to march when crooked cops assaulted a black women and black
soldiers. So, I have no problem with the soldiers marching against injustice. The soldiers marched in the city
of Houston. The police and armed citizens confronted them. A riot came about. 20 people died including 4
soldiers, 4 cops, and 12 civilians. The soldiers were disarmed. Martial law was declared in Houston. The
soldiers were sent to Columbus, New Mexico. Some were convicted. Many soldiers were hanged via the
death penalty. The NAACP criticized the executions. Acting Judge Advocate Gen., Brig. Gen. Samuel T.
Ansell, was particularly angered and said: The men were executed immediately upon the termination of
the trial and before their records could be forwarded to Washington or examined by anybody, and
without, so far as I can see, any one of them having time or opportunity to seek clemency from the
source of clemency, if he had been so advised.

4 Historic Houstonian People

George Patrick Alphonse Forde was an important physician in early 20th century
Houston, Texas. Forde became one of the first physicians to work at the Houston
Negro Hospital, the largest all-black hospital in the South. The facility opened the in
1927. By the early 1930s Forde had become one of the most prominent black
Houston physicians.

Theresa Harris was a woman who made

great accomplishments. She was a
famous actress and she was born in
Houston, TX. She once shared with a
reporter that her greatest ambition
was to be known someday as a great
Negro actress. She studied music in
the University of Southern California
Conservatory of Music and the
Zoellners Conservatory of Music. She
worked in theater and acting. She was a
member of the Screen Actors Guild or
the SAG where she lobbied for dignified
roles for African American actors and
actresses. In 1974, Harris was inducted
into the Black Filmmaker's Hall of Fame.
She passed away in Englewood,
California in 1985.

Dr. Henry E. Lee

graduated from
Tillotson College in
Austin, Texas. He earned
his M.D. at Meharry
Medical College in 1902,
and opened his surgical
practice in Houston in

Thyra Edwards lived from 1897 to 1953.

She fought for equality and liberation
throughout her life. She was raised in
Houston. Her grandparents were
enslaved Africans who escaped from
Missouri to Illinois with the help from
the Underground Railroad. She was a
teacher, journalist, lecturer, and a
social worker. She helped children. She
also fought for womens rights. She was
involved in labor rights, and she was a
Pan-Africanist plus a peace including
civil rights activists. She worked in
international affairs. She was one of
the greatest black freedom advocates
in American history.

WWII and the Early Cold War

During the World War II era, Houston expanded its resources. By 1939, the University of Houston moved to
its permanent location, which is southeast of Downtown. Houston had about 400,000 people by 1940. The
population depended on shipping and oil. World War II had many effects on the city. It expanded
dramatically the citys economic base, because of massive federal spending. There were many
entrepreneurs (like George Brown, James Elkins, and James Abercrombie) who landed hundreds of millions
of dollars in federal wartime investment in technologically complex facilities. Houston oil companies moved
from being mere refineries and became sophisticated producers of petrochemicals. There were synthetic
rubber and high octane fuel, which retained their importance after the war. The war moved the natural gas
industry from a minor factor to a major energy source. Houston became a major hub when a local firm
purchased the federally financed inch pipelines. Other major growth industries included steel, munitions,
and shipbuilding. Tens of thousands of new migrants streamed in from rural areas, straining the city's
housing supply and the city's ability to provide local transit and schools.
During this time, high paying jobs came to a large number of women, black people, and Mexican Americans
for the first time. The African American community became emboldened by their new era of economic
growth. So, black people grew civil rights activism. The Smith v. Allwight Supreme Court decision on voting
rights was backed and funded by local black people in Houston during this time period. Tonnage fell at the
port and five shipping lines ended service when World War II began. By April of 1940, streetcar service was
replaced by buses. Robertson Stadium or Houston Public School Stadium was erected from March 1941 to
September 1942. Pam Am started air service in 1942 too. Ellington Field was reopened during WWII. The
Cruiser Houston was named after the city. It sank after a vicious battle in Java, Indonesia in 1942. August
1942 also saw the new City Manager Government enacted.
The M. D. Anderson Foundation formed the Texas Medical Center in 1945. That same year, the University
of Houston separated from HISD and became a private university. The war expanded aircraft and
shipbuilding industries in Texas. Tonnage rose after the end of the war in 1946. In 1946, E. W. Bertner gave
away 161 acres of land for the Texas Medical Center. Suburban Houston came into being from 1946 to
1950. Oscar D. Holcombe abandoned a city manager type of government when he took his eighth term in
1946. By the late 1940s Houstons banking industry grew into prominence. Many more developments
came like: Foley's department store opened in 1947. The Alley Theatre got its first performance in 1947.
Also the same year, voters overwhelmingly rejected a referendum for citywide land-use districts--zoning.
Houston formed a large annexation campaign to increase its size. When air conditioning came to the city, it

was called the "World's Most Air Conditioned City". By the end of the 1940s, Houston became a strong,
port driven economy. By the 1950s, Texas Medical Center became operational. More wealth came into
the region. The Galveston Freeway and the International Terminal at Houston International Airport
(nowadays Hobby Airport) were signs of increasing wealth in the area. Millions of dollars were spent to
replace aging infrastructure. In 1951, the Texas Childrens Hospital and the Shriners Hospital were built.
Hospitals had expansions being completed. The first network television of Houston came in July 1, 1952. In
those years, the University of Houston celebrated its 25th anniversary. Houston needed more water
supplies. They usually relied on ground water, but that caused land subsidence. So, they had had proposals
in the Texas Congress to use the Trinity River. Hattie Mae White was elected to the school board in 1959.
She was the first African-American to be elected in a major position in Houston in the 20th Century.
Starting in 1950, Japanese-Americans as a whole were leaving horticulture and going into business in larger
cities, such as Houston.

In 1963, the Manned Spacecraft Center, which would be later become the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center,
opens on land donated by Rice University. It is a location where human spaceflight training, research, and flight
control are done. The current name of the facility was done by an act of the United States Senate on February
19, 1973 soon after President Lyndon Baines Johnson passed away. The total complex is made up of 100
buildings on 1,620 acres of land in the Clear Lake Ara of Houston. It has about 3,200 civil service employees and
the Agency executive director is Ellen Ochoa. It is well known for its involvement in Gemini, Apollo, Skylab,
Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle program flights. The Astrodome would open in April 9, 1965.

Civil Rights and Social Change

Houston has a strong civil rights history too. A lot of the mainstream media didnt cover it (they have
covered Selma, Little Rock, Bogalusa, Prince Edward County, the University of Mississippi campus, etc.), but
many people fought for civil rights in the city of Houston. Mexican Americans in the Gulf Coast area near
Houston and in El Paso organized the Confederacin de Organizaciones Mexicanas y Latino Americanas in
the late 1930s, also for the purpose of eradicating racist policies. The black movement, for its part, won
some white support in the 1930s from the ranks of the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention
of Lynching and from such prominent congressmen as Maury Maverick. There was a fight for the
desegregation of public facilities in Houston. There were many civil rights activists who wanted to use civil
demonstrations to promote change. Segregation in Houston back then was embedded in the system. There
were racial tensions in the 1960s. Many Houstonians feared that any activism would cause more racial
strife because of the Camp Logan riot of 1917.

Black leaders created a chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP) in Houston in 1912. The NAACP was founded in 1909. By 1930, 30 chapters existed in Texas.
Many black people in Houston were assaulted and discriminated against by white racists. Many of the older
black, affluent Houston population werent so apt to have public demonstrations at first. Eldrewey Stearns
was a black Texas Southern University or TSU law students. He said that he was beaten by officers after he
was arrested. He talked about his experience in August of 1959. A young then Houston journalist Dan
Rather reported on the story. This caused more people to see racial issues in the city when Houston at that
time has the largest amount of African Americans in a Southern city. The NAACP was involved in a victory of
Smith v. Allwright case (which the Supreme Court banned all white democratic primary in Texas). The
NAACP won another victory by allowing the Supreme Court to ban segregation at the University of Texas
Law School in 1946 (in the Sweatt v. Painter case). Change would be slow in Houston. The Brother
Eldrewey Joseph Stearns was born in Galveston, Texas on December 21, 1931 to Devona and Rudolph
Stearns. He would be the President of the Progressive Youth Association or the PYA too in TSU.
So, young TSU students organized the firs sit in demonstration in Houston in March 4, 1960 at Weingartens
Store or a local supermarket. Stearns was involved in this effort. No violence happened in the
demonstration. TSU student Curtis Graves was involved in the action of the sit in in Madings Drug Store.
Ironically, conservative black people and political figures wanted the sit ins to quietly end. Mayor Cutrer

later threatened the protesters with arrest if they continued the sit ins. Many whites served black people
during the protests since they wanted no violence. In March 25, 1960, people served the mass of student
activists in City Hall cafeteria. Desegregation in Houston would be a slow process. The powers that be in
Houston didnt want massive violence (since they didnt desire the Logan riot of the 1920s), so they
wanted to advance the image of Houston of being a money city and being more progressive (not to
promote real equality). By the fall of 1961, most of the facilities in downtown Houston had been
desegregated, but only after hundreds of students had been arrested and had fines levied against them. In
conjunction with the National March on Washington in 1963, approximately 900 protesters marched on the
state Capitol. The group, which included Hispanics, blacks, and whites, attacked the slow pace of
desegregation in the state and Governor John Connally's opposition to the pending civil-rights bill in
In the March on Washington, 23 black people from Houston, Texas came to D.C. By the latter half of the
sixties, some segments of the black community flocked to the cause of Black Power. The Twenty-fourth
Amendment, ratified in 1964, barred the poll tax in federal elections, and that same year Congress passed
the Civil Rights Act outlawing the Jim Crow tradition. Texas followed suit in 1969 by repealing its own
separatist statutes. The federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 eliminated local restrictions to voting and
required that federal marshals monitor election proceedings. Ten years later, another voting-rights act
demanded modification or elimination of at-large elections. The Mexican American Legal Defense and
Education Fund, founded in 1968, emerged as a powerful civil rights organization. It focused on the state's
inequitable system of financing schools, redistricting, and related problems. The list of Texas civil rights
leaders is long: Maceo Smith, Carter Wesley, William Durham, Lulu White and many others.
During the late 1960s, African Americans fighters for justice fought racism in the University of Houston as
well. This story has been reported by Robinson Blocks article entitled, Afro-Americans for Black Liberation
and for Civil Rights at the University of Houston. African Americans back then fought for the inclusion of
African American studies in the University of Houston. One group of black Americans in the group called
AABL (or the Afro-Americans for Black Liberation) wanted justice. They established grievances during the
spring of 1969. During the 1960s, black students suffered discrimination and other hardships in the
University of Houston. Few restaurants would seat black students. In 1968, the black student activist Lee
Otis Johnson was sentences to thirty years for just being accused of handing a marijuana cigarette to an
undercover police officer. The SDS or the Students for A Democratic Society supported the AABL. The
Mexican American Youth Organization and the League of Mexican American Students supported the AABLs
fight for the creation of ethnic studies programs. The AABL was once called Committee on Better Race
Relations or the COBRR in spring of 1967.After Kwame Ture visited them in 1968, they changed their name
to Afro-American for Black Liberation. This was representative of the era of Black Power. The AABL worked
with other civil rights organizations in Houston too. Its members tutored youth in Houstons Third Ward.
The AABL wanted President Hoffman to establish a Department of Afro-American studies, admit more black
students, improve conditions for black athletes, and students, fight racism, and hire more black university
faculty, and staff. President Hoffman received the demands. Lynn Eusan was the fist African American
homecoming queen at the historically white University of Houston on November 23, 1968. Rallies existed
and later an African American Studies Programs was established in the University. The university is much
more ethnically diverse. Many leaders are part of the movement like Dwight Allen.

Modern Growth and Development

The city of Houston from the 1970s to the present has been through a lot of changes. The civil rights
movement changed Houston forever. The heroic Senator from Houston named Barbara Jordan fought
against Nixon's corruption during the Watergate scandal and she promoted human rights throughout her
life. There was a rapid increase of the Chinese American communitys population in Houston by the 1970s.
There was the Sharpstown scandal. This scandal involved government bribes involving real estate developer

Frank Sharp (the neighborhood of Sharpstown was named after him). This scandal happened in 1970 and
1971. The locations of One Shell Plaza and Two Shell Plaza were completed in 1971. One Shell Plaza was the
tallest building west of the Mississippi River. Water pollution was terrible in the Houston Ship Channel in
1972. The Houston Independent School District was slow to desegregate public schools. So, on June 1,
1970, the federal officials struck the HISD plan down and forced it to adopt zoning laws. This was 16 years
after the landmark Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (which determined that
segregated schools are inherently unequal). There were racial tensions over the integration of schools.
Some Hispanic Americans felt they were being discriminated against when they were being put with only
African-Americans as part of the desegregation plan, so many took their children out of the schools and put
them inhuelgas, or protest schools, until a ruling in 1973 satisfied their demands.
One of the great African American women of Texas was Annie Mae Hunt. She was born in 1909 in
Washington County, Texas. Her grandmother was Matilda Boozie and Matilda was a slave of the Boozie.
Annie Maes mother was Callie Randon and the family moved into Dallas. During the Great Depression, she
raised her children in Dallas. She workedas a Avon salesperson. She worked in Dallas politics too. She
worked in the Democratic Women of Dallas County. She also attended the inauguration of President Carter.
Annie Maes story is a story of African American history in Dallas from the days of after slavery, into the
Great Depression, and into the latter part of the 20th century. I Am Annie Mae: The Personal Story of a
Black Texas Woman from 1983 by Ruthe Winegarten outlines her courageous story.
The Arab Oil Embargo of the 1970s causes demand for Texas oil to boom. People from the "Rust Belt"
states such as New York, and Pennsylvania migrate to Houston for jobs.

In 1976, Howard Hughes, at one time the world's richest man, died on his jet heading to Houston. He was
born in Humble, Texas, and the home of what is now ExxonMobil. The Third Ward became the center of the
African American community in the city too. By 1979, African Americans were elected to the City Council
for the first time since Reconstruction. During that era of time, five African Americans served on the city
council. More buildings grew in Houston like the Texas Commerce Tower, which is now the JPMorgan Chase
Toward. The construction of the building began in 1979. Houstons educational system changed too. The
Houston Community College system was created in 1972 by the HISD.

Yes, in the top right picture, Sister Maxine Waters is found in the far right. Also,
Sister Coretta Scott King is pictured talking.
In 1977, the National Womens Conference was held in Houston, Texas. This conference was about women
of every color promoting womens rights and equality. It lasted from November 18-21, 1977. 20,000
women came to Houston for the event. They wanted to create a Plan of Action to be presented to the
Carter Administration and Congress for consideration and adoption. Congresswoman Bella Abzug (a life
long liberal) chaired the conferences. The opening ceremony speakers included: First Ladies Rosalynn
Carter, Betty Ford and Lady Bird Johnson, activists Coretta Scott King, Bella Abzug, Betty Friedan, Barbara
Jordan, Liz Carpenter, and Jean Stapleton. Maya Angelou read the Declaration of American Women 1977.
The conference addressed many issues from the Equal Rights Amendment or the ERA, child care funding,
education, etc. The conference was attended by former First Ladies Lady Bird Johnson and Betty Ford.
Rosalynn Carter attended too and she is the wife of President Jimmy Carter. It was a very historic meeting in
human history.

RIP Sister Barbara Jordan

In 1977, the University of Houston celebrated its 50th anniversary as the Texas Legislature established the
University of Houston System. This system of higher education included and governs four universities.
During the 1980s, more changes came about in Houston. In 1981, Kathryn J. Whitmire became Houstons
first female mayor. She was mayor for 10 years. After she left office, term limits were created, so future
mayors should not serve for more than 6 year. During the 1980s, massive construction projects existed in
the city. Downtown had the development of the Park Shopping Mall, the Allied Bank Tower, the Gulf
Tower, and other buildings. The Transco Tower, the tallest building in the world outside of a central
business district, was completed in 1983. METRO wanted to build a rail system connecting the city with the
suburbs, but the plan was rejected by voters on June 11, 1983. Voters did, however, approve plans for the
George R. Brown Convention Center. In August 1983, the Houston changed its name to "University of
HoustonUniversity Park" in order to separate its identity from other universities in the University of
Houston System; however, the name was reverted to University of Houston in 1991 Hurricane Alicia struck
Galveston and Houston in August 18, 1983. The Hurricane caused $2 billion in damage.
When oil prices fell in 1986, Houstons massive population boom was reversed. The oil prices falling caused
many years of recession for the Houston economy. The space industry was saddened by the explosion of
the Challenger in Florida. In the first nine months of 1987, there was the closure of 11 banks. There was
also the opening of many cultural centers like the George R. Brown Convention Center, the Wortham
Theatre, and the Menil Collection. On August 7, 1988, Congressman Mickey Leland died in a plane crash in
Ethiopia. On October 3, a Phillips 66 plant exploded in adjacent Pasadena, Texas, killing 23 and injuring 130.
The Houston Zoo began charging admission fees for the first time in 1988. The city of Houston developed in
the 1990s as well. There was the opening of the Houston Intercontinental Airports new 12 gate Mickey
Leland International Airlines terminal. The terminal was named after the recently deceased Houston
congressman. In 1991 Sakowitz stores shut down; the Sakowitz brothers had brought their original store

from Galveston to Houston in 1911. August 10, 1991 saw a redrawing of districts for city council, so that
minority groups could be better represented in the city council.

The 21st Century in Houston

1993 saw the G8 visiting to discuss world issues, and zoning was defeated for a third time by voters in
November. Many residents of the community of Kingwood were angry at how they were forcibly annexed
in 1996. Paige became superintendent of Houston Independent School District in 1994; during his sevenyear tenure the district became very well known for high test scores, and in 2001 Paige was asked to
become Secretary of Education for the new George W. Bush administration. Lee P. Brown, Houston's first
African-American mayor, was elected in 1997. During the 21st century, more changes happened in
Houston. The Houston Oilers left the city. The city built Enron Field, now Minute Maid Park for the Houston
Astros. Reliant Stadium, now NRG Stadium, was erected for the NFL expansion team Houston Texans. There
was the Tropical Storm Allison that devastated many neighborhoods. It interrupted all services within the
Texas medical center for several months with the flooding in June of 2001. At least 17 people were killed
around the Houston area when rainfall from Allison fell on June 8th and 9th. The citys bayous began to rise
over their banks. In October of 2001, Enron (or a Houston based energy company) experienced a scandal.
This led to the collapse of the company and its accounting firm Arthur Andersen. Many executives were
arrested and imprisoned. The University of Houston celebrated its 75th anniversary with an enrollment of
34,443 that fall semester. At the same time, the University of Houston System celebrated its 25th
anniversary with a total enrollment of over 54,000. The new international Terminal E at George Bush

Intercontinental Airport opened with 30 gates in 2003. The Toyota Center, the arena for the Houston
Rockets opened in fall 2003. METRO put in light rail service on January 1, 2004. Voters have decided by a
close margin (52% Yes to 48% No) that METRO's light rail shall be expanded.
On January 1, 2004, METRORail opened to the public at 1 pm. CST. This was the reindtoduction of the rail
service. It was Houstons first one since June of
1940. In 2004, Houston unveiled the first Mahatma
Gandhi statue in the state of Texas at Hermann
Park. Houston's Indian American Community were
cheerful after 10 years, in 2010, when the Hillcroft
and Harwin area were renamed Mahatma Gandhi
District in honor of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
as that area is the center of Indian commerce.
Hurricane Katrina happened in 2005. After that
disaster, about 200,000 New Orleans residents
went into Houston. This caused a strong
adjustment. On September 1, 2005, Houston
welcomes more than 125,000 displaced residents
Sister Dr. Nancy Glenn earned her Ph.D.
of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama in the wake
degree in statistics from Rice University
of Hurricane Katrina. The Reliant Astrodome was
in Houston, Texas, in 2002, becoming the
converted to provide food and shelter.
first African American to do so.
The Governor of Texas reaffirmed his state's
commitment to provide basic needs and education
for victims of Katrina.
After Katrina, Hurricane Rita, which was a category 5 hurricane, caused about 2.5 million Houstonians to
evacuate the city, the largest urban evacuation in the history of the U.S.

There is the New Great Migration of African Americans traveling from the North, the Midwest, and the
West Coast into the South. Many black people have recently moved into Houston for lower cost of living
and job opportunities. Six Flags Astroworld closed in 2005. It was Houstons only large theme park.
Annise Parker was the mayor of Houston for years. Memorial Day storms in 2015 brought flash flooding to
the city as some areas received 11 inches or more of rain overnight exacerbated by already full bayous. At
least three people died and more than 1,000 cars were stranded on highways and overpasses. Today, it is
2015, and Houston is a very beautiful city with great people. On December 13, 2015, Houston elected its
second African American mayor Mr. Sylvester Turner.

Appendix A: The Culture of Houston

Houston and culture go hand in hand. The black culture in Houston is strong. Many black people live in
Houston and are working and living their lives as any other human being. There are almost 500,000 black
people living in Houston, Texas. Houston has a huge number of African Americans. By 2010, African
Americans have greater federal representation. One black man served as Mayor Houston one time. His
name was Lee P. Brown and he was elected in 1997. As of 2005, Sheila Jackson Lee, a Houstonian, is one of
two black Texan U.S. House of Representatives members. From the 1870s to the 1890s, black people were
almost 40% of Houston's population. Today, most black people live in areas where they were raised.
Traditional African American neighborhoods are the MacGregor area, Settegast, Sunnyside, and the Third
Ward. Today, more black people are living in Southwest Houston areas like Alief, Fondren Southwest,
Sharpstown, and Westwood by 2005. We have the New Great Migration of black people. This is about the
time of 1965 to the present. Deindustrialization of Northern and Midwestern cities have caused more black
people to go back into the South, with lower costs of living, family, kinship ties. So, many black people from
New York, New Jersey, etc. are traveling into Houston because of the New Great Migration. Much of the
states where black people are going into include Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, Florida,
Texas, Maryland, etc. I have seen many black people from New York and New Jersey living in my region of
Hampton Roads, Virginia myself. There is the Ensemble Theatre, which is an African American theater
company. It has its studio in Midtown. The theater was founded in 1976 by George Hawkins. It is the largest
African American theater company in America Juneteenth is the annual celebration recognizing the
emancipation of black slaves in Texas. There are many events throughout Houston commemorating this
occasion. The University Museum located on the campus of Texas Southern University is an art gallery that
emphasizes art by and about people in the African diaspora.
Historically Black colleges in Houston include Texas Southern University and Prairie View A&M University.
Cultural networking organizing connects African Americans in Houston, eastern Texas, and Louisiana.

Studies and scholars document that Houston is one of the greatest cities for African Americans to live, to
work, and to start a business at. There is a strong Black media network of radio stations and newspapers
that keep the black community in Houston informed. There are African immigrants, Nigerians, and
Ethiopians who live in Houston as well. There is the Black Expo, the Houston International Jazz Festival, and
other cultural institutions in Houston. The Buffalo Soldiers National Museum is very historic in showing
information about African American soldiers. It was created by Vietnam War veteran and African American
military historian Mr. Paul J. Matthews. The Houston Museum of African American Culture shows great art,
exhibits, and films for all people. It is found in 4807 Caroline Street. It proposes is to teach and inspire
people about history and culture of black Americans including all people of black African descent. They
have preserved a lot of historical culture from African Americans, Africans, and people of the African
Diaspora. Years ago, Sister Saro Wiva did an exhibit about romantic love in Africa and black self-love.
Therefore, it is very important to know about black history.

Also, cuisine is especially part of African American culture too. The Creole food has been used by African
Americans in Houston since the 1920s. Boudin, black rice and shrimp creole, crawfish, gumbo, and
jambalaya are popular in the black community and communities nationwide. Bernadette Pruitt, author
of The Other Great Migration: The Movement of Rural African Americans to Houston, 1900-1941, wrote that
Creole cooking became "an important cultural bridge" in the city and in its African American community, and

the book mentioned that, "As cooks, Creole housewives transformed Houston's typical southern cuisine."
There are many American Catholics who are African Americans in Houston. There is also a strong African
American Baptist and Methodist religious community in Houston too. The oldest black church in Houston is
Trinity United Methodist Church which was started by Rev. Elias Dibble who came from Mississippi to
establish churches. The oldest Black Baptist church in Houston is the Antioch Missionary Baptist Church
(which pews originally was made by hand), historically a part of the Freedmen's Town of Fourth Ward and
now in Downtown Houston. Jack Yates once served as the pastor of this church. Jack Yates was once a
slave and he became a very influential minister in the African American community. He formed the Houston
Academy or a school for African American children. He passed away on December 22, 1897. Yates High
School in Houston is named after Yates. Sister Janet Emerson Bashen lives in Houston, Texas. She is the
first African American woman to hold a U.S. Patent for a software invention. Bashens LinkLine software is
used by the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to track claims, manage documents, and
compile related reports. Bashen was born February 12, 1957 in Mansfield, Ohio. She attended Alabama A&M

She is Dr. Foyekemi Ikyaator, who is 31 years old. This is tremendously great news. Dr.
Foyekemi Ikyaator's gift is to help others in the medical field. So, her free standing
emergency room center will help manifold lives. We all wish her even more success and
blessings. I do wish for such efforts to be duplicated in areas across America. We certainly
need more quality health care and other forms of medicine to help humanity. Also, Houston
is a city where tons of black people and other great human beings live at. The spirit of love
and solidarity found in Houston is excellent. Dr. Foyekemi Ikyaator's efforts are praised by
me and by others worldwide.
There are a huge amount of African immigrants who live in the Houston area. Many African immigrants in
Houston have a high level of education. According to Stephen Klineberg, a sociology professor at Rice
University, as of 2003, almost 35% of African immigrants have university degrees, and 28% of African
immigrants have postgraduate degrees. In the Houston area, 28% of US-born Whites have university
degrees, and 16% have postgraduate degrees. In 2012, the total trade between Houston and Africa was
$19.7 billion. Houston is Africa's largest U.S. trade partner. Charles W. Corey of the U.S. Department of
State said that it has been estimated that Greater Houston has the largest Nigerian expatriate population in

the United States. As of 2014 an estimated 150,000 Nigerian Americans live in Houston. As of 2003
Houston has 23,000 Nigerian Americans. Many Nigerian Americans choose Houston over other American
destinations due to its warmer climate and the ease of establishing businesses. Nigerian companies work I
Houston all of the time. Nigerians in the Houston area have opened up Nigerian groceries, restaurants, and
churches in Houston. Ethiopians live in Houston too. Mesfin Genanaw, a Houston Community College
teacher who was one of the individuals who assisted with the building of the area Ethiopian Orthodox
church, stated in a 2003 Houston Chronicle article that there are an estimated 5,000 Ethiopians in Greater
Houston. Houston's Ethiopian Orthodox church is the Debre Selam Medhanealem Ethiopian Orthodox
Tewahdo Church (Amharic: ? Debre Selam
MedhaneAlem YeItyopphya Ortodoks Tewahedo Bete Kristiyan; the name approximately means "Sanctuary
of Peace and the Savior"). Prior to the construction of the church, those of the Ethiopian Orthodox faith
worshiped at Coptic Orthodox churches. Genanaw, stated that in 1992 20 Ethiopian women who were
attending a Coptic church planned the establishment of an Ethiopian church.

"El pueblo unido, jams ser vencido."

There is a huge amount of Hispanic culture in Houston. More immigrants from Latin American countries are
coming into Houston. Houston has the third largest Hispanic population in America. 44 percent of Houston
is Hispanic. Hispanic people make up about 18 percent of the Houston city council. Most Hispanic people in
Houston are Catholics while there are some Hispanics in Houston who became converts to Islam. There has
been an increase of Hispanic Americans living in Kashmere Gardens, South Park, Sunnyside, and the Third
Ward. There are Mexicans, Cubans, Central Americans, and other Hispanics living in Houston. The Institute
of Hispanic Culture is found in Houston at 3315 Sul Ross. It serves the Houston community education of
Hispanic culture and other services. They work with local universities and other cultural organizations. Since
1965, this institute The Talento Bilinge de Houston (TBH, "Bilingual Theater of Houston") is a bilingual
theater in the Second Ward of the East End area of Houston, Texas. It is found in the intersection of Jensen
Road and Navigation Drive, adjacent to Guadalupe Park, and the two city blocks from Downtown Houston.
La Voz de Houston is a Spanish language weekly newspaper which was distributed by the Houston
Chronicle and a subsidiary of the Houston Chronicle. Armando and Olga Ordez, refugees from Cuba,
established La Voz de Houston in 1979. On Thursday December 2, 2004 the Houston Chronicle purchased
La Voz. Ordez remained as the publisher of La Voz. As an employee of the Houston Chronicle she began
reporting to Jack Sweeney, the publisher of the Houston Chronicle. The 14 employees of La Voz de Houston
became Houston Chronicle employees. The offices of La Voz de Houston moved to their current location.
The Chronicle gives advertising sales and editorial support from the Chronicle. It talks about issues
important to Hispanic human beings. It shows news, foods, sports, entertainment, and other issues. As of

2004, the weekly newspaper has a circulation of 100,000. In 2010 Hctor Pina of La Voz won the first place
award for opinion writing in the Texas Associated Press Managing Editors 2010 competition for the best
journalism work. El Da was a Spanish-language newspaper published in Houston, Texas by El Da, Inc. The
company's offices are in Greater Sharpstown. Luis Jimenez was the late Tejano sculptor. He created the
Vaquero art installation at Moody Park through the help of the City of Houston and the National
Endowment of the Arts. It was commissioned via the Art in Public Places program. The University of
Houston Art Professor Delilah Montoya has done great research on Luis Jimenez.
Early Houston had German and British Americans. Tons of people of German descent live in Houston today.
Many German immigrants came into Houston after the 1848 revolutions in the German states. German
settlers settled in Spring Branch during the mid-1800s. That community became part of Houston later on.
The first recorded ethnic Greeks in Houston, listed in the Houston City Directory of 1889-1890, were George
and Peter Poleminacos. Men who worked manual labor were Houston's first Greek residents, with their
arrival in 1889. The first Greek woman to arrive was Kalliope Vlahos, and since her 1903 arrival Greek
women and children began settling Houston. Many Greeks today are business owners today in Downtown
Houston. Iranians and other Arabic people have great cultural and economic institutions in Houston too.

There is a strong Asian culture in Houston, Texas. Large immigrants from Asia live in Houston. Also, Houston
has the largest Vietnamese American population in Texas and the third largest in Americas as of 2004. Back
during 1910, 30 Asian human beings lived in Houston (20 were Japanese and 10 were Chinese). The 1965
Immigration Act (which was signed by President Lyndon Baines Johnson) ended many restrictions on
immigration policies. Afterwards, an increase of Asian immigrants came into Houston. Large scale Asian
immigration to Houston existed in the 1970s. By 1980, 48,000 Asian people lived in Greater Houston. The
two largest Asian immigrant groups to Houston are the Chinese and the Vietnamese. In 2005, Greater
Houston had 32,000 Vietnamese Americans. Over 70,000 Chinese Americans live in Houston. The first
Chinese people came into Houston in 1870 to do construction work in the number of 250 men. In
2001 Gordon Quan, a member of the Houston City Council, urged Asian Americans and Chinese Americans
to become more involved in politics. Southern News Group is a publishing business owned by a Chinese
American. Its headquarters are in Houston. Martha Wong is a Chinese Americans who is a Houston City
Council member too. The Asia Society Texas Center is also found in Houston. It was created in 1979 to

advance the cultural development of the Asian community in America and globally. The Houston China
Community Center has helped families for decades via educational, cultural, and social service programs.
Filipinos, Koreans, Bangladeshis, and other Asian ethnic groups do work and live in Houston. The Japanfest
or the Japan Festival is sponsored by the Japan-America Society of Houston. It is held annually at Hermann
Park. It is the only outdoor festival of its type permitted to be held at the park. In 2013 almost 2,700 people
attended that year's festival. There are Indians who have established their infrastructure in Houston. As of
2004, Houston had the fifth largest Indonesian population in America. There is the Consulate General of
Indonesia in Houston.

By Timothy

Bless Houston
Also, I send prayers to the people who are the
victims of tornadoes, floods, and severe storms in
Dallas, the rest of Northern Texas, other areas of
the South, and parts of the Midwest.