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PALAMANERI HEP (480 MW)

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF CONCRETE LINING IN ROCK


ROCK CLASS A (VERY GOOD ROCK)
Concrete Lining without Reinforcement
Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m
Axial Force = 250 kN (Tension)
Moment = 1 kNm
Thickness of Lining = 300 mm
Grade of Concrete = M-20
Tensile Stress developed in Concrete

=
=

Ast

250 X 103
230

Provide 16 @ 175 c/c in the middle of section


And dist. Steel as 16 @ 200 c/c as dist. Reinforcement

250 X 103
300 X 1000

0.883 N/mm2
(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 20
1087 mm2

1149 mm2

500 X 103
300 X 1000

ROCK CLASS B (FAIR ROCK)


Concrete Lining without Reinforcement
Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m
Axial Force = 500 kN (Tension)
Moment = 2 kNm
Thickness of Lining = 300 mm
Grade of Concrete = M-20
Tensile Stress developed in Concrete

=
500 X 103
Ast
=
230
Provide20 @ 135 c/c in the middle of section
And dist. Steel as 16 @ 200 c/c as dist. Reinforcement

1.67 N/mm2
(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 20
2174 mm2

2319 mm2

10.05 mm2

ROCK CLASS C (POOR ROCK)


Concrete Lining without Reinforcement
Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m
Axial Force = 890 kN (Tension)
Moment = 7 kNm
Thickness of Lining = 300 mm
Grade of Concrete = M-20
Tensile Stress developed in Concrete

=
=

890 X 103
350 X 1000

2.54 N/mm2
(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 20

Provide 25 @ 115 c/c in the middle of section


And dist. Steel as 16 @ 200 c/c as dist. Reinforcement

ROCK CLASS D (VERY POOR ROCK)


Concrete Lining without Reinforcement
Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m
Axial Force = 1300 kN (Tension)
Moment = 10 kNm
Thickness of Lining = 450 mm
Grade of Concrete = M-25
Tensile Stress developed in Concrete

ROCK CLASS E (VERY POOR ROCK)


Concrete Lining without Reinforcement
Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m
Axial Force = 1470 kN (Tension)
Moment = 13 kNm
Thickness of Lining = 500 mm
Grade of Concrete = M-25

1300 X 103
450 x 1000

2.89
(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 20

Tensile Stress developed in Concrete

1470 X 103
500 x 1000

2.94
(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 20

1810 X 103
500 x 1000

3.62
(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 20

ROCK CLASS F (EXTREMELY POOR ROCK)


Concrete Lining with Reinforcement
Finished diameter of Tunnel = 7.2 m
Thickness of Lining = 500 mm
Axial force 'T'
1810 kN
=
Moment 'M'
=
15 kNm
Tensile Stress developed in Concrete

Hence, Reinforcement is needed to resist the tensile forces


Here, Tensile Force is very large , as compared to the Moment , so eccentricity will be small
Eccentricity 'e'

M/T

15 X 106
1810 X 103

In this case, the line of action of the forces lies within the section between the
two layers of steel as shown in the figure below ;

b
At1

d'

8.29 mm

d1

At2

Axis through C.G. of steel


d2
d'

The whole section is in tension and the concrete area is ineffective.


The total tensile force acts at a distance 'e' from the c. g. of steel areas, if st1 and st2 are stresses in
steel areas , At1 and At2 , respectively.
Taking moment of tensile forces about the bottom steel,
st1 X At1 X (d1 + d2) = T (d2-e)
or,

At1

T (d2-e)
st1 X (d1 + d2)

=
=

1810 X 103 (170 - 8.3)


0.87 X 415 (170 + 170)

And st1 X At1 + st2 X At2 =

or,

At2

2384.2 mm2

2513.2 mm2

T
Ac + m(Ast)

T - st1 X At1
st2
1810X103 - 0.87X415X2500
0.87 X 415

Provide 20 @ 125 c/c on each face


Tensile Stress developed in Concrete

=
=
Just greater than permissible , so it is O. K.

1810 X 103
494974 + 11 X 5026
3.29
(clause: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 20

<
3.2 N/mm2
e: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

<
2.8 N/mm2
e: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

<
2.8 N/mm2
e: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

<
3.2 N/mm2
e: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

<
3.2 N/mm2
e: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

>
3.2 N/mm2
e: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

will be small

hrough C.G. of steel

nd st2 are stresses in

74 + 11 X 5026
>
3.2 N/mm2
e: B - 2.2.1, IS 456 2000)

(VERY POOR ROCK)


Concrete Lining with Reinforcement (for internal pressure)
Finished diameter of Tunnel
Thickness of Lining

=
=

10 m
600 Mm (= D)

Axial force 'T'

kN

Moment 'M'

kNm

Grade of Conc.
Cover To R/F

=
=

Permissible Stress in Concrete

M-20
50 mm
2.8 N/mm2

Permissible Stress in Steel in


=
direct tension and flexural tension

230 N/mm2 (grade fe 415)


(Clause: B - 2.2, IS 456 : 2000)

Here, Tensile Force is very large , as compared to the Moment , so eccentricity will be small

As per Carranza -Torres article Mechanical analysis of circular lines with particular refere
-Tunnel underground space technology(2009)
r
=
5
b
=
0.5
m
s
=
0.5
m
n=b/s=
=
1
D1 = E1A1/(1-v12)
K1 = E1 I1/(1-v12)

For steel

E1
A1

=
=

200000
0.00475

v1

0.25

I1

0.0000513

D1

1013333333.33

1013.33

10944000

10.944

K1

Mpa
m2
m4
MN

MN/m2

For shotcrete
t2

0.4

E2

20000

Mpa

v2

0.15

A2 = (1/n) x bt2 A1

0.19525

m2

I2 = (1/n) x bt2^3 /12 I1

0.0026153667

m4

D2 = E2 A2/(1-v2 )

3994884910.49

3994.88

53511338.45

K2 = E2 I2/(1-v2 )
2

MN

53.51

MN/m2

teq = sqrt (12(K1+k2)/(D1+D2))

0.393

Eeq=n(D1+D2)/(bteq)

25488

Mpa

G= Eeq/2(1+v)

10892

Mpa

Fx kN
-356.113
362.927
-362.695
363.575
-370.201
361.883
-372.789
384.847
-400.706
429.65
-440.48
450.455
-423.403
423.754
-421.853
422.898
-411.476
413.196
-351.648
362.039
-353.646
367.41

Fy kN
78.508
47.144
45.52
92.709
32.465
106.933
14.567
119.215
6.648
104.391
33.535
71.348
29.977
126.511
6.412
149.983
-12.024
168.226
147.109
-20.235
220.668
-92.08

K1/n(K1+K2)
K2/n(K1+K2)

y
A
I
fy
M
F

=
=

0.1697919872
0.8302080128

Beam
3

L/C
1 LOAD CASE 1

1 LOAD CASE 1

1 LOAD CASE 1

1 LOAD CASE 1

1 LOAD CASE 1

1 LOAD CASE 1

20

1 LOAD CASE 1

21

1 LOAD CASE 1

22

1 LOAD CASE 1

23

1 LOAD CASE 1

24

1 LOAD CASE 1

125 mm
4750 mm2
51300000 mm4
230 N/mm2
29580000 knm
89900 N

Node
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
20
21
21
22
22
1
2
3
1
2

t/0.6fy + bt/0.66fy
0.1371472159

IS 800:1984, Cl 7.1.2
+

0.4748091133

0.611956329

Page -8
N = cA/FS 9Q2FS/4cA
=

0.67

A
t

392987.2 mm2

2.5 Mpa

=
N
-1000000.0
-500000.0
0.0
500000.0
1000000.0
1500000.0
2000000.0
2500000.0
3000000.0
3500000.0
4000000.0
4500000.0
5000000.0
5500000.0
6000000.0
6500000.0
7000000.0
7500000.0
8000000.0
8500000.0
9000000.0
9500000.0
10000000.0

1466370.3 Q
551310.2
793601.3
977580.2
1132043.8
1267826.2
1390411.2
1503031.4
1607782.1
1706113.5
1799078.5
1887470.1
1971903.6
2052867.2
2130756.6
2205897.5
2278561.8
2348979.3
2417346.5
2483832.5
2548584.7
2611732.0
2673388.2
2733654.0

Q
-551310.2
-793601.3
977580.2
-1132043.8
-1267826.2
-1390411.2
-1503031.4
-1607782.1
-1706113.5
-1799078.5
-1887470.1
-1971903.6
-2052867.2
-2130756.6
-2205897.5
-2278561.8
-2348979.3
-2417346.5
-2483832.5
-2548584.7
-2611732.0
-2673388.2
-2733654.0

1.53440E-006

12000000.0
10000000.0
8000000.0

N (in N)

FS

6000000.0
4000000.0
2000000.0
0.0
0.0
-2000000.0

5000

m2 (grade fe 415)
456 : 2000)

city will be small

s with particular reference to composite supports (Page 10-12)

Mz kNm
-83.448
100.278
-100.278
72.226
-72.226
27.96
-27.96
-37.296
37.296
-95.398
95.398
-117.876
-51.386
-0.418
0.418
-77.467
77.467
-174.202
6.359
83.448
174.202
-6.359

Fx1
=
FxD1/
M1(kNm)
=
(n(D1+D2)) +M(D2K1
MK1/n(K1+K2 M2(kNm)
= D1K2)/(nR(D1+D2)
)
MK2/n(K1+K2) (K1+K2))
-14.17
-69.28
-71.51
17.03
83.25
72.78
-17.03
-83.25
-72.73
12.26
59.96
73.09
-12.26
-59.96
-74.43
4.75
23.21
73.04
-4.75
-23.21
-75.25
-6.33
-30.96
78.11
6.33
30.96
-81.32
-16.20
-79.20
87.55
16.20
79.20
-89.75
-20.01
-97.86
91.91
-8.72
-42.66
-85.33
-0.07
-0.35
85.74
0.07
0.35
-85.36
-13.15
-64.31
86.07
13.15
64.31
-83.76
-29.58
-144.62
84.74
1.08
5.28
-71.19
14.17
69.28
72.71
29.58
144.62
-72.69
-1.08
-5.28
74.38
-29.578103752
-89.7450150808

<1 OK

Q2

12000000.0
10000000.0

N (in N)

8000000.0
6000000.0
Column A

4000000.0
2000000.0
0.0
0.0

500000.0 1000000.0 1500000.0 2000000.0 2500000.0 3000000.0

-2000000.0
Q( in N)

Fx2
=
FxD2/
(n(D1+D2)) -M(D2K1
D1K2)/(nR(D1+D2)
(K1+K2))
-284.60
290.15
-289.96
290.48
-295.77
288.84
-297.54
306.74
-319.39
342.10
-350.73
358.55
-338.07
338.01
-336.50
336.83
-327.72
328.46
-280.46
289.33
-280.96
293.03

.0

Column A