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Dive Into Storage !!!

27th Oct 2015

Moores Law

Moores Law is a computing term which


originated around 1970; the simplified
version of this law states that processor
speeds, or overall processing power for
computers will double every two years.

Since circuit density increases, storage


capacity increases at a factor of 100x
every 10 years.

Conversely the price of a storage unit


decreases.

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Parameters of Evolution

How to compute???

How to store data???

How to access data???

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Evolution of Storage Devices

IBM Punch Card (1937)

Paper Tape

IBM Magnetic Tape(1950)

Audio Cassette Tape(1963)

8" Floppy Disk (1971)

5.25/3.5 Floppy Disk (1976)

Compact Disc(1982)

Zip Drive (1994)

DVD (1995)

SD Memory (2000)

USB Flash Drive (2000+)


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Evolution of Storage Devices


IBM 350 (1956)

Storage
3.75MB

Lease $3200-permonth

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Evolution of Storage Devices


IBM 1301 (1961)

Storage
19MB

Lease $2100-permonth
Price
$115,500

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Evolution of Storage Devices


IBM 1311 (1962)

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Evolution of Storage Devices


IBM 2311 (1964) **

Storage 7.25 MB per disk


pack
Speed 156KB/s

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Evolution of Storage Devices


IBM 62PC Piccolo: The Worlds first 8-inch HDD (1979)
Storage 64.5MB

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Evolution of Storage Devices


1980 IBM 3380: The Worlds first gigabyte HDD
1980 Seagate ST-506: The Worlds first 5.25-inch HDD
Storage 2.52 GB
@ 3MB/s
Price - $81,000

Storage 5MB
Price - $1500
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Evolution of Storage Devices


1983 Rodime RO-352: The Worlds first 3.5-inch HDD
11MB @ 600KB/s
1988 PrairieTek 220: The Worlds first 2.5-inch HDD
21.3MB
1997 IBM Deskstar 16GP
16.8GB @ $420,000
2000 Trek ThumbDrive:
The Worlds first USB Flash Drive

2006 Sandisk 2GB microSD Card


(Flash drives/arrays)
2007 Hitachi Deskstar 7K1000: The Worlds first 1TB HDD

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Evolution of Storage Devices


Fusion-io ioDrive2 Duo SLC Application
Accelerator Review (1.2TB)

Seagate 120GB SSD drive

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Magnetic Storage Disk Architecture

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Magnetic Storage Disk Architecture

Seek time
Latency / RPM
Data transfer rate
Different from
USB/SSDs

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Magnetic Storage Disk Architecture


Disk controllers
A chip and associated circuitry that is responsible for controlling a disk drive.
There are different controllers for different interfaces

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Electronic Standards IDE, SATA, ATA, SCSI


Acronym
SASI
SCSI

Meaning
Shugart Associates System
Interface
Small Computer System
Interface

Description
Historical predecessor to SCSI.
Bus oriented that handles concurrent
operations.

SAS

Serial Attached SCSI

Improvement of SCSI, uses serial


communication instead of parallel.

ST-506

Seagate Technology

Historical Seagate interface.

ST-412

Seagate Technology

Historical Seagate interface (minor


improvement over ST-506).

ESDI

Enhanced Small Disk Interface

Historical; backwards compatible with ST412/506, but faster and more integrated.

(P)ATA

SATA

Successor to ST-412/506/ESDI by
integrating the disk controller completely
(Parallel) AT Attachment
onto the device. Incapable of concurrent
operations.
Modification of ATA, uses serial
Serial ATA
communication instead of parallel.
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Electronic Standards IDE, SATA, ATA, SCSI

IDE / ATA
Hardcards - 3.5" hard disks that were mounted directly to a controller card that plugged
into an ISA expansion slot.
Issues with weight, cooling, vibration and space.
No reason to keep the hard disk physically on the controller
IBM PC/AT was the first PC to use the now-standard 16-bit ISA bus.

Interface
Standard

ANSI Standard Number PIO Modes


(includes date)
Added

DMA Modes Added

Ultra DMA Modes Added

Notable Features or Enhancements


Introduced

ATA-1

X3.221-1994

0, 1, 2

Single word 0, 1, 2; multiword


0

--

--

ATA-2

X3.279-1996

3, 4

Multiword 1, 2

--

Block transfers, Logical block addressing,


Improved identify drive command

ATA-3

X3.298-1997

--

--

--

Improved reliability, SMART, Drive security

ATA/ATAPI-4

NCITS 317-1998

--

--

0, 1, 2

Ultra DMA, 80-conductor IDE cable, CRC

ATA/ATAPI-5

NCITS 340-2000

--

--

3, 4

--

ATA/ATAPI-6

Under Development

--

--

5?

LBA expansion? Acoustic


management? Multimedia streaming?

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Electronic Standards IDE, SATA, ATA, SCSI


Max. Bus Length
Max. Bus
Bus Width (Metres)
Speed (MBps) (Bits)
Single-ended

Max. Device
Support

LVD

HVD

25

25

25

16

1.5
3

25
-

8
4

SCSI-1

Fast SCSI

10

Fast Wide SCSI

20

Ultra SCSI
Ultra SCSI

20
20

8
(Narrow)
8
16
(Wide)
8
8

Wide Ultra SCSI

40

16

25

16

Wide Ultra SCSI

40

16

1.5

Wide Ultra SCSI

40

16

Ultra2 SCSI

40

Not defined for speeds


beyond Ultra

12

25

Wide Ultra2 SCSI

80

16

12

25

16

Ultra3 SCSI or
Ultra160 SCSI

160

16

12

Not defined for speeds beyond


Ultra2

16

Ultra320 SCSI

320

16

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Storage outside the box!!

Number of devices simultaneously connected.

Length of the cable.

Sharing of resources.

Concept of storage library.

Advent of better transport protocols.

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Various components of storage stack.

HDD

HDD
HDD

HBA
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Various components of storage stack.


JBOD / Enclosure

HDD

HDD
HDD

HBA
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Various components of storage stack


(SCSI/FC/SAS).
JBOD / Enclosure

HDD

HDD
HDD

Target

Initiator
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Various components of storage stack


(SCSI/FC/SAS).
JBOD / Enclosure

HDD
Initiator

HDD

Initiator

HDD

S/W

Target

Initiator

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Various components of storage stack


(SCSI/FC/SAS) Hardware.
Target
HBAs

SP1

SP2

Disk
subsystem

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Target Protocols
(FC/SCSI/SAS)

NFS/CIFS

Target Stack

FS

Auxillary Functionality (Dedupe,


Snapshot)
Volume Manager
Block driver (possible RAID)

Management Layer

Various components of storage stack


(SCSI/FC/SAS) Hardware.

EMC AX 150
Disk
subsystem

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Various components of storage stack


(SCSI/FC/SAS) Software.

Target Protocols
(FC/SCSI/SAS)

NFS/CIFS

Target Stack

FS

Auxillary Functionality (Dedupe,


Snapshot)
Volume Manager

Management Layer

BlueArc Titan

Block driver (possible RAID)

Disk
subsystem

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Target Protocols
(FC/SCSI/SAS)

NFS/CIFS

Target Stack

FS

Auxillary Functionality (Dedupe,


Snapshot)
Volume Manager
Block driver (possible RAID)

Disk
subsystem

Management Layer

Various components of storage stack


(SCSI/FC/SAS) Software.

Pillar Data Systems


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Assignments

Cassette / CD player from storage point of view.

Different storage vendors, What is the design of their arrays.

Difference between various cables and their history.

Mechanisms of SSD disks/arrays/Optical drives. (NAND vs NOR Flash)

Equations related to drive speeds.

Tape libraries and corresponding hardware.

Reference Material.

What are the limits of current scsi bus / protocol?

Can you share a scsi disk between two VMs?

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References

http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/if/scsi/over-c.html

http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/if/ide/index.htm

http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/sas-storage,1239-4.html

http://www.technick.net/public/code/cp_dpage.php?aiocp_dp=guide_scsi

http://www.onextrapixel.com/2013/11/01/a-look-into-the-evolution-of-storage-devices-19562013/

http://www.ricomputermuseum.org/Home/collections-gallery/the-history-of-computer-datastorage

http://www.pcworld.com/article/127105/article.html

http://www.pctechguide.com/interfaces/scsi-interface-evolution

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_ATA#History_and_terminology

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ST-506

http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Parallel-ATA-Parallel-Advanced-TechnologyCalsoft Confidential
Attachment-or-PATA

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