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Prepared by:

Engr. Marie Luvett Interino-Goh, MIT

Topics Outline: Prelim


Define Computer
Data vs. Information
Types of Computer
Elements of Computer System
Number System

p. 6

How is a computer defined?


Computer is an electronic device
operating under the control of
instructions stored in its own
memory.

It accepts data and process it into


information.
It can store and retrieve data for
future use.
It can perform arithmetic and logical
operations

Data vs. Information

DATA

Raw facts, figures,


and symbols

INFORMATION

Data that is organized,


meaningful, and useful
p. 6

Types of Computer
According to its Purpose
According to its Type of Data Handled
According to its Size

According to Purpose
General
Special / Specific

Personal Computer

ATM
(Automated Teller Machine)

According to Type of Data Handled

Analog
e.g. Speedometer
Digital
e.g. Desktop Computer
Hybrid
e.g. Pulse Monitor

According to Size
Supercomputer
Mainframe
Workstation
Desktop
Laptop
Notebook, Netbook
Tablet PC
PDA / Hand-held PC
(Personal Digital Assistant)

According to Size
Supercomputer

are used for highly


calculation-intensive tasks
such as problems
involving:
quantum physics
weather forecasting
climate research
molecular modeling
(computing the structures
simulation of the
detonation of nuclear
weapons, and research into
nuclear fusion).

According to Size
Mainframe

are powerful computers used


mainly by large organizations
for critical applications,
typically bulk data processing
such as:
census
industry and consumer
statistics
enterprise resource planning
financial transaction
processing.

According to Size
Workstation
is a high-end
microcomputer designed
for technical or scientific
applications.

Desktop
is a personal computer
(PC) in a form intended
for regular use at a
single location.

According to Size
Laptop
Portable, small enough to fit on
your lap.

Notebook / Netbook
Smaller than laptop.

According to Size
Tablet PC

Resembles a letter-sized
slate
Allows you to write on
the screen using a digital
pen
Especially useful for
taking notes

According to Size
PDA / Hand-held PC
(Personal Digital Assistant)
Provides personal organizer
functions:
Calendar
Appointment book
Address book
Calculator
Notepad

According to Size
Smart Phones
Is an Internet-enabled
telephone that usually
provides PDA capabilities

Elements of Computer System


Hardware
Software
Peopleware
Dataware
Firmware
Netware

Hardware
is the physical or tangible parts of the
computer system

Types:

Input Devices
Output Devices
Processing Unit
Storage

Hardware

What is an input device?

Hardware used
to enter data
and instructions
Examples:
Keyboard
Mouse
Microphone
Webcam
Digital camera
Scanners and Readers
Flatbed Scanner
Biometrics Scanner
Barcode Reader
OCR / OMR / MICR
RFID Reader
Magnetic Stripe Reader

Biometric Input

What is biometrics?
Authenticates persons
identity by verifying personal
characteristic

Fingerprint scanner captures


curves and indentations of
fingerprint
Hand geometry system measures
shape and size of persons hand

p. 262 Fig. 5-42 and 5-43

Biometric Input

What are examples of biometric technology?


Voice verification system compares live
speech with stored voice pattern
Signature verification system recognizes
shape of signature
Iris recognition system reads patterns
in blood vessels in back of eye

Hardware

What is an output device?


Hardware that
conveys / displays
information
to one or more
people

p. 7 Fig. 1-3

Hardware

Examples of output devices?

Monitors
CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)
Plasma
LED (Light Emitting Diode)
DLP (Digital Light Processing) Multimedia Projector
Printers
Types:
Impact (i.e. Dot Matrix, Line Printer)
Non-impact (i.e. Inkjet, Laser, Plotter, Thermal
Printers, etc)

Hardware

Processing Unit

What is the system unit?

Case that contains


electronic
components of the
computer used
to process data

p. 7 Fig. 1-3

Sometimes called
the chassis.

The System Unit

What are common components inside the system unit?


Motherboard
Processor
Memory
Expansion Bus
Adapter cards
Chipsets
IDE Controllers/
Devices
Ports
Drive bays
Power supply

power supply

drive bays

processor

ports

memory

video card

sound card

Motherboard

Main circuit board

in system unit
Considered to be
the physical

foundation of the
computer system
Also called

system board /
MOBO

Motherboard

Form Factors
Motherboards are produced in a variety of sizes and
shapes called computer form factor, some of which
are specific to individual computer manufacturers.
Examples:

XT (Extended Technology)

AT (Advanced Technology)

ATX (Advanced Technology


Extended)

LPX (Low Profile Extended)

BTX (Balanced Technology


Extended)

Processor

What is the central processing unit (CPU)?

Interprets and carries out


basic instructions that
operate a computer
Control unit directs
and coordinates
operations in
computer
Input
Arithmetic logic unit
Devices
(ALU) performs
arithmetic,
comparison,
and logical operations

Also called the processor

Processor
Control
Control
Unit
Unit

Arithmetic
Logic Unit (ALU)

Instructions
Data
Information

Data

Memory

Information

Instructions
Data
Information

Storage
Devices

Output
Devices

Processor

What is a machine cycle?

Four operations of the CPU comprise a


machine cycle
Step 1. Fetch
Obtain program instruction
or data item from memory

Step 2.
Decode

Memory

Step 4. Store

Translate
instruction into
commands

Write result to memory


Processor

ALU

Step 3. Execute
Carry out command

Control Unit

Processor

What are heat sinks, cooling fans, heat


pipes, and liquid cooling?
Heat sinkcomponent
with fins that absorbs heat
generated by the processor
Cooling fan - move air across
a heatsink to cool a particular
component.
Heat pipes smaller
device for notebook computers
Liquid coolinguses a
continuous flow
of fluids to transfer heat away

Processor

Types of Processor Slots

PGA (Pin Grid Array)

SECC ( Single Edge Contact Cartridge\

LGA ( Land Grid Array)

Processor

Two leading manufacturers of processors for


desktop computers

INTEL

(Integrated Electronics)

AMD
(Advanced Micro Devices)

Memory

Memory is the electronic holding place for instructions and data


that your computer's microprocessor can reach quickly.
RAM (Random Access Memory) is a volatile-type of memory that
act as the primary storage of computer.
Types of RAM

EDO ( Enhanced Data Output)

SRAM (Static RAM)

DRAM (Dynamic RAM)

SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM)

SDR (Single Data Rate)

DDR (Double Data Rate)

RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic RAM)

Memory

ROM (Read Only Memory) is a class of storage medium used


in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in
ROM cannot be modified, or can be modified only slowly or
with difficulty, so it is mainly used to distribute firmware.
Types of ROM

PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory)

EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)

EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read


Only Memory)

Flash Card

Flash Drive

Memory Cards

Expansion Bus

An expansion bus It is a collection of wires and


protocols that allows for the expansion of a
computer

Types :

ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)

EISA (Extended ISA)

VESA (Video Electronics Standard Association)

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)

AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)

PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express)

Expansion Bus

An opening, or socket,
on the motherboard
that can hold an
adapter card
With Plug and Play,
the computer
automatically
configures cards
and other devices
as you install them

Expansion Bus

AGP

Expansion/Adapter Cards

is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into


an expansion slot of a computer motherboard to
add functionality to a computer system.

Types :

Sound Card

Video Card

TV Tuner

FM Tuner

NIC
(Network Interface Card)

Chipsets

refers to a group of integrated circuits, or chips,


that are designed to work together. They are
usually marketed as a single product.

Types :

Northbridge

handles communications
among the CPU, RAM, and
PCI Express (or AGP) video
cards, and the southbridge.

Southbridge

handles the communication


between northbridge and
Input/Output ports.

IDE Controllers

IDE (Integrated Device Electronics) is a hardware interface


widely used to connect hard disks, optical discs and tape
drives to a PC.

Types :

PATA (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment)

SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)

Ports and Connectors

What are ports and connectors?


Port connects external devices to system unit
Connector joins cable to peripheral
Available in one of two genders: male and female

Ports and Connectors

What are different types of connectors?

Storage

What is storage?
Holds data, instructions, and information for future use.
Types:

Primary Storage volatile type of storage/memory


Examples:

Registers

Cache

RAMs

ROMs

Storage

Secondary Storage nonvolatile type of storage/memory


Types:

Magnetic Disks (i.e. Hard disk, Floppy disk, Zip


disk, etc)

Optical Discs (i.e. Compact Disc (CD), Digital


Versatile Disc (DVD), Blue ray disc, etc)

Tape

Microfilm and Microfiche

Storage

What is capacity?

Number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold


Kilobyte (KB)

1 thousand

Megabyte (MB)

1 million

Gigabyte (GB)

1 billion

Terabyte (TB)

1 trillion

Petabyte (PB)

1 quadrillion

Exabyte (EB)

1 quintillion

Zettabyte (ZB)

1 sextillion

Yottabyte (YB)

1 septillion

Storage/Memory Hierarchy

Storage

How do life expectancies of various media compare?


Microfilm and microfiche have longest life of any
storage media

Software

is a collection of programs.
A computer program (also a software program, or
just a program) is a sequence instructions written to
perform a specified task for a computer.
Types of Software:
System Software
Application Software

System Software

System software serves as


interface between the user,
application
software,
and
computers hardware.

the
the
the

It consists of the programs that


control or maintain the operations of
the computer and its devices.

System Software

Types of System software


Operating System
is software, consisting of programs and data, that
runs on computers, manages computer
hardware resources, and provides common
services for execution of various application
software.
Examples:
Windows, Linux, Mac OS
Utility Programs
is a kind of system software designed to help
analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the
computer.
Examples:
Disk Defragmenter, Anti-virus, Screen Saver, etc

Application Software

a software that is designed and created


to perform specific personal, business
or scientific processing tasks.
Application Software is available in a
variety of forms: packaged, custom,
open source, shareware, freeware and
public domain.

Various forms of Application


Software

Packaged Software
- is mass-produced, copyrighted retail
software.

Custom Software
- performs functions specific to a business
or industry.

Shareware

is copyrighted software that is


distributed at no cost for a trial period.

Freeware

is copyrighted software that is


distributed at no cost by an individual or
a company that retains all rights to the
software.

Open

Source Software

is software provided for


modification, and redistribution.

use,

- This software has no restrictions from


the
copyright
holder
regarding
modification of the softwares internal
instructions and redistribution of the
software.

Public-domain software
- it has been donated for public use and
has no copy restrictions.
- Anyone can copy or distribute publicdomain software to others at no cost.

Peopleware
Peopleware can refer to anything that
has to do with the role of people in the
development or use of computer
software and hardware systems.
Refers to the users of computers.

Dataware
is information in a form suitable for use
with a computer.
is a collection of data.
Types:

Softcopy

is an electronic copy.
Hardcopy

refers to printed results.

Firmware
is a combination of software and hardware
which is also known as chipset.
Computer chips (ROMs) that have data or
programs recorded on them are firmware.

Netware
The term Netware used in this discussion
refers to the Network Peripherals.
Examples:

Modem

Cables (UTP, Coaxial, Fiber Optics)


Hub
Router

RJ 45