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Section 3.

3 Part A
Pg. 91-96

Objective:
1) Apply VSEPR theory to predict molecular shapes

Stereochemistry is the study of the 3-D spatial


configuration of molecules and how this affects
their reactions.

Solid = in plane of page Dashed = behind (away) Wedge = ahead (toward)

The shape of molecules is determined by the repulsion that


happens between electron pairs
The theory behind molecular shapes is called VSEPR Theory
(Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion)

General Rule:

Pairs of electrons in the valence shell of an atom stay


as far apart as possible because of the repulsion of
their negative charges
The type, number and direction of bonds to the
central atom of a molecule determine the shape of
the resulting molecule.

So how do we predict these molecular shapes?

We will be using the following compounds to


analyze the 6 shapes possible
BeH2(s), BH3(g), CH4(g), NH3(g), H2O(l), HF(g)

To start, draw a Lewis formula for each of the


molecules and then consider the arrangement of all
pairs of valence electrons.
(Remember all pairs of valence e-s repel each
other and want to get as far apart as possible)

Lewis
Formula

Bond
Pairs

Be

2
*

Lone Total General


Pairs Pairs Formula

Electron Pair
Arrangement

Stereochemical
Formula

linear

XAX
linear

AX2

A is the central atom; X is another atom

This Lewis formula indicates that BeH2(s) has two bonds and
no lone pairs on the central atom.
VSPER theory suggests that the two bond pairs will be farthest
apart by moving to opposite sides to a bond angle of 180
This gives the molecule a linear orientation
*Exception* Beryllium does not follow OCTET RULE

Lewis
Formula

Bond
Pairs

B
*

Lone Total General


Pairs Pairs Formula

AX3

Electron Pair
Arrangement

Stereochemical
Formula

trigonal
planar

A is the central atom; X is another atom

This Lewis formula indicates that BH3(g) has three bonds and
no lone pairs on the central atom.
VSPER theory suggests that the three bond pairs will be farthest
apart by moving to a bond angle of 120 to each other.
This gives the molecule a trigonal planar orientation.
*Exception* - Boron Does not follow OCTET RULE

Draw the Lewis Formula for BF3


Does not obey the octet rule

F
Trigonal Planar

F
F

Lewis
Formula

Bond
Pairs

4
*

Lone Total General


Pairs Pairs Formula

AX4

Electron Pair
Arrangement

tetrahedral

A is the central atom; X is another atom

This Lewis formula indicates that CH4(g) has four bonds


and no lone pairs on the central atom.
VSPER theory suggests that the four bond pairs will be
farthest apart by arranging in three dimensions so that
every bond makes an angle of 109.5 with each other.
This gives the molecule a tetrahedral orientation.

Stereochemical
Formula

Draw the Lewis Formula for SiH4

H
H

H
H

Tetrahedral

Lewis
Formula

Bond
Pairs

Lone Total General


Pairs Pairs Formula

AX3E

Electron Pair
Arrangement

Stereochemical
Formula

tetrahedral
Trigonal pyramidal

A is the central atom; X is another atom, E is a lone pair of electrons


This Lewis formula indicates that NH3(g) has three bonds and
one lone pair on the central atom.
VSPER theory suggests that the four groups of e-s should repel
each other to form a tetrahedral shape (bond angle = 109.5)
But the lone pair is very repulsive, thus pushes the atoms more
to a 107.3 bond angle
This gives the molecule a trigonal pyramidal orientation.

Draw the Lewis Formula for PCl3

Cl

Cl
Cl

Trigonal pyramidal

Lewis
Formula

Bond
Pairs

2
*

Lone Total General


Pairs Pairs Formula

AX2E2

Electron Pair
Arrangement

Stereochemical
Formula

tetrahedral

Angular
(Bent)

A is the central atom; X is another atom, E is a lone pair of electrons


This Lewis formula indicates that H2O(l) has two bonds and
two lone pairs on the central atom.
VSPER theory suggests that the four groups of e-s should repel
each other to form a tetrahedral shape (bond angle = 109.5)
But the TWO lone pairs are very repulsive, thus pushes the
atoms more to a 105 bond angle
This gives the molecule an angular (bent) orientation.

Draw the Lewis Formula for OCl2

Angular (bent)

Lewis
Formula

H
*

Bond
Pairs

Lone Total General


Pairs Pairs Formula

AXE3

Electron Pair
Arrangement

Stereochemical
Formula

Linear

(Tetrahedral)

A is the central atom; X is another atom, E is a lone pair of electrons


This Lewis formula indicates that H2O(l) has two bonds and
two lone pairs on the central atom.
VSPER theory suggests that the four groups of e-s should repel
each other to form a tetrahedral shape (bond angle = 109.5)
But since there are only two atoms with one covalent bond
holding them together, by definition, the shape is linear, as is the
shape of every other diatomic molecule.

Draw the Lewis Formula for HCl

VSEPRtheorydescribes,explains,andpredictsthe
geometryofmoleculesbycoun<ngpairsofelectronsthat
repeleachothertominimizerepulsion.Theprocessfor
predic<ngtheshapeofamoleculeissummarizedbelow:

Step1:DrawtheLewisformulaforthemolecule,including
theelectronpairsaroundthecentralatom.

Step2:Countthetotalnumberofbondingpairs(bonded
atoms)andlonepairsofelectronsaroundthecentralatom.

Step3:RefertoTable7,andusethenumberofpairsof
electronstopredicttheshapeofthemolecule.

Pg. 95

Draw the Lewis and stereochemical formulas


for a sulfate ion, SO42- and predict the shape
See pg. 95

Draw the Lewis and stereochemical formulas


for a chlorate ion, ClO3- and predict the shape
See pg. 96

On your own: Pg. 96 #3

It is important to remember that a double or triple bond is one


bond, and to treat it as such, when predicting the VSEPR shapes of
molecules.
Example: Predict the shape of C2H4(g)
Draw the Lewis formula for the molecule

H H

Count the # of pairs of e-s around the central carbon atoms.


The carbon atoms have 3 bonds (2 single, 1 double) and no
lone pairs.
This is the same as a trigonal planar configuration.

Practice: Predict the shape for C2H2(g).


Answer: See pg. 97

1)

Finish pg. 96 #3

2)

Pg. 98 #6-7 (Multiple Bond Practice)

For 7 c, d, e - If there is more than one central atom involved,


tell me the shape around each of the central atoms
Example:
trigonal planarfirst two carbons
tetrahedralthird carbon

3)

Pg. 104 #1, 2

#2: If there is more than one central atom involved, tell me


the shape around each of the central atoms

Draw the Lewis Formula for PCl3