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When heat is absorbed by ice (the system)

it melts. The quantity q for the system is


1. positive.
2. negative.
3. 0

Slide 1 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

When heat is absorbed by ice (the system)


it melts. The quantity q for the system is
1. positive.
2. negative.

Catch: Photo of Ice


page 498

3. 0

Slide 2 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

When potassium chlorate decomposes


it produces oxygen gas. From the
system s point of view (which is the
convention), w is
1. positive.
2. negative.
3. No work done.

Slide 3 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

When potassium chlorate decomposes


it produces oxygen gas. From the
system s point of view (which is the
convention), w is
1. positive.
2. negative.
3. No work done.

Slide 4 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Heat is added to the container below while being allowed to expand freely
against atmospheric pressure. The temperature and pressure, however,
remain constant before and after.
U is,
1. positive.
2. negative.
3. 0

Slide 5 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Heat is added to the container below while being allowed to expand freely
against atmospheric pressure. The temperature and pressure, however,
remain constant before and after.
U is,
1. positive.
2. negative.
3. 0

Slide 6 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

For the following reaction:


2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) g H2O (l)

H = -572 kJ

What is the work associated with this reaction at 25C?

1.

7.4 kJ

2.

-7.4 kJ

3.

5.0 kJ

4.

-5.0 kJ

5.

2.5 kJ

Slide 7 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

For the following reaction:


2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) g H2O (l)

H = -572 kJ

What is the work associated with this reaction at 25C?

1.

7.4 kJ

2.

-7.4 kJ

3.

5.0 kJ

4.

-5.0 kJ

5.

2.5 kJ

Slide 8 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The volume of the Pacific Ocean is about 300 km3. Without the use of a
calculator, estimate the heat that is required to raise the temperature of the
Pacific Ocean by 1 oC (assume the density of water is 1 g cm-3 and the
specific heat is 4 J g-1 oC-1.
1. ~103 J
2. ~106 J
3. ~1012 J
4. ~1018 J
5. ~1025 J

Slide 9 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The volume of the Pacific Ocean is about 300 km3. Without the use of a
calculator, estimate the heat that is required to raise the temperature of the
Pacific Ocean by 1 oC (assume the density of water is 1 g cm-3 and the
specific heat is 4 J g-1 oC-1.
1. ~103 J
2. ~106 J
3. ~1012 J
4. ~1018 J
5. ~1025 J

Slide 10 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

In 1 minute the sun shines about 40 kJ m-2 of energy on Earth s surface and
about 1018 J is required to raise the temperature of the Pacific by 1 oC.
Assuming that all of the sun s energy is absorbed, how long must the sun
shine on the Pacific to raise its temperature by 1 oC? The area of the Pacific
ocean is about 100 km2.
1. 4x1021 min
2. 2.5x1011 min
3. 2.5x105 min
4. 2.5x10-5 min
5. 4x10-10 min

Where does the energy come from to heat the ocean?

Slide 11 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

In 1 minute the sun shines about 40 kJ m-2 of energy on Earth s surface and
about 1018 J is required to raise the temperature of the Pacific by 1 oC.
Assuming that all of the sun s energy is absorbed, how long must the sun
shine on the Pacific to raise its temperature by
1 oC? The area of the Pacific ocean is
about 100 km2.
1. 4x1021 min
2. 2.5x1011 min
3. 2.5x105 min
4. 2.5x10-5 min
5. 4x10-10 min

Where does the energy come from to heat the ocean?

Slide 12 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The figure below shows the heating curve for water. It traces the changes in
temperature as ice, initially at -20 oC, is gradually heated to produce liquid
water at +20 oC. When the ice (the system) melts,

1.

Temperature remains constant,


therefore no heat is being added to
or removed from the system during
the melting of the ice.

2.

Although T is constant, heat is


added to convert H2O(s) to H2O(l)

3.

Although T is constant, heat is


removed to to convert H2O(s) to
H2O(l)

Slide 13 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The figure below shows the heating curve for water. It traces the changes in
temperature as ice, initially at -20 oC, is gradually heated to produce liquid
water at +20 oC. When the ice (the system) melts,

1.

Temperature remains constant,


therefore no heat is being added to
or removed from the system during
the melting of the ice.

2.

Although T is constant, heat is


added to convert H2O(s) to H2O(l)

3.

Although T is constant, heat is


removed to to convert H2O(s) to
H2O(l)

Slide 14 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The figure below shows the cooling curve for water. It traces the changes
in temperature as water, initially at 20 oC, is gradually cooled to produce ice
at -20 oC. When the water (the system) freezes,
1.

the temperature remains constant at 0


oC and the process is endothermic.

2.

the temperature remains constant at 0


oC and the process is exothermic.

3.

the temperature remains constant at 0


oC, thus the process is neither
endothermic nor exothermic.

Slide 15 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The figure below shows the cooling curve for water. It traces the changes
in temperature as water, initially at 20 oC, is gradually cooled to produce ice
at -20 oC. When the water (the system) freezes,
1.

the temperature remains constant at


0 oC and the process is endothermic.

2.

the temperature remains constant at


0 oC and the process is exothermic.

3.

the temperature remains constant at


0 oC, thus the process is neither
endothermic nor exothermic.

Slide 16 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

You take two frozen steaks and put them into room temperature water for a few
hours to thaw. The heat gained by the steak (system) equals the heat lost by
the water (surroundings). The best equation to express this, where subscript
s refers to steak and the subscript w refers to the water, is,

1. sw mw Tw = ss ms Ts
2. sw mw Tw = ss ms Ts
3. sw mw Tw = ss ms Ts

Slide 17 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

You take two frozen steaks and put them into room temperature water for a few
hours to thaw. The heat gained by the steak (system) equals the heat lost by
the water (surroundings). The best equation to express this, where subscript
s refers to steak and the subscript w refers to the water, is,

1. sw mw Tw = ss ms Ts
2. sw mw Tw = ss ms Ts
3. sw mw Tw = ss ms Ts

Slide 18 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

What is the heat capacity of


Tellurium? Use 4 J g-1 oC-1
for the heat capacity of
water.

q Te = q H 2O

200 g Te
(100 oC)
100 g H2O
25 oC

50 oC

1. 0.5 J g-1 oC-1


2. 1 J g-1 oC-1

Catch Figure 7-3 here

3. 2 J g-1 oC-1
4. 4 J g-1 oC-1
5. 10 J g-1 oC-1

Slide 19 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

What is the heat capacity of


Tellurium? Use 4 J g-1 oC-1
for the heat capacity of
water.

q Te = q H 2O

200 g Te
(100 oC)
100 g H2O
25 oC

50 oC

1. 0.5 J g-1 oC-1


2. 1 J g-1 oC-1
3. 2 J g-1 oC-1
4. 4 J g-1 oC-1
5. 10 J g-1 oC-1

Slide 20 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Determine H and U for the reaction and conditions depicted below.


Note: 1 Pa = 1 N m-2.
V1= 0.120 m3
H

1. 250 kJ,

251 kJ

2. 250 kJ,

249 kJ

3. -250 kJ,

-251 kJ

4. -250 kJ,

-249 kJ

5. -250 kJ,

-250 kJ

Slide 21 of 41

V2= 0.110 m3

1x105 Pa

qP = 250 kJ

T=300 K

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Determine H and U for the reaction and conditions depicted below.


Note: 1 Pa = 1 N m-2.
V1= 0.120 m3
H

1. 250 kJ,

251 kJ

2. 250 kJ,

249 kJ

3. -250 kJ,

-251 kJ

4. -250 kJ,

-249 kJ

5. -250 kJ,

-250 kJ

Slide 22 of 41

V2= 0.110 m3

1x105 Pa

qP = 250 kJ

T=300 K

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Ice (the system) melting is


1. an exothermic process.

Catch: Photo of Ice


page 498

2. an endothermic process.
3. neither exothermic nor endothermic
since the temperature of the system
remains constant (0 oC at 1 atm).

Note: a bit tricky perhaps until chapter 13.

Slide 23 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Ice (the system) melting is


1. an exothermic process.

Catch: Photo of Ice


page 498

2. an endothermic process.
3. neither exothermic nor endothermic
since the temperature of the system
remains constant (0 oC at 1 atm).

Note: a bit tricky perhaps until chapter 13.

Slide 24 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The equation for the combustion of butane is,

C4 H10 (g) +

13
O2 (g) 4CO2 (g) + 5H 2O(g)
2

Which one of the following generates the least heat?


1. Burning one mole of butane in excess oxygen.
2. Reacting one mole of oxygen with excess butane.
3. Producing one mole of carbon dioxide by burning butane.
4. Producing one mole of water by burning butane.
5. Burning 0.25 moles of butane with excess oxygen.

Slide 25 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The equation for the combustion of butane is,

C4 H10 (g) +

13
O2 (g) 4CO2 (g) + 5H 2O(g)
2

Which one of the following generates the least heat?


1. Burning one mole of butane in excess oxygen.
2. Reacting one mole of oxygen with excess butane.
3. Producing one mole of carbon dioxide by burning butane.
4. Producing one mole of water by burning butane.
5. Burning 0.25 moles of butane with excess oxygen.

Slide 26 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The chemical reaction representing aerobic respiration is,

C6 H12O6 (s) + 6O2 (g) 6CO2 (g) + 6H 2O(g)


and is the reverse of photosynthesis. This reaction is exothermic by ~2500 kJ per
mole of glucose. A small child exhales about 3 moles of CO2 in a 24 hour period,
what is the energy change associated with the photosynthesis reaction required to
convert this amount of CO2 back to glucose?
1. 5000 kJ
2. -5000 kJ
3. -2500 kJ
4. 1250 kJ
5. -1250 kJ

Slide 27 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The chemical reaction representing aerobic respiration is,

C6 H12O6 (s) + 6O2 (g) 6CO2 (g) + 6H 2O(g)


and is the reverse of photosynthesis. This reaction is exothermic by ~2500 kJ per
mole of glucose. A small child exhales about 3 moles of CO2 in a 24 hour period,
what is the energy change associated with the photosynthesis reaction required to
convert this amount of CO2 back to glucose?
1. 5000 kJ
2. -5000 kJ
3. -2500 kJ
4. 1250 kJ
5. -1250 kJ

Slide 28 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Given the heats of formation of the potential products of the Ostwald process,
which reaction is most exothermic?
1. NH 3 (g) +

3
O2 (g)
4

2. NH 3 (g) + O2 (g)

1
3
N 2 (g) + H 2O(g)
2
2
1
3
N 2O(g) + H 2O(g)
2
2

3. NH 3 (g) +

5
3
O2 (g) NO(g) + H 2O(g)
4
2

4. NH 3 (g) +

7
3
O2 (g) NO 2 (g) + H 2O(g)
4
2

Slide 29 of 41

H / kJ
mol-1
N2

N 2O

82.1

NO

90.2

NO2

33.2

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Given the heats of formation of the potential products of the Ostwald process,
which reaction is most exothermic?
1. NH 3 (g) +

3
O (g) !
4 2

2. NH 3 (g) + O2 (g)

1
3
N 2 (g) + H 2O(g)
2
2

1
3
N 2O(g) + H 2O(g)
2
2

3. NH 3 (g) +

5
3
O2 (g) NO(g) + H 2O(g)
4
2

4. NH 3 (g) +

7
3
O2 (g) NO 2 (g) + H 2O(g)
4
2

Slide 30 of 41

H / kJ
mol-1
N2

N 2O

82.1

NO

90.2

NO2

33.2

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Given the heats of formation of the potential products of the Ostwald process,
which reaction is most exothermic?
H / kJ
mol-1

1. 4NH 3 (g) + 3O2 (g) 2N 2 (g) + 6H 2O(g)

N2

N 2O

82.1

3. 4NH3 (g) + 5O2 (g) 4NO(g) + 6H 2O(g)

NO

90.2

4. 4NH3 (g) + 7O2 (g) 4NO2 (g) + 6H 2O(g)

NO2

33.2

2. 2NH 3 (g) + 2O2 (g) N 2O(g) + 3H 2O(g)

NH3 = -46.11kJ/mole

Slide 31 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Given the heats of formation of the potential products of the Ostwald process,
which reaction is most exothermic?
H / kJ
mol-1

1. 4NH 3 (g) + 3O2 (g) 2N 2 (g) + 6H 2O(g)

N2

N 2O

82.1

3. 4NH3 (g) + 5O2 (g) 4NO(g) + 6H 2O(g)

NO

90.2

4. 4NH3 (g) + 7O2 (g) 4NO2 (g) + 6H 2O(g)

NO2

33.2

2. 2NH 3 (g) + 2O2 (g) N 2O(g) + 3H 2O(g)

NH3 = -46.11 kJ/mole

Slide 32 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The equations for the complete and incomplete combustion of octane are given
below.
Hf / kJ
25
C8 H18 (l) +
O2 (g) 8CO2 (g) + 9H 2O(l)
mol-1

C8 H18 (l) +

17
O2 (g) 8CO(g) + 9H 2O(l)
2

Which reaction is more exothermic and by


how much?
1. Incomplete by 283 kJ mol-1.
2. Incomplete by 2264 kJ mol-1.

Slide 33 of 41

CO

-111

CO2

-394

3. Complete by 2264 kJ mol-1.


4. Complete by 283 kJ mol-1.
5. Complete by 505 kJ mol-1.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

The equations for the complete and incomplete combustion of octane are given
below.
Hf / kJ
25
C8 H18 (l) +
O2 (g) 8CO2 (g) + 9H 2O(l)
mol-1

C8 H18 (l) +

17
O2 (g) 8CO(g) + 9H 2O(l)
2

Which reaction is more exothermic and by


how much?
1. Incomplete by 283 kJ mol-1.
2. Incomplete by 2264 kJ mol-1.

Slide 34 of 41

CO

-111

CO2

-394

3. Complete by 2264 kJ mol-1.


4. Complete by 283 kJ mol-1.
5. Complete by 505 kJ mol-1.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Two equations incomplete combustion of butane are given below.

A. C4 H10 (g) +

9
O2 (g) 4CO(g) + 5H 2O(l)
2

5
B. C4 H10 (g) + O2 (g) 8C(graph) + 5H 2O(l)
2

Hf = -111 kJ mol-1

Given that the heat of formation of CO(g) is -111 kJ mol-1, which reaction is
more exothermic and by how much?
1. Reaction A by 111 kJ mol-1.
2. Reaction B by 111 kJ mol-1.
3. Reaction A by 444 kJ

Slide 35 of 41

mol-1.

4. Reaction B by 444 kJ mol-1.


5. Not enough information to answer.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Two equations incomplete combustion of butane are given below.

A. C4 H10 (g) +

9
O2 (g) 4CO(g) + 5H 2O(l)
2

5
B. C4 H10 (g) + O2 (g) 8C(graph) + 5H 2O(l)
2

Hf = -111 kJ mol-1

Given that the heat of formation of CO(g) is -111 kJ mol-1, which reaction is
more exothermic and by how much?
1. Reaction A by 111 kJ mol-1.
2. Reaction B by 111 kJ mol-1.
3. Reaction A by 444 kJ

Slide 36 of 41

mol-1.

4. Reaction B by 444 kJ mol-1.


5. Not enough information to answer.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Given the bond energies below, estimate the enthalpy change for the
addition of Br across the double bond in ethene.
+

CC
C=C
CBr
BrBr

350 kJ mol-1
600 kJ mol-1
300 kJ mol-1
200 kJ mol-1

1. 150 kJ
2. -150 kJ
3. 220 kJ
4. -220 kJ
5. Not enough data to determine rH

Slide 37 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.

Given the bond energies below, estimate the enthalpy change for the
addition of Br across the double bond in ethene.
+

CC
C=C
CBr
BrBr

350 kJ mol-1
600 kJ mol-1
300 kJ mol-1
200 kJ mol-1

1. 150 kJ
2. -150 kJ
3. 220 kJ
4. -220 kJ
5. Not enough data to determine rH

Slide 38 of 41

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.