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Definition: Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical

facilities such as machinery,equipment, furniture etc. with in the


factory building in such a manner so as tohave quickest flow of
material at the lowest cost and with the least amount ofhandling
in processing the product from the receipt of material to the
shipment ofthe finished product. :
Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as
machinery,equipment, furniture etc. with in the factory building in such a
manner so as tohave quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with
the least amount ofhandling in processing the product from the receipt of
material to the shipment ofthe finished product. According to Riggs, the
overall objective of plant layout is to design a physical arrangement that
most economically meets the required output quantity and quality.
According to J. L. Zundi, Plant layout ideally involves allocation of space
and arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating
costs are minimized.
Plant Layout Of a Company :
Plant Layout Of a Company
OBJECTIVES :
OBJECTIVES Describe the concepts of plant location and plant layout.
Identify the various factors to be considered for selection of plant location
from state/area to the specific site. Distinguish among the alternative
patterns of plant layout. Discuss the various factors influencing the choice
of an initial layout and its subsequent modification. To make adequate
provision for future expansion in the production activities. To maintain
effective supervision & control on production activities & workmen.
Importance Of Plant Layout :
Importance Of Plant Layout Plant layout is an important decision as it
represents long-term commitment. An ideal plant layout should provide
the optimum relationship among output, floor area and manufacturing
process. It facilitates the production process, minimizes material handling,
time and cost, and allows flexibility of operations, easy production flow,
makes economic use of the building, promotes effective utilization of
manpower, and provides for employees convenience, safety, comfort at
work, maximum exposure to natural light and ventilation. It is also
important because it affects the flow of material and processes, labor
efficiency , supervision and control, use of space and expansion
possibilities etc.
FACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT :
FACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT While deciding his factory or unit or
establishment or store, a small-scale businessman should keep the
following factors in mind: a) Factory building: The nature and size of the
building determines the floor space available for layout. While designing
the special requirements, e.g. air conditioning, dust control, humidity
control etc. must be kept in mind. b) Nature of product: product layout is

suitable for uniform products whereas process layout is more appropriate


for custom-made products. c) Production process: In assembly line
industries, product layout is better. In job order or intermittent
manufacturing on the other hand, process layout is desirable. d) Type of
machinery: General purpose machines are often arranged as per process
layout while special purpose machines are arranged according to product
layout
e) Repairs and maintenance: machines should be so arranged
that adequatespace is available between them for movement of
equipment and peoplerequired for repairing the machines.f)
Human needs: Adequate arrangement should be made for
cloakroom,washroom, lockers, drinking water, toilets and other
employee facilities,proper provision should be made for disposal
of effluents, if any.g) Plant environment: Heat, light, noise,
ventilation and other aspects should be duly considered, e.g.
paint shops and plating section should be located inanother hall
so
that
dangerous
fumes
can
be
removed
through
properventilation etc. Adequate safety arrangement should also
be made.Thus, the layout should be conducive to health and
safety of employees. Itshould ensure free and efficient flow of
men and materials. Future expansion anddiversification may also
be considered while planning factory layout. :
e) Repairs and maintenance: machines should be so arranged that
adequatespace is available between them for movement of equipment
and peoplerequired for repairing the machines.f) Human needs: Adequate
arrangement should be made for cloakroom,washroom, lockers, drinking
water, toilets and other employee facilities,proper provision should be
made for disposal of effluents, if any.g) Plant environment: Heat, light,
noise, ventilation and other aspects should be duly considered, e.g. paint
shops and plating section should be located inanother hall so that
dangerous fumes can be removed through properventilation etc.
Adequate safety arrangement should also be made.Thus, the layout
should be conducive to health and safety of employees. Itshould ensure
free and efficient flow of men and materials. Future expansion
anddiversification may also be considered while planning factory layout.
Principles Of Plant Layout :
Principles Of Plant Layout Integration of all factors - The plant should
integrate all the essential resources of men, machines and materials in
order to give an optimum level of production. 2. Minimum Movement - The
less the movement of men, machines and materials, the less will be the
cost of production. Thus, minimum movement of theses resources will
provide cost efficiency. 3. Unidirectional flow - All materials should
progressively move towards the same direction i.e. towards the stage of
completion. Any back-tracking should be avoided here. 4. Efficient space
handling - The space used up during the plant work also costs money as
more the space required, more will be the floor rent. The materials should
be organized in stacks in a proper and recognizable order to maintain

space efficiency. 5. Inherent safety - The environment of the plant should


be safe for the workers as well as the machines. There should be fire
extinguishers and fire exits placed strategically. There should be minimum
contact of the labour to toxic chemicals and environment.
6.Maximum observation capacity - The layout of the plant should
such that all of its resources and workforce can be observed and
evaluated at all points in time. This helps in better supervision of
work and helps in increasing both effectiveness and safety.
7.Maximum accessibility - The layout of the plant should ensure
that all essential resources are accessible to the labour and
machines without any delay. The aisles should be free from
obstacles. The materials should be placed as close to the
machines concerned, as possible. 8.Minimum Handling - The
ineffective handling of materials leads to a rise in cost. Materials
should be handled in stacks and transferred in one go. Handling
of a material twice in the same direction must be avoided.9.
Maximum protection - The layout should ensure the protection of
the materials and machines while they are in the working or the
storage stage. The security system should be efficient without
making too many doors or barriers.10. Maximum flexibility - The
plant layout should not be rigid and permanent. If the need
arises, the plant layout should be able to change itself without
being expensive. :
6.Maximum observation capacity - The layout of the plant should such
that all of its resources and workforce can be observed and evaluated at
all points in time. This helps in better supervision of work and helps in
increasing both effectiveness and safety. 7.Maximum accessibility - The
layout of the plant should ensure that all essential resources are
accessible to the labour and machines without any delay. The aisles
should be free from obstacles. The materials should be placed as close to
the machines concerned, as possible. 8.Minimum Handling - The
ineffective handling of materials leads to a rise in cost. Materials should
be handled in stacks and transferred in one go. Handling of a material
twice in the same direction must be avoided.9. Maximum protection - The
layout should ensure the protection of the materials and machines while
they are in the working or the storage stage. The security system should
be efficient without making too many doors or barriers.10. Maximum
flexibility - The plant layout should not be rigid and permanent. If the need
arises, the plant layout should be able to change itself without being
expensive.
Features of Good Plant Layout :
Features of Good Plant Layout 1. Integration:Integrates of men, materials
and machines and support services in order to get the optimum output of
resources. 2. Cubic space utilization:Utilization of both horizontal and
vertical spaces and height is very important to use the space as much as
possible. 3. Minimum distance:Minimum travel of men and material should
be implemented means; the total distance travel by the men and material

should be minimized as much as possible. Further straight line


movements should be promoted. 3. Floor:Arranging the floor to move the
material/finished products in forward direction towards the final stage. 4.
Maximizing coordination:Entry into and disposal from any department
should be in such manner that it is most convenient to the issuing or
receiving departments. The layout should be consider as a whole. 5.
Minimum flexibility:The layout should be able to modify when necessary.
6. Maximum accessibility:All servicing and maintenance points
should be readily accessible. For example; equipment should not
be placed against a wall because necessary servicing or
maintenance cannot be carried out easily. Further; equipments or
other necessary units keep in front of a fuse box will impede the
work of the electrician.7. Safety security:Due consideration to
industrial safety methods is necessary. Care must be taken not
only of the persons operating the equipment, but also of the
passes-by, who may be required to go behind equipment as the
back of which may be unsafe.8. Minimum handling:Reduce the
material handling to the minimum. Material being worked on
should be kept at working height and never have to be placed on
the floor if it is to be lifted later. :
6. Maximum accessibility:All servicing and maintenance points should be
readily accessible. For example; equipment should not be placed against a
wall because necessary servicing or maintenance cannot be carried out
easily. Further; equipments or other necessary units keep in front of a fuse
box will impede the work of the electrician.7. Safety security:Due
consideration to industrial safety methods is necessary. Care must be
taken not only of the persons operating the equipment, but also of the
passes-by, who may be required to go behind equipment as the back of
which may be unsafe.8. Minimum handling:Reduce the material handling
to the minimum. Material being worked on should be kept at working
height and never have to be placed on the floor if it is to be lifted later.
Types Of Plant Layout :
Types Of Plant Layout (1) Process layout (2) Product layout (3) Combined
layout (4) Static product layout or Project layout (5) Cellular layout
Process layout :
Process layout Process layout: It is also called functional layout. All
machines performing similar type of operations are grouped at one
location in the process layout e.g. all lathes, milling machines, cutting
machines etc in the engineering shop will be clustered in their like groups.
Thus all forging will be done in one area and all the lathes will be placed in
another area. In this layout, several products may share a machine to
make its full use. The sequential arrangement of the machine group is
generally, but not necessarily made on the basis of labor operations. In
this type of layout the process rather than the product has a dominating
role. The product is given secondary consideration and is moved for the
purpose of operations to the process section with like machines stationed

at a particular point. This type of process is more suitable to job order


type of production. In such production the operation differs from product
to product. So, it is desirable to arrange the machines on the basis of
process rather than on the products.
Example : Machines performing grinding operation are installed in
grinding deptMachines performing drilling operation are installed
in drilling deptHeat Treatment / Painting etc :
Example : Machines performing grinding operation are installed in
grinding deptMachines performing drilling operation are installed in
drilling deptHeat Treatment / Painting etc
Advantages & Disadvantages of Process Layout :
Advantages & Disadvantages of Process Layout ADVANTAGES a) Lower
initial capital investment in machines and equipments. There is high
degree of machine utilization, as a machine is not blocked for a single
product b) The overhead costs are relatively low c) Change in output
design and volume can be more easily adapted to the output of variety of
products d) Breakdown of one machine does not result in complete work
stoppage e) Supervision can be more effective and specialized f) There is
a greater flexibility of scope for expansion. DISADVANTAGES a) Lower
initial capital investment in machines and equipments. There is high
degree of machine utilization, as a machine is not blocked for a single
product b) The overhead costs are relatively low c) Change in output
design and volume can be more easily adapted to the output of variety of
products d) Breakdown of one machine does not result in complete work
stoppage e) Supervision can be more effective and specialized f) There is
a greater flexibility of scope for expansion.
Product layout :
Product layout Product layout: In this type of layout, the machines are
arranged in the sequence as required by the particular product. All
machines as required to balance the particular product the product line
layout. In this layout, one product goes through all the machines lined up,
in the order required by its manufacture. The best known example of this
type of layout is seen in motor car production. To make this layout
successful, the work load on the various machines must be balanced. The
process of getting even loading at each stage of production is called line
balancing. In this type of layout, the product is dominating over the
process, in the sense that the product is given the primary importance
and the process machine must remain present at a point where the
product needs its services. Thus, unlike the process layout, the process is
given secondary importance in relation to the product.
Example : Sugar refineries / Paper mills / Cement plants / Rolling
mills / paper mills :
Example : Sugar refineries / Paper mills / Cement plants / Rolling mills /
paper mills

Advantages & Disadvantages of Product Layout :


Advantages & Disadvantages of Product Layout Low cost of material
handling, due to straight and short route and absence of backtracking
Lathe Drill Grinder Assembly Paint shop (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Planer Grinder
Miler Lathe Welding (1) (2) (3) (4) (6) 101 b) Smooth and uninterrupted
operations c) Continuous flow of work d) Lesser investment in inventory
and work in progress e) Optimum use of floor space f) Shorter processing
time or quicker output g) Less congestion of work in the process h) Simple
and effective inspection of work and simplified production control i) Lower
cost of manufacturing per unit a. High initial capital investment in special
purpose machine b. Heavy overhead charges c. Breakdown of one
machine will hamper the whole production process d. Lesser flexibility as
specially laid out for particular product.
Combined layoutCertain manufacturing units may require all
three processes namely intermittentprocess (job shops), the
continuous
process
(mass
production
shops)
and
therepresentative process combined process [i.e. miscellaneous
shops].In most of industries, only a product layout or process
layout or fixed locationlayout does not exist. Thus, in
manufacturing concerns where several productsare produced in
repeated
numbers
with
no
likelihood
of
continuous
production,combined layout is followed. Generally, a combination
of the product andprocess layout or other combination are found,
in practice, e.g. for industriesinvolving the fabrication of parts
and assembly, fabrication tends to employ theprocess layout,
while the assembly areas often employ the product layout. In
soap,manufacturing plant, the machinery manufacturing soap is
arranged on theproduct line principle, but ancillary services such
as heating, the manufacturing ofglycerin, the power house, the
water treatment plant etc. are arranged on afunctional basis. :
Combined layoutCertain manufacturing units may require all three
processes namely intermittentprocess (job shops), the continuous process
(mass production shops) and therepresentative process combined process
[i.e. miscellaneous shops].In most of industries, only a product layout or
process layout or fixed locationlayout does not exist. Thus, in
manufacturing concerns where several productsare produced in repeated
numbers with no likelihood of continuous production,combined layout is
followed. Generally, a combination of the product andprocess layout or
other combination are found, in practice, e.g. for industriesinvolving the
fabrication of parts and assembly, fabrication tends to employ theprocess
layout, while the assembly areas often employ the product layout. In
soap,manufacturing plant, the machinery manufacturing soap is arranged
on theproduct line principle, but ancillary services such as heating, the
manufacturing ofglycerin, the power house, the water treatment plant etc.
are arranged on afunctional basis.
Ex : Soap Manufacturing Machines ---- Product line Process Layout
---------- Functional basis---Ancillary services ---- Heating / Manu of
glycerin / power house / water treatment plant :

Ex : Soap Manufacturing Machines ---- Product line Process Layout ---------Functional basis---Ancillary services ---- Heating / Manu of glycerin / power
house / water treatment plant
Slide 22:
Static Product Layout Also known as layout by fixed position, in which the
product is generally too big or too heavy to be moved from one process to
the other and is consequently fixed in one place. The machines and labour
are brought to the product to perform the required operations. This layout
is typical of job production in constructional work, in shipbuilding, the
fabrication of pressure vessels, etc.
Advantages & Disadvantages of statics layout :
Advantages & Disadvantages of statics layout Advantages a) Material
movement is reduced to a minimum. b) The task is usually carried out by
a gang of operators, hence continuity of operators and responsibility is
required. c) Production centers often operate independently of each other,
and effective scheduling can be planned to ensure minimum total
production time. Disadvantages a) Movement of machines and equipment
to the production centre may be costly and time consuming. b) Positioning
of the material or object or machines may be cumbersome and costly. c)
Machine and equipment utilization is usually low, owing to handling and
positioning time, even if schedules provide successive employment of the
equipment at several production centers. d) High grades of skill are
required.
In cellular manufacturing layout the arrangement of a facility so
that equipment Used to make similar parts or families of parts is
grouped together The group of equipment is called cell The
arrangement of cells is called a cellular Layout :
In cellular manufacturing layout the arrangement of a facility so that
equipment Used to make similar parts or families of parts is grouped
together The group of equipment is called cell The arrangement of cells
is called a cellular Layout Cellular Layout
Advantages & Disadvantagesof Cellular Layout :
Advantages & Disadvantagesof Cellular Layout Advantages a) Reduced
set-up time b) Improved labour efficiency resulting from standardisation
and simplification c) Improvement in labour and machine utilisation d)
Lower work-in-progress and time-in-progress due to reduced handling
time, as machines situated in close proximity to each other, reduced setup times e) Simpler management as workers as part of a team
Disadvantages a) How are components grouped? What constitutes
a group? b) Problem when certain parts do not fit into one of the
designated families c) May only be used for one line in a plant which may
only operate at certain times resulting in poor machine utilisation d) In
order to have a flexible system to handle large groups the cell may end up
prohibitively large e) Possesses, in general, the limitations of product
layout.
Line Balancing :

Line Balancing Line balancing is the phase of assembly line study that
equally divides the work to be done among the workers so that the total
number of employees Required on assembly line are minimized & no
employee of equipment will remain idle.
Factors influencing Layouts :
Factors influencing Layouts Factory Building : The nature & size of building
determines the floor space available for layout While designing the special
requirements i.e. Air conditioning , dust control , Humidity control ,Noise
proofing etc must be kept in mind 2. Nature of product : Product layout is
suitable for uniform products Process layout is suitable for custom made
products 3. Production process : In assembly line industries product layout
is better. In job order or intermittent manufacturing process layout is
desirable 4.Types of machinery : General purpose machines are arranged
as per process layout , Special purpose machines are arranged as per
product layout 5. Repairs & Maintenance : Machines / Equipments must be
arranged keeping in mind the movement of operators & maintenance
tools 6. Human Needs : Adequate arrangement should be made for Wash
rooms, drinking water / Canteen & other employee facilities 7.Plant
Environment : Heat / Noise / Light / Ventilation & other aspects should be
duly considered e.g. Paint shop / Fabrication / Plating section should be
located separately to protect employees from harmful fumes etc.
Adequate safety arrangement should be made
Factors influencing LayoutsTo Conclude :
Factors influencing LayoutsTo Conclude The plant layout should be
conducive to health & safety of employees It should ensure free & efficient
flow of employees & materials Future expansion & diversification may also
be considered while planning factory layout
Plant Layout Tools & Techniques :
Plant Layout Tools & Techniques Process Chart Operations process chart
Flow process chart Process Flow Diagrams Machine Data cards
Visualization of layout Two dimensional plan or template Three
dimensional plan or machine models
Plant Layout Tools & TechniquesPlant Layout Tools & Techniques :
Plant Layout Tools & TechniquesPlant Layout Tools & Techniques Process
Chart : It is a classification & graphic representation of production
activities in a plant Very useful for systematic analysis of various
operations & material movements in production process & there
effectiveness Study helps to identify operations that can be eliminated /
rearranged / or simplified to achieve economy in production Operation
Process Chart : Flow Process Chart : It is graphic representation of all the
activities occurring on the floor of the plant This chart accumulates &
classifies the complete information necessary for the analysis &
improvement of plant operations .
Plant Layout Tools & Techniques :

Plant Layout Tools & Techniques 2. Process Flow Diagram : It helps to


visualize the movement of material on an existing floor layout Helps in
identifying excessive movement of materials & helps in relocations of
plant activities to reduce travel distance 3.Machine Data Cards : This is an
effective method to provide necessary information for placement Or
layout of the equipment The cards indicates machines capacity / space &
power requirements , handling needs & corresponding dimensions
4.Visualisation of Layout :Most common method of planning a layout by
making replicas of machines ,racks , benches , & equipment & then
arranging these on a 2d /3d plan of the floor space i) Two Dimensional
Plan (Template) ii) Three Dimensional plan ( Miniature models )
Summary :
Summary Decisions about layout are made only periodically. As they have
long term consequences ,they must be made with careful planning .The
layout design affects the cost of producing goods & delivering services for
many years in future. Here we have discussed three Traditional Basic
layouts: 1) Process 2) Product 3) Fixed Position. Process Layout arrange
work centers according to function. Product Layouts ( Assembly layout)
arrange work centers & equipments in line to perform specialized
sequence of tasks. In Fixed position Layout ,the product remains in one
location & resources are brought to it. In process & product layouts , the
design begin with a statement of goals of facility. The layouts are designed
to meet these goals. After initial designs have been developed , improved
designs are sought which will be cumbersome ,hence to take care of it
quantitative & computer based models are used.