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NTR-413

Fuel Intake Carbohydrates

Ron F. Morrison, PhD


Nutrition, UNCG

1) glucose fuel
a) blood sugar
b) all cells can use glucose for energy sometimes
c) some cells use glucose for energy all of the time
d) rate of oxidation regulated by demand, not supply
2) dietary glucose intake
a) oxidize for energy
b) excess stored as glycogen (liver and muscle)
c) extreme excess can be converted to fat (lipogenesis; liver)
d) outcome: lowers the rise in blood glucose following dietary intake
3) glucose (blood sugar):
a) predominate carbohydrate in the blood
b) not abundant in food
c) most digestible carbohydrates digested to glucose before absorption
4) sacchar meaning sweet, sugar
a) monosaccharide
b) disaccharide
c) oligosaccharide (3-10)
d) polysaccharide (many)
e) straight and branched chains of glucose residues
5) D&A
a) large carbohydrates must be digested to monosaccharides
b) only monosaccharides absorbed:
i) glucose
ii) galactose
iii) fructose
c) disaccharides digested by brush border enzymes
i) maltose:
(1) glucose-glucose
(2) 1,4 linkage
(3) maltase
ii) sucrose
(1) glucose-fructose
(2) 1,2 linkage
(3) sucrase
iii) lactose
(1) galactose-glucose
(2) 1,4 linkage
(3) lactase
(4) lactose intolerance: insufficient enzyme activity for hydrolysis of lactose
d) digestive enzymes use water to make and break bonds
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NTR-413
Fuel Intake Carbohydrates

Ron F. Morrison, PhD


Nutrition, UNCG

i) hydrolysis: water added when bond is broken


ii) condensation: water removed when bond is formed
e) starch (storage form of glucose in plants)
i) amylose:
(1) straight chains of glucose residues
(2) 1,4 linkage
ii) amylopectin:
(1) branched chains of glucose residues
(2) 1,4 linkage
(3) 1,6 linkage
f) glycogen (storage form of glucose in animals)
(1) branched chains of glucose residues
(2) 1,4 linkage
(3) 1,6 linkage
(4) identical to amylopectin, but with a few more branches
g) structural carbohydrates in plants
i) cellulose polymers of glucose residues
(1) 1,4 linkage
(2) humans do not express the enzyme to break this bond
(3) ruminants (e.g., cows) and termites can digest cellulose with the help of gut microflora
(4) in humans, cellulose (insoluble fiber) acts as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces
h) digestion:
i) most abundant digestible carbohydrates:
(1) starch
(2) maltose
(3) lactose
(4) sucrose
ii) source of enzymes:
(1) salivary gland (amylase); secreted into GI tract
(2) pancreas (amylase); secreted into GI tract
(3) brush border enzymes; attached to mucosal microvilli of small intestine
iii) starch digestion
(1) amylase is a endo-glycosidase
(2) only hydrolyses interior bonds
(3) di-saccharides and tri-saccharides are not digested by amylase
(4) 1,6 branches are not digested by amylase: dextrins
iv) site of digestion
(1) starch digestion begins in mouth with salivary amylase
(2) salivary amylase inhibited by HCl in stomach
(3) pancreatic amylase continues digestion in duodenum
(4) disaccharides, trisaccharides, dextrins digested by brush border enzymes of small intestines
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NTR-413
Fuel Intake Carbohydrates

Ron F. Morrison, PhD


Nutrition, UNCG

(a) maltase, sucrase, lactase


(b) isomaltase, dextrinase
i) absorption
i) small intestine microvilli (brush border)
ii) monosaccharide transporters located along the brush border
iii) sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1)
(1) located on apical side of cell (side facing gut lumen)
(2) glucose or galactose
(3) secondary active transport
(a) sodium-potassium ATPase; pumps sodium out of cell
(b) maintains low intracellular sodium concentration
(c) glucose/galactose transported into cell along with sodium
(i) sodium concentration gradient provide energy for transport
(ii) sodium gradient carries glucose /galactose into cell even up a concentration gradient
iv) glut5
(1) fructose-specific
(2) located on apical side of cell
(3) facilitated transport
v) glut2
(1) transports all three monosaccharides out of the cell
(2) located on basolateral side of cell (side facing blood vessel)
6) circulation
a) portal vein
i) water soluble nutrients enter the blood vessels in the villi of the small intestine
ii) venous blood leaving the small intestine passes into liver via the portal vein
iii) after passing through the liver, blood enter general circulation via the hepatic vein
iv) all water soluble nutrients pass through the liver after absorption before heading to the heart
7) liver:
a) glucose entering the liver has three options
i) oxidized for energy (if needed)
ii) stored as glycogen
iii) pass through to general circulation via hepatic vein
b) fructose and galactose entering the liver feeds into glycolytic pathways
8) pancreas
i) blood passing through liver circulates around to endocrine cells of the pancreas
(1) endocrine cells in clumps or islands called islets of Langerhans
ii) stimulates -cells to release the hormone, insulin into blood
iii) inhibits -cells from releasing the hormone, glucagon into blood
iv) insulin and glucagon are counter-regulatory hormones
(1) opposite functions; insulin (storage), glucagon (mobilization)
(2) increasing one while decreasing the other amplifies the effect
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NTR-413
Fuel Intake Carbohydrates

Ron F. Morrison, PhD


Nutrition, UNCG

9) liver glycogen
a) glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle; small amounts in many cells
b) polymer of glucose residues
c) synthesis regulated by the enzyme, glycogen synthase (GS)
d) mobilization (degradation) regulated by the enzyme, glycogen phosphorylase (GP)
e) glucose is added or removed from the glycogen tree at multiple ends simultaneously
f) activating GS, while inhibiting GP, greatly increases the rate at which glycogen is made
i) oppose also true, greatly increasing the rate of glycogen mobilization
g) insulin increases GS, while inhibiting GP; promoting synthesis
h) glucagon increases GP, while inhibiting GS; promoting mobilization
i) high blood glucose: insulin and glucagon
i) glycogen synthesis helps to lower circulating blood glucose
j) low blood glucose: insulin and glucagon
i) glycogen mobilization (degradation) helps to maintain circulating blood glucose
k) glucose-6-phosphatase (liver only) dephosphorylates glucose so it can leave the cell
l) mobilized glucose from liver glycogen is made available for the body to use
10) skeletal muscle glycogen
a) no glucagon receptors; does not mobilize glycogen when circulating blood glucose begins to fall
b) no G-6-phosphatase; does not release glucose to circulation
c) glycogen synthesis by similar mechanism as liver (insulin)
d) glycogen mobilization based on contraction (not glucagon)
e) mobilized glucose from muscle glycogen is made available only for the muscle to use
11) glucose transporters
a) facilitated glucose transporters on all cells; allows passage of glucose through cell membrane
b) multiple transporter isoforms on most cells; different transport characteristics
i) glut1 (most cells)
ii) glut2 (hepatocytes); transport at high concentration
iii) glut3 (neurons); transport even at low concentration
iv) glut4 (adipocytes, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle); insulin-dependent
c) glut4
i) transporter located in intracellular vesicles
ii) insulin stimulates fusion of vesicles with cell membrane
iii) rapid increase in glucose transporters; rapid increase in glucose (muscle and adipocytes only)
iv) helps to lower elevated blood glucose
12) summary: high blood glucose (following meal; postprandial state)
a) insulin, glucose (I/G ratio)
i) promotes glycogen synthesis to a point (limits on how much glycogen can be made)
ii) promotes glucose uptake into three cell types
(1) glucose uptake can be stored as glycogen or oxidized (based on demand)
iii) increase glucose uptake and glycogen formation helps lower blood glucose
13) summary: low blood glucose (overnight fasting; post-absorptive state)
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NTR-413
Fuel Intake Carbohydrates
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Ron F. Morrison, PhD


Nutrition, UNCG

insulin, glucose (I/G ratio)


promotes glycogen mobilization (liver only)
glut4 localized to intracellular vesicles; decrease glucose uptake
increase glycogen mobilization and decreased uptake helps maintain blood glucose

14) fiber
a) all plant foods contain fiber
b) not all animal foods contain fiber
15) fiber classification (based on source):
a) dietary fiber - nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin found naturally in plants
b) functional fiber - nondigestible carbohydrates extracted from plant food and added to diet
c) total fiber: dietary fiber + functional fiber
16) fiber classification (water solubility):
a) soluble fiber
b) insoluble fiber
17) insoluble fiber:
a) cellulose, some hemicellulose, lignin
b) do not dissolve in water; pass through GI tract intact
c) hydrate and move waste through the intestine; prevents constipation
18) soluble fiber:
a) mucilage, glucans, pectin, gums, psyllium, resistant starch
b) attracts water; forms gel
c) slows digestion
d) delays gastric emptying
i) fullness weight control
ii) decreases postprandial rise in blood glucose
e) decrease absorption of dietary cholesterol
f) lowers LDL cholesterol (by preventing bile reabsorption, new bile made from cholesterol)
19) health benefits:
a) vary with fiber type
b) healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds
c) variety of soluble and insoluble fibers provides all of the health benefits
20) sweeteners
a) nutritive sweeteners:
i) digestible
ii) monosaccharides, disaccharides, sugar alcohols
iii) digested in small intestine to three monosaccharides before absorption
(1) monosaccharides and disaccharides (4 kcal/gm)
(2) sugar alcohol; chewing gums and candies; not fully digested (~2 kcal/gm)
iv) natural nutritive sweeteners
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NTR-413
Fuel Intake Carbohydrates

Ron F. Morrison, PhD


Nutrition, UNCG

(1) honey: mixture of glucose and fructose


(2) maple syrup:
(a) natural: mostly sucrose concentrated from sap of maple trees
(b) commercial: corn syrup with added maple flavors
v) refined nutritive sweeteners
(1) saccharides that have been extracted from plants
(2) white sugar: sucrose from sugar cane and sugar beets
(3) molasses: by-product of sugar refining
(4) brown sugar: white sugar with molasses
(5) corn syrup: corn starch treated with acid to break down starch to glucose
(6) high fructose corn syrup:
(a) enzymes used to convert some glucose from corn syrup to fructose
(b) mix with corn syrup for mixture of glucose and fructose
(c) same sweetness as sucrose; cheaper to produce
vi) sugar alcohol nutritive sweeteners
(1) sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol
(2) occur naturally in fruits and vegetables; also produced from other saccharides commercially
(3) do not promote tooth decay; used in gums and candies
(4) partially digested; not calorie-free
(a) claim of sugar-free on gum doesnt mean calorie-free
b) non-nutritive sweeteners:
i) many times (up to 13,000x) sweeter than nutritive sweeteners; manufacturer can use less
ii) some provide energy, but at the small amount used, energy contribution is minimal
iii) most common: saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K
iv) some health concerns at higher doses
v) FDA has accepted manufacturers determination that most are GRAS and can be added to food
(1) GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe)
21) dietary recommendations for carbohydrates
a) carbohydrates:
i) AMDR: 45-65% of caloric intake
(1) 2000 kcal diet: 225 - 325 gm/day
ii) RDA: 130 gm/day (amount needed by brain)
iii) DRV: (60% of 2000 kcal) = 300 gm
b) fiber:
i) AI for men (19-50): 38 gm/day
ii) AI for women (19-50): 25 gm/day
iii) DRV: (14 gm / 1000 kcal) = 25 gm
c) 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans:
i) reduce intake of added sugar
ii) increase intake of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, dry beans, peas
iii) half of all grains as whole grains
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NTR-413
Fuel Intake Carbohydrates

Ron F. Morrison, PhD


Nutrition, UNCG

d) Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP)


i) total carbohydrates
(1) starch (not listed); starch = total - (dietary + sugars)
(2) dietary fiber
(3) sugars (mono- and di-saccharides)
e) ingredients
i) sugars listed by many names
ii) sugar = sucrose
22) glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL)
a) glycemic index:
i) classifies food based on their potential to raise blood glucose
ii) compares changes in blood glucose after eating a defined amount of a sample food relative to
changes after a standard food
(1) standard food: glucose or white bread
(2) average for a test population; conducted in only a few labs
iii) assessment: (scale 0-100)
(1) high index: sharp rise and fall in blood glucose
(2) low index: gradual rise and fall in blood glucose
iv) doesnt account for the amount of carbohydrate in a serving of the food
b) glycemic load:
i) multiplies GI by the net carbohydrate (total carbs-fiber) in a given serving
ii) GL = GI/100 x Net Carbs
iii) assessment:
(1) Low: GL < 10
(2) High: GL > 20
c) limitations:
i) we eat mixed foods that are often cooked
(1) dietary fat and fiber can drastically affect to rate at which glucose enters the blood
(2) food preparation affects measures
ii) wide variation in measurements from different labs
iii) individual differences in measures

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