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ITT575 - Wireless and Mobile


Chapter 6
Wireless Local Loops and
Satellite Communications

Mohd Faisal Ibrahim

Faculty of Computer and Mathematical
Sciences, UiTM, Shah Alam






Specific Instructional Objectives

At the end of this lesson, the student will be
able to:
Understand the WiMAX Network
Describe the key characteristics of the IEEE 802.16 wireless
networking standards.
Explain the key technological differentiators of WiMAX
Understand the concept of signaling and handover
Understand the basic concepts of how GPS works
Describe the components and issues associated with Free
Space Optics

Wireless Systems

WiMAX + Wi-Fi for Mobile Internet

Wi-Fi -> best solution for local area connectivity

With up to 450 Mbps throughput, MIMO-enabled 802.11n enables new local
area applications
Wi-Fi hotspots easy to find in most places

Mobile WiMAX -> metropolitan-wide broadband coverage

Offers service providers 3x the latest HSPA (3G) capacity today*
Potential to scale to over 20x the capacity of todays HSPA via more
antennas over time**

The acronym WiMAX stands for Worldwide
Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is based
on IEEE 802.16 standard.
IEEE 802.16 is the IEEE
standard for Wireless
Metropolitan Area Network
(Wireless MAN).
It specifies the air interface
for fixed, portable, and
mobile broadband wireless
access (BWA) systems
supporting multimedia

WiMAX aims to provide wireless broadband
services with a target range of up to 31 miles at a
transmission rate exceeding 100 Mbps.
It is also to provide
a wireless
alternative to
cable, DSL and
T1/E1 for last mile
The term IEEE
802.16 and
WIMAX are used

Wimax Topology
Designed for point-to-point (P2P) and point-to-multipoint
(P2M) topologies but mainly deployed for point to multipoint
topologies. It also support mesh topologies



In P2M, a base
station (BS) services
many subscriber
stations (SS) which
are mounted

WMAN IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX)

Overview of the IEEE 802.16 Standard

IEEE 802.16 has three major versions; 802.162001, 802.16-2004 and IEEE 802.16-2005.
Designed to operate in lower frequency range;
2-11 GHz.
Operates in both licensed (3.5 GHz) and
unlicensed (5.8 GHz).
Operates with a range of up to 50km and data
rates of up to 75Mbps.
It is the most supported version of the standard
by vendors.

802.16 Standards

WiMAX Network Standards Roadmap

Release 1

Release 1

Release 1, Version 1.3

(Mar 07)

Sept 08

Release 1.5

Future Release 1
Maintenance Updates

Release 1.5
(Mar 09)

Release 1.5

Release 2.0




Release 1

Mobile and stationary WiMAX base spec

Network discovery/selection
IPv4, IPv6 address management
ASN control/data plane protocols, mobility
CSN mobility (CMIPv4, PMIPv4, CMIPv6)
Idle mode and Paging
Pre-provisioned QoS
Ethernet services
AAA: EAP-based credentials, RADIUS pre- and
postpaid accounting, roaming
3GPP Release 6/7 Interworking
3GPP2 Interworking
ASN profiles A, B and C
Start of NWIOT (NCT/IIOT) program


Release 1.5

ASN Profile B and C Selection

OTA Provisioning: OMA-DM and TR-069
Normative R8
PMIP/CMIP 3GPP2 Interworking
3GPP Release 8 and pre-Release 8 Interworking
(single, dual radio)
Simple IP
PCC and Dynamic QoS
Emergency Services
Lawful Intercept
Handover data integrity
Diameter based AAA
Ethernet services and DSL Interworking
Fixed/nomadic services
Advanced IP Services: IMS, LBS, USI
NWIOT Release 1.5 (NCT/IIOT)

Release 2.0

Release 2.0

Multimedia Session Continuity (MMSC)

3GPP/2 Interworking Enhancements
Femto solution phase 1 (.16e)
Femto solution phase 2 (.16m)
Network management
Self Optimizing Networks (SON)
Device Metric Reporting and Diagnostics
WiMAX Network Architecture Evolution
IPv6/4 interworking and IP address scaling
WiFi-WiMAX interworking

How does WiMAX work?

WiMAX system typically consists of:
WiMAX Tower: High powered
base station, with large range
and connection to Internet (ISP)
WiMAX Receiver: One or more
end-user roaming nodes or
another WiMAX tower

Two Modes of
NLOS: Similar to Wi-Fi, built in or
external radio device which
connects a host to WiMAX Tower
LOS: Higher speed backhaul
connection used between WiMAX
towers to extend network

WiMAX Tower

WiMAX Receiver
Outdoor Customer
Premise Equipment

Indoor Customer
Premise Equipment

PC Cards

Handheld Devices

WiMAX Layer Architecture

PHY layer supports multiple
frequency bands
and several modulation
WiMAX MAC layer is connection
oriented that interface to the
upper OSI layers
Includes service-specific
convergence sublayers

WiMAX offers multiple

simultaneous services through
the same link
Asynchronous transfer mode
(ATM), IPv4, IPv6, Ethernet, and

Physical Layer Description

The Mobile WiMAXAir Interface adopts Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for improved multi-path
performance in non-line-of-sight environments.
Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA) is introduced in the IEEE 802.16e
Amendment to support scalable channel bandwidths from 1.25
to 20 MHz.
The scalability is supported by adjusting the FFT size while
fixing the sub-carrier frequency spacing at 10.94 kHz.
Since the resource unit sub-carrier bandwidth and symbol
duration is fixed, the impact to higher layers is minimal when
scaling the bandwidth.
802.16e systems offer scalability in both radio access
technology and networkarchitecture, thus providing a great deal
of flexibility in network deployment options andservice offerings.
802.16e supports TDD and Full and Half-Duplex FDD operation.

OFDMA Vs SOFDMA Channelization

Advanced Features of Mobile WiMAX

Smart Antenna
Smart antenna technologies typically involve complex vector
or matrix operations on signals due to multiple antennas.
OFDMA allows smart antenna operations to be performed on
vector-flat sub-carriers.
Mobile WiMAX supports a full range of smart antenna
technologies to enhance system performance.

Beamforming is a signal processing technique used in sensor
arrays for directional signal transmission or reception.
This is achieved by combining elements in the array in such a
way that signals at particular angles experience constructive
interference while others experience destructive interference.
Better coverage and capacity
Reduce outage probability

Wave Interference
In a sound wave, it is an increase or decrease in the
pressure of the air. The wave machine is many bars lying
horizontally. A disturbance causes the bars to be inclined
or to be lowered. If two waves are traveling toward each
other, they will eventually meet. When they do, the
resulting disturbance is the sum of the two original
disturbances. This is the principle of superposition.

Constructive Interference

To clarify this principle, take the example where two

crests travel toward one another and meet. One
crest initially has a height A while the other has a
height B. When the centres of the two waves
exactly overlap, the height of the resultant wave will
be the sum A + B. When this happens, it is called
constructive interference.

Destructive Interference

Destructive interference occurs when a crest meets

a trough. A crest with height A whose centre exactly
overlaps the centre of a trough with depth B will
result in a wave with height A B.


Constructive VS Destructive

Advanced Features of Mobile WiMAX

Space-Time Code (STC)
STC is a method employed to improve the reliability of data
transmission in wireless communication systems using
multiple transmit antennas.
STCs rely on transmitting multiple, redundant copies of a data
stream to the receiver in the hope that at least some of them
may survive the physical path between transmission and
reception in a good enough state to allow reliable decoding.

Spatial Multiplexing (SM)

SM is a transmission technique in MIMO wireless
communication to transmit independent and separately
encoded data signals, so-called streams, from each of the
multiple transmit antennas.
Therefore, the space dimension is reused, or multiplexed,
more than one time -> Increases throughput


Advanced Features of Mobile WiMAX

Fractional Frequency Reuse
All cells/sectors operate on the same frequency channel to
maximize spectral efficiency
Users operate on subchannels, which only occupy a small
fraction of the whole channel bandwidth
the flexible sub-channel reuse is facilitated by sub-channel
segmentation and permutation zone

Multicast and Broadcast Service (MBS)

Combines the best features of DVB-H, Media FLO and 3GPP EUTRA and satisfies the following requirements:
High data rate and coverage using a Single Frequency Network
Flexible allocation of radio resources
Low MS power consumption
Support of data-casting in addition to audio and video streams
Low channel switching time

How Beamforming Works


Beamforming Basics

Makes Zero-install, plug-n-play, mobile, personal BB a reality.

Downlink performance improved by 18dB {20log(N)} more capacity & building

Uplink performance improved by 9dB {10log(N)} larger cell sizes

What is Smart WiMAX?

Integrates Beamforming, and MIMO
all in one system
Combines RF adaptations, using
both MIMO and Beamforming
simultaneously for any subscriber
Selects the most effective MIMO
adaptation on per subscriber basis

Mobile, portable, stationary

Switches between MIMO type and

Beamforming as required on timeslot


Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Radio

With M transmit and M receive antennas, can provide M independent

channels, to increase data rate M-fold with no increase in total transmit
power (with sufficient multipath) only an increase in DSP
Indoors up to 150-fold increase in theory
Outdoors 8-12-fold increase typical


Measurements (e.g., AT&T) show 4x data rate & capacity increase in all
mobile & indoor/outdoor environments (4 TX and 4 RX antennas) DSP

Two Types of Downlink MIMO

Matrix A (Space Time Coding) is for robust highly
mobile connectivity.

Transmits multiple,
redundant, time-shifted
copies of same data
Increases mobile link
reliability & predictability
Creates link budget gain
and reduces fade margin.

MIMO is the use of multiple antennas

at both the transmitter and receiver to
improve communication performance.

+3db to 10db diversity gain

Needs Naturally occurring Multipath for MIMO

to work.


Two Types of Downlink MIMO

Matrix B (Spatial Multiplexing) is for high capacity stationary

Transmits multiple data streams

simultaneously using all available
Doubles throughput (in theory) by
multiplexing multiple data
streams over a short range for
some users.
Relies on naturally ccurring
multipath to decorrelate signals
20-30% system capacity gain
(Not 100% as some claim)

Needs Naturally occurring Multipath for MIMO to work.

Smart WiMAX RF Adaptations


Smart Antennas
A smart antenna is a multielement antenna where the
signals received at each antenna
element are intelligently combined
to improve the performance of the
wireless system. The reverse is
performed on transmit.
Smart antennas can:

Increase signal range

Suppress interfering signals
Combat signal fading
Increase the capacity of wireless

Smart Antenna AP

Eight Antenna Elements

8 Rx Chains, 4 Tx Chains
Adaptive Beam Steering
Fixed & Full Mobility Support
Redundant Configuration

Network Architecture


Access gateway (ASN GW) provides the micro-mobility anchor point and supports bearer
services. Also supports the Foreign Agent.
Base station (BS) provides the radio dependent functions and has limited IP functionality


Home agent (HA) provides the macro-mobility anchor point and supports bearer services,
if roaming/mobility is desired.
Other Network Elements such as AAA, DHCP servers and more are also in the CSN.


Handoff Support
The mobile WiMAX standard supports
three physical-layer handoff mechanisms:
Hard Handoff
This is a break before make handoff in which the
subscriber terminal is disconnected from one base
station before connecting to the next base station.

Fast base station switching (FBSS)

The network hands-off the subscriber between base
stations while the connection with the core network
remains with the original base station.

Macro-diversity handover (MDHO)

The subscriber maintains a simultaneous
connection with two or more base stations for a
seamless handoff to the base station with the
highest quality connection

Handoff Mechanisms

Hard Handoff

Fast Base Station Switching

(FBSS) Handoff

Macro Diversity Handover

(MDHO) Handoff


Handoff Mechanisms
When FBSS is supported, the MS and BS maintain a list of BSs that are involved in FBSS with
the MS. This set is called an Active Set. In FBSS, the MS continuously monitors the base
stations in the Active Set. Among the BSs in the Active Set, an Anchor BS is defined. When
operating in FBSS, the MS only communicates with the Anchor BS for uplink and downlink
messages including management and traffic connections. Transition from one Anchor BS to
another (i.e. BS switching) is performed without invocation of explicit HO signaling messages.
Anchor update procedures are enabled by communicating signal strength of the serving BS via
the CQI channel. A FBSS handover begins with a decision by an MS to receive or transmit data
from the Anchor BS that may change within the active set. The MS scans the neighbor BSs and
selects those that are suitable to be included in the active set. The MS reports the selected BSs
and the active set update procedure is performed by the BS and MS. The MS continuously
monitors the signal strength of the BSs that are in the active set and selects one BS from the set
to be the Anchor BS. The MS reports the selected Anchor BS on CQICH or MS initiated HO
request message. An important requirement of FBSS is that the data is simultaneously
transmitted to all members of an active set of BSs that are able to serve the MS.
For MSs and BSs that support MDHO, the MS and BS maintain an active set of BSs that are
involved in MDHO with the MS. Among the BSs in the active set, an Anchor BS is defined. The
regular mode of operation refers to a particular case of MDHO with the active set consisting of a
single BS. When operating in MDHO, the MS communicates with all BSs in the active set of
uplink and downlink unicast messages and traffic. A MDHO begins when a MS decides to
transmit or receive unicast messages and traffic from multiple BSs in the same time interval. For
downlink MDHO, two or more BSs provide synchronized transmission of MS downlink data such
that diversity combining is performed at the MS. For uplink MDHO, the transmission from a MS
is received by multiple BSs where selection diversity of the information received is performed.

Comparing Mobile WiMAX to 1xEVDO and HSPA



Navigation Before GPS


Land in sight


Starry Skies


Incident brought wide use

In 1983, Korean Air Lines Flight 007 was
shot down after straying into USSRs
prohibited airspace.
Ronald Reagan issues a directive to make
GPS available for civilian use as a common
Widely used in navigation worldwide.
A tool for map-making, land surveying,
commerce, scientific uses, etc.

Korean Air Lines

Flight 007

Global Position Systems (GPS )

GPS stands for Global Positioning System, is a
system to show you your exact position on the
Earth anytime, anywhere.
US Department of Defense: need for very precise
In 1973, the US Air Force proposed a new system
for navigation using satellites
The system is known as: Navigation System with
Timing and Ranging: Global Positioning System or


GPS Basics
Simply stated: The GPS satellites are nothing more
than a set of wireless base stations in the sky.
The satellites simultaneously broadcast beacon
messages (called navigation messages)
A GPS receiver measures time of arrival to the satellites,
and then uses trilateration to determine its position

A sample of the broadcast Navigation Message for one satellite

GPS System Segments


Space Segment
System consists of 24 satellites in the operational mode: 21 in
use and 3 spares. 3 other satellites are used for testing
Altitude: 20,200 Km with periods of 12 hr.
Block I

Block II

Block IIF

Control Segment
The control segment of the GPS is the set of ground monitoring stations
that track the location and the health of each satellite which includes
conditions such as:

Clock error
Satellite malfunctions

Master Control Station is located at the Consolidated Space Operations

Center (CSOC) at Flacon Air Force Station near Colorado Springs.
The current operational control segment includes a master control station,
an alternate master control station, 12 command and control antennas, and
16 monitoring sites. The locations of these facilities are shown in the map


Control Segment
These monitor stations measure signals from the GPS Satellites (GS) which are
incorporated into orbital models for each satellites.
The models compute precise orbital data (ephemeris) and GS clock corrections for
each satellite.
The Master Control station uploads ephemeris and clock data to the GSs.
The GSs then send subsets of the orbital ephemeris data to GPS receivers over
radio signals.

Master Control station, Schriever Air Force Base,

Colorado Springs

Hawaii Tracking Station (HTS), Kaena

Point Satellite Tracking Station, Hawaii

User Segment
The user segment is the GPS receiver
The receiver clock is not nearly as accurate as the satellite
clocks, so that is taken into account when refining the GPS
GPS receivers typically have 12 to 20 channels which allow them
to monitor many satellites at the same time


Types of Satellites
Satellite Orbits

Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)

These satellites are in orbit 35,863 km above the
earths surface along the equator.
Objects in
Geostationary orbit
revolve around the
earth at the same
speed as the earth
This means GEO
satellites remain in
the same position
relative to the
surface of earth.


GEO (cont.)
A GEO satellites distance from earth gives it a large
coverage area, almost a fourth of the earths surface.
GEO satellites have a 24 hour view of a particular area.
These factors make it ideal for satellite broadcast and
other multipoint applications.

A GEO satellites distance also cause it to have both a
comparatively weak signal and a time delay in the
signal, which is bad for point to point communication.
GEO satellites, centered above the equator, have
difficulty broadcasting signals to near polar regions

Low Earth Orbit (LEO)

LEO satellites are much closer to the earth than GEO
satellites, ranging from 500 to 1,500 km above the
LEO satellites dont
stay in fixed position
relative to the
surface, and are only
visible for 15 to 20
minutes each pass.
A network of LEO
satellites is
necessary for LEO
satellites to be useful


LEO (cont.)
LEO Categories
Little LEOs

Frequencies below 1 GHz

5MHz of bandwidth
Data rates up to 10 kbps
Aimed at paging, tracking, and low-rate messaging

Big LEOs
Frequencies above 1 GHz
Support data rates up to a few megabits per sec
Offer same services as little LEOs in addition to voice and
positioning services (ie. Globalstar)

LEO (cont.)
A LEO satellites proximity to earth compared to a GEO
satellite gives it a better signal strength and less of a time
delay, which makes it better for point to point
A LEO satellites smaller area of coverage is less of a waste
of bandwidth.

A network of LEO satellites is needed, which can be costly
LEO satellites have to compensate for Doppler shifts cause
by their relative movement.
Atmospheric drag effects LEO satellites, causing gradual
orbital deterioration.


Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)

A MEO satellite is in orbit somewhere between 8,000
km and 18,000 km above the earths surface.
MEO satellites are
similar to LEO satellites
in functionality.
MEO satellites are
visible for much longer
periods of time than
LEO satellites, usually
between 2 to 8 hours.
MEO satellites have a
larger coverage area
than LEO satellites.

MEO (cont.)
A MEO satellites longer duration of visibility and
wider footprint means fewer satellites are needed in
a MEO network than a LEO network.

A MEO satellites distance gives it a longer time
delay and weaker signal than a LEO satellite,
though not as bad as a GEO satellite.


How GPS Works The Big Picture

Each GPS satellite transmit information about its location
and the current time
All the GPS satellites are synchronizedso the satellite
signals are transmitted at the same instant
The control segmentground stations precisely collect this
information as the satellites orbit the earth
When the receiver estimates the distance to at least four
GPS satellites, it can accurately calculate its position in
three dimensions through space trilateration
The accuracyof a GPS determined position depends on the
receiver and the field conditions:

Location characteristics
Length of time at the location
Arrangement of the satellites in the sky

Space Trilateration
The basis of GPS positioning is 3-dimensional
trilaterationfrom satellites call space trilateration
Trilaterationis a method of determining relative positions
using the geometry of triangles
By ranging(finding distance from one location to
another)from three satellites, we can narrow our position to
only two points
One of the two points is a position too far from the earth, so
we can decide immediately to reject itleaving the one point
that is our GPS fix
Using the distance from a fourth satellite, we can eliminate
the ambiguity, if we have accurate receiver clocks
synchronized to GPS time(the time recorded by the GPS


Code Pseudo-Ranges in 5 Steps

2D Trilateration
R = 25 km
R = 12 km


R = 7 km
2D Trilateration

Where am I ?


GPS 3D Trilateration
Location of at least three
satellites (typically 4 or
Distance between receiver
and each of those satellites
Psudo-random code is sent
via radio waves from satellite
and receiver
Since speed of radio signal is
known, the lag time
determines distance


One measurement narrows down our position to the
surface of a sphere

20,000 Km

We're somewhere
on the surface of
this sphere.


Second measurement narrows it down to
intersection of two spheres

Intersection of two
Spheres is a circle

Third measurement narrows to just two points


Fourth measurement will decide between two points

Global Positioning System

Your position is:

26o 10.5 S
27o 41.3 E


Extensions to GPS
Differential GPS

ground stations with known positions calculate positions using GPS

the difference (fix) transmitted using FM radio
used to improve accuracy

Assisted GPS


put a server on the ground to help a GPS receivers

reduces GPS search time from minutes to seconds.


It uses hand-set based approaches which is
different from above.
It uses existing cell towers/APS and
infrastructure to triangulate users location.
Not real satellites.



It uses very accurate clocks to determine the
difference in time in which uplink radio signal from
user reaches different cell sites.
Measures the direction of signal received at multiple
towers with respect to antennas of known position to
determine mobile position.
At the cost of running radio, it is accurate to a couple
hundred feet. It is working only at where it can be
covered by cell towers.
GPS here is only the locator. It can calculate where
it is according to the cell towers numbers, and then
find the position on the map which contains many


On the map, we can calculate the shortest
path between two points according the
attributes stored in the database.
It calculates the position many times per
second in order to get new position
information because of moving.
Another new app is that it can show the street
views and satellite views, like Google G1. You
can zoom in to see the real environment
around you. This can help people who cannot
really understand the map.



Google map on G1

Satellite views on G1

Street views on G1


Surveying and map making
Search and rescue
Military tracking and guidance
Vehicle and pet tracking
Cell phone location
Tectonic monitoring
US Nuclear Detonation System

Advanced Vehicle


What is Optical Wireless?

Optical Wireless a.k.a. Free Space
Optics (FSO) refers to the transmission
of modulated light beams through the
atmosphere to obtain broadband
Line-of-sight technology
Uses lasers/LEDs to generate coherent
light beams

Why We Use FSO?

FSO can send large amounts of data (around
2.5 Gbps of data).
No need to get a license, the spectrum used
is an unlicensed worldwide.
Can transmit at distances around 4 km
(almost 2 and one half miles).
The cost is often less than that of using fiber
optic cables.
FSO systems can be installed quickly (in


Why Not Just Bury More Fiber?

Rights of Way Time

With FSO, especially through

the window, no permits, no
digging, no fees

The Technology



Power & Telephone







1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017






cm mm
10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9


Copper wire


107 108

Radio Waves



Fiber optic

102 103

FM radio

AM radio

Spread spectrum

Electromagnetic Spectrum


Smaller carrier wavelength / Higher Bandwidth


Access Technologies Positioning

10 Gbps


Future Performances
1 Gbps

Optical Wireless

100 Mbps


10 Mbps
1 Mbps


50 m

200 m

500 m

1 km

5 km

15 km+

How FSO Works?

2 Transmitter projects the
carefully aimed light pulses into
the air

3 A receiver at the other end of

the link collects the light using
lenses and/or mirrors

5 Reverse direction data

transported the same way.
Full duplex
1 Network traffic
converted into
pulses of
invisible light
1s and 0s

4 Received signal
converted back
into fiber or
copper and
connected to the

Anything that can be done in

fiber can be done with FSO


How FSO Works

FSO systems use optical wireless link heads each
a transceiver with a laser or LED transmitter
a lens or telescope (can have more that one)
shaping overcomes building movement
a receiver usually a semiconductor
May also employ servo motors, voice coils, mirrors, CCD
arrays, and even liquid crystals and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for tracking and

FSO operates in the infrared (IR) range around 850

and 1550 nm (frequencies around 200 THz).
FSO can use Power Over Ethernet (PoE).

Very Narrow and Directional Beams

Beams only a few meters in diameter at a kilometer
Allows VERY close spacing of links without
Highly secure
Efficient use of energy
Ranges of 20m to more than 8km possible


Deployment Behind Windows

Rapid installations without
trenching and permitting
Direct connection to the end
Bypasses the building owner
No roof rights
No riser rights

The FSO Value Proposition

No interference
Easy to install
Through the window
(or from the rooftop)
No trenching, no permits
Fiber-like data rates


Challenges Environmental Factors




Low Clouds
Each of these factors can attenuate (reduce) the signal.
However, there are ways to mitigate each environmental factor.

FSO uses the same transmitter
technology as used by Fiber Optics
Laser/LED as coherent light source
Wavelengths centered around 850nm
and 1550nm widely used
Telescope and lens for aiming light
beam to the receiver


Photodiode with large active area
Narrowband infrared filters to reduce
noise due to ambient light
Receivers with high gain
Bootstrap receivers using PIN diode
and avalanche photodiode (APD)

Simplified Transceiver Diagram




Mesh Topology

Point-to-Point Topology

Point-to-Multipoint Topology

Ring with Spurs Topology


FSO Topologies


Secure Ultra Bandwidth

Wireless Mesh

FSO Implementation


FSO at Sea

IX TS Installation Examples




Typically scenarios for use are:
LAN-to-LAN connections on campuses at Fast Ethernet or
Gigabit Ethernet speeds.
To cross a public road or other barriers which the sender and
receiver do not own.
Speedy service delivery of high-bandwidth access to optical
fiber networks.
Interconnecting base stations in cellular systems.
Temporary network installation (for events or other purposes).
Reestablish high-speed connection quickly (disaster recovery).
For communications between spacecraft, including elements
of a satellite constellation.
For inter- and intra-chip communication.
Fiber backup
Two solar-powered satellites
communicating optically in
space via lasers.

Ask Edward

Past Year Question

JUL 2013 (Part A)
Briefly describe the following terms:
Global Position Systems (GPS )

(2 Marks)

A system to show you your exact position on the earth

anytime and anywhere.

JUL 2013 (Part A)

Free Space Optics (FSO)

(2 Marks)

Refers to the transmission of modulated light beams through

the atmosphere to obtain broadband communication.


Past Year Question

JAN 2013 (Part A)
With the aid of the block schematic diagrams of
WiMAX network architecture shown in Figure 1,
explain the role of Access Service Network (ASN).
(4 Marks)
Access gateway (ASN GW) provides the micro-mobility anchor point and
supports bearer services. Also supports the Foreign Agent.
Base station (BS) provides the radio dependent functions






Another ASN


Past Year Question

JUL 2013 (Part A)
Illustrate how Free Space Optic (FSO) works by using
a diagram.
(6 Marks)
Network traffic converted into pulses of invisible light representing 1s and
Transmitter projects the carefully aimed light pulses into the air
A receiver at the other end of the link collects the light using lenses
and/or mirrors
Received signal converted back into fiber or copper and connected to the


Past Year Question

JAN 2013 (Part B)
Discuss two key advanced wireless breakthroughs
incorporated into the Mobile WiMAX standard which
effectively place more data into the available airwaves
to increase throughput and coverage?
(6 Marks)
OFDMA breaks a signal into many independent pieces
before transmitting it across the airwaves in order to increase
spectral efficiency.
By diversifying the signal in this way, even if some of the
pieces do not make it through, the signal can still be
reconstructed on the other end.
MIMO uses multiple antennas at both ends of the wireless
connection (base station and subscriber device) to enable
data to travel along multiple independent paths

Past Year Question

JUL 2013 (Part B)
Explain why a MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)
system which has many antennas is more robust than
SISO (Single Input Single Output) which only has one
(4 Marks)
MIMO systems add space diversity to systems, so they can
increase robustness of systems. for example transmitter
send 1 symbol from 2 antennas, if 1 channel between tx and
rx is in bad condition then it is more probable in SISO system
to fail but in MIMO that symbol fail in 1 channel but still can
be sent through another channel.


Thank You!