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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and fore most I gave thanks to the highest Almighty God for the health and strength that he
granted to me throughout this practical training.
I would like to thanks Tanzania Breweries Limited (TBL) staff for their hospitality and
cooperation in the whole time of my practical training. They assist me in the search for
knowledge and practical experience in the factory regardless of their many responsibilities.
Special thanks to our factory supervisor Eng. PETER SINGISYA for all the time he spent to
direct us in all aspects so as to make our case stud success.
Sincere gratitude is extended to the university of Dar es salaam in the college of engineering
and technology (COET) under the department of chemical and mining (CME) for providing
supervisor for my Pt program.
I give special thanks to my academic supervisor, Dr. DIVINA KAOMBE for his guidance and
advice throughout the practical training period and in report writing.
My special thanks also goes to my family who supported me in one way or another without
forgetting my school mates and friends for now and then advised and discussion while at TBL.

ABSTRACT
This report consists of mainly three parts which are weekly report, main report and project which
was successfully done at Tanzania Breweries Limited (TBL) during practical training period
which took place from 08th July to 29th August 2014 (about eight weeks).
Weekly report represents all works that had been done daily and summarized at the end of the
day and submitted to the trainer of the department concerned in order to be checked and signed.
Main report explain in detail about production process that takes place in Tanzania Breweries
Limited. This involve all process for beer manufacturing from raw material preparation, Wort
production, fermentation, filtration and finally beer packaging.
The last part is on project which state that Temperature variation due to fouling effect in wort
cooler the project was done to determine the effect and cause of fouling formation and to
suggest the possible solution to the problem (on how to minimize the fouling formation.)

Contents
1.

2.

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE COMPANY ............................................................................ 5

1.2.

Introduction about Tanzania Breweries Limited TBL .................................................................... 5

1.3.

VISION OF THE COMPANY............................................................................................................. 6

1.4.

MISSION OF THE COMPANY.......................................................................................................... 6

1.5.

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF TANZANIA BREWERIES LIMITED. ................................. 7

BEER PRODUCTION PROCESS ................................................................................................................ 8


2.1.

RAW MATERIALS ........................................................................................................................... 9

2.2.

WORT PRODUCTION (BREW HOUSE).......................................................................................... 11

2.2.1.

MALT STORAGE UNIT (Silos) ............................................................................................... 11

2.2.2.

MALT CLEANING AND WEIGHING ....................................................................................... 11

2.2.3.

WET MILLING ...................................................................................................................... 12

2.2.4.

CEREAL CONVERSION .......................................................................................................... 12

2.2.5.

MASH CONVERSION ............................................................................................................ 13

2.2.6.

LAUTERING PROCESS .......................................................................................................... 17

2.2.7.

WORT BOILING .................................................................................................................... 18

2.2.8.

WORT SEPARATION PROCESS (whirl pool) ......................................................................... 19

2.2.9.

WORT COOLING & OXYGENATION ..................................................................................... 20

2.3.

YEAST HANDLING ........................................................................................................................ 21

2.4.

FERMENTATION .......................................................................................................................... 22

2.5.

FILTRATION ................................................................................................................................. 24

2.6.

Dilution And Carbonation ........................................................................................................... 26

2.7.

Quality control of bright beer ..................................................................................................... 26

2.9. PACKAGING. ..................................................................................................................................... 28


2.7.1. BOTTLE WASHING AND INSPECTION. ....................................................................................... 28
2.7.2. BOTTLES FILLING. ...................................................................................................................... 29
2.7.3. PASTEURIZATION. ..................................................................................................................... 29
2.7.4. LABELING AND DATE CODING................................................................................................... 29

3. UTILITIES.................................................................................................................................................. 30
3.1. CO2 RECOVERY PLANT ...................................................................................................................... 30
3.2. COMPRESSED AIR PLANT ................................................................................................................. 32
3.3. REFIGERATION PLANT ...................................................................................................................... 33
3.4. WATER TREATMENT PLANT ............................................................................................................. 34
3.5.

STEAM GENERATION (BOILER).................................................................................................... 35

4. PROJECT .................................................................................................................................................. 36
4.1.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 36

4.2.

THEORY ....................................................................................................................................... 37

4.3.

OBJECTIVE ................................................................................................................................... 38

4.4.

CALCULATION AND RESULTS ...................................................................................................... 39

4.4.1.

DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURE OF THE LEAVING WATER FROM THE CHILLER ......... 39

4.4.2.
DETERMINATION OF FOULING BEHAVIOR DURING RUNNING TIME (with the change of
operational parameters, ie temperature differences and fluid flow rates) ....................................... 42
4.5.

DISCUSSION................................................................................................................................. 43

4.6.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION .................................................................................... 44

5. REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................ 45

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE COMPANY

Breweries started in 1910 under German Schultz. In June 1933, it was under Athson Wright an
English man from Kenya by the permission of CAP 102.He used to produce two brands, namely
Tusker and Indian Pale Ale (IPA).
From 1935-1950 Tanganyika Breweries Ltd and Kenya Breweries joined to East Africa
Breweries they established a Brewery company in Mombassa which supplies beer in Northern
part of Tanzania (Arusha, Tanga and Moshi).
In 1959, they took Uganda Breweries. In 1962, EA Breweries transformed to 1963 EABL joint
with Kilimanjaro Modern Brewery in Arusha. In 1964, Tanganyika Breweries change to TBL
(Tanzania Breweries Limited). Also (NDC-National development cooperation formed a union
with Tanzania Breweries).
In 1970, Tanganyika breweries moved out of East African Breweries and joined Tanzania
Breweries. In 1979 was given Autonomy hence disengage from NDC hence 100% shares were
owned by the Tanzanian Government.
In 1980 Tanzania Breweries limited (TBL) was privatized. In 1989, TBL and East African
Breweries separated.
In 1993 Government made a joint venture with SAB 50-50% share between two parts where
(4% Public of Tanzania, 8%Unit Trust, 11.16% General Public of Tanzania, 52.8% non residents
(SAB) and 20% East African Breweries).

1.2.

Introduction about Tanzania Breweries Limited TBL

Tanzania breweries Limited (A subsidiary 0f SAB Miller) manufactures, sells and distributes a
clear beer, alcoholic fruit beverages and non-alcoholic beverages within Tanzania. TBL has
controlling interests in Tanzania Distilleries limited.
TBLs most popular clear brands includes Safari Lager ,Kilimanjaro Premium Lager ,Ndovu
special malt, Castle Lager ,Castle milk stout ,Redds original Peroni ,miller genuine draft ,Grand
malt,Balimi extra Lager ,Eagle Lager Eagle dark, Bia bingwa ,and Safari sparkling water. Other
prominent brands associated with the TBL group Konyagi, Gin and American cream.
The TBL is listed on the Dar es Salaam stock exchange, employs about 1400 people and is
represented throughout the country with 4 clear beer Breweries a distillery a malting facility
and 5 distribution deposits.

Over view of SABMiller


SABMiller is one of the worlds largest brewers with brewing interests or distribution
agreements in over 60 countries across continent .The groups brand include premium
international beers such as miller genuine draft peroni nastro azzuro and pilsner urouell as well
as exceptional range of market leading local brands .SABMiller is listed on the London and
Johannesburg stock exchanges.

1.3.

VISION OF THE COMPANY

To be the most admired company in the beer industry in East Africa by making sure that TBL
becomes an investment of choice, the employer of choice and the partner of choice.

1.4.

MISSION OF THE COMPANY

To own and nurture local and international brands which are first choice of the consumers.
Core activities
TBLs principal is the production distribution and sale of malt beer both alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages (AFBs) in Tanzania
VALUES OF THE COMPANY
Our people is our enduring advantage
Accountability is clear and personal
We work and win in teams
we understand and respect our customers and consumers

1.5.

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF TANZANIA BREWERIES LIMITED.


PLANT INDUSRY
MANAGER IN
SOUTH AFRICA

PLANT INDUSTRY
MANAGER IN
TANZANIA

PLANT
MANAGER IN
ARUSHA

PLANT MANAGER
IN DAR ES
SALAAM

PACKAGING
MANAGER

BREWING MANAGER

PACKAGING ENGINEER

PLANT MANAGER
IN MWANZA

UTILITY MANAGER

BREWING ENGINEER

MECHANICAL
CONTROLLER

UTILITY ENGINEER

ELECTRICAL
CONTROLLER

PLANNER

TECHNICIA
N/ARTISAN
7

DAILY MEETING FROM 0800 TO O830HRS

PLANT
MANAGER IN
MBEYA

MARKETING/FIN
ANCIAL
MANAGER

TRANSPORTATION
TEAM LEADER

2. BEER PRODUCTION PROCESS


Introduction
Brewing has been mentioned in history as early as Egyptian times and has continued on to the
present day with relatively few changes to the basic recipe. Malted barley is the main ingredient,
which, when milled and heated in water to extract its nutrients, provides a nourishing sugar and
protein-rich solution named wort, an ideal medium in which yeast may grow and ferment. In
comparatively recent times hops were added to the boing wort as it was discovered that hops had
ant-bacterial properties which preserved the wort and fermented beer and which gave the beer a
refreshing biter teste.
The most important process in beer production is the fermentation of sugar contained in the wort
to form heat energy, alcohols and carbon dioxide. To produce the quality and standard product
the necessary condition must be taken from the point of malt preparation, cleaning and
conversion for the fermentation to take place. The quality beer depend on the fermentation of the
wort, quality filtration and storage condition up to the point of packaging. The packaging beer
very important aspect in brewing industries, must be of high quality and standard in order to
meet the world market commpetion.The following are the steps for beer production.

Brewing process is composed of many sub-processes. These can be grouped into five main
categories
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Raw material
Wort production
Fermentation
Filtration
Packaging

2.1.

RAW MATERIALS

The following are raw materials that can be used in beer production at TBl Company include
malt, hops, water, yeast, millet, sugar and sifted maize for beer production. Water is among the
important raw material which affects the beer characteristic and quality at different process stage.
Hops give the beer its better taste and have an effect on aroma. Malt is the main raw material for
beer production; its usage depends on the fact that it has both high starch contents and natural
enzymes. Other source like millet, sugar and sifted maize used as supporting source of starch
depending on the type of the beer bland. Yeast act as the catalyst for the fermentation process to
take place on which the byproducts are heat energy, carbon dioxide and alcohol.

(a)

Malted

barley

(b)Hops

Depending on the different type and the quality of the brand to be brewed other different raw
materials apart from mentioned above, those materials include: cerelose, dextrose,
monohydrated, maltodextrine, lactose, caramel, fermavite (yeast food), vitamin B complex,
calcium chloride, sodium benzoate, malic acid, preform, redds flavor filtered, fundamyl, vita
blend and lactic acid. Also material like lucelite PCS (stabilizer), lucelite XLT and cellite are
used in filtration process.

Raw materials quality must be controlled to make sure that the final product is of high standard.
At the TBL Company the quality of raw materials is maintained by the following ways.

To ensure the clean less of the store


Placing stock at specific conditions, that is the required temperature and pressure.
Example hops are stored in cold conditions while malt is kept at room temperature
Placing raw material bags on pullet on to ensure their safety
Checking the standards of the raw material, to make sure they meet the required
standards

Use of raw materials depending on the type of the brand


i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)

Malted barley; it is main raw material on all breweries used in manufacturing of all
types of beer bland.
Sifted maize flour; it is cooked and mixed wish malt during manufacturing of most of
beer brand like Safari, Kilimanjaro, Castle lager except Ndovu and Castle lite.
Sorghum flour; this is used on the manufacturing of Eagle beer brand. It is charged at
an adjunct point.
Grist (yellow maize flour); it is used on the manufacturing of Peron beer (PNN)
brand. This type of flour imported normally from Italy.
Amyral corn starch (brassex); it is the type of maize flour whichit is used on the
manufacture of the Castle milk stout only.
Brown sugar; it is type of sugar used on the manufacture of both Grand malt and
Safari lager.
White sugar; this is type of sugar which is used in the manufacture of reds only

10

2.2.

WORT PRODUCTION (BREW HOUSE)

Wort is the liquid extracted from mashing process during the brewing of the beer. Wort contains
the simple sugar that will be fermented by yeast to produce alcohol, carbon dioxide and energy
(in form of heat). The purpose of the brewhouse is to produce wort to desirable specifications
and standards.
This process of wort production begins at storage unit and ends on the wort cooling stage. The
following are the stages on the wort production at brew house.
2.2.1. MALT STORAGE UNIT (Silos)
Tanzania Breweries Limited (TBL) receive malts from different supplier (farmers) which are in
both good and standard quality. TBL store malted barley in the dry storage hoppers (SILOs) to
make sure there is constant supply of malt during wort production. The malt transported from the
Silos to brew house by means of belt conveyors and elevators. From silos malt conveyed to the
cleaning and inspection unit.
2.2.2. MALT CLEANING AND WEIGHING
The malt from supplier and on storage composed of some unwanted materials like stones,
trashes, living organism (rat) and metal (iron materials). Before milling malt are cleaned to make
sure are in good standard. From storage unit malt goes to Flat screen where large solid materials
are removed. Flat screen is the instrument for inspection of malt from silo to remove all big
materials, trashes and parts of dead living organism like snake and rat. From the flat screen malt
passes through the magnet so as to remove all iron materials. Then malt goes to de-stoner in
order to remove all solid material of small size but denser than malt (especially small stone).
After all process of cleaning is over the malt goes to tipping scale (30kg/trip) so as to measure
the required weight of malt depending on the type of brand to be processed. The amount of grist
used for each brew must be recorded exactly. This is essential for internal control purpose
because one wants to know later how efficiently the raw materials employed were used.
The amount of grist is monitored by an automatic weighing machine. At TBL the tipping weigh
machine is the one used.
The tipping weigh machine is made of automatic balance and operates periodically in that, an
exactly predetermined weight amount of malt is weighed (i.e. 100kg) to a pivotable trough and
when this weigh reaches it pivots down. This process is called tipping.

11

2.2.3. WET MILLING


The crushing process take place at Mill star. The wet milling involve simultaneously crushing of
malt and water addition in crushed malt. Purpose of milling is to expose and release the entrain
sugar and protein in order to allow for further enzymatic activities to convert starch (complex)
sugar to soluble (simple) sugar. Also milling is used to reduce the particle size to that suitable for
mashing and wort separation which are not too small (hinder wort separation) and not too large
(hinders release of soluble sugars and protein)

2.2.4. CEREAL CONVERSION


Cereal conversion takes place in cereal or adjunct cooker. Cereal starch cell walls are intact and
to release the starch for further conversion to fermentable sugars in the mashing process a cereal
Malt Inlet

CIP

Malt Hopper
Steep Liquor
CIP

Feed Rolls

Steep Chamber
Surplus Water

CIP

Crushing Rolls

Mash Liquor
12
Mash Pump

Mash

or adjunct cooker process.


To facilitate cereal conversion a small amount of malt mash (approximately 10%) is mixed with
cereal or adjunct mix.
The process involves the following conversion steps

Hydration of the starch granules with brewing liquor at low temperature


Gelatinization of starch granule at high temperature
Liquefaction step by enzyme degradation of complex starch (enzyme from the malt
portion of the mix), terminating in final
Adjunct boiling step to expose starch granules that have a higher gelatinisation
temperature
The process of cereal conversion is therefore performed using a ramped temperature increase
mechanism (programed temperature profile).
Note: The cereal is used when the brand to be processed need the addition starch source.

Liquor / CIP
Manhole

Liquor

Cereal Conversion

Heating medium

Vessel

Mash (mill) or
Pre mixed mash

TIRC

Sample
Cock

Mash Vessel
Agitator

Drain

2.2.5. MASH CONVERSION


Mashing is the process that involve the conversion of starches (milled grain) to simple sugar
(fermentable sugar). The process involve a wide range of interrelated chemical, biochemical and
13

physical process. During mashing the grist and water are mixed together and the content of the
malt is there by brought into solution and extract obtained. Enzymes play a key role in the
hydrolysis of proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates, to give soluble products.
The purpose of mashing is to extract the soluble sugars dextrin and inorganic substances from
the malt grains in addition to converting the insoluble material (starch and protein) to a
fermentable form. The extract quality of a mash, like any biochemical reaction, is influenced by
environmental conditions. These conditions include temperature, pH, mash thickness, enzyme
content and substrate composition. The process of the mash conversion may be performed at
constant temperature or via a ramped temperature increase mechanism or a combination of both
process.

Mash
mixing

Liquor / CIP
Manhole

Heating medium
Liquor

Mash vessel
Decoction vessel/
mill
TIRC
Sample
cock

Separation
Vessel
Agitator

Drain

Decoction
Vessel

The Mash vessel

Factors Affecting Mashing


The composition of the wort is very dependent on the mashing procedure and of course the wort
composition will affect the beer flavor. The factors which influence starch degradation during
mashing are of importance to the brewer. These factors are:
1. Temperature during mashing

14

Temperature has a two-fold effect, first on the rate of enzyme activity and secondly which
enzyme is most active at a given temperature and the effect this has on the starch degradation.
Each enzyme within the malt has a given temperature at which it is most active.
Specific enzymes each have a temperature at which they are most active.
-gluconase
45 to 50oC
-amylase
62 to 65oC
-amylase
70 to 75oC
By mashing for a long time at 62 to 65 oC beer with a high attenuation limit is obtained (high
ferment ability, dry palate). By mashing for a long time at 70 to 75oC beer with a low
attenuation is obtained (low ferment ability, sweeter palate).
2. Mashing time
Each enzyme reaches its maximum activity after 10 to 20 minutes, after 40 to 60 minutes
enzyme activity at first decreases rapidly, but the reduction in activity continuously decreases.
So in general:

With increasing mashing time the concentration of the extract solution increases, but the rate
of increase becomes slower and slower.
With increased mashing time (especially when mashing at 62 to 63 oC) the maltose level
increases and with it the attenuation limit. These wort should produce a vigorous main
fermentation.
3. Mashing pH
Each enzyme reaches a maximum activity at different pH values, and decreases at higher or
lower pH values (fig. 3). The effect of pH on the mashing process is in general not as large as
the effect of temperature. The optimum pH for mashing can be regarded as
4. Mash Concentration
In thin mashes more extract goes into solution but thicker mashes protect the enzymes from the
effects of temperature. In thicker mashes the amount of fermentable materials and the
attenuation limit is increased.

The type of mashing used at TBL is Multi-stage Infusion Mash


Here the initial mash-in temperature is lower and is raised during the mashing process either by
the addition of hot liquor to the mash or heating the mash with steam. The mash is normally
thinner than with the single-stage infusion process to allow the mash to be mixed while it is
heated. The malts used in this process can be less well modified as they will undergo a protein
rest, but the time of the mashing will be longer as there are a number of temperatures to be
reached.

15

The main advantages of the infusion process over other process are:

they can be easily automated


they require 20 to 50% less energy than the decoction method
they are easier to monitor

An example is given below:

Mash Temperature

80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
0

15

20

40

65

Mashing time in mins.

16

110

120

135

2.2.6. LAUTERING PROCESS


After the mashing process is complete, the mash slurry is delivered to the Lauter Tun, a vessel
which is used to strain the liquid wort from the insoluble grain husks. The lauter tun is a
cylindrical tank with a false bottom and slotted plates upon which the mash settles. The mash is
added to the lauter tun and an internal rake system is circulated to evenly distribute the solids in
the mash within the lauter tun. This process creates a filter bed out of the grain husks to naturally
strain out the wort through the false bottom of the lauter tun.

After the lauter tun is filled, the mash slurry is allowed to settle and the wort flows through the
filter bed. Once the bed has been established, the wort is drawn from the bottom of the tun and
recirculated to the top of the bed until the first wort reaches desired clarity. This process is
sometimes referred to as Vorlaufing. At this time the first wort is directed to the collection
vessel. The first wort is drawn off as quickly as possible without causing excess differential
pressure across the bed, which would cause the tun to go into a cutting routine to re-establish
adequate flow through the bed, causing a loss in production time. When the wort level is drawn
down to about 1/2 inch above the top of the bed, sparging begins. Hot water is sprayed into the
Lauter Tun, maintaining a minimum liquid level above the filter bed. The sparging water rinses
the grain husks to recover as much fermentable extract as possible. The concentration of the wort
is measured in Plato to determine when all of the usable extract has been removed and the
process
is
complete.
Sampling
Point

Clear Wort
Run-off

Turbid Wort
Recirculation

CIP

Sparge

Underlet

Spent grain
Discharge

Drain

LAUTER TUN
17

2.2.7. WORT BOILING


The sweet wort run-off from the lauter tun is delivered to the brew kettle. The function of the
brew kettle is to boil the wort, along with hops, adjuncts and other flavouring, to ready the wort
for the fermentation cellar. The brew kettle is filled to a set volume and steam is injected into the
heating coils. The wort is brought to a vigorous boil for sixty to ninety minutes.The boiling
process sterilizes the wort, coagulates proteins and vaporizes undesired volatiles and excess
water in the wort. Boiling also is critical to bring out the desired flavours based on the hops and
other adjuncts that are added in the brew kettle. Temperature and level in the brew kettle must be
monitored to maintain a turbulent boil, yet prevent boil-over out the kettle door.

Wort Kettle
Vapour stack
Hop Dosing
Man way
Back pressure valve

CIP

CIP

Wort Inlet
Adjunct Inlet
OE Measurement

Sampling Point
Thermometer
Steam

Condensate
Wort Outlet

18

2.2.8. WORT SEPARATION PROCESS (whirl pool)


Wort separation is the process step whereby the trub or hot break (coagulated protein and hops)
from boiled wort is separated. After the boil, the bittersweet wort is pumped into another vessel
called a whirlpool. The wort is swirled around this tank where the coagulated solids from the
boiling process, called trub or break, settle at the center of the tank. The wort is then drawn
off from the edge of the tank, leaving these solids behind.

Whirlpool
Vessel CIP

Vapour Stack
Siphon Breaker

Level/volume Indication
Line CIP Inlet
TRIC

Top Outlet/draw-off
Level Sensors

Sampling Point

Sampling Point
To Wort Cooling

Sight Glass

Bottom Outlet/draw-off

19

2.2.9. WORT COOLING & OXYGENATION


The wort is pumped out of the whirlpool and through a heat exchanger. During this process, the
wort is cooled from approximately 100C to roughly 8-9C. Temperature is monitored at the
inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger and density is measured to monitor the extract
concentration of wort. At this point, the wort is for delivery to the fermentation cellar. The main
purpose of the wort cooling is to allow oxygenation to take place as well as yeast pitching. The
oxygenation of wort is very important aspect because the yeast reproduction depend on the
concentration of the oxygen dissolved. To ensure the proper propagation of yeast oxygenation
must be kept at its level. For effective yeast pitching the wort temperature must be kept at low,
simply because the yeast are microorganisms that survive at specific low temperature. Wort must
be cooled in order for yeast to survive, grow and propagate at required rate.

Parameters to be considered in order to have quality and standard fermentation.


Collected Wort Temperature:
The collected wort temperature has effect on yeast pitching rate and dissolved oxygen
concentration, undesirable temperature has a marked influence on yeast performance and
subsequent beer flavour quality.
Wort Dissolved Oxygen:
The amount of dissolved oxygen in wort play a great role on yeast reproduction, these affect
the fermentation quality.
Yeast Pitching Rate:
The yeast pitching rate can be affected with wort temperature and dissolved oxygen
concentration has a marked influence on yeast performance and subsequent beer flavour
quality
Wort Microbiological Content:
The presence of any bacteria or yeasts in the cooled, oxygenated, unpitched wort can have a
significant negative influence of the final beer flavour. Particular organisms can also produce
compounds which can be a health risk.
Wort pH:
The significant variation in the pH at this point in the process is indicative of ineffective
process control in the Brew house. This covers incorrect water treatment and possible
contamination of the wort from plant cleaning materials (acids and alkalis). With regard to
the latter measurement at this point supports the use of Hazard Analysis Critical Control
Point (HACCP) systems. High variation in pH has a significant influence of flavour
development during fermentation.

20

2.3.

YEAST HANDLING

Yeasts are non-photosynthetic, relatively sophisticated, living, unicellular fungi. Yeast are of
benefit to mankind because they are widely used for production of beer, wine ,spirits, foods and
variety of biochemical, also they cause spoilage of foods and beverages and some specific yeast
are of medical importance. All brewers yeasts multiply by budding and belong to the genus
Saccharomyces. Brewers yeasts are facultative anaerobes (able to grow in the presence or
absence of oxygen and brewers use the anaerobic fermentation processes of yeast to convert
sugar in wort to ethanol. The characteristic flavor and aroma of any beer is, in large part,
determined by the yeast strain employed. In addition, properties such as flocculation,
fermentation ability, ethanol tolerance and oxygen requirements have a critical impact on
fermentation performance.
Yeast Nutritional requirements

Simple sugar monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), disaccharides (maltose and


sucrose) and trisaccharides (maltotriose). Cannot ferment any large sugars which are
called dextrins. These sugars are produced through mashing in brew house.
Amino acids, small chain peptides plus ammonia compounds for nitrogen
Lipids & fatty material for cell wall development.
Vitamins from malt.
Trace elements particularly zinc & copper.
The parameters that needed for critical to the successful management of yeast handling
i) Yeast removal to waste (quantity to waste before re-pitching): these cells maybe older
(large) and have flocculation characteristic. There may also be a high proportion of dead
cell. Recovery and re-pitching of these cells into subsequent fermentations may result in
an atypical fermentation. Atypical fermentation it will bring one or mixture of these
features; nonstandard ferment rate, slow or poor vicinal diketone removal, poor
carbohydrate removal, and low ethanol production.
ii) Yeast slurry cooling temperature and storage temperature: the ability to store recovered
yeast slurry for any period of time necessitates minimizing metabolic activity as this
results in depletion of cellular metabolites, which are required for subsequent growth
phases.
iii) Yeast viability: a low viability indicate that the yeast cells have been exposed to some
form of stress and that there are a high proportional of dead cells or cells with low
vitality. Pitching of yeast with low viability into fermentation will lead to poor
fermentation (atypical fermentation).
iv) Yeast pitching slurry microbiological quality: the presence of any bacteria or wild yeasts
in the re-pitching yeast can have a significant negative influence of the final beer flavor.
They may also cause variation in fermentation rates. Particular organism can also
produce compounds which can be a health risk.

21

2.4.

FERMENTATION

Beer is produced commercially by the controlled fermentation of wort, a liquid rich in sugars,
nitrogenous compounds, sulphur compounds and trace elements extracted from malted barley.
Fermentation is the process by which glucose is converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide and is
expressed chemically as:

C6H12O6 + 2PO43- + 2ADP 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP


Behind this simplified chemical reaction is a series of complex biochemical reactions. This
reactions known as Glycolytic pathway involve a number of enzymes and the reactions takes
place anaerobically inside the cells of brewing yeast.

The function of the fermentation process primarily covers the transformation by yeast cells of
wort fermentable carbohydrates into alcohol, carbon dioxide, yeast mass growth and heat energy.
The yeast also produces a range of quantitatively minor metabolic products such as esters, higher
alcohols and acids in proportions, which give beer its desired flavor and aroma.

22

Clarified wort received from the brew house is cooled to fermented temperature, oxygenated
(either by air injection or oxygen injection) and pitched with yeast on route to the fermentation
vessel. At the completion of the fermentation the green beer must be ready for packaging. To
achieve this the yeast is removed from the fermenter, a period of maturation is undergone (warm
and cold) to achieve the desired flavor profile, the green beer is subjected to colloidal
stabilization (removal of potential haze forming material) typically under cold conditions before
filtration, carbonation and finally packaging.
Fermentation control parameters
The aim of fermentation control is to produce beer that is of consistent flavor and analytical
composition, whilst meeting the desired efficiency of conversion of sugars into alcohol. This
must be achieved within consistent vessel residence times.
The input parameters to be controlled include during fermentation:

Wort composition
Wort temperature
Wort dissolved oxygen concentration
Yeast pitching
Fermentation conditions (temperature and pressure)

Once the inputs are correct and the control parameters are in place then the fermentation should
continue in a uniform way. This usually includes temperature, gravity and alcohol, but may also
include pH, yeast count and diacetyl levels. The graph below shows a typical lager fermentation
profile.

Usually any trub or yeast that has settled is removed after 12-24 hours into fermentation. Yeast is
also removed towards the end of fermentation and this is known as yeast cropping
23

2.5.

FILTRATION

This is separation process in which the yeast cells and all sediments left over from brewing
process has been removed. The purpose of filtration is to make beer star-bright clarity, stability
and to ensure that all processing aids are removed from beer; the beer must be appealing to the
consumer.
The following perticles generally need to be removed from beer

Haze
Bacteria
Yeast
Silica hydrogel
Hops and grain particles

Types of beer filter


There are various types of equipment that use depth filtration. The following equipment is commonly
found in breweries:
Plate and Frame Filters
Leaf Filters Vertical and Horizontal
Candle Filters
Type of filter used at TBL is called plate and frame filter

Plate and Frame Filters


As the name suggests, plate and frame filters consist of a series of alternating plates and frames,
with filter sheets hung over both sides of the plates, which once covered with a filter cake, allow
for the filtrate to pass from the frame through the filter cloth to the plate.

This is an example of pressure filtration.


The following are the stage toward filtration process
24

First Precoat: Add precoat to form bridges over the support medium pores:

The first precoat is usually done with a coarse filter powder.


Second Precoat: Add medium filter powder to create a full filter cake.

This second precoat will generally define the particle size that can be removed. The
coarser the powder the less fine particles will be removed but the longer the filter
run will be and vice versa.
Bodyfeed Dosing: During filtration body feed is added to supplement the filter
cake.

25

The addition of body feed maintains the filter bed and ensures that the pores do not become blocked. If
this did not happen particles would pass straight through to the precoat and rapidly block it. Yeast also
helps with the body feed to extend this process

2.6.

Dilution And Carbonation

SAB is using a process called high gravity brewing. This is a process whereby the beer is
produced at a high gravity in brewhouse and maintained at the high gravity through fermentation
and storage. One of the benefits of this is that less vessels are required in fermentation and
storage which is a significant capital saving.
However, the beer needs to be diluted back to sales gravity/alcohol before entering the BBT in
preparation for packaging.

2.7.

Quality control of bright beer

Quality
Although there is quite a lot of inline measurement in the filter area the final measure is in the
BBT itself. It is usually good practice to measure at various times during the filling of the vessel
to assure that the final beer is in specification. Indeed it is virtually a crime to get beer out of
specification in BBT as it is costly in terms of time, resources, money and quality to rectify at
this late stage.
The key quality parameters to ensure are correct are:
Alcohol content (OE/RE)
These three parameters are interconnected and directly related to each other. A sample is drawn
of the beer in line and measured. Depending on the result a signal is sent to the D-water dosing
controller to adjust up or down to achieve the required alcohol content in the final product. This
is done continuously. If the inline automation is working then the only reason we can really get
out of specification is if we have diluted with flush liquor. If either the original extract (OE) or
real extract (RE) is wrong then this is likely a problem that has come from the brewhouse or
fermentation.
26

Comment [JM1]:

pH value
The pH of bright beer has a direct impact on the brand profile and has an effect on microbial
growth.
Colour
Immediate recognition by consumer.
Beer colour comes from the malt and if coloured up, the amount of dark malt or caramel
added to give the desired tint.
Caramel can also be added post filtration
Too dark beer colour for the brand can only be removed by blending.
Bitterness
Strong flavour effect and key to the brand identification.
Bitterness comes from the hops added
If the beer foams at any stage then bitterness will be lost as it collects in the foam.
Trace compounds
These are the flavour compounds formed during fermentation and maturation
Ensures beer is true to type with the correct balance of esters, diacetyl, mouth feel etc.
Excess amounts cause defects
Dissolved Oxygen
Oxygen can be picked up throughout the whole filtration process and can seriously affect flavour
stability. Gives rise to oxidation of beer.
Carbon Dioxide
Gives sparkling character in excess causes fob
An in-line dosing system samples the beer and automatically doses CO2 to achieve the in
BBT specification for the beer brand being filtered.
If the inline system is working then the beer coming to the BBT should be in specification.
Foam/head stability
A stable foam head on the beer. The rate at which it collapses is measured.
N2 aids in the head and gives foam cling to the glass. Lacing in an empty beer glass.
Clarity/Haze
This is measured by shining light through a sample of beer and measuring the scatter as it goes
through the sample. This light is measured at both 25 and 90. Generally if measured at 25 this
indicates larger particles that should have been removed by the filter as is generally termed a
measure of filter efficiency. 90 hazes are termed molecular hazes and are often invisible to
the naked eye. These hazes do not come from the filter area but from the brewhouse,
fermentation or storage.
Micro

27

A weekly CIP including all tanks, lines and additive pots, etc. It is also critical that on
completion of BBT CIP (with acid under pressure) residual detergent must be measured to avoid
product contamination. Samples can be taken from the tank at different levels.
Residence Time
The beer should ideally spend a maximum of 72 hours in BBT. Any longer than this can lead to
potential micro infection and reduction in carbon dioxide levels. Interestingly it should also
remain in tank for a minimum of 4 hours to help gas levels equilibrate.
Taste
Beer in BBT needs to conform to the flavour profile for the brand.
No off flavours present
Generally the flavour profile is rated on: Sweet, Bitter, Floral, hoppy, fruity, yeasty

2.9. PACKAGING.
Packaging is the process which involves putting beer into the bottlein which it will leave the
brewery. There two different size of long neck bottles in which beer (PSL) are filled which are
500ml bottles and 330ml bottles.
There are different processes which are conducted during packaging before filling and after
filling the beer in the bottles, in order to ensure the effective packaging by avoiding any
contamination and to meet the market requirement. Those processes are:

Bottle washing and inspection


Bottle filling
Pasteurization
Labeling and date coding.

2.7.1. BOTTLE WASHING AND INSPECTION.


Both new bottles and old bottles returned from the market are washed before filled with beer.
The new and returned bottles are run separately during washing. Because during washing the
bottles are fed in the Bottle washer, where they pass through the pre-rinse in which any particles
and dust are removed, and then entered in the tank with the predetermined caustic solution
concentration which differ depends on the bottles which are passed at that time for old bottle
concentration is 2.0%-2.3%and 2% for new bottles, conductivity 140-150ms and temperature of
800C for old bottle and 700C for new bottle. After passed in the hot caustic solution then they are
rinsed through a series of warm water jetting and finally fresh water jetting so as to deriver clean
and sterilized bottle.
Then the cleaned bottle is passed in the sighter where they inspected manually by sighter
operator against illuminated background, in which he remove bottles which are uncleaned,
foreign capped, broken, having labels attached and those having foreign objects. From the sighter
28

bottles are passed in the EBI machine which is the last inspection point on the packaging line it
contain different sensor and deflector which help in detecting and removing bottles which have,
chipped neck, base foreign bodies, cap, liquid residual, too tall, too short bottles and those with
caustic. This process ensures that the correct type of bottle (long neck) is being used.
2.7.2. BOTTLES FILLING.
Bottle from the empty bottle inspector EBI machine are transferred to the filler machine through
conveyor, and the bright beer from the BBT is transferred to the packaging where it passed
through the strainer and trap filter to ensure no particles carryover to the bottle before entered to
the filler bowl. The bottles are placed on the filling head where they are vacuumed and counter
pressured with carbon dioxide twice to ensure that all air is eliminated. Then the beer is filled
into the bottles according to the specified volume and is immediately sealed with the crown cork
in order to avoid air to enter to the bottle.
The filled beer (PSL) is passed through the check mat in which uncorked bottles, under fills and
over fills bottles are rejected on line at full bottle inspector (FBI).

2.7.3. PASTEURIZATION.
Pasteurization is the process which used to stop microbial and yeast growth that might remain in
the bottles after packaging. This process involves running the beer bottle along the conveyor in
the pasteurizer and spraying of water on it. The sprays are arranged so that the bottles are
subjected to increasingly hot water, starting from ambient water, to warm water of 45 0C, then in
the 540C water and finally in the 600C water which is the pasteurization temperature that the beer
in the bottles are supposed to be reached. The bottles are kept at this holding temperature and
then gradually cooled as cold as possible with water until they are discharged from the
pasteurizer. These temperature changes have made in order to prevent the bottles from breaking
and the whole process takes about 45 min for bottle to enter and to be discharged from the
pasteurizer.
2.7.4. LABELING AND DATE CODING.
Labeling is the process involves putting labels on the bottles for brand identification and to carry
information required by law. In which the labels are fed into the labeler magazines of body, back
and neck labels which are glued by the glue pallets and then dressed over the bottles by the
gripper cylinder and brushes.
From the labeler the correctly labeled bottles are passed to the date code machine in which
passing across the sensors, then to the nozzle of the machine where the correct dates ie.
Manufactured date and expired date and place where beer is produced ie. Dar es Salaam is
printed on the bottle.
After passed through the date code, the bottles goes to packer machine then is sent to the storage
unit ready to be taken to the market.

29

3. UTILITIES
3.1. CO2 RECOVERY PLANT
CO2 as byproduct of fermentation, also it is among important main raw material of beer, CO2 is
very important in beer making for increasing shelf life of beer. CO2 which is used in filtration,
pushing beer from fermentation vessels to frame and plate filter. Also it used in packaging (filler
machine). CO2 collected from two different parts: CO2 which is recovery from fermentation
vessels and the one which they buy from CO2 producers
Fermentation is a biological process in sugar such as glucose, fructose and sucrose are converted
into cellular energy and there by produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as the metabolic waste
product. Because yeasts perform this conversion in the absence of oxygen, alcoholic
fermentation is considered an anaerobic process.
C6H12O6 + Zymase 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2

Main part of carbon dioxide recovery plant


i) Fermentation vessels (cellars)
These are the vessels on which the collections of co2 begin simply because the
fermentation process takes place inside. The Co2 is collected from the top of the cellars
as it has low density compared to alcohol and the pressure generated inside the vessels.
The pressure of Co2 inside the vessels depend on its production based on the
fermentation process.
ii) Foam wanner (Trap)
This is a device used to remove foam that come with Co2 from cellars. It is tank in shape
with a spraying water coil inside the tank
iii) CO2 Scrubber
This is device that absorb all incompressible gasses and other unwanted material carried
from foam trap and fermenter vessels (cellers). It is used to remove remain foam and all
other gasses that present together with CO2, it is tank in shape with number of coil of
spraying water at the center and at the top of the tank.
iv) CO2 compressor
This is equipment which compressing CO2 gas from 1bar to final pressure of 17bars. The
compression is done in two stages and depending on plant capacity. After each stage of
compression cooling is installed. The inter cooler after cool gas from the first and second stages
respectively. The media used for inter and after cooling is grycol. The Compressors starts when
gas balloon is filling up to 100% level and stops when level comes down up to 19-20%.

30

v) CO2 drier
This is the device used to remove all content of water and moisture present in carbon
dioxide. It compose of activated carbon that act as the absorbent of moisture. The
presence of water in CO2 affect the whole process of condensation, for the safety of
liquefier all moisture must correctly remove. When the performance of the drier is low
the CIP is done flushing it with steam to reactivate the carbon.
vi) CO2 purifier
This is device to remove all unwanted gasses like sulphur present in collected carbon
dioxide. It consist of silica that trap other gasses except CO 2.
vii) CO2 fine filter
It is the place where all other small (fine) particles are removed. It consist of very fine
filters.
viii)
CO2 reboiler
It is heat exchanger on which the CO2 from fine filter is pre cooled before reaching in the
condenser (liquefier). At this place the liquid CO2 from liquefier act as the refrigerant
that exchange heat against gas CO2.
ix) CO2 liquifier (condenser)
This is a heat exchanger that used to convert CO2 gas into CO2 liquid. This condenser
uses ammonia refrigeration system to exchanger heat with carbon dioxide. The ammonia
goes to the condenser with temperature about -32oC.
x) CO2 storage tank
Liquid CO2 Tanks and Carbon Dioxide Tanks provide intrinsically passive and safe
environment and eradicates the possibility of liquid vaporization through handling CO2
liquid possesses various challenges, due to its inherent physical properties like high
pressure and very low temperatures, is taken into consideration while designing the
facilities.
xi) CO2 vapourizer
This is heat exchanger used to evaporate the liquid CO2 to gas CO2 and then send it to
service tank ready to be distributed to the customers.
xii) CO2 service tank
This tank used as a supplier to the customers and act as pressure regulator. The main
customers are fermentation, filtration and packaging.

31

3.2. COMPRESSED AIR PLANT


Air is the Earths atmosphere. It is the clear gas in which living things live and breathe. It has
an indefinite shape and volume, it has no color or smell, but it has mass and weight. Air is a
mixture of 78.03% Nitrogen, 20.99% Oxygen, 0.03%Carbondioxide, 0.01% Hydrogen and
o.94% noble gases.
Air compressed are used in a variety of industries to supply process requirements, to operate
pneumatic tools and equipment, and to meet instrumentation needs. Only 10-30% of energy
reaches the point of end-use, and balance 70-90% of energy of the power of the prime mover
being converted to unusable heat energy and to a lesser extent lost in form of friction, misuse and
noise.
Main parts of compressed air plant
i) Air compressor
Air compressor is a device that converts power (usually from electric motor or diesel
engine) into the kinetic energy by compressing and pressurizing air which can be released
in quick brusts.
ii) Air drier
Air dryer is the device for removing water vapor from compressed air. The process of Air
compression concentrates atmospheric contaminants, including water vapor. The
condensation occur within the pipes as the compressed air cools downstream of the
compressor.
Excess water in compressed air, in either liquid or vapor phase, can cause the following
problem

freezing of outdoor air lines

Corrosion in piping and equipment

Malfunctioning of pneumatic process control instruments

Fouling of processes and product

formation of rust and scaling


Water vapor is removed from compressed air to prevent condensation from occurring and to prevent
moisture from interfering in sensitive industrial processes

iii) Air filter


Air filter is a device composed of fibrous materials which removes solid particles such as
dust, pollen mold and bacteria.
iv) Air receiver
Air receiver is the storage medium between the compressor and the consumption system.
Also it play a great role control and protect the whole system of compressed air.
In a compressed air system, a receiver tank provides the following benefits

The receiver tank acts as a reservoir of compressed air for peak demand

The receiver tank help to remove water from the system by allowing the air a chance
to cool

The receiver help to regulate pressure and gives the constant pressure to system

32

3.3. REFIGERATION PLANT


The whole of the brewery process comprises of heating and cooling in order to achieve the
required processing temperatures. Refrigeration is used only where no other method of cooling
can be used, for example to cool wort to a temperature below that achievable by use of the
brewery cold water supply. Refrigeration is necessary to achieve those low processing
temperatures required for fermentation cooling, maturation, filtration and packaging of beers.
Refrigeration is expensive and is probably the largest single cost in a brewerys energy budget,
accounting for between 40% and 60% of the electricity use.
At TBL there are two refrigeration system

Ammonia refrigeration system


Grycol refrigeration system

These refrigeration system perform different activities like;


i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Cooling (chilling) of water


Control fermentation process
Used for preservation bright beer in BBT
To control temperature in yeast storage room

33

3.4. WATER TREATMENT PLANT


Water is the most important raw material for beer making. Water act as the backbone of brewing
industries simply because all process depend on water activity. In order to maintain the quality of
beer, clean water is needed. Therefore In order to have clean water, collected water must pass several
steps for treatment. At Tanzania breweries Limited there are three different ways of cleaning water
mentioned: service water plant, RO plant and effluent plant (recovery waste water). The two water
treatment plant (service water plant & RO plant) receive water from two external; DAWASCO and
Bore hole (winners).

Common impurities in water


Water is always contaminated with impurities which originate from the environment. Common
impurities found in water may be generalized as one or combination of the following;

Water

to

Suspended matter
Dissolved gases
Dissolved mineral salts
Dissolved gases
Organic substances
be
fed
to
boiler

must

be

free

from

these

impurities.

Water treatment process


1. Removal of suspended matter (filtration)
This is the process done where Suspended matter is removed from water by means of
sand filters in which layers of fine sand arranged at the top followed with coarse sand and
graded nozzle at the bottom.
Flocculants (coagulation reagents) such as Al2(SO4)3.18H2O in solution are normally
dosed to water before enters the filtration unit. The amount of the coagulant dosed to
water is normally based on the amount of suspended matter present.
2. Removal of scale forming impurities softening
This is the process of removing hardness from water by using softeners. Hardness is
mainly caused by calcium and magnesium salts. The industrial process softeners operated
with standard method irrespective of the mechanical arrangement of the column and
softeners contain resin which consists of an insoluble organic polymer which contains
part of its structure sulphonic acid groups -SO3. The methods of operating softeners are
softening, regeneration, backwash and rinsing.
3. Removal of salts and dissolved minerals
This is process of removing all salts and other dissolved mineral, through the means of
Reverse Osmosis. These is achieved by means of forcing salt from side of low
concentration to higher concentration region. The efficient of RO membrane is 75% and
the 25% of water is rost with high concentration of salts.

34

3.5.

STEAM GENERATION (BOILER)

The temperature on which water boil is called boiling point. When water is heated to Boiling
temperature and then the excess heat is supplied, steam is produced. The boiling point increases
with increase pressure. The device that can be used to create (produce) steam from water is
called BOILER. A boiler is a closed vessels (heat exchanger) in which water under high pressure
is convert into steam by heat produced in the combustion chamber by fuel (Diesel and natural
Gas).
Types of Boiler
i)
ii)

fire tube boiler


water tube boiler

The type of boiler that used at TBL is fire tube boiler.

Boiler operation
The water that is supposed to be feed in the boiler must be free from hardness, total dissolved
solid and also less amount of dissolved oxygen. The specific treatment of the boiler water must
be done in order to prevent scaling and corrosion of the boiler internal surface as well as tubes.
Water from the RO plant and Effluent plant passes through the softeners for hardness removal,
then dosed with antiscalant (caustic soda) and oxygen scavenger. Thereafter water it meets with
the condensates (recovery steam) from all processing unit and fed to the feed tank. From the feed
tank it moves to the boiler tank. When the boiler tank is full the valves close automatically. But
since the high pressure pump is working for 24 hours water passing through high pressure
pump is recycled to the boiler feed tank standby to feed water in boiler. In the water boils at
300C to produces team which is used in brew house in the cereal cooker, mush turn and wort
kettle.
Fire in the boiler tank is propelled by natural gas and air from the forced draft fans. The exhaust
gas are given out and the steam escape to the places known as chimney.
35

4. PROJECT
Title: TEMPERATURE VARIATION DUE TO FOULING RESISTANCE IN WORT
COOLER

4.1. INTRODUCTION
The aim of TBL Company is assurance on the improvement of heat and mass transfer in wort so
as to produce the quality and competitive product to meet the standards of the world market.
Wort cooler is the plate heat exchanger that used to cool wort from high temperature to low
temperature for other process to continue. Wort cooling process begins after the end of whirlpool
in brew house and the collection of the wort in the fermentation vessel. Wort cooler consists of
plates in which heat exchange between two fluids of different type with different parameters
takes place. These two fluids do not mix, the plate acts as the media to transfer heat from one
fluid to another. Heat energy is transmitted from high temperature fluid (wort) to low
temperature fluid (water). This process would appear to be very simple, but if not managed
correctly it can lead to serious negative consequences for the beer quality. Wort is to be cooled
from temperature about 1000C to 7-10oC depending on the type of the brand processed. The wort
must possess low temperature to allow oxygenation and yeast pitching to take place for the
fermentation process. This is optimum temperature for the yeast generation and for the required
flavor development.

Wort Cooling
Flow Meter
Chilled Water in

Hot Wort In

Sampling Cock

Flow Meter
Sight Glass

Cold Wort out

O2 / Air In

Hot Water Out

DO Measurement

36

4.2. THEORY
Most of the breweries cool their wort through enclosed stainless steel tubular or plate heat
exchanges. Wort cooling is the process whereby the hot wort from whirlpool is passed through a
chiller on its way to the fermentation process. The hot wort is cooled down to a temperature
required for the yeast pitching. The heat exchangers are designed to operate with the counter
current flow for optimum heat transfer with the principal cooling media being the brewing water
(as the diagram below). It usual to collect the approximately an equal volume of water, between
90-950C to the volume of wort cooled. Usually wort exit from water stage of heat exchanger
(chiller) with the temperature about 7-120C (depending on the incoming water temperature and
its flow rates). If the lower collection temperatures are required, then the water used for cooling
can be pre-cooled to around 40C or a glycol cooling section can be added to the wort cooler. The
wort collection temperature is usually a function of the yeast used and the brand of beer being
produced. In traditional breweries with open or unlagged vessels, which are more influenced by
ambient weather conditions, the collection temperatures may be slightly adjusted with weather
and seasons. In modern breweries the collection temperature it is the function of yeast
generation depending on the type of the brand used.
Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.
The fouling material can consist of either living organisms (bio fouling) or a non- living
substance (inorganic or organic). Effect of fouling on the heat exchange surface; reduces thermal
efficiency, decreases heat flux, increases temperature in hot side, decreases temperature on the
cold side and also increases use of cooling water. As the result of the effect of fouling on the
thermal and heat exchanger, an additional cost is added to the industrial processes. Energy
losses, lost productivity, manpower and cleaning expenses cause immense costs.

The diagram showing the counter current flow of wort with respect to water

37

4.3. OBJECTIVE
The objective of this project is to minimize the effect of fouling resistance formation, to
minimize these effects required determination of the fouling factor in a plate heat exchanger with
comparison between required and provided parameters (temperature, pressure and flow rate)
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

To determine the temperature of the leaving water from the chiller affected by the wort
which entered with 1000C and constantly leaving the chiller at 90C
To determine the fouling behavior (with the changes of operational parameters) during
running time, temperature differences and feed flow rates between cold water versus hot
wort entering the chiller

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT


In the process of beer manufacture a large amount of process heat is used at various stages.
Cooling of wort is very important process for the good fermentation process to take place. Wort
must be cooled to the low temperature to allow dissolving of oxygen to take place and also to
prevent damage of yeast by high temperature.
The common problem that encountered during cooling process is scaling (the formation of
deposits on heat transfer surfaces). The deposit are of low thermal heat conductivity and their
presence result to the reduction in both heat transfer efficiency and wort flow rate. To improve

38

both energy or heat transfer and wort flow rate inside wort cooler (chiller), the periodic cleaning
is necessary (CIP).

4.4. CALCULATION AND RESULTS


4.4.1. DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURE OF THE LEAVING WATER FROM THE CHILLER
Total heat transfer from wort to the chilled water
Heat gain by water(B)=Heat loss by wort (A)

Assumptions

no heat losses in wort cooler (chiller)


negligible fluctuation in the flow rate of both water and wort in the chiller
Specific heat capacity of Wort (Cp)A = Specific heat capacity of Water (Cp)B

Given
TA2=1000C
TB2=X

TA1=90C
TB1=40C

mA=Wort flow rate


mB=Water flow rate

X= is the temperature of the water from the chiller (wort cooler plate heat exchanger)
mB*(Cp)B*(X-4)=mA*(Cp)A*(100-9)
(Cp)B=(Cp)A
mB*(X-4)=mA*(100-9)
X= mA*(100-9)/mB + 4

39

Wort collection time of single brew is 50 minutes


Brew length (volume) =660hl =66m3

The below tables showing both flow rates of water and wort entering the chiller, also show the
temperature of water leaving the chiller

Flow rates of both wort and water recorded day 1


No. OF BREW WORT FLOW RATE WATER FLOW RATE WATER TEMP. OUT
(hl/h)
(hl/h)
OF COOLER (O C)
1
683.82
652.28
95.4
2

641.6

641.6

91.2

640.1

640.1

91.4

639.4

639.4

91.0

621.29

621.29

89.6

604.52

604.5

88.3
o

The average temperature out of the wort cooler is 91.2 C

Flow rates of both wort and water recorded day 2


No. OF BREW WORT FLOW RATE WATER FLOW RATE WATER TEMP. OUT
(hl/h)
(hl/h)
OF COOLER (O C)
1
626.60
658.9
89.7
2

627.30

657.08

89.9

625.50

656.21

89.9

597.00

655.57

87

624.40

657.91

90.3

635.12

656.78

88

The average water temperature out of the wort cooler is 89.1oC

40

Flow rates of both wort and water recorded day 3


No. OF BREW WORT FLOW RATE WATER FLOW RATE WATER TEMP. OUT
(hl/h)
(hl/h)
OF COOLER (O C)
1
587.47
660
85
2

584.60

665

84

593.82

659

86

588.29

645

87

550.39

634

83

612

663

88
o

The average water temperature out of the wort cooler is 85.5 C

Flow rates of both wort and water recorded day 4


No. OF BREW WORT FLOW RATE WATER FLOW RATE WATER TEMP. OUT
(hl/h)
(hl/h)
OF COOLER (O C)
1
556.8
649
82
2

58.85

625

81

512.0

590

83

455

560

78

546

654

80

477.19

579

79
o

The average water temperature out of the wort cooler is 80.2 C

41

4.4.2. DETERMINATION OF FOULING BEHAVIOR DURING RUNNING TIME (with the change of
operational parameters, ie temperature differences and fluid flow rates)
The fouling behavior can be determine by observing the drop (variation) in temperature. The
experiment show that as the days goes the temperature become low, this prove that the rate of
fouling formation increase day to day.

Table of result
No of days
1
2
3
4

Temperature of the water out the


chiller
91.2
89.1
85.5
80.2

The graph of water temperature (oC)


against no. of days
water temperature(oC)

92
90
88
86
84
82
80
78
0

no of days

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4.5. DISCUSSION
From the calculation above variation and drop in temperature is caused by fouling formation that
reduce the transfer of heat from one fluid to another. To minimize this effect the flow of the
chilled must be increased, so as to obtain the required wort temperature. The temperature
variation of the water from the wort is affected by chilled water flow rate.
The following are the possible causes of the fouling formation on the plate surface of the wort
cooler.
IMPROPER CONVERSION OF STARCH IN THE MASH TUN

The purpose of brewing is to convert the starch source into a sugary liquid called wort and
convert the wort into the alcohol beverage known as beer in the fermentation process affected by
yeast. Wort is prepared by the mixing the source (normally malted barley) with hot water is
known as mashing hot water (liquor in brewing term) is mixed with crushed malt or malts in
mash tun. Then mashing process takes place around 1 to2 hours, during which the starches are
converted to simple sugar and then the sweet wort is drained off the grains. The effect of the
improper
INSUFFICIENT CONVERSION IN LAUTER TUN

Lautering is a process in brewing beer in which the mash is separated into the clear liquid wort
and the residue grains. Lautering is a fairly simple process, but also very important one. No
matter how well a brewers grain are mashed, if the mash is not lautered correctly the extract will
not be realized, leading to low gravities, lower alcohol level and high deposition rate in wort
cooler. The higher content of the spent grain present in wort incease the rate of the fouling
materials on plate surface and they can lead to the blockage of the chiller (plate heat exchanger)
TRUBS CARRY OVER IN WHIRL POOL

At the end of boiling, the wort is sent in whirl pool. The so called tea cup effect forces the denser
solid (coagulation proteins, vegetable matter from hops) into the cone in the center of the whirl
pool tank. These tank must have large diameter to encourage settling, a tangential inlet near the
bottom of the whirl pool and an outlet on the bottom near the outer edge of the whirlpool. The
trubs escape from whirl pool can increase the rate of deposition and blockage of the wort cooler.
IMPROPER CLEANLESS OF PLATE SURFACE (SURFACE)

Cleaning in place (CIP) involve cleaning of chiller by flowing water and caustic soda in the
opposite direction to the normal flow of the wort, then flushing with hot water. The improper
cleaning of the chiller can allow easily deposition of new material and ca lead to blockage of
wort cooler.
MINIMUM FLOW RATE OF THE WORT
Wort flow rate is the speed of the amount of wort flowing in chiller based on the hectoliter per hour.

The flow rate of the wort can affect the rate fouling formation. The minimum flow rate can
increase the rate of deposition due to high rentation time.
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4.6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


From the average calculated of water temperature leaving the wort cooler, the results become to
decrease from day to day (day 1=91.2oC, day 2=89.1oC, day 3=85.5oC and day 4=80.4oC). This
drop in temperature show that there are periodic formation fouling material on the heat transfer
surface and affect the performance of wort cooler. These drop in temperature means the
consumption of chilled water (brewing cold water) is high.
Since the cost of production of chilled water is high, several improvements must be done in order
to minimize the consumption of chilled water.
In order to minimize the effect of fouling formation in wort cooler and increase its efficiency the
following must be done

Periodic checking of the conversion in mash tun


Control parameters in lauter tun to make sure there is proper filtration
Proper CIP of wort cooler
Operation of wort cooler at maximum flow rate to avoid fouling formation

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5. REFERENCES
Brewers hand book
TBL learner workbook General brewing process

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