Sie sind auf Seite 1von 27

# Renewables

## This lecture and next

Hydroelectric power
Solar energy
Wind turbines
Wave &Tidal
Geothermal

Example problems

Hydroelectric power

Hydroelectric power
Gravitational energy -> flow -> turbine -> El.
Electric power production:
P ghqk

P : Power (W)
: density (998 kg/m3)
h : height (m)
q : flow rate (m3/s)
g : gravity acceleration (9.8 m/s2)
k : efficiency coefficient

Example
What is the power generation of a dam operating with a flow
rate of q = 100 m3/s, with a net head (height) of h = 150 m. The
turbine is 85 % efficient.

P ghqk

P : Power (W)
: density (998 kg/m3)
h : height (m)
q : flow rate (m3/s)
g : gravity acceleration (9.8 m/s2)
k : efficiency coefficient

P = 998 x
9.8 x 150 x 100 x 0.85 = 124,700,100 W = 124.7 MW

Units: kg m2 s-3 = W

Hydroelectricity
No CO2 emission
Most widely used renewable (2.3% of total)

## Competitive: low cost per kWh.

Environmental impact: Changes river system.
Destroys local habitats. Areas submerged.

## Three Gorges Dam

Worlds largest power station: 22.5 GW capacity.
Avoids 100 million tonnes CO2 emission by replacing coal.

## Solar Photovoltaics (PV)

Generates electricity directly from solar radiation.
Third most installed renewable (after hydro and wind).

## Total installed capacity: 140 GW

36.8% annual growth

## The photovoltaic effect

pn-junction: separates negative and positive charges
generated by photons.
Charge build-up generates a voltage
Current flows in external circuit.

PV systems
PV panel

PV cell

PV system

PV farm

Efficiency: typical 15 20 %

Example 1
On a sunny summer day the solar irradiance is I = 1 kW/m2. What is the
power output of a 10 m2 PV array on the roof of a house? The efficiency
of the PV array is 12%

P = AI = 0.12 x 10 x 1 = 1.2 kW

## Regulator and conversion efficiencies also factor in

Example 2
Annual solar energy output: E = A H PR
where
E = Energy (kWh)
A = Total solar panel Area (m)
= solar array efficiency (%) (at standard test conditions)
H = Annual average solar radiation on tilted panels
PR = Performance ratio, coefficient for losses (range between 0.5 and 0.9)

Calculate annual solar energy output for the module in example 1, when
H = 1000 kWh/m2, and the performance ratio is PR = 0.75

## E = 10 x 0.12 x 1000 x 0.75 = 900 kWh per year

Solar thermal
Solar energy produces heat for domestic hot water
(DHW) or space heating.

## Solar thermal flat plate collector

Heat carrier fluid (water or air) transports heat to heat
reservoir.

## Flat panel heat output

Heat output: Q = (Absorbed energy heat loss) x Area
Heat output: Q = [I U(Tp Ta)]A
where
: transmittance of cover plate
: absorbtance of absorber plate
U : heat loss coefficient (kW/(deg C m2)
Tp : Mean absorber temperature (deg C)
Ta : ambient temperature (deg C)
A : collector area (m2)

## Concentrated solar power

Sunlight is concentrated by mirrors or lenses to a small absorber
area and converted to heat. A heat engine converts the heat to
electric power.

Power tower

Parabolic dish

Parabolic trough

Solar energy
+ Renewable
+ No pollution (except manufacture and transport)
+ Can be used in remote areas
+ Surplus energy can be sold to grid
- Intermittent supply. Requires storage
- Cost of solar cells high (but decreasing rapidly)
- Not equally distributed energy

Solar Energy
Photovoltaics: Solar energy converted directly into
electricity. Internal electric field separates mobile charge
carriers generated through absorption of photons.

## Solar heat: Solar energy converted to low temperature

heat used for e.g. DHW and space heating. Collector
efficiency depends on optical properties and heat loss.

## Concentrated solar power: Sunlight is concentrated by

mirrors or lenses to a small absorber area and
converted to heat. A heat engine converts the heat to
electric power.

Wind power

## 2013: 320 GW installed capacity

12.7% annual growth

Wind power
Convert kinetic energy of wind to
electricity.
Kinetic energy:

1 2
E mv
2

Wind power
Kinetic Energy:

1 2
E mv
2

## What is the wind mass?

1
Which gives: E Atv 3
2
What is the power of the wind?

E
P
t

1
3
P Av
2

Turbine efficiency
The efficiency of the wind turbine must be
factored in.
Theoretical limit: Betz Limit = 59.3 %
Conversion efficiency: e.g. 70%

## Power coefficient: Cp = 0.593 x 0.7 = 0.42

Turbine power generation:

1
3
Pel Av Cp
2

Example
What is the power generated by a wind turbine with rotor blade length
of 50 m when the wind speed is 12 m/s? The turbines power coefficient
is Cp = 0.4, and the density of air is 1.23 kg/m3.

1
Pel Av 3Cp
2
Cross-sectional area:

A R 2

= 7850 m2

Power generation:

1
Pel Av 3Cp = 0.5 x 1.23 x 7850 x 123 x 0.4
2
= 3.3 MW