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Opportunities to enhance

capital productivity
Mining and metals megaprojects

Contents
03
Why spending millions in up-front planning, engineering and
design is not driving improved predictability and control
Cost and schedule control: a key risk and major opportunity
Capital megaprojects: declining but still massive

05
Drilling down to the core issues and causes
Scarce capital driving a focus on capital productivity
The devastating impact on capital productivity
The impact of overruns

09
Achieving capital productivity
Addressing the risks
Driving improved predictability and control
Implementing effective governance and reporting frameworks
Allocating adequate cost and time contingency
Enhancing the value of contingency planning

14
Conclusion

15
How EY can help

Why spending millions in up-front planning$ engineering and


design is not driving improved predictability and control
Cost and schedule control: a key risk and
major opportunity
The productivity of invested capital is a key issue for CEOs across the
_loZal einin_ sector& This focus reects the si_nicance$ and the
challen_e$ of achievin_ predictaZle return on investeent outcoees
when delivering complex multibillion dollar asset developments. New
data captured through a recent global study by EY has revealed that
overruns to the sanctioned budget and schedule commitments are the
norm with our global megaprobect sample group$ showing an average
budget overrun of a staggering 62%.
With projects of this scale, every overrun
impacts total shareholder return, ROCE,
capital productivity, corporate
performance and strategic outcomes. In
turn, overrun risks are driving an
unprecedented level of scrutiny on the
project, program and portfolio disciplines
of cost and schedule control.

62%

average
budget overrun
on megaprojects

Based on our study results, EY has


developed a root cause model to analyze
the drivers of overruns and capital
productivity impacts. Some of the ndings
are predictable; others are surprising.
Overruns occur despite large investments
by mining and metals companies to
enhance up-front engineering practices
and increase delivery maturity. We believe
that there are overlooked opportunities to
signicantly enhance delivery control.
We have identied three critical enablers
for preventing cost and schedule overruns

that are often de-prioritized and


underinvested:
Flagging of emerging risks:
implementing governance, and
reporting frameworks with lead
indicators that reliably ag emerging
risks while they can still be efciently
mitigated
Adequate cost and time contingency:
allocating cost and time contingency
across the projects life cycle to avoid
risk-driven budget and schedule
variances
Scenario planning: enhancing the
value of contingency planning through
enhanced delivery scenario planning
Complemented by a broad uplift in
delivery-discipline maturity, these enablers
have real potential to signicantly improve
capital productivity realization.
In this paper, we will:
Epplore the surprising ndings of
our study
Propose a root cause model
Examine key considerations in applying
these critical enabling techniques

Opportunities to enhance capital productivity |

Capital megaprojects: declining but


still massive
Falling commodity prices and a rising supply surplus are ushering
in a period of restraint in capital project investment across the
global mining and metals sector. Fumerous high-prole projects
have been scrapped, shelved or sent back for re-planning, with a
recent study identifying aggregate cuts in capital expenditure of
more than US$27b since January 2012. Following a robust peak
in growth of 27% in 2012, mining and metals capital spending
declined by 10% in 2013 and is expected to have dipped by a
further 15% over 2014.1
Despite the reduction in capital spending, projects continue to be
developed because of the long lead times of approvals and
construction and the need to prepare the next wave of supply to
be available as the cyclical upswing inevitably occurs. For
organizations in the mining and metals sector, the funding,
planning and delivery of capital projects is core business and a key
element of effective business strategy that must continue
throughout the economic cycle.

Global mining and metals capex (US$b)


142
127
108
96

2012

1. Riding The Rising Tide of Global Growth, Deutsche Bank research, 19 February 2014, via Thomson One.

| Opportunities to enhance capital productivity

2013

2014f

2015f

Source: EY analysis; Engineering and Mining Journals annual survey of


mining investment; Riding the rising tide of global growth, Deutsche Bank,
19 February 2014, via Thomson One.

Drilling down to the core issues and causes


Scarce capital driving a focus on capital
productivity
The competition for capital project funding within organizations is now
ercer than ever. With fewer projects progressing through investment
gates$ a stronger focus has been put on portfolio prioritization to
ensure that projects that do proceed deliver the gains in capital
productivity and strategic outcomes$ which are desired and required by
boards and investors.
;YhalYdhjg\m[lanalq\]falagf
Capital productivity is a measure of
the effectiveness and efciency of
capital investments in generating
operational outputs, and is dened by
the Australian Bureau of Statistics as
the ratio of output to capital input.
In short, capital productivity assesses
value for money on a multibillion
dollar scale.

There are two key levers for companies to


enhance their capital productivity
performance:
1. Minimized and predictable input
through controlled project delivery
2. Maximized and sustainable output
through earlier asset operationalization
(e.g., schedule acceleration) or
operational efciency (e.g., improved
equipment availability and utilization
processes and skills)
Successful capital mining projects drive
enhanced capital productivity outcomes by
addressing both these levers inputs are
controlled and output efciency is

designed-in simultaneously. In contrast,


at-risk capital projects commonly face
challenges of both input ination (such
as cost and schedule variance) and
compromised output performance (such
as operational impacts of poor design).
Capital productivity is a two-part
relationship that can work to a projects
advantage or detriment.
An issue of great concern to executives
globally is that productivity, on both
volume and cost basis has been declining
signicantly in the mining and metals
industry since 2000. This trend was
highlighted in EYs recent report,
Productivity in mining: now comes the hard
part, and reects the legacy of prioritizing
production growth and revenue uplift
during an unprecedented boom in
commodity prices a volume rst
approach. Decisions resulting in
productivity trade-offs may have been
commercially viable during the boom
period but are often no longer acceptable
currently. The capital productivity index
graph shows the consistent trend of
declining capital productivity over the past
two decades in Australia.

Opportunities to enhance capital productivity |

Mining

201213

201112

201011

200910

200809

200708

200607

200506

200405

200304

Strategic and external environment changes, such as commodity


price movements, can have direct and signicant impacts on
capital projects and investment planning. EYs view is that there is
a dynamic relationship between changing external drivers,
business strategy formulation, portfolio prioritization and project
delivery strategy and governance design. During each of these
steps, capital delivery organizations benet from regularly
realigning to the external environment and corresponding
strategic drivers.
200203

200102

200001

199900

199899

199798

199697

199596

200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

199495

Capital Productivity Index

All sectors

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 19 February 2014, via Thomson One.

EYs view of the dynamic relationship for capital project and investment planning
Drivers

Capital projects and investment planning


Strategic
drivers/issues
in the external
environment

Portfolio
prioritization

Business strategy

What

Why

Project/program
delivery strategy
and governance

How

Assessment

Commodity prices
Economic conditions
Technological evolution
Political environment

Setting business
direction for sustainable
competitive advantage

In the mining and metals sector, executives must balance


potentially volatile external drivers with large-scale investment
proles and long-term delivery time frames. These organizations
must be sufciently agile to adapt to emerging factors and
external conditions and continually reassess their capital portfolio
and delivery strategy decisions. Exceptional results are achieved
not only by ensuring successful project delivery, but also by
ensuring projects remain aligned to business strategy throughout
their investment and delivery life cycle.

| Opportunities to enhance capital productivity

Prioritizing projects by
allocating capital in-line
with strategic objectives

Delivery strategy and


governance designed
to achieve capital
productivity in line with
corporate risk tolerance
and external drivers

The devastating impact on capital


productivity
A recent EY study of projects in the mining and metals sector
(October 2014) surveyed 108 projects at various stages across
the investment and project delivery life cycle (proposed, awaiting
Final Investment Decision (FID), in construction or ready to Go
Live). Cumulatively, these projects represented global
investments of US$367b, with each individual project exceeding
US$1b and relating to the development of copper, iron ore, gold,
coal, nickel and other commodities.

Our analysis found that cost and time overruns were not
correlated to whether a project had reached FID, nor were they
restricted to a particular commodity or region. Of all the global
regions reviewed, Oceania experienced the highest level of
average budget overruns. Contributing factors across the sample
set included:

Despite an estimated US$20$55b* being


spent globally in up-front engineering and
design, average budget overruns were 62%,
and 50% of projects were reporting delays.

Labor costs
*Projected up-front engineering and design spend in the typical range of 5%15%

EPCM and contractors


Industrial relations

Our research found that the majority of these projects were


delayed and/or over budget when measured against the initial
estimates made during the early stages of the project life cycle,
such that:

Overvalued currency
Logistical challenges of remote geographies

69% of surveyed projects were facing cost overruns with an


average cost overrun of 62% above initial estimate (where
cost data was available).
50% of projects were reporting schedule delays even after
remedial acceleration initiatives had been applied.

Geographic distribution of investment

US$52b

North America

Europe

Asia

US$147b

US$23b

US$33b

Latin America

US$26b

Oceania

Africa

Copper

Iron ore

Gold

Coal

Nickel

US$87b

Others

Source: EY research and analysis


Note: This denotes the net amount of investment in the pipeline as at October 2014.

Opportunities to enhance capital productivity |

The impact of overruns


Higher commodity prices in the past few decades have concealed
the impact of declining productivity as well as the consequences
of budget and schedule overruns. Many of the analyzed projects
were approved when commodity prices were on a trajectory
cyclical upswing. Recent volatility, and a downward trend, in
commodity prices have rendered many of these projects high on
the cost curve, with some performing above the marginal cost of
production, given the current prices.
As leaner corporate prot margins, constrained capital availability
and greater investor demand for capital discipline continue to be
key decision-making considerations, executive appetite for cost
and schedule variations is low. Mining and metals organizations
must understand the factors that lead to project schedule and cost
overruns, and adequately plan to successfully manage and deliver
their projects. Continuing the current trend of poor capital
productivity, performance is not consistent with adequate returns
into the future.

Many of the projects studied that experienced overruns were


agship projects for major global mining and metals companies.
A number of these projects made media headlines due to their
underperformance. For example:
A major copper and gold operation in Central Asia: The
National Finance Minister had been quoted as saying: No
one understands why the project has gone US$2b over
budget.
A major iron ore project in Brazil: To date, the project
has experienced an overrun from the initial estimate of
approximately 690%. The chief executive ofcer of the
company has gone on record to say that they are working
very hard to ensure no more delays or cost overruns on the
project.
A Brazilian megaproject: This project saw capital costs
escalate from US$3.6b in 2007 to US$8.8b in 2013. Media
sources have described this investment as one of this
organizations most signicant failures of recent years.

Whats causing the problem?


1. Project
management
factors

2. Stakeholder
conicts

3. Resource
constraints

4. Regulatory
and policy-related
challenges

5. Unfavorable
external
environment

Inadequate
planning

Conicts between
project operators
and the
government

Human capital
decit

Health, safety
and environment
(HSE) compliances

Geopolitical and
security issues

Poor rigor in cost


and schedule
estimates

Conicts among
partners

Equipment and
services-related
issues

Regulatory
delays

Changes in
market
conditions

Optimized owner
and EPCM and
contractor
relationships

Conicts with
the local
community

Inadequate
infrastructure

Based on our analysis of mining and metals projects, we have


identied ve key causes of budget and schedule overruns across
the current global portfolio of mining and metals investments.
Against these key causes, a wide range of observations and
learnings were captured during the study:
1. Project management factors: Inadequate front-end planning
and missed opportunities to establish key project management
disciplines, such as governance, risk management and project
controls, in the early stages of the project can signicantly
affect project performance across the delivery life cycle.
Extending on from this is also the early choices made by
owners in selecting EPCM and contracting partners. With many
failing to establish the optimal relationships, accountabilities
and contracting incentives early on, manifesting in disputes
and project re-mediation during subsequent phases where the
cost of time and re-work is at its highest. In the absence of

| Opportunities to enhance capital productivity

standardized process and governance disciplines, signicant


delivery practice disparities may emerge, reducing
performance transparency, planning effectiveness and delivery
control. Poor cost- and schedule-estimation-methodology
design, optimism bias and insufcient allocation of risk-based
contingency are all common causes of future cost and schedule
variations. Inadequate owner team supervision and control
over delivery partners can lead directly to commercial
disadvantage, mismatched expectations and high levels of
change request-driven interaction.
2. Stakeholder conicts: Managing the expectations and needs of
a diverse stakeholder group is challenging, but exponentially
more efcient than resolving conicts arising from lack of
engagement. Achieving mutually acceptable consensus
between delivery partners regarding commercial terms,
ownership structure, development options and design changes

was also seen as a key driver of delays. Local community


engagement and management is a common area of
underinvestment requiring dedicated management and a
tailored engagement approach.
3. Resource constraints: While resource constraints have eased
relative to the 2011-2012 period, megaprojects continue to
require signicant and specic labor, equipment, services and
infrastructure resources for which supply constraints are
common. Where multiple projects are being delivered
simultaneously in a single region, the market for highperforming human capital and critical equipment could be
rapidly exhausted, leading to inated resource costs, lowerquality outputs and project delays. In regions where
infrastructure investment is slow to catch up with exploration
and development, access to resources, such as water, power,
rail and roads, is often costlier and time-consuming than
initially planned.
4. Regulatory and policy-related challenges: Many of the study
projects had faced delays associated with regulatory

requirement, approvals and policy uncertainty. The importance


of a jurisdiction-specic approach, which included developing
working relationships and actively managing interactions with
all agencies in an approval process ow, was consistently
recognized. Health, safety and environmental compliances, and
associated industrial relations considerations, are key
considerations for which conservative estimates should be
applied and dependencies across the delivery schedule
recognized.
5. Unfavorable external environment: Projects are not delivered
in isolation from business strategy and external inuences, and
this potential for externally-driven change is particularly high in
developing economies. Geopolitical and security issues have
the potential to dramatically delay or halt delivery momentum,
often with signicantly heightened overhead costs. At a
commercial level, volatile commodity prices can drive portfolio
prioritization decisions that reduce or remove capital funding
and may necessitate scope, design, budget and schedule
re-planning. For example, the impact of the recent iron ore
price changes on iron ore projects in Western Australia.

Achieving capital productivity


Addressing the risks
Having explored the close relationship between project delivery
performance and capital productivity, it is clear that poor project
delivery performance and control, including budget and schedule
overruns, signicantly impacts the level of capital productivity achieved.
Improving project delivery performance
starts with successful planning, followed
through with rigorous management during
delivery. Investments of time, focus and
expert review yield the highest return early
in the life cycle when the ability to
inuence outcomes is greatest. Most of a
projects key and dening decisions are
made during these initial phases, as the
delivery strategy and methodology are
established, making this the most critical
time to plan, get the foundations right and
optimize prior to moving into delivery.
These typical inuence and risk dynamics
across the project life cycle are illustrated
in the following diagram. This model
highlights that the ability to inuence
project outcomes and performance is
greatest at the outset and tends to
diminish as the project progresses,

decisions are made, designs are locked in


and commitments are entered into.
The reverse relationship is true for risk.
At the beginning of a project, the delivery
risk prole is malleable and a range of
preemptive mitigation options are
available as project activity intensity
ramps up during the project life, the
volume, complexity and severity of risks
increases and practical mitigation options
can be limited.
Front-end planning activities
Project management factors: Establish
rigorous and risk-based cost and schedule
estimates and core project management
processes across all disciplines (inlcuding
project controls, risk management and
quality management) in order to dene
the way these will be implemented on
the project. To this end, laying the right
Opportunities to enhance capital productivity |

foundations for EPCM and contracting partnerships is paramount,


with many leading organizations establishing centralized global
frameworks to achieve long-term supplier relationships,
performance commitments and a standardized approach to
project delivery. In doing so, they are realizing productivity
benets through leveraging this global buying power.

Regulatory and policy-related challenges: Similar to resource


constraints, undertake risk identication and planning activities
early in the project that address this risk. Further, identify
mitigation strategies and alternative options to minimize the
impact. Research and leverage lessons learned from past projects
to help plan for the current one.

Stakeholder conicts: Undertake a thorough stakeholder analysis


and develop a stakeholder engagement strategy and plan to be
used throughout the project in order to proactively manage
stakeholders, identify issues early and understand their concerns.

Unfavorable external environment: Undertake the same activities


mentioned in resource constraints and for key factors, such as
commodity price uctuations, undertake scenario planning to
determine the impact of these factors and how to mitigate them.

Resource constraints: Undertake risk identication and planning


activities early in the project that address this risk. Identify
mitigation strategies and alternative options to minimize the impact.

Relationship between the project life cycle and the ability to inuence the risk prole and expenditure
Inuence
Expenditure
Risk
Time

Driving improved predictability


and control
Despite many mining and metals sector clients enhancing the
process maturity of engineering design, projects continue to
experience signicant cost and schedule overruns. From our
global experience of working with clients on large and complex
capital programs, we have observed a consistent theme of
underinvestment and lack of focus in three often overlooked but
critical areas:
Implementing governance and reporting frameworks with
lead indicators that reliably ag emerging risks while they
can still be efciently mitigated

10 | Opportunities to enhance capital productivity

Allocating adequate cost and time contingency to account


for risks across the life cycle
Enhancing the value of contingency planning by aligning
contingency plans to scenario plans
These areas of underinvestment have strong potential to
signicantly enhance capital productivity, by addressing a broad
range of the key causes that can lead to budget and schedule
overruns. They also map activities in the various stages of the
capital project and investment planning cycle.

Relationship between key causes and critical areas of underinvestment that can assist to address these
Governance and reporting
of emerging risks
Project
management
issues

Stakeholder
conicts

Resource
constraints

Regulatory and
policy-related
challenges

Unfavorable
external
environment

Inadequate
planning

Conicts
between project
operators and
the government

Human
capital decit

HSE
compliances

Geopolitical and
security issues

Poor rigor in
cost and schedule
estimates

Conicts among
partners

Equipment and
services-related
issues

Regulatory
delays

Changes
in market
conditions

Optimized owner
and EPCM and
contractor
relationships

Conicts with
the local
community

Inadequate
infrastructure

Adequate time and


cost contingency

Implementing effective governance and


reporting frameworks
Having a well-structured and dened governance framework with
clear roles and responsibilities is necessary to ensure that
decisions are being made by the right people and in a timely
manner. This dynamic is typically well understood on projects;
however, what is often absent is having the right information in a
usable format to make timely and informed decisions. This
information decit is particularly common in the area of outerhorizon key risks risks that arent in the reghting stage
currently but are material and require timely action. Embedding
leading indicators into reporting dashboards is an effective
approach to agging these risks as they begin to emerge during
delivery. This makes sure management is empowered with timely
information to make quick and effective mitigation decisions,
meaning more risks are caught early and addressed before they
drive budget and schedule slippage.

Aligning contingency
plans to scenario plans

Lead versus lag indicators


Lag indicators report on past events, giving performance
information. They are useful to understand how a project,
for example, has performed against targets and to identify
areas that require improvement.
Lead indicators give insight into what may occur. They are
used as predictors of an outcome or performance or to
indicate something that occurs before or leads to particular
events or outcomes.

Opportunities to enhance capital productivity | 11

Leading indicators exist across the range of delivery disciplines.


Taking stakeholder management as an example, sample metrics to
be considered include the number of stakeholder queries, the
number of open queries, time of response and the number of
complaints. Where these stakeholder complaints and query
metrics indicate stakeholder concerns are not being addressed in
a timely manner, they can be powerful lead indicators that signify
the potential for more signicant issues arising with potential
budget and schedule performance impacts. Using lead indicators
to monitor delivery performance is a proven technique enabling
early awareness and intervention. Similarly, effective lead
indicators, which every project should consider monitoring,
include contingency drawdown rates (i.e., contingency funding
consumption over time) and orphan-risk levels (i.e., no owners or
mitigations). Both are effective indicators of risk management and
planning alignment maturity. The former enables monitoring of
contingency spend, which, when done in parallel to monitoring
and analyzing remaining risks, can facilitate an assessment to
determine if it is adequate to account for these risks or if a
reassessment is required. This facilitates the early identication of
a project that may exceed its allocated contingency; thus,
mitigations could be developed earlier. For the latter, having an
indicator of the number of orphan risks enables the immediate
identication of risks that are not being actively managed; thus,
it poses a threat they could eventuate and becomes issues that
impact schedule or budget. From the indicator, action could be
taken to allocate either a responsible person or mitigation
measures to ensure these risks do not go unmanaged and
potentially adversely impact the project.
Having dashboards that focus on lag indicators provides detail on
how a program or project has performed. However, it does not
provide insight into what to expect in the future nor enable
proactive decision-making and planning that is enabled by leading
indicators.
There are typical lead indicators, such as those discussed above,
which are useful for most projects. However, an investment in
identifying bespoke indicators that are directly relevant to a given
project and its success factors is what will drive the most value to
ensure delivery teams are getting the right information to steer
their projects to success.
To develop a dashboard that incorporates leading indicators
requires insight into a project/programs key risks and
uncertainties, as well as, an understanding of how it is being
managed and implemented and its key activities. This enables the
identication of relevant metrics that are predictors of success or
precursors to particular risks eventuating.

Key questions
Do your dashboards focus on lag or lead indicators?
Are you getting the right information to change
direction before risks eventuate or poor
performance is reported by a lag indicator?

Allocating adequate cost and time


contingency
Every project and program has a degree of risk and uncertainty.
Its for this reason that every project and program needs some
form of contingency allocation and a corresponding contingency
management process. Effective contingency provision begins with
allocating sufcient contingency up-front through a robust
process of risk and uncertainty identication and quantication.
Leading contingency approaches start from this base and, rather
than set and forget, revalidate contingency alignment at key
stage-gating intervals to ensure an appropriate contingency
allowance is available for future delivery stages reecting new
information that has come to light. Combined with change
control-aligned draw-down processes and contingency depletion
monitoring, these contingency control disciplines are the
essential building blocks of an integrated contingency
management approach.
In formulating initial cost and schedule estimates that would
directly inform portfolio prioritization decision-making, the
application of dened estimation methods, comparable
benchmarks and robust quantitative analysis is crucial. To support
executive condence in business case and baseline integrity, these
estimates need to account for not only the base value of works but
also an appropriate probability-based provision for possible
changes, risks and uncertainty. These provisions are known as
contingency and are made in relation to events and forces for
which there is a level of likelihood and impact ambiguity. The
broad range of events and forces to be considered span both the
external environment (such as political, economic, environmental
and social considerations) and the internal organizational,
portfolio, program or project environment.
Including appropriate levels of contingency in business cases put
forward for investment decisions ensures that these decisions are
based on the best possible view of likely total capital cost and
time. By appropriately considering the probability and impact of
risks on delivery, the potential for unforeseen and unmitigated
cost and schedule impacts is greatly reduced.
As a project progresses through its delivery life cycle, the risk
prole shifts, uncertainties are resolved and risk factors may be
realized. With these changes, ongoing management and
reevaluation of contingency throughout the life cycle is essential.

12 | Opportunities to enhance capital productivity

processes will also look to engage EPCM and contractors within


the process and transfer risk and rewards to those best placed to
inuence and control risks and opportunities. The most successful
of these processes encourage teams to think innovatively and
across other sectors in order to protect budgets and schedules,
as well as, to drive true productivity across the project life cycle.

Increased certainty comes from the process of discovery, as tasks


are commenced and complexities revealed, as well as the
progressive development of planning detail from high-level scope
through to detailed technical engineering design specications.
As certainty levels change and new information arises,
contingency allowances should be revised in line with the projects
risk prole. These adjustments will typically enable a reduction in
uncommitted contingency as a project progresses, which can be
balanced and reallocated across a program or portfolio of parallel
investments. It is also possible, however, that unforseen risks
cause higher levels of contingency drawdown than initially
anticipated; in this scenario, investment committee reassessment
may be required to determine if additional contingency will be
needed to provide for project commitments through to
completion. Projects that fail to accurately estimate and manage
contingency, throughout the delivery life cycle, are placed at far
greater risk of unplanned budget and schedule variance and
corresponding capital productivity decline.

Enhancing the value of contingency


planning
A missing link in many capital planning processes is the closely
integrated connection between the complementary disciplines of
contingency allocation and scenario planning. The latter is a
methodical approach to exploring possible futures that facilitates
the questioning of what if? in the context of a particular
challenge to be solved, or avoided from the outset. Typically,
structured scenario planning is a discipline reserved for corporate
strategy future proong, but these techniques are also ideally
suited for application in the context of portfolio, program and
project management.

Mature risk management processes will also ensure that the


negative impacts on cost and schedule are considered equally
with the upside through cost- and time-saving initiatives. Mature

Broad contextual
environment forces
1

Working environment
forces
6

Organization
forces
5

Scenario A
Scenario B
Scenario C
Scenario D

Example scenarios
A

Broad contextual environment


Forces:
1. Political
2. Economic
3. Social
4. Technological
5. Legal
6. Environmental

Working environment
Forces:
1. Threat of new entrants
2. Buyer bargaining power
3. Threat of substitute products
4. Supplier bargaining power
5. Existing competitor rivalry

Note: Model leverages EY methods, PESTLE and Porters 5 forces.

Organization
Forces:
1. Owners' team
2. EPCM and contractor
3. HSE & quality systems/
processes
4. IT infrastructure
5. Operational performance
culture

Portfolio
Program
Project

Opportunities to enhance capital productivity | 13

Scenario planning can be used at all levels to envision possible


futures, and these can be used to determine potential nancial
and schedule impacts by running probabilistic analyses. These can
directly inform contingency allocation an approach that is in
contrast to traditional risk and contingency assessment methods,
where factors or risks are often individually analyzed without
considering the interdependencies between each, and whether
they can eventuate concurrently. Scenario planning enables a
sanity check, which is to be applied to consider the possible
combinations of factors and the correlations between them.

Once scenarios have been formulated, and contingency


allocations made, leading indicators can be dened and monitored
to indicate which scenarios are showing early signs of evolving to
realization. By understanding the scenarios that could happen,
and having an informed view of different scenario impacts,
management can be signicantly more agile and able to adapt to
emerging futures. Given the importance of timely and decisive
action to address emerging risks, this increased level of decisionmaking condence can make the difference between projects,
programs and portfolios achieving capital productivity outperformance, or falling victim to the capital productivity statistics.

Conclusion
While commodity prices are driving belt-tightening and capital scarcity
across the mining and metals sector, megaprojects continue to face
unacceptable cost and schedule overruns. Long lead times and the
need to prepare for the next cyclical upswing will make capital project
execution a critical skill of leading mining and metals companies. As
our study of global projects reveals, despite increasingly mature
delivery skillsets, over two-thirds of projects were facing cost overruns.
These overruns were directly impacting the capital productivity and
commercial performance of mining and metals companies across the
globe, and new perspectives are essential to turn this trend and deliver
to boards and investors the predictability and condence they require.
Considerations when planning (or
re-planning) a project
How are we ensuring that we are aware
of future and emerging risks while they
can still be efciently mitigated?
How are we optimizing EPCM and
contractors relationships and global
buying power to delivery strategic
outcomes and mitigate risks?
Are we allocating enough cost and time
contingency to account for the real
risks that could impact our project?

14 | Opportunities to enhance capital productivity

Could we do more to proactively


plan for future scenarios and set
contingency so that we can manage
them with condence?
The thirty-one percent of projects
delivering in line with their cost, schedule
and scope commitment applied some,
or all, of these considerations. Can your
program of work afford to risk failure
by not having these key disciplines
front of mind?

How EY can help


Given the current mining and metals landscape, and the
challenges and pitfalls inherent in the delivery of megaprojects,
companies are struggling to effectively deliver on their agreedupon plans and strategies. Compounding these delivery
challenges, capital projects are now delivered in an environment
where stakeholders increasingly demand improved performance,
reduced risk and greater transparency over delivery decisions.
Prior to and during investment, stakeholders increasingly ask for
independent assessment of key decisions and plans. While often
stakeholder driven, the benets derived from independent
assessment and challenge, both in terms of pacifying stakeholder
demands for transparency and ensuring unbiased assessment of
project business case, delivery plans, budgets and key stage-gate
decisions, mean that it is now a valued tool for portfolio managers
and board executives who wish to avoid the optimism bias
commonly seen on failing projects.
With our closely linked transactions advisory, tax and advisory
service teams, and our global team of mobile capital projects
industry professionals, EY is able to provide independent,
whole-life support and advice to our clients. We bring the skills,
qualications and deep industry experience to advise your project,

program and portfolio teams across the capital planning and


delivery life cycle from initiation and setup of business cases and
commercial delivery structures, through feasibility and into project
design, construction, commissioning and handover.
The depth of our commercial knowledge, across the mining sector
and project life cycle, means that our capital projects team is
ideally positioned to help you manage the risk of your capital
projects and portfolio:
Uniquely acting through direct intervention
Supporting management teams on specic projects in
development, construction or commissioning
Advising on portfolio risk and performance and stage-gate
approval decisions at the board level
We have a history of helping global mining organizations
overcome the different capital project issues outlined within this
document, gathering and developing leading practices
collaboratively with our clients. That means that we are able
to play an active and valuable role in almost any team and
can quickly source skills and advice as and where our clients
needs arise.

Contacts
To discuss how we can help you with capital projects, please contact
any of the following members of our global team:
Paul Mitchell
Global Mining & Metals
Advisory Leader
Tel: +61 2 9248 5110
paul.mitchell@au.ey.com

Loretta Hudson
Partner, Portfolio & Program
Management
Tel +61 3 9655 2595
loretta.hudson@au.ey.com

Claus Jensen
Global Portfolio and Program
Management Leader
Tel +44 (0)75 5227 1165
cjensen@uk.ey.com

Richard Noble
Executive Director, Portfolio &
Program Management
Tel: +1 41 6943 3151
richard.noble@ca.ey.com

Opportunities to enhance capital productivity | 15

How EYs Global Mining & Metals Network can


help your business
With a volatile outlook for mining and metals, the global mining and
metals sector is focused on margin and productivity improvements,
while poised for value-based growth opportunities as they arise.
The sector also faces the increased challenges of maintaining its
social license to operate, balancing its talent requirements,
effectively managing its capital projects and engaging with
government around revenue expectations.
EYs Global Mining & Metals Network is where people and ideas
come together to help mining and metals companies meet the
issues of today and anticipate those of tomorrow by developing
solutions to meet these challenges. It brings together a worldwide
team of professionals to help you succeed a team with deep
technical experience in providing assurance, tax, transactions
and advisory services to the mining and metals sector. Ultimately
it enables us to help you meet your goals and compete more
effectively.

Global Mining & Metals Leader


Mike Elliott
Tel: +61 2 9248 4588
michael.elliott@au.ey.com

United States
Andy Miller
Tel: +1 314 290 1205
andy.miller@ey.com

Oceania
Scott Grimley
Tel: +61 3 9655 2509
scott.grimley@au.ey.com

Canada
Bruce Sprague
Tel: +1 604 891 8415
bruce.f.sprague@ca.ey.com

China and Mongolia


Peter Markey
Tel: +86 21 2228 2616
peter.markey@cn.ey.com

Brazil
Carlos Assis
Tel: +55 21 3263 7212
carlos.assis@br.ey.com

Japan
Andrew Cowell
Tel: +81 3 3503 3435
cowell-ndrw@shinnihon.or.jp

Chile
Lachlan Haynes
Tel: +562 2676 1886
lachlan.haynes@cl.ey.com

Africa
Wickus Botha
Tel: +27 11 772 3386
wickus.botha@za.ey.com

Service line contacts

France, Luxemburg & Maghreb


Christian Mion
Tel: +33 1 46 93 65 47
christian.mion@fr.ey.com
India
Anjani Agrawal
Tel: +91 22 6192 0150
anjani.agrawal@in.ey.com
United Kingdom & Ireland
Lee Downham
Tel: +44 20 7951 2178
ldownham@uk.ey.com

About EY
EY is a global leader in assurance, tax, transaction and advisory
services. The insights and quality services we deliver help build trust and
confidence in the capital markets and in economies the world over. We
develop outstanding leaders who team to deliver on our promises to all
of our stakeholders. In so doing, we play a critical role in building a better
working world for our people, for our clients and for our communities.
EY refers to the global organization, and may refer to one or more, of
the member firms of Ernst & Young Global Limited, each of which is a
separate legal entity. Ernst & Young Global Limited, a UK company limited
by guarantee, does not provide services to clients. For more information
about our organization, please visit ey.com.

2015 EYGM Limited.


All Rights Reserved.
EYG no. ER0235
BMC Agency
BACS 1002213
ED None.
This material has been prepared for general informational purposes only and is not intended to
be relied upon as accounting, tax, or other professional advice. Please refer to your advisors for
specific advice.

Area Contacts

Commonwealth of
Independent States
Evgeni Khrustalev
Tel: +7 495 648 9624
evgeni.khrustalev@ru.ey.com

EY | Assurance | Tax | Transactions | Advisory

Global Advisory Leader


Paul Mitchell
Tel: +61 2 9248 5110
paul.mitchell@au.ey.com
Global Assurance Leader
Alexei Ivanov
Tel: +7 495 228 3661
Alexei.ivanov@ru.ey.com
Global IFRS Leader
Tracey Waring
Tel: +61 3 9288 8638
tracey.waring@au.ey.com
Global Tax Leader
Andy Miller
Tel: +1 314 290 1205
andy.miller@ey.com
Global Transactions Leader
Lee Downham
Tel: +44 20 7951 2178
ldownham@uk.ey.com

ey.com/miningmetals