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BBAGG

Volume 2

Implementing
Broadband Aggregation
on Cisco 10000 Series
Version 1.0

Student Guide

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(0104R)

Book Title, Revision xx.x: Student Guide


Copyright 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.
All rights reserved. Printed in USA.

Course Overview
Intended Audience
This course is for technical professionals who need to know how to
implement broadband aggregation on the Cisco 10000 Series router.
The following are considered the primary audience for this course:

Customer technicians

Cisco System Engineers (SEs)

System Integrators (SIs)

Course Level
This course is basic and intermediate training for the topics that it
covers.

Prerequisites
Students attending this course should have successfully completed the
following training:

Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) or equivalent


experience

Campus ATM (CATM) or equivalent experience

Basic DSL End To End Architecture either video on demand or


leader-led or equivalent experience

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Additional Information
Cisco Systems Technical Publications

You can print technical manuals and release notes directly from the
Internet. Go to http://www.cisco.com/univercd/home/home.htm.
Find the Cisco Systems product for which you need documentation.
Then locate the specific category and model or version for your
hardware or software product. Using Adobe Acrobat Reader, you can
open the manuals and release notes, search for the sections you need,
and print them on most standard printers. You can download Acrobat
Reader free from the Adobe Systems website, www.adobe.com.
Documentation sets and CDs are available through your local Cisco
Systems sales office or account representative.
Cisco Systems Service

Comprehensive network support is available from Cisco Systems


Service & Support solutions. Go to
http://www.cisco.com/public/support_solutions.shtml for a listing of
services.

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Course Agenda
Day 1
Broadband Aggregation Architectures
RBE and RFC 1483 Routing
PPPoA

Day 2
PPPoE
Cisco Aggregation Optimization Features
AAA Service

Day 3
L2TP
Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview
Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

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Course Introduction and Objectives

Overview
Description
This course is intended for customer technicians and system
integrators who need to implement various broadband aggregation
technologies on Cisco routers. This course also enables Cisco System
Engineers (SEs) to present and demonstrate various broadband
aggregation technologies on Cisco routers for customers. Students
learn about RBE, PPPoA, PPPoE, and L2TP, and learn how to
configure and verify operation of these technologies on Cisco routers.
This course also explains the Cisco 10000 Series router hardware
architecture and software features.
The course is instructor-led and includes hands-on lab exercises.
Lecture topics are reinforced with supporting student exercises.
This course focuses on implementing broadband aggregation
technologies on the Cisco 10000 Series router, however, most learning
experiences from this course may be applied to o ther Cisco routers
that support these technologies.

Objectives
After completing this course, you will be able to do the following:

Compare and contrast the various broadband aggregation


architectures available with Cisco routers

Explain how RBE and RFC 1483 routing work, describe their
typical architectures and benefits, and configure them on Cisco
routers

Explain how PPPoA and PPPoE work, along with descriptions of


their typical architecture and benefits, and configure them on
Cisco routers

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Explain and configure various methods for optimizing subscriber


connections including PVC range, auto detect PPPoX
encapsulation, VC class, ATM PVC autoprovisioning, and BBA
groups

Explain AAA services available on Cisco routers and RADIUS


servers and configure AAA services on Cisco routers

Explain how L2TP works, describe its typical architecture and


benefits, and configure it on Cisco routers

Describe the Cisco 10000 Series router and explain the features
and functions of system-wide hardware and software components

Identify and describe system modules and services on the Cisco


10000 Series router that are utilized in broadband aggregation
deployment scenarios

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Contents
Course Overview ........................................................................................................... v
Course Agenda ............................................................................................................ vii

Course Introduction and Objectives........................................................................ ix


Overview...................................................................................................................... ix

Module 1 Broadband Aggregation Architectures ..........................................11


Overview................................................................................................................... 11
Broadband Aggregation Introduction ......................................................................... 12
Retail and Wholesale Services ................................................................................. 112
VC Service............................................................................................................... 116
ATM Bridging and Routing Methods ....................................................................... 118
PPP Review ............................................................................................................. 120
PPP Broadband Access Methods .............................................................................. 124
PTA......................................................................................................................... 126
L2TP ....................................................................................................................... 128
AAA ........................................................................................................................ 130
Managed LNS ......................................................................................................... 132
Remote Access into MPLS ....................................................................................... 134
SSG and SESM ....................................................................................................... 136
Summary ................................................................................................................ 140
Review Questions .................................................................................................... 141

Module 2 RBE and RFC 1483 Routing...............................................................21


Overview................................................................................................................... 21
Typical RBE Architecture.......................................................................................... 22
RFC 1483 Bridging Protocol Stack............................................................................. 24
How Does RBE Work? ............................................................................................... 28
RBE Configuration .................................................................................................. 212
RBE Advantages and Disadvantages ....................................................................... 218
Typical RFC 1483 Routing Architecture .................................................................. 222
RFC 1483 Routing Protocol Stack ............................................................................ 224

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How Does RFC 1483 Routing Work? ........................................................................ 226


RFC 1483 Routing Configuration ............................................................................. 228
RFC 1483 Routing Advantages and Disadvantages ................................................. 232
Summary ................................................................................................................ 234
Review Questions .................................................................................................... 235

Module 3 PPPoA .....................................................................................................31


Overview................................................................................................................... 31
Typical PPPoA Architecture ...................................................................................... 32
PPPoA with PTA Protocol Stack ................................................................................ 36
PPPoA with Tunneling Protocol Stack ..................................................................... 310
How Does PPPoA Work with PTA? .......................................................................... 312
How Does PPPoA Work with Tunneling? ................................................................. 314
PPPoA IP Address Management.............................................................................. 316
PPPoA Configuration .............................................................................................. 318
PPPoA Advantages and Disadvantages ................................................................... 328
Summary ................................................................................................................ 332
Review Questions .................................................................................................... 333

Module 4 PPPoE......................................................................................................41
Overview................................................................................................................... 41
Typical PPPoE Architecture ...................................................................................... 42
PPPoE Protocol Stack................................................................................................ 46
How Does PPPoE Discovery Work?............................................................................ 48
PPPoEoA with PTA Protocol Stack .......................................................................... 410
PPPoEoA with Tunneling Protocol Stack ................................................................. 414
How Does PPPoE Work with PTA? .......................................................................... 416
How Does PPPoE Work with Tunneling? ................................................................. 418
PPPoE IP Address Management.............................................................................. 420
PPPoEoA Configuration .......................................................................................... 422
PPPoE Advantages and Disadvantages ................................................................... 434
PPPoEoE and PPPoEo892.1q................................................................................... 438
PPPoEoE and PPPoEo892.1q Configuration ............................................................ 440
Summary ................................................................................................................ 442
Review Questions .................................................................................................... 443

Module 5 Cisco Aggregation Optimization Features ....................................51


Overview................................................................................................................... 51

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Optimization Features Introduction .......................................................................... 52


Minimizing ATM PVC Provisioning ........................................................................... 54
PVC Range................................................................................................................ 56
VC Class ................................................................................................................. 514
ATM PVC Autoprovisioning .................................................................................... 518
Autosense PPPoX Encapsulation ............................................................................. 522
PPPoE Profiles ........................................................................................................ 528
Summary ................................................................................................................ 532
Review Questions .................................................................................................... 533

Module 6 AAA Services.........................................................................................61


Overview................................................................................................................... 61
Introduction to AAA .................................................................................................. 62
Authentication .......................................................................................................... 68
Authorization .......................................................................................................... 610
Accounting .............................................................................................................. 612
AAA-Supported Protocols ........................................................................................ 614
RADIUS Attributes ................................................................................................. 616
Radius Files ............................................................................................................ 620
AAA Implementations ............................................................................................. 628
RADIUS Protocol..................................................................................................... 632
Cisco Implementation of AAA.................................................................................. 644
Troubleshooting Aids............................................................................................... 656
Cisco IOS Commands .............................................................................................. 658
UNIX Commands .................................................................................................... 670
Review Questions .................................................................................................... 677

Module 7 L2TP .........................................................................................................71


Overview ................................................................................................................... 71
L2TP Overview.......................................................................................................... 72
L2TP Components..................................................................................................... 74
L2TP Tunnel and Session Identifiers......................................................................... 76
Encapsulations Supported......................................................................................... 78
L2TP Message Format............................................................................................. 710
Incoming Call Sequence........................................................................................... 712
Forwarding PPP Frames ......................................................................................... 716
Call Disconnect Sequence ........................................................................................ 718
Typical L2TP Scenarios........................................................................................... 720

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L2TP Configuration Overview ................................................................................. 724


L2TP Tunnel Attributes .......................................................................................... 726
L2TP Configuration Without RADIUS..................................................................... 728
L2TP Configuration with RADIUS .......................................................................... 736
Tunnel Verification ................................................................................................. 750
Summary ................................................................................................................ 758
Review Questions .................................................................................................... 759

Module 8 Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview ..........................81


Overview ................................................................................................................... 81
Cisco 10000 Series Router Introduction ..................................................................... 82
Broadband Aggregation Deployment Scenarios ......................................................... 84
Cisco 10000 Series Router Components Overview...................................................... 86
Chassis Description ................................................................................................... 88
Modules Used with Broadband Aggregation ............................................................ 814
Cisco 10000 Series Router Architecture Overview ................................................... 818
Functional Block Diagram ....................................................................................... 820
Router Buffer Management ..................................................................................... 824
Router Backplane.................................................................................................... 826
Performance Routing Engine-2 ................................................................................ 830
PRE-2 Front Panel .................................................................................................. 832
PRE-2 Architecture ................................................................................................. 834
PRE-2 Packet Flow.................................................................................................. 842
PXF Technology and Operation ............................................................................... 850
PRE Comparison ..................................................................................................... 860
High Availability ..................................................................................................... 862
PRE Redundancy..................................................................................................... 864
Cisco 10000 Series Router Broadband Aggregation Line Cards................................ 874
ATM Line Cards ...................................................................................................... 876
ATM Line Card Common Features .......................................................................... 882
Assigning VPI/VCIs for ATM VC Scaling ................................................................. 888
LAN Line Cards ...................................................................................................... 892
Packet over SONET Line Cards..............................................................................8106
Common POS/SDH Line Card Features .................................................................8112
Summary ...............................................................................................................8114
Review Questions ...................................................................................................8115

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Module 9 Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview............................91


Overview................................................................................................................... 91
Software Architecture................................................................................................ 92
Software components................................................................................................. 94
Cisco 10000 Router Software ..................................................................................... 96
Supported Encapsulations ....................................................................................... 914
Frame Relay Support .............................................................................................. 918
Broadband Features and Scaling ............................................................................. 920
Leased-Line Features and Scaling ........................................................................... 928
High Availability and Management Functionality ................................................... 934
QoS Features and Functions.................................................................................... 936
Class-Map Match Options ....................................................................................... 938
Policy-Map Keywords .............................................................................................. 940
Policy-Map Actions .................................................................................................. 942
QoS Facts ................................................................................................................ 946
Policing Considerations ........................................................................................... 952
VC Scaling with QoS ............................................................................................... 954
System Status and Alarms ...................................................................................... 958
Checking the Data Path .......................................................................................... 966
System-Wide Statistics and Performance................................................................. 980
Summary ................................................................................................................ 996

Glossary .......................................................................................................................... 1
Technology Acronyms .................................................................................................... 2
Cisco 10000 Series Router Acronyms ............................................................................. 5

Appendix A Review Question Answers........................................................... A1


Appendix Contents .................................................................................................... A1
Module 1 Broadband Aggregation Architectures ..................................................... A2
Module 2 RBE and RFC 1483 ................................................................................. A4
Module 3 PPPoA ..................................................................................................... A7
Module 4 PPPoE ................................................................................................... A10
Module 5 Cisco Aggregation Optimization Features.............................................. A13
Module 7 AAA Services......................................................................................... A14
Module 7 L2TP ..................................................................................................... A16
Module 8 Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview ..................................... A18

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Appendix B Router Starting Configurations ..................................................B1


Appendix Contents .................................................................................................... B1
P1R1 Configurations ................................................................................................. B2
P1R2 Configurations ............................................................................................... B16
P1R3 Configuration ................................................................................................. B30
Core Routers Configurations ................................................................................... B32
PC CPE Configurations ........................................................................................... B36

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Module 8
Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Overview
Description
In this module you learn about use of the Cisco 10000 Series Router
hardware in broadband aggregation implementations. This module
includes descriptions and capabilities of the chassis, PRE-2, and line cards
used with broadband aggregation, as well as functional block diagrams of
the hardware and packet processing.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to do the following:

Describe how the Cisco 10000 router is used in typical broadband


deployments

Describe the Cisco 10000 router chassis components

Identify Cisco 10000 router functional components, interconnections,


and operation

Describe PRE-2 architecture and operation, including the route


processor, forwarding processor, and PXF

Trace the flow of a packet through the PRE-2

Describe the Cisco 10000 router high-availability hardware and


functions

Describe the features and functions of Cisco 10000 router line cards
used with broadband aggregation deployments

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Cisco 10000 Series Router Introduction


The Cisco 10000 Series Router is an industry-leading service provider edge
aggregation router that provides high-performance IP services, maximum
platform scalability, and high availability.

Deployment Scenarios
The Cisco 10000 router uses the following networking technologies to
aggregate subscribers at the edge of the service provider network:

Leased-line edge aggregation

ATM

Frame Relay

Broadband aggregation

This training module focuses on the broadband aggregation utilization of


the Cisco 10000 router.

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Module 8

Cisco 10000 Series Router Introduction

Cisco 10000 Series Router Introduction

LEASED LINE

F
R
A
M
E

A
T
M

BROADBAND

Edge service aggregation support

Leased Line
ATM
Frame Relay
Broadband

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Broadband Aggregation Deployment Scenarios


The Cisco 10000 router is ideally suited for aggregating broadband
subscriber connections including those subscribers that connect to the
router in a DSL environment.

Subscriber Connection Termination


The Cisco 10000 router may be used to terminate various types of
subscriber connections, including the following:

Route Bridge Encapsulation (RBE)

PPP over ATM (PPPoA)

PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE), including PPPoEoA, PPPoEoE, and


PPPoEo802.1q

PTA and Tunneling Support


Subscriber connections may be terminated on an aggregation router and
routed to the final service destination or tunneled to a service destination
using the Cisco 10000 router. When used with tunneling, the following
methods may be used:

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)

Remote Access to Multiprotocol Label Switching (RA-MPLS)

Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) (future support)

When using L2TP, the Cisco 10000 router may be deployed as both the
L2TP access concentrator (LAC) and L2TP network server (LNS).

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Module 8

Broadband Aggregation Deployment Scenarios

Broadband Aggregation Deployment Scenarios

PPP sessions
PE

Internet
PTA
Termination

VPN
LS
P
M

ISP One.com
L2TP
L2TP LNS

Internet

oM
AT

PPP sessions

Cisco 10000:
A universal
broadband
access server

PE
ISP Two.com

ATM VCs
ISP Three.com

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Cisco 10000 Series Router Components Overview


This section provides an overview of the Cisco 10000 router chassis and its
major components, as well as an introduction to the processing engine and
line cards used to support broadband aggregation.

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Module 8

Cisco 10000 Series Router Components Overview

Cisco 10000 Series Router Components Overview

Chassis Description

Chassis Components

Modules for Broadband Aggregation

Line Cards
Processor

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Chassis Description
The Cisco 10000 router is a 10-slot router optimized to meet the broadband
and leased-line aggregation requirements of ISPs. The Cisco 10000 router
contains two dedicated slots: one for an active Performance Routing Engine
(PRE), and one for a redundant (standby) PRE.
The remaining eight slots are for interface modules. The interface modules
can be placed in any slot. The router supports both full- and half-height
hot-swappable interface modules.

Chassis
The chassis is NEBS Level 3 compliant and meets Telcordia Technologies
specifications for temperature extremes, vibration, earthquake,
electromagnetic interference, fire safety, electrostatic discharge , and so on.
It also provides redundant external alarms for service provider
deployments.
_____________________________ Note __________________________
The chassis supports the external timing connector; however this
functionality is not a part of the line cards or processing engine and
therefore not used.
____________________________________________________________

Power
The Cisco 10000 router supports redundant power entry modules (PEMs).
The modules may be either AC or DC but not a mixture of both.

Cooling
The Cisco 10000 router cooling system uses redundant fans with a load sharing design and supports front-to-back airflow.

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Module 8

Chassis Description

Chassis Description

Blower
Module
Connector
External
Timing
Connector
(not used)

Blower
Module

External
Alarm
Connector

T3/E3
PEMs

DC Power
Connector

Air Filter
PREs

Front View

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Chassis Description (continued)


Power Entry Modules
The Cisco 10000 router has the option to use redundant PEMs. This option
provides for high availability because only one module is required.
When two PEMs are installed, the DC units operate in a diode-shared
mode while the AC modules are load-shared. The failure of a single hotswappable PEM does not cause disruption of system operation because the
other PEM takes over. These units distribute 48V within the chassis; while
each circuit card contains its own onboard regulation.
The illustration depicts both PEMs and provides tables that describe the
functions of their LEDs.

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Module 8

Chassis Description

Power Entry Modules

Status LEDs

Status LEDs

DC PEM
Status LED

Status

Description

Power

Green

Power is on

Off

No power

Yellow

Power is off
or
Wiring not
properly
connected

Fault

Miswired

On

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

-48V and
return wires
are reversed

Version 1.0

AC PEM
Status LED

Status

Description

Power

Green

Power is on

Off

No power

Yellow

Power is off

Fault

or
Replace PEM

811

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Chassis Description (continued)


Blower Module
Cooling

The cooling system uses redundant fans with a load -sharing design housed
in a blower module. A fan failure generates an interrupt to the PRE for the
syslog. In addition, there are thermal sensors on the PRE to back up a fan
failure signal. The unit can operate for an indefinite period with a single
fan failure; although this results in the loss of cooling redundancy.
Blower Module Replacement

The blower module is easily replaced. If a blower module requires servicing


from a fan failure, the system can operate without fans and without
overheating for 2 minutes, which is ample time to hot-swap the blower
assembly.
Critical Temperature Alarm

The default action for a critical temperature alarm is to continue operation.


If you want the system to shutdown on this alarm condition, you must
configure the router to do so.
To control the action of the Cisco 10000 router when the air intake or core
temperature reaches a critical temperature condition, use the following
commands:
(config)#facility-alarm intake-temperature critical exceedaction shutdown
(config)#facility-alarm core-temperature critical exceed-action
shutdown

812

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Chassis Description

Blower Module

Status LEDs

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Fan Status LEDs

Status

Fan OK

Green

Fan Failure

Yellow

Multi-Fan Failure

Yellow

Version 1.0

813

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Modules Used with Broadband Aggregation


The Cisco 10000 router has a wide selection of line card and processor
modules that may be used for service provider edge router aggregation
with leased-line, ATM, Frame Relay, and broadband aggregation
installations. These modules enable the Cisco 10000 to provide highperformance IP services, maximum platform scalability, and high
availability.
The following types of modules are used with broadband aggregation
deployments.

ATM Modules
The Cisco 10000 ATM line cards are especially suited for aggregating ATM
subscriber connections from DSLAMs. The line cards provide both the
performance and the port density to scale networks efficiently and reliably.
They feature a high-performance segmentation and reassembly (SAR)
adapted for various applications, including advanced traffic management,
cell scheduling, and integrated buffer management.

8xE3/DS3 ATM card 8-port E3/DS3 ATM line card

4xOC-3 ATM card 4-port OC3c/STM-1 ATM line card operating in


SONET or SDH mode

1xOC-12 ATM card 1-port OC12 ATM line card operating in SONET
or SDH mode

POS Modules
The Cisco 10000 packet over SONET (POS) line cards are high-capacity,
high-performance line cards that enable service providers to offer
dedicated Internet access services and peering to other service providers.

814

6xOC-3c/STM-1 POS/SDH card 6-port OC-3c/STM-1 line card


operating in POS or SDH mode

1xOC-12/STM-4 POS/SDH card 1-port OC-12/STM-4 line card


operating in POS or SDH mode

1xOC-48c/STM-16 POS/SDH card 1-port OC-48c/STM-16 line card


operat ing in POS or SDH mode

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Modules Used with Broadband Aggregation

Modules Used with Broadband Aggregation

ATM Cards

4xOC-3 ATM, 1xOC-12 ATM,


8xE3/DS3 ATM

POS Cards

6xOC-3 POS, 1xOC-12 POS, 1xOC-48 POS

LAN Cards

GigE, GigE HH, 8xFE HH

Processor

PRE-2

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

815

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Modules Used with Broadband Aggregation (continued)


LAN Modules
The LAN modules enable service providers to aggregate subscriber
connections and connect to ISPs using Ethernet technology. DSL access
multiplexers (DSLAMs) can now aggregate subscriber connections using
Ethernet to the aggregation router. These LAN modules may also be used
to connect to backbone or intra-POP routers.

Gigabit Ethernet card 1-port, full-height Gigabit Ethernet line card

Gigabit Ethernet half-height card 1-port, half-height Gigabit


Ethernet line card

8-port Fast Ethernet half-height card

PRE-2
The Cisco 10000 router Performance Routing Engine 2 (PRE-2) is the nextgeneration route processor for the Cisco 10000 router. Using the PRE-2,
the Cisco 10000 delivers line -rate performance for more than 60,000
simultaneous sessions with critical per-subscriber-service features enabled,
such as security and traffic policing.
The PRE-2 enables the Cisco 10000 router to provide full PPP termination
and aggregation (PTA), LAC and LNS functionality.
_____________________________ Note __________________________
Prior to the PRE-2, the Cisco 10000 using the PRE-1 was ideally suited
for leased-line services or as an LNS in broadband aggregation
deployments.
____________________________________________________________

816

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Modules Used with Broadband Aggregation

Modules Used with Broadband Aggregation (continued)

ATM Cards

4xOC-3 ATM, 1xOC-12 ATM,


8xE3/DS3 ATM

POS Cards

6xOC-3 POS, 1xOC-12 POS, 1xOC-48 POS

LAN Cards

GigE, GigE HH, 8xFE HH

Processor

PRE-2

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

817

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Cisco 10000 Series Router Architecture Overview


The pages that follow provide an overview of the Cisco 10000 router
architecture. The following topics are presented:

818

Functional Block Diagram

Buffer Management

Router Backplane

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Cisco 10000 Series Router Architecture Overview

Cisco 10000 Series Router Architecture Overview

Functional Block Diagram


Buffer Management
Router Backplane

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

819

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Functional Block Diagram


The major functional components that make up the Cisco 10000 router are
the PRE, Iron Bus, and line c ards.

PRE-2
The PRE is designed for reliability and high availability. It uses an
advanced route processor redundancy (RPR) feature for automatic failover.
The PRE is composed of two main sections, a route processor and a
forwarding processor.
Route Processor

The route processor p rovides standard Cisco IOS functionality for:

Chassis management

System initialization

Routing protocol updates

Route processor r edundancy (RPR)

CLI and SNMP functionality

Forwarding Processor

The forwarding processor provides the following IP functions:

IP forwarding

Packet buffering

Layer 3 features

QoS features

Three main components make up the forwarding processor:

820

Parallel eXpress Forwarding (PXF) engine a 2-dimensional array of


64 CPUs that forward IP packets. Processor-intensive tasks such as
policy routing, quality of service (QoS), and statistics collection are
segmented and distributed to columns of multiple processors.

Packet Buffers buffer packets processed by the PXF engine .

Cobalt ASIC provides buffer management and Iron Bus data flow
control. It controls the flow of packets from the line c ards to the
forwarding processor, ensuring that the PXF does not become
overloaded. In addition, it manages the queuing and dequeuing of
packets to the 256MB packet buffers under the direction of the PXF.
Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Functional Block Diagram

Functional Block Diagram

Routing protocols
CLI
SNMP
Chassis management
Initialization

Route
processor

IP forwarding
L3 features
Packet buffering
QoS features

PRE-2

Forwarding Processor
PXF
Parallel eXpress Forwarding engine

Cobalt buffer
and I/O control

Iron Bus

Media interface
Framers and multiplexers
Facility data links
Link-level clocking
SAR (for ATM only)

Line card

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Packet
buffers

Version 1.0

Line card

Line card

821

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Functional Block Diagram (continued)


Line Cards
The system supports up to 8 full-height or 16 half-height line cards.
Because all packet forwarding is done on the PRE, the line cards are
required only to perform basic packet manipulation and packet buffering,
and to send the packet across the high-speed backplane to the PRE. These
functions include:

Media interface

Framing

Multiplexing

Link-level clocking

Facility data links

Segmentation and reassembly (SAR) for ATM line cards

Iron Bus
The Iron Bus is the systems primary data path between line cards and the
PRE-2. It is composed of point-to-point links from each PRE to each line
card half-slot.

822

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Functional Block Diagram

Functional Block Diagram (continued)

Routing protocols
CLI
SNMP
Chassis management
Initialization

Route
processor

IP forwarding
L3 features
Packet buffering
QoS features

PRE-2

Forwarding Processor
PXF
Parallel eXpress Forwarding engine

Cobalt buffer
and I/O control

Iron Bus

Media interface
Framers and multiplexers
Facility data links
Link-level clocking
SAR (for ATM only)

Line card

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Packet
buffers

Version 1.0

Line card

Line card

823

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Router Buffer Management


Packet buffering and queuing are the mechanisms by which a router stores
packets when transient overloads occur; these mechanisms play a key role
in implementing QoS features.

Input Buffering
Line cards contain large input buffers that absorb transient overloads,
reducing the possibility of spurious packet loss. Under times of heavy load ,
the PRE-2 applies backpressure to the line card, and its buffers absorb the
overhead.
Note that large input buffers add latency, while very small buffers can
result in increased packet loss. The input buffers operate in FIFO mode
only.

Output Buffering and Queuing


The Cisco 10000 router primary output buffer pool is located on the PRE-2.
QoS features are provided through PXF management of this buffer.
The PXF marks outbound packets, based on their destination interface and
QoS priority, and then forwards them to the output buffer pool. The output
scheduler selects these packets for transmission, based on QoS parameters
and their destination interface.
To ensure a predictable output, line card queues are kept short, and flow
control is used on the data path between the output interface and the PXF
output scheduler.

824

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Router Buffer Management

Router Buffer Management

Input buffers hold


packets if L3
forwarding
is congested

Input pipelining buffers apply


backpressure to line cards
if L3 is overloaded

TX
Buffers

QoS
Scheduler

TX
Buffers

Output Packet
Buffer

Line Card

PRE
Packet flow
Backpressure

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Route Lookup
& L3 features

Input Buffering

RX
Buffers

Round Robin
Scheduler

RX
Buffers

Line Card

256-MB packet
buffers on PRE

Small output buffers


on line cards for high
speed pipelining

Drains input buffers


faster than trunk speed

Version 1.0

825

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Router Backplane
The Cisco 10000 backplane is composed of multiple backplane connections:
Backplane Ethernet for control path and Iron Bus links for data paths.

Control Paths
The backplane Ethernet provides the control or maintenance path for PREto-line card communication. This backplane provides functions such as the
following:

Line card discovery

Interface configuration

Card reset

Network management

Debug

Inter-PRE communication is handled by a RPR bus that performs the


following functions:

Synchronization of running and startup configuration files

Time-of-day synchronization

Keepalive messages between redundant PREs

Iron Bus
The Iron Bus is the primary data path between the PREs and line cards for
the Cisco 10000 system. It is star-wired from each PRE (Cobalt 2 ASIC) to
each line card (Barium ASIC). Independent Iron Bus paths from each line
card to each PRE provide enhanced high system availability (EHSA)
functionality. As a result, PRE cut-over does not require bus or line card
reset.
Using the PRE-2, each Iron Bus is capable of operating at 3.2 Gbps per
full-height slots and 1.6 Gbps per half-height slot in each direction; that is,
6.4 and 3.2 Gbps full-duplex, respectively. This architecture avoids the
problem of backplane oversubscription.
The Iron Bus uses a packet-oriented serial protocol with link-level and
channel-level flow control. As a result, the actual bandwidth available to a
line card is slightly less than the full maximum bandwidth indicated here.

826

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Router Backplane

Router Backplane

Point-to-Point
IronBus links
between line
cards and PRE

PRE-A

RPR bus PRE-B

Cobalt ASIC

Cobalt ASIC

T
Each line card
connects to
both PREs for
redundancy

Barium ASIC

Barium ASIC

Line Card 1/0

Line Card 1/1

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Backplane
Ethernet
provides
control plane
communication

Version 1.0

...

Barium ASIC
Line Card 8/1

827

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Router Backplane (continued)


Iron Bus Modes
Each of the eight line card slots in the Cisco 10000 chassis has eight pairs
of communication lines to each PRE slot. With the Cobalt 2 ASIC, each
pair of lines is clocked at 400 Mbps, in each direction, for a total of
3.2 Gbps bidirectional.
Bound versus Unbound Mode

The Cobalt 2 ASIC can adjust for half-height or full-height line cards on a
per-slot basis.

Bound mode uses all eight pairs of connections in a full slot as a single
group. This means that full-height line cards can receive a maximum of
3.2 Gbps in each direction.

Unbound mode is typically used for half-height line cards. In this mode,
the eight pairs of line are split up into two groups of four pairs e ach.
Each group services a half-height line card to provide up to a maximum
of 1.6 Gbps of data transfer in each direction.

Wide versu s Narrow Mode

The Cobalt 2 ASIC operates in either wide mode or narrow mode. This is a
function of the bandwidth requirements of the line card inserted into the
half-slot.

828

Wide mode uses all four pairs of communication lines per half slot, for a
total of 1.6 Gbps in each direction per half slot.

Narrow mode is supported for lower speed interfaces and uses only two
pairs of communication lines. This results in 800 Mbps in each
direction per half slot.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Router Backplane

Iron Bus Modes

Full Height (Bound Mode)

Line
Card

Line
Card

PRE

Half Height (Unbound Mode)

PRE
Line
Card

3.2 Gbps
each way per full slot

Narrow
or Wide
Mode

1.6 Gbps
each way per
half slot

Total Backplane Bandwidth

Total Backplane Bandwidth

3.2 Gbps * 8 slots


* 2 directions

1.6 Gbps * 16 half slots


* 2 directions

= 51.2 Gbps

= 51.2 Gbps

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

829

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Performance Routing Engine-2


The pages that follow explain various features and functions of the PRE-2:

830

PRE-2 Front Panel

PRE-2 Architecture

PRE-2 Packet Flow

PXF Technology and Operation

PRE Comparison

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Performance Routing Engine-2

Performance Routing Engine-2

PRE-2 Front Panel


PRE-2 Architecture
PRE-2 Packet Flow
PXF Technology and Operation
PRE Comparison

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

831

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE-2 Front Panel


The PRE-2 front panel has multiple components and LEDs for managing
the Cisco 10000 router. The LEDs provide quick indications of the stat us of
the PRE .The LEDs are identified and described in the graphic that
follows.
The following components are on the PRE-2 front panel:

832

Console/Aux ports provide management access using serial interfaces.

Ethernet port provides out-of-band management access using a Fast


Ethernet interface.

PCMCIA two PCMCIA disks may be inserted for storing Cisco IOS
images, configuration files, and log files.

Status Windows provide status of the PRE-2, such as IOS RUN on


the active PRE and IOS STBY on the standby PRE. Other indications
are given as the PRE is booting.

ACO Alarm Cut-Off switch is used to shut off an external alarm.

Status and Fail LEDs indicates boot and failure status.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE-2 Front Panel

PRE-2 Front Panel

Aux
Console
Ethernet

LED

Status

Description

Ethernet port Activity LEDs

Green

Packets are being transmitted and received

Off

No activity

Green

Carrier detected, the ports able to pass


traffic

Off

No carrier detected, ports are not able to


pass traffic

PCMICA slot 0

Green

Slot 0 active

PCMICA slot 1

Green

Slot 1 active

Critical, Major and Minor LEDs

Off

No alarm

Yellow

Indicates an alarm condition

Ethernet port Link LEDs

Alarm LEDs
ACO
Status
Fail

Alarm Cutoff (ACO) switch

PCMICA
Status

Status
Windows

Fail

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Pressing the switch disables the audible


alarm

Flashing yellow

System is booting

Green

PRE is active (primary)

Flashing green

PRE is standby (secondary)

Off

No power to PRE

Yellow

A major failure has disabled the PRE

Off

PRE is operating properly

Version 1.0

833

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE-2 Architecture
The PRE-2 hardware is divided into two logical and physically separate
components:

Route processor

Forwarding processor.

Route Processor
The primary function of the route processor is to manage the system and
build the tables necessary for the forwarding processor to make forwarding
decisions.
The primary functions include:

Receiving all routing updates and building the Forwarding Information


Base (FIB) tables for the system

Managing the PXF and line card microcode that is bundled with the
main Cisco IOS software image

Monitoring system components to ensure proper functioning

The route processor contains the following components:

Main CPU

2 MB of NVRAM

System controller

Time-of-day clock

64 MB of bootflash

Support for 48-MB or 128-MB flash disk

100-Mbps Fast Ethernet for net management

Fast Ethernet connection for the RPR bus through the backplane

Fixed 1 GB of ECC SDRAM

Ethernet management backplane

Main CPU

Control plane processing on the Cisco 10000 router PRE-2 is handled by a


generic RM7000B CPU. In the PRE-2 implementation, this CPU operates
at 500 MHz with internal Layer 1 and Layer 2 caches (32 KB and 256 KB,
respectively) as well as a 4-MB external Layer 3 cache.
834

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE-2 Architecture

PRE-2 Architecture

MIPS

1-GB
ECC Column
Memory

RM7000B
500 MHz
T3

T3

T3

System
Controller
IOS
DRAM

64 154-MHz
PXF Processor
Elements

Flash,
NVRAM,
Ether, etc.

Cobalt 2 ASIC

Route
Forwarding
Processor Processor
1024 MB of
ECC DRAM

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

T3

Line
Cards

1.6/3.2 Gbps
line card
interconnect

Control
Control
SDRAM

Buffer
Buffer
SDRAM

256-MB ECC
Packet Buffer

Version 1.0

835

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE-2 Architecture (continued)


Route Processor (continued)
System Controller

The system controller acts as the traffic officer for the route processor. The
system controller includes many of the functional components necessary to
communicate with the devices on the route processor and within the
system.
The system controller provides the following components and functions:

Integrated memory controller that provides a direct memory access


(DMA) channel for accessing memory

Dual serial interfaces that connect to the console and auxiliary


connections

Two built-in Ethernet MAC addresses that connect to the PRE-2 and to
the Ethernet port on the front panel

Two PCI buses that provide configuration and control of the PXF
complex and some other onboard components

PCI Bus 0

The following functions occur over PCI Bus 0:

836

Downloading of PXF microcode to the PXF CPUs on system startup or


microcode reloads.

The RM7000B CPU keeps the PXF CPUs forwarding information


continuously updated.

Provides the connection to an onboard Ethernet controller for


connection to the backplane Ethernet (BPE). The BPE is used to
configure and monitor all line cards in the system.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE-2 Architecture

PRE-2 Architecture (continued)

MIPS

1-GB
ECC Column
Memory

RM7000B
500 MHz
T3

T3

T3

System
Controller
IOS
DRAM

64 154-MHz
PXF Processor
Elements

Flash,
NVRAM,
Ether, etc.

Cobalt 2 ASIC

Route
Forwarding
Processor Processor
1024 MB of
ECC DRAM

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

T3

Line
Cards

1.6/3.2 Gbps
line card
interconnect

Control
Control
SDRAM

Buffer
Buffer
SDRAM

256-MB ECC
Packet Buffer

Version 1.0

837

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE-2 Architecture (continued)


Route Processor (continued)
PCI Bus 1

PCI Bus 1 operates at twice the speed of PCI Bus 0. This bus connects
between the system controller and the Cobalt 2 ASIC on the forwarding
processor.
PCI Bus 1 is the punt path between the route processor and forwarding
processor. Punting a packet occurs when the forwarding processor must
send a packet to the route processor for handling. This could be as simple
as a packet destined for the router itself, such as a routing update, or
something that the PXF does not know how to forward. The punt path is
not used for most IP forwarding because it is less efficient than using the
forwarding processor.
Route Processor Local Resources

Several components on the route processor perform specific functions


without any connection to other components outside of the route processor.

838

I/O field-programmable gate array (FPGA) acts as a gateway with a


low-speed connection to several devices, including NVRAM, bootflash,
ID EEPROM, and LEDs. Another function of the I/O FPGA is
management of all of the environmental monitoring, watchdog timers,
PRE-2 interrupt handling, and redundancy signaling to the secondary
PRE-2.

Bootflash 64-MB of bootflash is large enough to handle multiple


copies of the Cisco IOS software images and still have space for log files
and stored configurations. This component is fixed and is not
upgradeable or field replaceable.

NVRAM 2 MB of NVRAM for storing system configuration


information.

ID EEPROM provides 4 KB of storage for board identification, voltage


monitoring, and reset functions.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE-2 Architecture

PRE-2 Architecture (continued)

MIPS

1-GB
ECC Column
Memory

RM7000B
500 MHz
T3

T3

T3

System
Controller
IOS
DRAM

64 154-MHz
PXF Processor
Elements

Flash,
NVRAM,
Ether, etc.

Cobalt 2 ASIC

Route
Forwarding
Processor Processor
1024 MB of
ECC DRAM

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

T3

Line
Cards

1.6/3.2 Gbps
line card
interconnect

Control
Control
SDRAM

Buffer
Buffer
SDRAM

256-MB ECC
Packet Buffer

Version 1.0

839

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE-2 Architecture (continued)


Forwarding Processor
The forwarding processor handles all packet forwarding for the system and
consists primarily of the following:

Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).

Four Toaster 3 PXF application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs)

Cobalt 2 ASIC

Packet forwarding is handled by the Cobalt 2 ASIC and the PXF ASICs.
Fast Packet FPGA

The FPGA (not shown in the graphic) provides the following functions:

Allows the route processor to program the PXF CPUs packet handling
function using PCI Bus 0

Aggregates and controls Cobalt 2, PXF, and line card interrupts and
resets

Monitors line card ready signals to aid in detecting online insertion and
remo val (OIR) events in the chassis

Toaster 3 ASIC (PXF)

Collectively, the four Toaster 3 ASICs are the PXF engine. The PXF is
responsible for all packet processing and forwarding in the Cisco 10000
router.
Internal to the Toaster 3 ASICs are individual CPUs operating a 154 MHz.
The CPUs are arranged into eight columns and eight rows, for a total of 64
CPUs.
Each column of CPUs has its own dedicated 128 MB column memory, in
which are stored the data structures and lookup tables needed for packet
processing and forwarding. A total of 1 GB of column memory resides on
the PRE-2.
Cobalt 2 ASIC

The Cobalt 2 ASIC is a Cisco custom-designed ASIC with two major


functions.

840

Provides the serial connections to all 16 of the line card half-slots

Manages packet flow to and from the PXF, as well as managing packet
buffer memory and any punting to the route processor.
Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE-2 Architecture

PRE-2 Architecture (continued)

MIPS

1-GB
ECC Column
Memory

RM7000B
500 MHz
T3

T3

T3

System
Controller
IOS
DRAM

64 154-MHz
PXF Processor
Elements

Flash,
NVRAM,
Ether, etc.

Cobalt 2 ASIC

Route
Forwarding
Processor Processor
1024 MB of
ECC DRAM

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

T3

Line
Cards

1.6/3.2 Gbps
line card
interconnect

Control
Control
SDRAM

Buffer
Buffer
SDRAM

256-MB ECC
Packet Buffer

Version 1.0

841

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE-2 Packet Flow


Incoming Packets
Inbound p ackets from a line card enter the PRE-2 forwarding processor
through the Iron Bus to the Cobalt 2 ASIC. The Cobalt 2 stores the packet
in high-speed, internal packet memory and removes the 64-byte packet
header. The packet header is then mated with a PXF control field, called a
context, and sent to the first device in the PXF.

Packet Processing
When the packet header and context enter the first Toaster 3 ASIC, they
are assigned to one of eight rows. Row assignment is done in a strict roundrobin fashion. The choice of row makes no difference to the packet header
context combination because all CPUs in a column provide exactly the
same function. All packet headers must go through all eight columns
within a row.

Resultant Operations
After the packet header makes its way through all eight columns of a row,
it will be marked for one of four operations. These operations are:

Forward

Feedback

Punt

Drop

The modified packet header is then sent back to the Cobalt 2 ASIC to be
buffered for future action, that is forward, feedback, punt or drop.

842

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE-2 Packet Flow

PRE-2 Packet Flow

2) Headers pass

FCRAM

FCRAM

FCRAM

FCRAM

through
Toaster 3 ASIC

3) Modified packet
OUT

IN

Toaster 3

Toaster 3

Toaster 3

Cobalt 2
ASIC

To Toaster
Complex
Input Packet
Memory

Toaster 3

From Toaster
Complex
Output Queue
Controller

Iron Bus Interface


1) Packet
enters from
line card

headers and
packet bodies are
moved into packet
buffer memory

Packet Buffer
SDRAM

4) Complete packets
are moved from
SDRAM to output
line cards

From Line Cards

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

To Line Cards

Version 1.0

843

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE-2 Packet Flow (continued)


Forward

The Cobalt 2 ASIC reads queue and dequeue information from the packet
context and then queues the packet header with the packet body from the
input packet memory to the external packet buffer. The packet is dequeued
and sent to the appropriate line card by the Cobalt 2 ASIC based on
scheduler instructions.
Feedback

When a packet requires more processing than can be accomplished in a


single pass through all eight columns, it is set up for feedback. During this
operation, the Cobalt 2 ASIC queues the packet header with the packet
body from the input packet memory to the external packet buffer. The
packet header with context is returned to the PXF for a second pass
through all eight columns. When processing is completed, the header is
joined with the remainder of the packet that is queued in the external
packet buffer.
Punt

Certain traffic types such as routing updates, Local Management


Interface (LMI), PPP control, and Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP) are handled by the route processor. These packets are first
processed by PXF where its determined that the traffic is destined for the
route processor. The packets context is then marked for punting. The
Cobalt 2 ASIC treats the route processor as any other interface and queues
the packet header and body in the external packet buffer for transfer
across PCI Bus 1 to the route processors system controller.
_____________________________ Note __________________________
Punting is sometime referred to as diversions.
____________________________________________________________
Drop

Some packets may be unroutable or may have a IP CRC error or some


other sort of error in which case, the header context for these packets is
flagged for drop. When these packets are advanced to the Cobalt 2 ASIC,
the packet headers and pointers to the corresponding locations in input
packet memory are cleared.

844

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE-2 Packet Flow

PRE-2 Packet Flow (continued)

2) Headers pass

FCRAM

FCRAM

FCRAM

FCRAM

through
Toaster 3 ASIC

3) Modified packet
OUT

IN

Toaster 3

Toaster 3

Toaster 3

Cobalt 2
ASIC

To Toaster
Complex
Input Packet
Memory

Toaster 3

From Toaster
Complex
Output Queue
Controller

Iron Bus Interface


1) Packet
enters from
line card

headers and
packet bodies are
moved into packet
buffer memory

Packet Buffer
SDRAM

4) Complete packets
are moved from
SDRAM to output
line cards

From Line Cards

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

To Line Cards

Version 1.0

845

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE-2 Packet Flow (continued)


_____________________________ Note __________________________
Not all features and functions may be available in all releases.
____________________________________________________________

PRE-2 Packet Flow Single-Pass Operations


The following operations occur with a single pass of the packet header
through the PXF.

846

Layer 2 classification This includes PPPoA, PPPoE, RBE, RFC 1483,


Frame Relay, POS, Gigabit Ethernet, serial and channelized
connections

CEF switching/ Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) Strict RPF requires


only a single pass

Queue/dequeue PXF queue/dequeue commands require only one pass

I/O statistics collection This includes Layer 2, QoS, access control


list (ACL), and routing statistics

Input ACLs Input ACLs require a single pass unless they are too
large to fit in a single turbo ACL table

Load balancing Per-packet load balancing is a single-pass feature


after Cisco IOS release 12.0(22)S

Input or o utput QoS normally a single-pass operation; exceptions are


given under the Multipass heading

MPLS traffic engineering (TE), Virtual Private Network (VPN) and tag
switching These functions require only a single pass as long the tags
do not represent an aggregate route

QoS policy propagation through the Border Gateway Protocol (QPPB)

L2TP Traffic from an LNS requires a single pass on the LAC

Multilink PPP (MLP) Packets that are received in sequence do not


require feedback

Policy based r outing

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE-2 Packet Flow

PRE-2 Packet Flow Single-Pass Operations

Single Pass Operations

L2 classification (PPPoA,
PPPoE, RBE, RFC 1483,
Frame Relay, POS, GigE,
serial, channelized)

RPF strict only


Queue/dequeue
I/O statistics collection
Input ACL security

Single Pass Operations


Input or output QoS
MPLS TE, VPN (no
aggregate route), tag
switching

QPPB
L2TP (on LAC)
MLP (received packets in
order)

Policy-based routing

Load balancing

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

847

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE-2 Packet Flow (continued)


PRE-2 Packet Flow Multipass Operations
The following operations require multiple passes through the PXF:

Multicast traffic One feedback for setup and one for teardown, plus
one per packet replicated

IP fragmentation A feedback is required for each fragment

MLP received out of sequence packets and outgoing packets A


feedback is required for each out-of-order received packet and each
packet transmitted in an MLP bundle

Output or split ACL ACLs applied to an output interface, or ACLs


that are too big to fit in a single turbo ACL table

Input and o utput QoS/split If a packet will be subject to QoS on both


the input and output interfaces, it will require a feedback. If the QoS
criteria is too large to fit in a single table, a feedback will be required

MPLS aggregate de-encapsulation In this environment both a tag


information base (TIB) and Forwarding information Base (FIB) lookup
is required, so a feedback is required

NetFlow accounting Accumulating statistics requires a feedback, as


does sending NetFlow export packets. Four feedbacks are required to
age an entry for a new entry

Generic route encapsulation (GRE) tunneling

L2TP LNS functionality and tunneling switching each require two


passes

Layer 2 header > 48 bytes If the Layer 2 header including tag stack
exceeds 48 bytes a feedback is required

ICMP responses ICMP response generated by the PXF require two


passes: one pass to determine that the PXF is unable to perform a
function, such as cant fragment, and a second pass to generate the
ICMP response

PRE-2 Packet Flow Punting Operations


Locally destined traffic to the route processor can be anything from routing
updates and keepalives to management traffic, such as Integrated Link
Management Interface (ILMI), LMI, and Telnet. Echo replies require route
processor functionality as does punting for an IP address during adjacency
establishment.
848

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE-2 Packet Flow

PRE-2 Packet Flow Multipass and Punting Operations

Multipass Operations

Multipass Operations
GRE tunneling (on de-encap)
LT2P: tunnel switch, LNS
Layer 2 header > 48 bytes

Multicast traffic
IP Fragmentation
Strict RPF after 12.0(22)S

(includes tag stack)

MLP output sequence


numbers

ICMP responses: cant


fragment, echo request, TTL

MLP Input on out of sequence


only

Output or a split ACL


Input and output QoS or a
split QoS table

MPLS Aggregate de-encap


(TIB then FIB)

Netflow accounting

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Punting Operations
Locally directed traffic
Glean adjacency (punt for IP
address during adjacency
establish)
Echo reply Response to
ping

Version 1.0

849

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PXF Technology and Operation


PXF Technology Overview
Parallel eXpress Forwarding (PXF) is a powerful adaptive networkprocessing technology that balances maximum forwarding performance
with a flexible feature set. PXF on the Cisco 10000 router enables multiple
million packet-per-second forwarding.
PXF makes use of the expedited IP lookup and forwarding algorithms
introduced with Cisco Express Forwarding, while offering expanded
functionality and accelerated performance through the implementation of a
parallel architecture. Using an array of CPUs, the PXF processor applies
the combination of parallel processing and pipelining techniques to the
Cisco Express Forwarding algorithms to efficiently handle a variety of
complex services and operations.

Benefits of PXF Technology


Implementation of PXF technology in the Cisco 10000 offers many benefits,
including the following:

850

Forwarding processor focuses on providing extremely fast, high-touch


packet processing in hardware.

Forwarding processor makes use of reprogrammable PXF technology in


combination with custom ASIC forwarding.

PXF provides many benefits of and advantages o ver ASIC-based


forwarding, such as

High throughput

Low latency with high-touch packet services

Shorter time to market for new features

Easier fixing of problems

PXF CPUs run custom microcode that is downloaded at boot time and
can be rewritten with every Cisco IOS software image change .

New features are easy to code into hardware, and any problems that
are found are easy to remedy with a new Cisco IOS software image.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PXF Technology and Operation

PXF Technology and Operation

PXF a powerful adaptive network-processing


technology

Benefit of PXF technology

Extremely fast packet processing in hardware


Reprogrammable PXF technology
High throughput
Low latency
Shorter time to market for new features
Easier fixing of problems
PXF CPUs run custom microcode
New features easy to code into hardware

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

851

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PXF Technology and Operation (continued)


PXF Components
The primary components of the PXF are the Toaster 3 ASIC and column
memory.
Toaster 3 ASIC

Internal to each Toaster 3 ASIC is an array of 16 individual CPUs


arranged into two columns of eight CPUs each. Together, the four Toaster
3 ASICs provide eight columns of CPUs, for a total of 64 CPUs.
Each column performs specific functions as it processes packets.
Sometimes a packet cannot be fully processed in one pass. In this instance,
the packet is fed back through all eight columns in the PXF array for a
second pass.
Column Memory Usage

Each column of CPUs has its own dedicated 128 MB of ECC-protected Fast
Cycle RAM (FCRAM) column memory, where the data structures and
lookup tables needed for packet processing and forwarding are stored.
When the route processor sends a forwarding table update to the fast
packet FPGA, the column memory will store the forwarding information
for use by that specific PXF column.
Because each column of CPUs in the PXF can be programmed to provide a
specific series of functions, the column memory for each column will be
unique. However, because all eight CPUs in any column will be providing
the same packet-processing features, they can share a single column
memory so that only one copy of the forwarding information for any feature
needs to be stored.

852

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PXF Technology and Operation

PXF Components

Toaster 3 PXF
ASIC

Toaster
Toaster 33 PXF
PXF
ASIC

Toaster 3 PXF
ASIC
ASIC

Toaster 3 PXF
ASIC

Current Context
Column Column
Memory Memory

Next Context

Column Column
Memory Memory

Column Column
Memory Memory

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

99

88

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

2
IM

IM

IM

IM

Output Mux

13

12

33

22

Input Demux

IM

IM

IM

IM

Output Mux

13

12

IM

IM

Input Demux

IM

IM

Output Mux

13

12

IM

IM

Input Demux

13

12

Output Mux

IM

IM

IM

Input Demux

Processor
Core
Instruction
Memory

IM

Column Column
Memory Memory

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

11

10

11

10

11

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

10

11

10

15

14

15
15

14
14

15
15

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

IM

14
14

15

14

Feedback

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

853

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PXF Technology and Operation (continued)


PXF Packet Flow
_____________________________ Note __________________________
The drawing that follows is simplified to show only four rows and
columns of the PXF to better demonstrate packet flow.
____________________________________________________________
Packet Assignment to Rows

When a packet header and context enter the PXF, they are assigned to one
of the eight rows. The packet headers are assigned to rows in a strict
round -robin fashion. Every packet header with context will pass through
all columns within a row. The choice of a row has no effect on the packet
header processing because functionality is identical for all CPUs in a
particular column irrespective of the row that the packet traverses.
Packet Processing by CPUs

Each packet header spends 192 clock cycles (154-MHz clock cycle) or
approximately 1.24 microseconds processing time at a CPU in a row. The
packet header plus context is then forwarded to the next CPU (column) in
the row. Each CPU in the row is configured to provide a different series of
functions for the packet header.
Once every 24 clock cycles (192 cycles divided by 8 rows), a new context
will enter the next PXF row. Therefore, each packet within a column is
offset from its adjacent row by 24 cycles. The result is that the PXF can
simultaneously process up to 64 packet headers with contexts.
Completing the Process

After the packet header plus context makes its way through all eight
columns of CPUs, one of two things can happen.

854

Single pass Typically, all of the necessary processing of the packet


header will be completed and the header will be sent back to the
Cobalt 2 ASIC to be buffered for future transmission.

Multiple passes Occasionally, more processing will be required on a


packet header than can be handled in the fixed amount of time it
spends in a single CPU, or a feature in one PXF column may change
the behavior of an earlier column. In this case, the packet is sent back
to the Cobalt 2 ASIC to be returned to the first PXF column for a
second pass through all of the columns. This reprocessing is known as a
feedback.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PXF Technology and Operation

P2
P3
P4

Data
Input

Shared
Column
Memory

Shared
Column
Memory

Shared
Column
Memory

Shared
Column
Memory

CPU0
Complex

P1

CPU1
Complex

P1

CPU2
Complex

P1

CPU3
Complex

CPU4
Complex

P2

CPU5
Complex

CPU6
Complex

P2

CPU7
Complex

CPU8
Complex

P3

CPU9
Complex

P3

CPU10
Complex

P3

CPU11
Complex

CPU12
Complex

CPU13
Complex

CPU14
Complex

CPU15
Complex

P4

P2

P4

P4

P1

P2

P3
P4

Output header buffer

P1

Input header buffer

PXF Packet Flow

P1
Data
Output

P2
P3
P4

Feedback Path

Multiple on-chip processors using pipelining and parallelism to


maximize use of external data memories

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

855

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PXF Technology and Operation (continued)


Column Functionality
The following is an example of the packet header processing that would
take place as each column in a PXF row is traversed. In reality there are
numerous functional paths and functions within the PXF.
_____________________________ Note __________________________
The PXF is controlled by a microcode image that is part of the Cisco
IOS software, therefore the functionality of the microcode and each
column may vary with each release.
____________________________________________________________
Column 0

The packet header with context is received from the Cobalt 2 ASIC. The
arriving context contains a pointer to the packet body being held in the
input packet memory and information on the input interface. In this
column an inbound virtual channel common index (VCCI) for use by the
PXF is assigned in the packets context. In addition, Layer 2 MTU and IP
CRC checks are performed, and a pointer to the IP header is established.
Finally, inbound interface statistics are accumulated in this column.
Column 1

Column 1s column memory contains the Mtree table. An Mtree fixed-time


lookup takes place to obtain the destination route pointer, outbound
encapsulation and VCCI. The packets context is updated with the
appropriate information. To help put this in perspective, the inbound and
outbound VCCIs that are now known will be used in the appropriate
column to help determine features to be applied to a packet, such as ACLs
and QoS. In addition an RPF check is performed to determine whether the
packets source address and VCCI agree.
Column 2

In this column the need to process inbound and or outbound ACLs for the
packet is determined based on VCCI information. If an outbound ACL
needs to be processed, the feedback bit is set in the header context. In
addition, multilink tracking is conducted in the form of checking and
writing sequence numbers. Up to 2000 packets can be tracked per bundle.

856

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PXF Technology and Operation

Column Functionality

inbnd VCCI, L2 mtu chk, pointer to IP header,


IPCRC, inbnd int stats
Mtree constant time lookup, dest route ptr, outbnd
encap & VCCI for features such as QoS & ACls,
RPF check does SRC address agree with VCCI

Que/Deque pkt, VTMS, Traffic Shaping,


PQ, WRED based on column #4 info

Input VCCI + pkt hdr = Input ACL? Out ACL set =


yes - set feedback, MLP tracking, check & write seq #,
2K packets per MLP bundle
VCCI determines policy maps & classes ie. packet
classification, Input or Output policy only 1pass,
Input & output policy set feedback

VTMS, Dequeue wheel,


reschedule, Activate, deactivate
Queue

Implement policies from #3, rate limit,mark,


Que selection, process inbound or outbound ACL,
control and track IP frag
MAC rewrite based on header
encap, L2 out stats, frame header,
DLCI, ATM header

0
IM

1
IM

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

2
IM

3
IM

4
IM

Version 1.0

5
IM

6
IM

7
IM

857

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PXF Technology and Operation (continued)


Column Functionality (continued)
Column 3

The VCCI with packet header is used to determine policy maps and c lasses
for a packet. If a packet will be subject to both input and output QoS, then
a feedback bit will be set in the header context.
Column 4

In column 4 the policies determined within column 3 are implemented,


such as rate limiting, marking, and queue selection. In addition, inbound
or outbound ACLs are processed (outbound ACLs are processed on the
second pass) and IP fragmentation is controlled and tracked.
Column 5

MAC rewrite takes place here, based on the header encapsulation frame
header, data-link connection identifier (DLCI) or ATM header. In addition,
Layer 2 outbound statistics are accumulated.
Column 6

Operation of the versatile time management system (VTMS) takes place


here, in addition to traffic shaping, queuing, and drop precedence
calculations. Packet queue and dequeue commands are added to the packet
context.
Column 7

Operation of the VTMS also takes place in this column. Instructions for the
dequeue wheel that is, rescheduling, activating and deactivating a queue
also take place in this column. Columns 6 and 7 use shared memory to
share VTMS information.

858

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PXF Technology and Operation

Column Functionality (continued)

inbnd VCCI, L2 mtu chk, pointer to IP header,


IPCRC, inbnd int stats
Mtree constant time lookup, dest route ptr, outbnd
encap & VCCI for features such as QoS & ACls,
RPF check does SRC address agree with VCCI

Que/Deque pkt, VTMS, Traffic Shaping,


PQ, WRED based on column #4 info

Input VCCI + pkt hdr = Input ACL? Out ACL set =


yes - set feedback, MLP tracking, check & write seq #,
2K packets per MLP bundle
VCCI determines policy maps & classes ie. packet
classification, Input or Output policy only 1pass,
Input & output policy set feedback

VTMS, Dequeue wheel,


reschedule, Activate, deactivate
Queue

Implement policies from #3, rate limit,mark,


Que selection, process inbound or outbound ACL,
control and track IP frag
MAC rewrite based on header
encap, L2 out stats, frame header,
DLCI, ATM header

0
IM

1
IM

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

2
IM

3
IM

4
IM

Version 1.0

5
IM

6
IM

7
IM

859

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE Comparison
The graphic that follows provides a relative comparison of the PRE-1 and
the PRE-2 performance routing engines used in the Cisco 10000 router.
The key points include:

860

Increased packets per second throughput from 2.8 to 6.2 Mpps.

Increased route p rocessor memory size from 512 to 1024 MB.

Increased packet buffer size from 128 to 256 MB.

The ability to simultaneously process 64 packet headers versus 32


packet headers.

Increased route processor clock speed from 267 to 500 MHz and
increased Toaster clock speed from 100 to 154 MHz.

Line card interconnect has increased from 1.6 to 3.2 Gbps allowing for
use of the OC-48 POS line card and half-height Gigabit Ethernet line
card.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE Comparison

PRE Comparison

PRE-1

PRE-2

2.8 Mpps

6.2 Mpps

512 MB

1024 MB

1024 MB

1024 MB

128 MB

256 MB

32

64

Route Processor Clock

267 MHz

500 MHz

Toaster Clock

100 MHz

154 MHz

Line Card Interconnect

1.6 Gbps

3.2 Gbps

Benchmark PPS
Route Processor
Memory Size
Forwarding Processor
Memory Size
Packet Buffer
Toaster Processors

PRE2

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

861

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

High Availability
The following features on the Cisco 10000 router provide high-availability
functionality:

862

Point-to-point wiring with the Iron Bus between line cards and the
PREs, preventing failures on one line card from interrupting traffic on
other line cards

Redundant PREs (know as RPR+) with automatic failover

Separate control and data planes that limit faults in one plane from
affecting the other

Redundant AC or DC power supplies

Redundant cooling

Automatic protection switching (APS) between redundant Packet-overSONET (POS) line cards

Front access to serviceable cards and components

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

High Availability

High Availability

RPR+ - Redundant processing engines with


automatic failover
Iron Bus - Dedicated point-to-point wiring
between line cards and each of the PREs
Separate control and data planes
Redundant AC or DC power supplies
Redundant cooling
APS for redundant POS cards

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

863

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE Redundancy
The pages that follow describe how PRE redundancy operates in the
Cisco 10000 router.

Two PRE Slots


Using two PRE modules in the Cisco 10000 router provides a redundant
PRE environment with one PRE functioning as the active PRE and the
other as the standby PRE. During bootup, The PRE in slot 0A will become
the active PRE and the PRE in slot 0B the standby unit.
_____________________________ Note __________________________
There is no load sharing between the PREs.
____________________________________________________________

Status LEDs
The status LED on the standby PRE blinks green; the LED on the active
PRE is on continuously. In the broadband environment, RPR+ high
availability is supported.

864

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE Redundancy

PRE Redundancy

Slot
0A
0B

Two PRE slots


One PRE active, one
PRE in standby
No load sharing
Same Cisco IOS
image on both PREs

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

Status LED
Active PRE = solid green
Standby PRE = blinking green

865

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE Redundancy (continued)


Active PRE

The active PRE accepts all traffic from the line cards via the Iron Bus. The
PXF is responsible for executing the forwarding plane while the route
processor continues to execute the control plane. In addition the active
PRE monitors the health of the standby unit via the Route Processor
Redundancy (RPR) and Inter-Process Ethernet (IPE, Fast Ethernet bus)
buses. The Backplane Ethernet (BPE) permits the PRE to communicate
control information with the line cards.
Standby PRE

The standby PRE is in monitor mode monitoring the health of the active
PRE. The forwarding processor is initialized; that is, microcode is loaded
and the configuration file is loaded and synchronized. PPP and route states
are held in an initialization state and are not synchronized.

866

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE Redundancy

PRE Redundancy (continued)

Active PRE
IronBus connected to network interfaces
PXF forwarding processor forwards all
traffic
Route processor executes control plane
Monitors health of standby PRE

Standby PRE
Forwarding processor initialized -

IPE
PRE A
(Active)

RPR

PRE B
(Standby)

BPE
LC

microcode loaded
Cisco IOS startup and running configuration
synchronized
Monitors health of active PRE

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

867

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE Redundancy (continued)


Active PRE Operation Steady State
The active PREs route processor runs Cisco IOS software, controls the
routing protocols, provides the management interface, and monitors the
health of the standby PRE. The forwarding processor handles all inbound
and outbound traffic; that is, it is managing and controlling the queuing
process plus the active Iron Bus links to the line cards.
When operating in RPR+ mode, the active PRE automatically synchronizes
the startup and running configuration files in addition to the configregister and bootvar with the standby PRE. This is the default mode of
operation, known as standard.
_____________________________ Note __________________________
You can alter the Cisco 10000 router from operating in standard
synchronization mode using the redundancy configuration mode
commands.
____________________________________________________________

868

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE Redundancy

Active PRE Operation Steady State

Active Route Processor runs IOS

Manages system resources, runs routing protocols


Provides network management interface
Monitors health of standby PRE
Active PRE forwards all traffic
Iron Bus connected to network interfaces

With RPR+, by default the active PRE synchronizes the


following files to the standby PRE:

startup-config
running-config
config-register
bootvar

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

869

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE Redundancy (continued)


Standby PRE Operation Steady State
Integrity

On the standby PRE with RPR+, the Cisco IOS image is loaded and the
configuration file has been processed. However, the interfaces Layer 2 and
Layer 3 protocols are held in an initialization state.
The standby PRE reports its state to the active PRE in addition to
monitoring the state of the active PRE, using RPR bus status signals and a
keepalive signal over the IPE.
Synchronization

The standby PRE synchronizes the following with the active PRE, using
the IPE bus:

Startup configuration

Running configuration

Bootvar

Config-register

Time of day

Wait for Switchover Events

Any of the following events will cause a switchover to and activation of the
standby PRE:

870

Failure of the active RP can result in a crash signal, watchdog timeout


or keep-alive failure.

Removal of the active PRE will result in the change in the redundancy
signal, causing a failover to take place.

Maintenance or upgrades resulting in an operator-initiated failover will


result in the standby PREs becoming active .

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE Redundancy

Standby PRE Operation Steady State

Maintain integrity

Report health to active PRE via keepalives


Monitor local failure indication signals

Maintain synchronization from active PRE

startup-config
running-config
config-register
bootvar
time of day

Wait for switchover events

Failure of active PRE crash signal, watchdog timeout, keepalive


failure

Removal of active PRE redundancy signal change


Operator-initiated switchover maintenance or upgrade

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

871

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

PRE Redundancy (continued)


Action on PRE Switchover
The following events occur during a switchover from one PRE to the other
PRE:

872

If a failure is detected, cutover is initiated by the standby PRE.

Line cards shift their backplane interface connection to the new active
PRE.

Line cards are not reset or reloaded.

Line cards reconnect within 5 seconds.

Interfaces change state to up .

Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocols initialize.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

PRE Redundancy

Action on PRE Switchover

Cutover initiated by the standby


Line cards shift their backplane interfaces to the
new primary

Line cards are not reset or reloaded


Line cards reconnect within 5 seconds
Interfaces change state to up
Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocols initialize

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

873

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Cisco 10000 Series Router Broadband Aggregation Line Cards


The pages that follow provide information about Cisco 10000 Series router
line cards that are suitable for broadband aggregation deployments.

874

ATM cards Overview each of the available ATM line cards for the
Cisco 10000 router followed by an overview of optimizing VC scaling for
these cards

4-port OC-3c/STM-1 ATM

1-port OC-12 ATM

8-port E3/DS3 ATM

LAN cards Overview of the available LAN line cards for the
Cisco 10000 router

1-port Gigabit Ethernet full-height card

1-port Gigabit Ethernet half-height card

8-port Fast Ethernet half-height c ard

POS cards Overview of the available POS cards for the Cisco
10000 router

1-port OC-12 POS/SDH card

6-port OC-3c/STM-1 POS/SDH card

1-port OC-48c/STM-16 POS/SDH card

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Cisco 10000 Series Router Broadband Aggregation Line Cards

Cisco 10000 Series Router Broadband Aggregation Line Cards

ATM Cards

4xOC-3 ATM, 1xOC-12 ATM,


8xE3/DS3 ATM

ATM VCs

Optimizing VC Scaling on ATM Line Cards

LAN Cards

GigE, GigE HH, 8xFE HH

POS Cards

6xOC-3 POS, 1xOC-12 POS, 1xOC-48 POS

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

875

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

ATM Line Cards


4-Port OC-3c/STM-1 ATM Line Card
The 4-port OC-3c/STM-1 ATM line card is a standards-based ATM solution
supporting line rate (155 Mbps) performance at 64-byte packets. It allows
Internet service providers to offer line -rate Internet access via ATM virtual
circuits. When used in broadband aggregation deployments, it is an
effective solution for aggregating subscriber connections from DSLAMs.
Hardware Features

Full-height, single-slot, four-port

155-Mbps SONET/SDH OC-3 STS-3c/STM-1c framing format

Single-mode, interme diate-reach optics with an LC connector

Full-duplex OC-3 fiber-speed performance

64 MB of transmit and receive buffers

Conforms to ATM Forum 155-Mbps physical layer specification

LEDs

Fail Yellow indicates the line card power-on self test (POST) fails or a
failure during operation. Off indicates the line card is working properly.

Loopback Yellow indicates the port data path is in loopback and not
available for normal operation. Off when not in loopback.

Alarm Yellow indicates an alarm condition exists at the


corresponding port.

Carrier Detect Green indicates a carrier is detected at the


corresponding port. Off indicates a loss of signal (LoS).

High-Availability Features Supported

876

1+1 redundancy per port line card using automatic protection switching
(APS)

1+1 line-card redundancy for card failover

OIR

RPR+

SONET-based alarms

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

ATM Line Cards

4-Port OC-3c/STM-1 ATM Line Card

Hardware Features

Four port
LC duplex connector

Single mode
Intermediate reach

SONET/SDH OC-3 STS-3c/STM1c framing format

Conforms to ATM Forum

physical layer specifications

64 MB Tx and Rx Buffers
LEDs
High-Availability Features

1+1 redundancy per port line


card using APS
OIR

RPR+
SONET based alarms

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

877

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

ATM Line Cards (continued)


1-Port OC-12 ATM Line Card
The 1-port OC-12 ATM line card is a standards-based ATM solution
supporting line rate (622 Mbps) performance at 64-byte packets. It
provides an excellent uplink between leased-line customers and ISP
backbone ATM devices.
Hardware Features

Full-height, single-slot, single-port

622-Mbps SONET/SDH STS-12c/STM-4c framing format

Single-mode, intermediate -reach optics with SC connector

Full-duplex OC-12 fiber-speed performance

16 MB of transmit and receive buffers

Conforms to ATM Forum 622-Mbps physical layer specification

LEDs

Fail Off (Card OK)/Yellow (Card failure)

Enable Green (Port traffic enabled)/Off (Port traffic disabled)

Alarm Off (No alarms at oc-12 level)/Yellow (OC-12 level alarm)

Loop Off (Loopback disabled)/Yellow (Port in loopback, no data traffic)

Receive Green (Port receiving traffic)/Off (No traffic)

Transmit Green (Transmitting traffic)/Off (No traffic)

Carrier Green (Carrier detected)/Off (No carrier)

High-Availability Features Supported

878

1+1 redundancy per port line card using automatic protection switching
(APS)

1+1 line-card redundancy for card failover

OIR

RPR+

SONET-based alarms

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

ATM Line Cards

1-Port OC-12 ATM Line Card

Hardware Features

Single port
SC duplex connector

Single mode
Intermediate reach

SONET/SDH OC-12 STS-

12c/STM-4c framing format

Conforms to ATM Forum

physical layer specifications


16 MB Tx and Rx Buffers

LEDs
High-Availability Features

1+1 redundancy per port line


card using APS
OIR

RPR+
SONET based alarms

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

879

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

ATM Line Cards (continued)


8-Port E3/DS3 ATM Line Card
The Cisco 10000 Series 8-Port E3/DS3 ATM line card provides high-density
connectivity and deployment flexibility for the Cisco 10000 Series router.
When used in broadband aggregation deployments, it is an effective
solution for aggregating subscriber connections from DSLAMs.
Hardware Features

Full height, single slot, eight ports

75-ohm coaxial cable to a length of 450 feet, with the capability for both
remote and local side loopback.

64 MB of transmit and receive buffers

E3 framer providing 34.368Mbps, G.751 or G.832 E3 application, G.751


E3 physical layer convergence procedure (PLCP)

DS3 framer provides: 44.736Mbps, C-bit parity and M23 based ATM
Direct Mapping (ADM), C-bit parity and M23 based PLCP

LEDs

Fail Yellow indicates the line card power-on self test (POST) fails or a
failure during operation. Off indicates the line card is working properly.

Loopback Yellow indicates the port data path is in loopback and not
available for normal operation. Off when not in loopback.

Alarm Yellow indicates an alarm condition exists at the


corresponding port.

Carrier Detect Green indicates a carrier is detected at the


corresponding port. Off indicates a loss of signal (LoS).

High-Availability Features Supported

880

OIR

RPR+

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

ATM Line Cards

8-Port E3/DS3 ATM Line Card

Hardware Features
8-port DS3 or E3
Line build out: 450 ft of 75-ohm

coax
E3 framer provides 34.368 Mbps
DS3 framer provides 44.736 Mbps
Conforms to ATM Forum physical
layer specifications
64 MB Tx and Rx Buffers

LEDs

High-Availability Features
OIR
RPR+

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

881

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

ATM Line Card Common Features


The following describes features that are common to the Cisco 10000 router
line cards.

Card Functions
The Cisco 10000 router ATM line cards functionality is focused on Layer 2
(ATM) services, and they rely on the PRE to provide Layer 3 services. The
line cards receive and transmit ATM cells on the physical interfaces while
transmitting and receiving packets from the backplane.

ATM Features
The Cisco 10000 router ATM line cards support the following ATM
features:

8 VPI and 16 VCI bits

User-Network Interface (UNI) Versions 3.x and 4.0

Integrated Local Management Interface (ILMI) Version 4.0 including


permanent virtual connection (PVC) auto discovery feature

Standard ATM traffic management categories (VBR-nrt and UBR)

RFC 2684 AAL5 logical link control

Standard F4/F5 OAM

Supports AAL5 data transports: SNAP and MUX

VCs per Line Card


The following are the number of VCs supported by each line card type:

882

4-port OC-3 16,000 VCs per port ; 32,000 VCs per card

Single-port OC-12 16,000 VCs per card

8-port E3/DS3 4,000 VCs per port ; 32,000 VCs per card

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

ATM Line Card Common Features

ATM Line Card Common Features

ATM Features

VCs per Line Card

Supports VBR-nrt and UBR

4-port OC-3 16,000 VCs per port,

traffic

32,000 VCs per card

Supports 8 VPI and 16 VCI bits


PVCs and permanent virtual

1-port OC-12 16,000 VCs per


card

8-port E3/DS3 4000 VCs per port,

path (PVPs)

32,000 VCs per card

Supports AAL5 data transport


(SNAP and MUX)

Supports F4 and F5 OAM


UNI 3.x/4
ILMI management and

SAR and QoS Features


Per-VC queuing/shaping for VBRnrt, including CBWFQ and PQ

Group queuing and shaping for


UBR VCs

autodiscovery

CAC support for VBR-nrt, needs


available bandwidth

Map IP CoS to ATM QoS

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

883

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

ATM Line Card Common Features (continued)


SAR and QoS Features
SAR

The line cards feature a high-performance programmable segmentation


and reassembly (SAR) that is adapted for various applications including
advanced traffic management, cell scheduling, and integrated buffer
management.
The programmable feature of the SAR allows flexibility for software
upgrades and the ability to support new standards.
QoS and Shaping Features

Mapping of IP class of service (CoS) to ATM quality of service (QoS)


enables the effective management of traffic flows across heterogeneous
IP and ATM networks.

Per-VC and per-VP traffic shaping are supported in the highperformance PXF network processor. Providing traffic shaping on a
per-VC and per-VP basis allows flexibility and control over every VC
and VP configured.

884

For UBR VCs, queuing and shaping are done on a group basis.

For VBR-nrt PVCs, queuing and shaping, including CBWFQ and


PQ, are provided on a per-VC basis.

Supports Call Admission Control (CAC) by not permitting the


configuration of VBR-nrt PVCs if the requested bandwidth is not
available on the port.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

ATM Line Card Common Features

ATM Line Card Common Features (continued)

ATM Features

VCs per Line Card

Supports VBR-nrt and UBR

4-port OC-3 16,000 VCs per port,

traffic

32,000 VCs per card

Supports 8 VPI and 16 VCI bits


PVCs and permanent virtual

1-port OC-12 16,000 VCs per


card

8-port E3/DS3 4000 VCs per port,

path (PVPs)

32,000 VCs per card

Supports AAL5 data transport


(SNAP and MUX)

Supports F4 and F5 OAM


UNI 3.x/4
ILMI management and

SAR and QoS Features


Per-VC queuing/shaping for VBRnrt, including CBWFQ and PQ

Group queuing and shaping for


UBR VCs

autodiscovery

CAC support for VBR-nrt, needs


available bandwidth

Map IP CoS to ATM QoS

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

885

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

ATM Line Card Common Features (continued)


Packet Layer Features
The following packet layer features are supported:

Application of the following QoS to each VBR-nrt PVC and to all UBR
PVCs as a group using Modular QoS CLI (MQC)

Priority queuing (PQ)

Class-based weighted fair queuing (CBWFQ)

Weighted random early d etection (WRED]

Committed access rate (CAR)

Setting the ATM cell loss priority (CLP) bit.

Multicast

Access control lists (ACLs)

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

Frame mode MPLS over ATM

MPLS cell mode with label controlled ATM (LC-ATM) interface


support.

886

This feature allows service providers with existing ATM backbone


to upgrade their switches with label switch controller to support the
MPLS control plane.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

ATM Line Card Common Features

Packet Layer Features

Packet Layer Features


Application of QoS to each VBR-nrt PVC and to UBR PVCs as a
group via MQC

ATM CLP
Multicast
ACLs
MPLS
Frame mode MPLS over ATM
MPLS cell mode with LC-ATM

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

887

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Assigning VPI/VCIs for ATM VC Scaling


Overview
The Cisco 10000 router ATM line cards support the full range of VPI/VCI
values: 8 VPI bits and 16 VCI bits. The SAR on the ATM line cards use the
VPI/VCI values assigned to VCs along, with a physical port number as a
unique identifier for the VCs configured on the line card. There are some
restrictions on how VCs are assigned that , if not selected properly, can
result in reduced VC counts from the theoretical maximum.
The following table gives the maximum number of VCs supported for each
line card type.
8-Port DS3/E3

4-Port OC3

1-Port OC12

Maximum VCs/port

4000

8000

16000

Maximum VCs/card

32,000

32,000

16000

_____________________________ Note __________________________


To attain maximum VC density no pxf queuing should be configured
on the ports.
____________________________________________________________

Internal Logical Identifier


To enable the SAR to support the same VPI/VCI values per physical
interface, the external VPI/VCI values assigned to VCs are translated into
an internal 32-bit logical header. The logical header is divided into a 25-bit
tag and 7-bit offset, with both parts pointing to unique channel descriptors.
Each VC configured on the line card uses one channel descriptor.
The bit designations are listed below for the illustration, from left to right.

888

Tag/
Offset

Bits

Field

Description

Tag

3129

N/A

Not used

Tag

2824

PHY

Physical port identifier

Tag

2316

VPI

8 bits of VCI

Tag

158

VCI

Upper 9 bits of VCI (BCD values 32384 to 128)

Offset

70

VCI

Lower 7 bits of VCI (BCD values 64 to 1)

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Assigning VPI/VCIs for ATM VC Scaling

Assigning VPI/VCIs for ATM VC Scaling

ATM VC scaling
Consider VPI/VCI selections
when creating PVCs

31

SAR translates physical port

28

N/A PHY#

23

15
VPI

76

VCI

ID + VPI/VCI into 32-bit logical


header

Logical header divided into

Tag

Offset

tag and offset to determine


channel descriptor

Tag is based on

Physical field
Entire VPI field
Upper 9 bits of the VCI

Offset = bits 0 7 of VCI

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

889

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Assigning VPI/VCIs for ATM VC Scaling (continued)


Channel Descriptor Usage
Channel descriptors are grouped into 512 pages with each page containing
128 channel descriptors. The tag portion of the internal logical header
points to one of 512 pages and the offset points to one of 128 channel
descriptors within a page.
Therefore, when a VC is configured on a port of the ATM line card, it is the
combination of the port identifier, VPI and upper 9 bits of VCI that results
in a unique page number. The Cisco 10000 router ATM line cards support
a maximum of 512 channel descriptor pages

Achieving Maximum Scalability


To achieve maximum VC scalability, you should assign VCIs for a given
VPI utilizing a contiguous numbering sche me in groups of 128 VCs
(bits 0 7 of the VCI) that utilize all 128 channel descriptors in a page.
The following two examples illustrate the number of channel descriptor
pages that are used to configure 200 VCs on an ATM port.
Example 1

Configured VPI/VCI combinations on an ATM port are as follows:

1/100, 1/200, 1/300, etc. through 1/4000

2/100, 2/200, etc. through 2/4000

Etc. through 5/4000

This example requires 155 channel descriptor pages


Example 2

Configured VPI/VCIs on an ATM port are as follows:

1/32, 1/33, 1/34, etc., through 1/231

This example requires 2 channel descriptor pages.


With example 1, if this VC numbering scheme were used on all four ports
of the 4-port OC3 ATM line cards, then all 512 channel descriptor pages
would be used before all VCs were configured on the line card. In practice,
depleting the maximum number of channel descriptor pages should not
occur as VCs are usually defined by incrementing the VCI sequentially on
a given VPI

890

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

Assigning VPI/VCIs for ATM VC Scaling

Assigning VPI/VCIs for ATM VC Scaling (continued)

Channel Descriptors
One per VC
Grouped into 512 pages
Each page contains 128
descriptors

Achieving maximum
scaling
Assign VCs in groups of

128 that utilize all channel


descriptors in a page
Example of 200 VCs

PVCs 1/32 through 1/231


Uses 2 pages

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

TAG

OFFSET

Search
Channel Descriptor 0
Page 0
TAG 0
TAG 1

Channel Descriptor 127

TAG 511

Page 511

Channel Descriptor
Page #

CD #

891

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

LAN Line Cards


Gigabit Ethernet Line Card
The Cisco 10000 router Gigabit Ethernet interface line card is an effective
solution for Intra-POP interconnections among Internet service providers.
The Gigabit Ethernet line card in the Cisco 10000 router provides a costeffective high-performance uplink to backbone routers such as the
Cisco 12000 series Gigabit Switch Router (GSR).
Hardware Features

Full-height, single slot

Single 1-Gbps port

Complies with 802.3z standards

1-Gbps full duplex

Choice of SC Gigabit Interface Converter (GBIC) transceivers: SX,


LX/LH, and ZX

Receive buffering 16MB

LEDs

Fail Solid yellow indicates the line card power-on self test (POST)
fails or a failure during operation. Off indicates the line card is
working properly. A blinking Fail LED is an indication of a defective or
incompatible GBIC.

Link Green indicates carrier detected and the port is able to pass
traffic. If negotiation is enabled at both end, it indicates successful
completion and the port can pass traffic. Off indicates that no carrier
signal is detected, negotiation failed, or the port is administratively
down.

Rx Green indicates that packets are being received.

Tx Green indicates that packets are being transmitted.

High Availability Features Supported

892

OIR

RPR+

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

LAN Line Cards

Gigabit Ethernet Line Card

Hardware Features

Full-height 1-port

Gigabit Ethernet
1 Gbps full duplex

GBIC transceiver with SC


connector

1000BASE-SX (802.3z specs)


1000BASE-LX/LH (802.3z
specs)
1000BASE-ZX

Receive buffering: 16 MB
LEDs

High-Availability Features

OIR
RPR+

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

893

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

LAN Line Cards (continued)


Gigabit Ethernet Line Card (continued)
GBIC Specifications
The table lists the specification about the GBIC transceivers that may be
used on the Gigabit Ethernet line card.
The 1000BASE-LX/LH GBIC exceeds IEEE 802.3 5-km reach requirement
for 1000BASE-LX over single-mode fiber (SMF). If multimode fiber (MMF)
is used, then a mode-conditioning patch cord is required on both ends for a
link distance of tens of meters.
The 1000BASE-ZX GBIC has a reach of 70 km over SMF. The reach can be
extended to 100 km using premium or dispersion-shifted fiber.

894

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

LAN Line Cards

GBIC Specifications

GBIC

1000BASE-SX

1000BASE-LX/LH

1000BASE-ZX

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Wavelength
(nm)

Fiber

850

MMF

1300

SMF

Core Size
(microns)
62.5
62.5
50.0
50.0
62.5
50.0
50.0
9/10

SMF

9/10

MMF

1550

Version 1.0

Reach
(meters)
220
275
500
550
550
550
550
10 km
70 km to
100 km

895

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

LAN Line Cards (continued)


Gigabit Ethernet Half-Height Line Card
The Cisco 10000 router Gigabit Ethernet Half-Height line card is an
effective solution for Intra-POP interconnections among Internet service
providers and provides a cost-effective high performance uplink to
backbone routers such as the Cisco 12000 series Gigabit Switch Router
(GSR). This line card doubles the Gigabit Ethernet capabilities of the
Cisco 10000 Series router.
Hardware Features

Half-height slot using the Cisco 10000 router carrier card

Single 1-Gbps port

Complies with 802.3z standards

1-Gbps full duplex

Choice of small form factor pluggable (SFP) transceivers: SX and


LX/LH

LEDs

Fail Solid yellow indicates the line card power-on self test (POST)
fails or a failure during operation. Off indicates the line card is
working properly. A blinking Fail LED is an indication of a defective or
incompatible GBIC.

Link Green indicates carrier detected and the port is able to pass
traffic. If negotiation is enabled at both end, it indicates successful
completion and the port can pass traffic. Off indicates that no carrier
signal is detected, negotiation failed, or the port is administratively
down.

Rx Green indicates that packets are being received.

Tx Green indicates that packets are being transmitted.

High-Availability Features Supported

896

OIR

RPR+

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

LAN Line Cards

Gigabit Ethernet Half-Height Line Card

Hardware Features

Half-height single-port
Gigabit Ethernet
1 Gbps full duplex

SFP transceiver with LC


connector

1000BASE-SX (802.3z specs)


1000BASE-LX/LH (802.3z
specs)

Line rate with 64 byte packets


Receive buffering: 16 MB
LEDs
High-Availability Features

OIR
RPR+

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

897

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

LAN Line Cards (continued)


Gigabit Ethernet Half-Height Line Card (continued)
SFP Specifications
The table lists the specification about the SFP transceivers that may be
used on the Gigabit Ethernet half-height line card.
_____________________________ Note __________________________
A mode-conditioning patch cord is required. If you use an ordinary
patch cord with multimode fiber (MMF), 1000BASE -LX/LH SFP
transceivers, for a short link distance (tens of meters), this can cause
transceiver saturation, resulting in an elevated bit error rate (BER). In
addition, when you use the LX/LH SFP transceivers with 62.5-micron
diameter MMF, you must install a mode-conditioning patch cord
between the transceiver and the MMF cable on both the transmit and
receive ends of the link. The mode-conditioning patch cord is required
for link distances of less than 300 meters.
____________________________________________________________

898

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

LAN Line Cards

SFP Specifications

SFP

Wavelength
(nm)

Fiber

850

MMF

1000BASE-SX
GLC-SX-MM

MMF
1000BASE-LX/LH
GLC-LH-SM

1300
SMF

Core Size
(microns)
62.5
62.5
50.0
50.0

Reach
(meters)
220
275
500
550

62.5
50.0
50.0
8/10

550
550
550
10 km

See note on text page

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

899

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

LAN Line Cards (continued)


Gigabit Ethernet Common Features
The following are features common to both the full-height and half-height
Gigabit Ethernet line cards.

Media Access Control (MAC) with full-duplex operation and flow


control

Hardware address filtering on received frames of up to 4096 address


entries

Ethernet encapsulation formats:

Ethernet V2

802.2 SAP

802.2 SNAP

802.1Q support for 4096 VLANs

Line rate at 64-byte packets

MTU 9180 bytes

802.3x flow control (Tx and Rx negotiated separately)

Flow control enables connected Ethernet ports to control traffic


rates during congestion by allowing congested nodes to pause link
operation at the other end. If one port experiences congestion and
cannot receive any more traffic, it notifies the other port to stop
transmitting until the condition clears. When the local device
detects any congestion at its end, it can notify the link partner or
the remote device of the congestion by transmitting a pause frame.
On receiving a pause frame, the remote device stops transmitting
any data packets. This prevents any loss of data packets during the
congestion period.

Accepts Ethernet frames for its unicast address, and it participates in


other multicast protocols such as CDP.
_____________________________ Note __________________________

The Gigabit Ethernet card on the Cisco 10000 defaults to autonegotiation


On, that is negotiation of send and receive capabilities.
____________________________________________________________

8100

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

LAN Line Cards

Gigabit Ethernet Common Feature

Gigabit Ethernet Features

Full-duplex operation and flow control

MTU of 9180 bytes


Autonegotiation

Hardware address filtering up to 4096 address entries


802.3x flow control

Ethernet encapsulation formats:


Ethernet V2
802.2 SAP
802.2 SNAP
802.1Q support for 4096 VLANs

64-bit counters
Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

8101

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

LAN Line Cards (continued)


8-Port Fast Ethernet Half-Height Line Card
With the 8-Port Fast Ethernet half-height card, the Cisco 10000 router
serves the Ethernet aggregation market with maximum flexibility for a
variety of densities and aggregation topologies.
Hardware Features

Half-height slot using the Cisco 10000 router carrier card

Eight ports o f Fast Ethernet

Each port configurable for either full- or half-duplex operation

512 content-addressable memory (CAM) addresses per port

16-MB receive packet memory

Error-Correction Code (ECC) protection for the processor local memory and
packet memory

LEDs

Fail Yellow indicates the line card power-on self test (POST) fails or a
failure during operation. Off indicates the line card is working properly.

Link Green indicates a valid Ethernet link.

Activity Green indicates presence of transmitted and received


Ethernet packets.

High-Availability Features Supported

8102

OIR

RPR+

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

LAN Line Cards

8-Port Fast Ethernet Half-Height Line Card

Hardware Features

Half-height slot
Eight ports of Fast Ethernet
Configurable per port half/full

duplex
ECC protection for the
processor and packet memory
Receive buffering: 16 MB

512 CAM addresses per port


LEDs
High-Availability Features

OIR
RPR+

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

8103

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

LAN Line Cards (continued)


8-Port Fast Ethernet Half-Height Line Card (continued)
Fast Ethernet Features

8104

Media Access Control (MAC) with full-duplex operation and flow


control

Hardware address filtering on received frames of up to 4096 address


entries

802.3x flow control

Ethernet encapsulation formats

Ethernet V2

802.2 SAP

802.2 SNAP

802.1Q support for 4096 VLANs

MTU of 9180 bytes

Autonegotiation

64-bit counters

Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 8

LAN Line Cards

8-Port Fast Ethernet Half-Height Line Card (continued)

Fast Ethernet Features

Full-duplex operation and flow control

802.1Q support for 4096 VLANs

Hardware address filtering up to 4096 address entries


802.3x flow control
Ethernet encapsulation formats:

Ethernet V2
802.2 SAP
802.2 SNAP

MTU of 9180 bytes


Autonegotiation
64-bit counters
HSRP

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

8105

Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Packet over SONET Line Cards


1-Port OC-12 POS/SDH Line Card
The Cisco 10000 router OC-12/STM-4 POS/SDH line card is a highcapacity, high-performance interface that provides connectivity from the
aggregation router to the core. This line card provides Internet service
providers with significant performance improvements in their existing
fiber networks.
Hardware Features

1-port OC-12/STM-4 SONET interface

Operates at 622 Mbps full duplex

SC duplex connector supports single-mode, intermediate-reach fiber


(maximum distance 15 km)

Unit power budget: 28W

Receive buffering 16MB

LEDs

Fail Yellow indicates the line card power-on self test (POST) fails or a
failure during operation. Off indicates the line card is working properly.

Carrier Green indicates the carrier signal is detected. Off indicates a


loss of signal (LoS).

Rx Green indicates that packets are being received.

Tx Green indicates that packets are being transmitted.

High-Availability Features Supported

8106

Per-port SONET Automatic Switching Protection (ASP)

Per-port SDH Multiplex Section Protection (MSP)

OIR

RPR+

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Module 8

Packet over SONET Line Cards

1-Port OC-12 POS/SDH Line Card

Hardware Features

Single port OC-12/STM-4

SONET/SDH
Operates at 622 Mbps, fullduplex
SC duplex connector

Single mode
Intermediate reach (15 km)

Unit power budget: 28W


Receive buffering: 16 MB
LEDs

High-Availability Features

SONET ASP, SDH MSP


OIR
RPR+

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Packet over SONET Line Cards (continued)


6-Port OC-3c/STM-1 POS/SDH Line Card
The Cisco 10000 router six-port OC-3c/STM-1 POS line card is a highcapacity, high-performance interface that enables service providers to offer
dedicated Internet access services and peering to other service providers at
OC-3c/STM-1 rates. This line card provides a powerful combination of
scalability and flexibility, enabling service providers to substantially
increase the data load over their optical transport infrastructure.
Hardware Features

6-port OC-3c/STM-1 SONET interface

Operates at 155 Mbps full-duplex

LC duplex connector supports single-mode, intermediate-reach fiber


(maximum distance 15 km)

Unit power budget: 28W

Receive buffering 16 MB

LEDs

Fail Yellow indicates the line card power-on self test (POST) fails or a
failure during operation. Off indicates the line card is working properly.

Loopback Yellow indicates the data path is in loopback, one per port

Alarm Yellow indicates the presence of a port alarm, one per port

Carrier Detect Green indicates a carrier is detected at the


corresponding port. Off indicates a loss of signal (LoS).

High-Availability Features Supported

8108

Per-port SONET Automatic Switching Protection (ASP)

Per-port SDH Multiplex Section Protection (MSP)

OIR

RPR+

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Packet over SONET Line Cards

6-Port OC-3c/STM-1 POS/SDH Line Card

Hardware Features

6-port OC-3c/STM-1
SONET/SDH

Operates at 155 Mbps, fullduplex

LC duplex connector

Single mode
Intermediate reach (15 km)

Unit power budget: 28W


Receive buffering: 16 MB
LEDs

High-Availability Features

SONET ASP, SDH MSP


OIR
RPR+

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Packet over SONET Line Cards (continued)


1-Port OC-48c/STM-16 POS/SDH Line Card
The Cisco 10000 router 1-port OC-48c/STM-16 POS/SDH line card provides
a high-performance interface from the Cisco 10000 router to the core
network. This line card enables Internet service providers to substantially
increase the data load over their optical transport infrastructure.
Hardware Features

One port OC-48c/STM-16 SONET interface

Operates at 2.488 Gbps full duplex

SC connectors support

single-mode, short-reach fiber (maximum distance 2 km)

single-mode, long-reach fiber (maximum distance 80 km)

Unit power budget: 62W

Receive buffering 64MB

LEDs

Fail Yellow indicates the line card power-on self test (POST) fails or a
failure during operation. Off indicates the line card is working properly.

POS Green indicates the card is operating in POS mode

Enable Green indicates the port administratively enabled

Carrier Green indicates the carrier signal is detected. Off indicates a


loss of signal (LoS).

Rx Green indicates that packets are being received.

Tx Green indicates that packets are being transmitted.

SRP, Sync, Wrap, Pass Thru currently not supported when installed
in the Cisco 10000 chassis.

High Availability Features

8110

Per-port SONET Automatic Switching Protection (ASP)

Per port SDH Multiplex Section Protection (MSP)

OIR

RPR+

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Packet over SONET Line Cards

1-Port OC-48c/STM-16 POS/SDH Line Card

Hardware Features

1-port OC-48c/STM-16
SONET/SDH

Operates at 2.488 Gbps. fullduplex

SC connector

Single-mode short-reach (2 km)


Single-mode long-reach (80 km)

Unit power budget: 62W


Receive buffering: 64 MB
LEDs
High Availability Features

SONET ASP, SDH MSP


OIR
RPR+

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Common POS/SDH Line Card Features


The following features are common to the three Cisco 10000 router
POS/SDH line cards.

Standards-compliant SONET interface: GR253, ITU G.707 and G.957


compliant

Alarm processing

Performance monitoring

Error counts for B1, B2, B3

Threshold crossing alerts (TCA) for B1, B2, B3 with settable


threshold

Synchronization

Local (internal) or loop timed (recovered from network)

Clock accuracy OC-3 and OC-48 POS cards: 4.6 ppm

Clock accuracy OC-12 POS card: 20 ppm

Local (diagnostic) and line (network) loopback

Encapsulation

8112

Loss of signal (LOS), loss of frame (LOF), line alarm indicator signal
(LAIS), path alarm indicator signal (PAIS), loss of pointer (LOP),
line remote defect indicator (LRDI), p ath remote defect indicator
(PRDI), signal failure (SF), signal degrade (SD), line remote error
indicator (line FEBE), path remote error indicator (path FEBE)

IETF RFC 1661, PPP

IETF RFC 1662, PPP in HDLC-like framing

IETF RFC 1490, Frame Relay encapsulation

NEBS Level 3 compliant

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Common POS/SDH Line Card Features

Common POS/SDH Line Card Features

SONET/SDH Features

SONET/SDH standards compliant


Alarm processing
Error Counts and threshold cross alerts
Performance monitoring
Synchronization

Local (internal) or loop timed (recovered from network)


Clock accuracy OC-3 and OC-48 POS cards: 4.6 ppm
Clock accuracy OC-12 POS card: 20 ppm

Local (diagnostic) and line (network) loopback


Encapsulation

IETF RFC 1661, PPP


IETF RFC 1662, PPP in HDLC-like Framing
IETF RFC 1490, Frame Relay encapsulation

NEBS Level 3 compliant

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

Summary
Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview
In this module, you learned the following:

8114

The broadband deployments of the Cisco 10000 router

The major chassis components of the Cisco 10000 router

The functional components of the Cisco 10000 router and their


interconnections and operation

The PRE-2 architecture and operation, including the forwarding


processor, router processor, and PXF

The flow of a packet through the Cisco 10000 router

The Cisco 10000 routers high availability hardware and functions

The features and functions of Cisco 10000 router line cards used in
broadband aggregation deployments

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Review Questions

Review Questions
Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview
1. Which of the following statements is not true about the Cisco 10000
chassis?
a. The chassis has eight slots for line cards.
b. The chassis supports two PRE modules.
c. ATM line cards should be inserted in slots 1 4.
d. Half-height line cards may be used in any slot.
2. What are the two main sections of the PRE?
a. _____________________________________
b. _____________________________________
3. Which functions are performed by the route processor? Choose three.
a. Chassis management
b. System initialization
c. Route processor redundancy
d. Packet buffering
4. Which functions are performed by the forwarding processor? Choose
three.
a. Routing protocol updates
b. IP forwarding
c. Layer 3 features
d. QoS features
5. The _________________________ is the primary data path between the
PREs and line cards.
6. The backplane bandwidth between the PRE-2 and a line card slot is
a. 3.2 Gbps
b. 1.6 Gbps
c. 800 Mbps
d. 51.2 Gbps

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

Module 8

7. Which of the following statements is not true about the PXF?


a. The PXF is made up of 64 CPUs.
b. The CPUs are arranged into eight rows and eight columns.
c. Each column of CPUs has its own dedicated 128 MB column
memory.
d. Each column of CPUs is internal to Toaster ASICs.
8. What are the four resultant operations of the PXF?
a. _______________________________
b. _______________________________
c. _______________________________
d. _______________________________
9. Which of the following statements are true about PRE redundancy?
Choose three.
a. The active PRE is in slot 0A,
b. The standby PRE monitors the state of the active PRE
c. The standby PRE maintains of files with the active PRE
d. The standby PRE initiates cutover upon failure of the active PRE
10. Which of the following functions is common to all line cards? Choose
three.
a. OIR
b. APS
c. RPR+
d. Fail LED

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Module 9
Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Overview
Description
In this module you learn about the Cisco 10000 Series Router software.
Included in this module are software elements, supported system features,
and supported Layer 2 connectivity options. This module also presents
Cisco IOS commands that display PXF statistical information. You will
perform hands-on exercises to observe the system hardware and software
components and will learn to use commands that display PXF statistics.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to do the following:

List and describe the purpose of the major elements within the Cisco
10000 router operating system

List the major software services available with use of the PRE-2 in the
Cisco 10000 router

Describe the features, functions and interaction of QoS mechanisms


supported on the Cisco 10000 Series router

Use Cisco IOS commands to determine system-level status and alarms

Use the appropriate commands to display PXF statistics

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Software Architecture
Overview
In the Cisco 10000 Series Router, the route processor, forwarding
processor, and line cards form a distributed system similar to other Cisco
products, including the Cisco 7500 and Cisco 12000 Series Routers. Each
of these components uses software that is shipped as part of the Cisco IOS
release.

Functional Components
The Cisco IOS software provides the following functions that are used by
the system components:

System control Provided by Cisco IOS 12.2(16)BX or later running on


the route processor

Packet forwarding Provided by Parallel eXpress Forwarding (PXF)


pipeline by means of custom microcode running on the PXF processors.

Line card and interface control Line card resources are controlled by
a Cisco-developed lightweight kernel called LC-DOS. LC-DOS provides
a lightweight execution environment easily tailored to the highly
embedded line card application.

The microcode for packet forwarding and for line card and interface control
is bundled with the Cisco IOS software.

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Software Architecture

Software Architecture

Route processor, forwarding processor, and


line cards form a distributed system
System software functional components:
System control

Route processor

Packet forwarding

PXF microcode

Line card and interface control

LC-DOS lightweight kernel

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

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Software components
Route ProcessorCisco IOS
The route processor is running Cisco IOS Release 12.2(16)BX or later that
enables the router to support broadband and leased-line aggregation
applications. It provides system management, routing protocols, and PXF
control.

Forwarding ProcessorTMC Microcode


The PXF processors run custom microcode developed for the Cisco 10000
router. This microcode, which is called the Toaster microcode or TMC
microcode, is optimized for IP forwarding and is bundled with the Cisco
IOS image.

Line CardsLC-DOS
The LC-DOS kernel provides a basic execution environment upon which
more specific applications can be built. It includes:

94

A scheduler

An exception handler

Memory management facilities

Task management facilities

A Cisco IOS interprocess communication (IPC) client for


communication with Cisco IOS software on the route processor

Support for card hot-swap and download

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Software components

Software Components

Route Processor

System management, routing protocols, drivers, PXF control


Forwarding Processor: Toaster TMC microcode

PXF microcode implements the forwarding path


Forwarding features not implemented in microcode are not
supported

Bundled with Cisco IOS image


Line Card Software: LC-DOS

Line card and interface management


Not involved in packet forwarding
Lightweight kernel, unrelated to Cisco IOS
Currently bundled with Cisco IOS software

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

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Cisco 10000 Router Software


Overview of Image Names
The following identify the Cisco IOS software releases that were released
with each type of Performance Routing Engine (PRE) module:

96

The original PRE shipped with the leased-line images c10k-p6-mz


12.0(9)SL 12.0(21)ST.

The PRE-1 shipped with the C10k-p10 image starting with code release
12.0(21)ST and continuing on with the c10k-p10-mz 12.0(21)ST
12.0(28)S images. These images are all strictly for leased-line
functionality. Currently the last planned release of new features for the
PRE-1 will be in release 12.0(28)S. This will be followed up with
maintenance releases only.

Broadband and leased-line functionality has been released with the


PRE-2 and image c10k2-p11-mz 12.2(16)BX. Listed below are near
term releases for PRE-2 with broadband and leased line aggregation
functionality:

12.2(16)BX

12.3TX

12.2S (will contain all of the 12.3 functionality)

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Cisco 10000 Router Software

Cisco 10000 Router Software

Image names
PRE c10k-p6-mz

12.0(9)SL 12.0(21)ST leased-line images

PRE-1 c10k-p10-mz

12.0(21)ST 12.0(28)S, leased-line images, followed by


maintenance releases

PRE-2 c10k2-p11-mz (broadband aggregation plus


leased-line functionality)

12.2(16)BX
12.3TX
12.2S (will contain all of the 12.3 functionality)

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Cisco 10000 Router Software (continued)


Software Bundling
The line card and PXF microcode images are bundled with the Cisco IOS
software.
During system initialization, the images are extracted, decompressed, and
downloaded as part of the initialization process:

The line card image is downloaded by the backplane Ethernet.

The PXF microcode is downloaded o ver a data path that exists within
the PRE.

To upgrade either the PXF microcode or the line card control processor
code, you must upgrade the Cisco IOS software. The PXF microcode may
be reloaded dynamically by the route processor after certain PXF faults,
obviating the need to restart Cisco IOS after certain PXF pipeline faults.

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Cisco 10000 Router Software

Software Bundling

LC and PXF microcode images bundled with


Cisco IOS software
Images are extracted, decompressed, and
downloaded during system initialization

Line card and PXF microcode is upgraded with


new Cisco IOS release

Dynamic reload of PXF microcode occurs after


certain PXF faults

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Cisco 10000 Router Software (continued)


PXF Microcode
The Cisco 10000 router currently supports IP Version 4 packets only.
The PXF engine does not support the following; instead, they are processed
by the route processor:

IP Version 6

AppleTalk

Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)

DECnet

IS-IS Protocol

Bridging

In addition, the PXF pipeline diverts to the route processor packets


addressed to any of the routers interfaces. Packets of this nature are

Routing updates

Telnet

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)

Frame Relay Local Management Interface (LMI) packets

PPP control packets

Tag forwarding information base (TFIB) updates

Some Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets are handled by


the PXF engine (for example, ICMP unreachable, echo requests, and so on).

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Cisco 10000 Router Software

PXF Microcode

All transit packets are forwarded by the PXF


IPv4 is the only supported L3 protocol
Packets addressed to routers interfaces are
diverted (punted) to Cisco IOS software by PXF

Routing updates, Telnet packets, CDP, FR LMI,


PPP control packets
Some ICMP packets are handled by fast
forwarder microcode

Echo request, network unreachable, redirect

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Cisco 10000 Router Software (continued)


Line Card Software
The LC-DOS kernel is responsible for line card and interface management;
it is no t involved in packet forwarding. The LC-DOS software is currently
bundled with the Cisco IOS image shipped for the platform. Line card
software functionality is described below.

LC-DOS Functionality
The LC-DOS kernel provides a basic execution environment upon which
more specific applications can be built. It includes:

912

A scheduler.

An exception handler.

Memory management facilities.

Task management facilities.

A Cisco IOS IPC client for communication with Cisco IOS software on
the route processor.

Support for card hot-swap and download.

The base LC-DOS kernel is enhanced to provide functionality common


to all Cisco 10000 router line cards.

Support for line card control processor bootstrap.

A driver for the backplane Ethernet chip.

Management and control of the line card ID EEPROM.

A driver for the Barium Iron Bus termination application-specific


integrated circuit (ASIC).

Each instance of LC-DOS is enhanced to include functions specific to


the particular line card on which it is targeted to run.

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Cisco 10000 Router Software

Line Card Software

LC-DOS core
Scheduler, exception handler, memory management
Cisco IOS IPC client
OIR and download support
Common line card functionality
Line card control processor bootstrap
Backplane Ethernet driver
Line card IDPROM interface
Barium/Vanadium ASIC (Iron Bus termination chip) driver
Line card and interface-specific control functions

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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913

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Supported Encapsulations
Serial interfaces
Serial interfaces (channelized, POS, E3/DS3, E1/T1)

Cisco High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC).

PPP (RFC 1570).

914

Unsupported protocol field compression, address and control field


compression

Multilink PPP (MLP) 1250 bundles, up to 10 links per bundle. The


maximum number links cannot exceed 2500.

Frame Relay.

Generic routing e ncapsulation (GRE).

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Virtual Private Network (VPN)


and traffic engineering (TE) functionality.

VPN, provider (P) and provider edge (PE) functionality (RFC


2547bis)

TE, headend and tailend functionality

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Supported Encapsulations

Supported Encapsulations

Serial interfaces channelized, POS, E3/DS3, E1/T1


Cisco HDLC
PPP (RFC 1570)

Unsupported: address and protocol compression

MLP

1250 bundles, up to 10 links per bundle


Maximum number of links not to exceed 2500

Frame Relay
GRE
MPLS VPN and TE functionality

VPN, P and PE functionality (RFC 2547bis)


TE, headend and tailend functionality

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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915

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Supported Encapsulations (continued)


Gigabit Ethernet and Fast Ethernet Interfaces

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), service access point


(SAP)/IP, SAP/ Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP), MPLS

802.1q VLAN Support

ARPA is directly supported in the PXF path

4096 VLANs per interface

PPP over Ethernet over Ethernet (PPPoEoE and PPPoEo802.1q)

ATM interfaces

916

RFC 1483 and RFC 2684 routed

PPP over ATM (PPPoA)

PPP over Ethernet over ATM (PPPoEoA)

Route Bridge Encapsulation (RBE)

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Module 9

Supported Encapsulations

Supported Encapsulations

Gigabit Ethernet and Fast Ethernet interfaces


ARPA, SAP/IP, SAP/SNAP, MPLS
802.1q VLAN support
PPPoEoE, PPPoEo802.1q

ATM interfaces (OC-3, OC-12, DS3/E3)


RFC 1483 and RFC 2684 routed
PPPoA
PPPoEoA
RBE

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

917

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Frame Relay Support


Supported Features

4200 Frame-Relay sessions.

2-byte header format.

DTE, DCE modes.

All three LMI variants.

Frame Relay traffic shaping.

Multilink Frame Relay (MLFR) (FRF.16) 1250 bundles, up to 10 links


per bundle. The maximum number of links is not to exceed 2500.

Unsupported features

918

Frame Relay switching

FRF.11, FR/ATM Interworking (FRF.5 or FRF.8)

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Module 9

Frame Relay Support

Frame Relay Support

Supported features:

4200 Frame Relay sessions


2-byte header format
DTE, DCE modes
All three LMI variants
Frame Relay traffic shaping
MLFR (FRF.16)

1250 bundles, up to 10 links per bundle


Maximum number of links not to exceed 2500

Unsupported features:

Frame Relay switching


FRF.11 and FR/ATM Interworking (FRF.5 or FRF.8)

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

919

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Broadband Features and Scaling


Subscriber Sessions
The Cisco 10000 router supports autodetection of subscriber connections to
simplify provider configurations.

PPPoA

PPPoEoA

RBE

The following numbers of subscriber sessions are supported:

61,500 sessions with PPP termination and aggregation (PTA), Layer 2


Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) network server (LNS), L2TP access
concentrator (LAC) termination (simple configurations)

32,000 sessions RA-MPLS, managed LNS, VLANs, Service Selection


Gateway (SSG)

Tunneling
The following tunnel capabilities are supported:

920

L2TP 10,000 tunnels, maximum, for any combination inbound or


outbound

L2TP 61,500 PPP sessions per tunnel, maximum

L2TP tunnel switch functionality

GRE maximum of 384 tunnels

Version 1.0

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Broadband Features and Scaling

Broadband Features and Scaling

Subscriber Sessions

Autodetect

PPPoA, PPPoEoA, RBE

Sessions

61,500 sessions with PTA, LNS, LAC (simple configurations)


32,000 sessions with RA-MPLS, Managed LNS, VLANs, SSG

Tunneling

L2TP 10,000 tunnels for any combination inbound or


outbound

L2TP 61,500 PPP sessions per tunnel


L2TP Tunnel switch functionality
GRE maximum of 384 tunnels

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

921

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Broadband Features and Scaling (continued)


ATM
PVC Autoprovisioning

The Cisco 10000 router supports ATM permanent virtual connection (PVC)
autoprovisioning. With this feature, digital subscriber line (DSL) wholesale
service providers can use a local configuration to dynamically provision
ATM virtual connections (VCs) for subscribers. Incoming traffic on the
virtual path identifier/virtual connection identifier (VPI/VCI) pair triggers
VC creation.
PVC Range

The PVC range command allows the definition of a range of PVCs to be


made available for automatic provisioning.
Oversubscription

The router allows the creation of more autoprovisioned PVCs than the
router permits to be active simultaneously, that is, 61,500 PVCs. Provided
that a sufficient number of ATM line cards are installed in the chassis, you
can configure up to 128,000 autoprovisioned PVCs instead of the 61,500
PVC system limit.
When the Cisco 10000 router is oversubscribed, use the idle-timeout
interface command to dynamically bring down inactive PVCs and allow
other subscribers to connect to the router.

922

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Broadband Features and Scaling

Broadband Features and Scaling (continued)

ATM
PVC autoprovisioning
PVC range
Oversubscription

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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923

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Broadband Features and Scaling (continued)


QoS
Per session Service Policy (Quick Connect)

This feature enables a subscriber management server (SMS), typically a


RADIUS server, to dynamically change the traffic policing parameters for
a user session. The RADIUS server maintains user profiles to define
subscriber parameters. The per-session rate limiting parameter is defined
in the RADIUS.
Rate limiting

Per-session rate limiting is a traffic regulation mechanism that allows you


to control the maximum rate of traffic sent or received on an interface for a
session. The rate limiting feature uses the modular quality of service (QoS)
CLI to provide input and output policing rates for each session. The router
uses policing to manage the access bandwidth policy for PPPoA, PPPoE,
PPP in L2TP (LNS only), and RBE subscriber-based sessions. For these
subscriber-based sessions, the service policy is applied to a predefined
configuration template known as the virtual template interface.
Per-user multiservice rate limiting allows for the control of the maximum
rate of traffic for each user behind a multiservice subscriber connection.
This rate limiting feature also uses the modular QoS CLI to provide input
and output policing rates for each user. Users are distinguished from each
other by the use of unique ACLs for each user behind the subscriber.
802.1p Classification and Marking

The class of service (CoS)-based packet matching and marking feature


enables the router to interoperate with switches to deliver end-to-end QoS.
The IEEE 802.1p standard allows QoS to classify inbound Ethernet
packets, based on the value in the CoS field, and to explicitly set the value
in the CoS field of outbound packets.

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Broadband Features and Scaling

Broadband Features and Scaling (continued)

QoS
Per-session service policy for PTA and PPP in L2TP (LNS side)
Rate limiting

Per-user multiservice
Per-session

Quick connect

Per-session service policy using RADIUS VSAs

802.1p classification and marking


Per-session CBWFQ
65,536 queues per system

32 Queues per interface (includes class default and pk_priority)

Dynamic bandwidth selection

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Broadband Features and Scaling (continued)


QoS (continued)
Per-Session CBWFQ

The Cisco 10000 router supports class-based weighted fair queuing


(CBWFQ) for virtual access interfaces. A virtual access interface can
inherit the service policy of the VC that the virtual access interface uses.
Any virtual access interface that uses that VC is subject to the queuing,
policing, and marking actions defined in the VC service policy. You apply a
service policy with queuing-related actions to a VC, not to a virtual
template. The Cisco 10000 router supports queuing only when you apply
the service policy to a VC.
______________________________ Note __________________________
You can apply a service policy without queuing-related actions to either
a VC or a virtual template, but not to both at the same time.
_____________________________________________________________
Queues

The system supports 65,536 queues with a maximum of 32 queues per


interface. Two of these queues are reserved, one for class default and one
for pk_priority traffic. The OC-48 line card requires the use of an
additional reserved control queue .
Dynamic Bandwidth Selection (DBS)

The Cisco 10000 router supports the dynamic bandwidth selection (DBS)
feature for ATM VCs. DBS dynamically changes ATM traffic-shaping
parameters based on a subscribers RADIUS profile. This profile contains
QoS traffic-shaping parameters such as peak cell rate (PCR), sustained cell
rate (SCR), and VC traffic management class (VBR or UBR).

926

Unspecified bit rate (UBR) service class The router applies the PCR
parameter to a UBR configured VC.

Variable bit rate nonreal time (VBR-nrt) service class The VBR-nrt
service class provides QoS to the VC in no atm pxf queuing mode. The
router applies the PCR and SCR parameters to a VBR-nrt configured
VC.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Broadband Features and Scaling

Broadband Features and Scaling (continued)

QoS
Per-session service policy for PTA and PPP in L2TP (LNS side)
Rate limiting

Per-user multiservice
Per-session

Quick connect

Per-session service policy using RADIUS VSAs

802.1p classification and marking


Per-session CBWFQ
65,536 queues per system

32 Queues per interface (includes class default and pk_priority)

Dynamic bandwidth selection

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

927

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Leased-Line Features and Scaling


The following leased-line features and scaling numbers are for leased-line
functionality with the PRE-2 image.

Scaling

Up to 4,000 dedicated sessions PPP and HDLC

Up to 8,000 ATM VCs when using atm pxf queuing

800 BGP peers

Total routes

950,000 global routes

MPLS VPNs support 999 VPN routing and forwarding instances


(VRFs) containing 350,000 total routes

MLP 1,250 bundles, up to 10 interfaces per bundle, up to 2500 links

The 2,500 links include both MLP and multilink Frame Relay
(MLFR)

QoS

928

Priority queuing (PQ) and CBWFQ up to 65,536 queues

Police committed access rate (CAR) and rate limiting 2-color policer
with 2-color functionality

Access control lists (ACLs) All ACLs with more than 8 lines are
converted to turbo ACls.

Nested policy maps

Quality of service policy propagation through Border Gateway Protocol


(QPPB)

Class-based traffic shaping using modular QoS CLI (MQC)

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Leased-Line Features and Scaling

Leased-Line Features and Scaling

Scaling

Up to 4,000 dedicated sessions PPP and HDLC


Up to 8,000 ATM VCs with ATM PXF queuing
800 BGP peers
950,000 global routes
MPLS VPN 999 VRFs with 350,000 routes
MLP 1,250 MLP bundles, up to 10 interfaces per bundle, up to 2,500 links

QoS

PQ/CBWFQ
Police (CAR, rate limiting)
ACLs
Nested policy maps
QPPB
Class-based traffic shaping

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

929

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Leased-Line Features and Scaling (continued)


ATM QoS

VBR-nrt per VC queuing

VBR-nrt per VC weighted random early detection (WRED)

ATM class of service shaped UBR, UBR+, VBR-nrt, and committed bit
rate (CBR)

1000 groups, 8000 subinterfaces

6400 multicast routes

PE and P Functionality

Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)

Tag Distribution Protocol (TDP)

Supports up to 6 labels

Multicast

MPLS VPN

930

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Leased-Line Features and Scaling

Leased-Line Features and Scaling (continued)

ATM QoS
VBR-nrt per VC queuing
VBR-nrt per VC WRED
ATM CoS shaped UBR, UBR, VBR-nrt & CBR

Multicast
1000 groups, 8000 subinterfaces
6400 multicast routes

MPLS VPN

PE and P functionality
LDP
TDP
Supports up to 6 labels

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

931

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Lease-Line Features and Scaling (continued)


MPLS TE

932

Headend, tailend, midpoint functionality

Routes static, IS-IS and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) single level

Autoroute calculation

AutoBandwidth

InterArea TE (OSPF)

Label VC (LVC) and TE over ATM interface (Frame Mode)

384 Tunnels (headend and midpoint)

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Leased-Line Features and Scaling

Lease-Line Features and Scaling (continued)

MPLS TE
Headend, tailend, midpoint functionality
Routes static, IS-IS & OSPF single level
Autoroute calculation
AutoBandwidth
InterArea TE (OSPF)
LVC and TE over ATM interface (Frame mode)
384 Tunnels (headend & midpoint)

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

933

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

High Availability and Management Functionality


High Availability
The Cisco 10000 router currently supports a wide range of high availability
features. These features are briefly described below:

RPR+ Standby PRE booted with configuration loaded and interface


connections ready to switch over. Routing tables need to be built and
connections reestablished in RPR+.

Fast Software Upgrade (FSU) Reduced time to update software.


Processor switchover time will be based on RPR+.

Online insertion and removal (OIR) all modules

SONET automatic protection switching (APS), Synchronous Digital


Hierarchy (SDH) SDH multiservice switching path (MSP) 50 msec
switchover times for APS and MSP.

Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP) with 802.1Q Supports 802.1q


VLANs in addition to interfaces.

Management
System management includes Netflow accounting, ongoing MIB
enhancements, and reverse path forwarding functionality.

934

Netflow accounting (v1, 5, 8)

MIB enhancements

RPF strict

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

High Availability and Management Functionality

High Availability and Management Functionality

High Availability
RPR+
Fast software upgrade
OIR (all modules)
SONET APS, SDH MSP
HSRP (with 802.1Q)
Management
Netflow accounting (v1, 5, 8)
MIB enhancements
RPF strict

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

935

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

QoS Features and Functions


The pages that follow list supported system-level QoS features and
functions.

936

Class-map match options

Policy-map keywords and actions

QoS facts

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

QoS Features and Functions

QoS Features and Functions

Class-map match options


Policy-map keywords and actions
QoS Facts

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

937

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Class-Map Match Options


Listed below ar e the class-map match options supported on the Cisco
10000 router with PRE-2. The match option defines the matching criteria
for a class map.

938

IP Precedence Supporting precedence values 07

IP differentiated services code point (DSCP) Full DSCP support for


values 063

QoS group Up to 99 QoS groups

Input interface matches

Numbered and named ACLs Access group support for numbered and
named ACLs

IP Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)

CoS (802.1Q class of service/user priority values) Permits matching


on inbound CoS value (07).

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Class-Map Match Options

Class-Map Match Options

Match criteria for a class map


IP Precedence
IP DSCP
QoS Group
Input interface matches
Numbered and named ACLs
IP Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)
COS (802.1Q class of service and user priority
values)

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

939

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Policy-Map Keywords
The following are policy-map keywords for setting QoS parameters,
policing traffic, determining the method of congestion control, controlling
queue depth, and allocating bandwidth.

940

set atm-clp

set ip dscp

set ip precedence

set mpls experimental

set qos-group

police bps

random detect precedence

queue-limit

bandwidth

priority

shape

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Policy-Map Keywords

Policy Map Keywords

Keywords for policy maps

Set

ATM CLP
IP DSCP
IP precedence
MPLS experimental
QoS group

Police bps
Random detect precedence
Queue-limit
Bandwidth
Priority
Shape

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

941

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Policy-Map Actions
The Cisco 10000 router does not impose any restrictions on the
classification definitions you include in the class map. However, it does
limit the input and output policy actions that you can define in a policy
map. These limitations are based on the type of interface on which you
apply the service policy as indicated in the tables that follow.
The tables indicate the following types of interfaces:

Normal interface, including VBR VCs on ports configured in atm pxf


queuing mode

Tag/MPLS interface (MPLS VPN)

Virtual-access interface

ATM UBR VCs and VCs configured on ports in no atm pxf queuing
mode

The tables indicate one of the following possibilities for applying a service
policy to an interface:

Valid the action is valid for this interface.

Not Applicable (N/A) indicates that you cannot perform the action or
that it has no meaning in the context.

Not Available the action is not supported.

Input Policy Actions


The table that follows shows the possible policy actions that you may apply
to input interfaces.

942

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Policy-Map Actions

Input Policy Map Actions

Action

Normal Interface/
MPLS Int.
VBR VC

UBR VC/
Virtual
Access Int. No PXF Queue

Bandwidth

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Queue-limit

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Priority

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Shape

Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available

Random-detect

N/A

Set Prec/DSCP

Valid

Set QoS-group

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Valid

Valid

Valid

Valid

Valid

Valid

Set ATM-CLP

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Set COS

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Police

Valid

Valid

Valid

Valid

Set MPLS-exp Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

943

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Policy Map Actions (continued)


Output Policy Actions
The table that follows shows the possible policy actions that you may apply
to output interfaces.

944

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Policy-Map Actions

Output Policy Map Actions

Action

Normal Interface/
MPLS Int.
VBR VC

Virtual
UBR VC/
Access Int. No PXF Queue

Bandwidth

Valid

Valid

On VC not VAI

Queue-limit

Valid

Valid

Not Available Not Available

Priority

Valid

Valid

On VC not VAI

N/A

Shape

Valid

Valid

On VC not VAI

N/A

Random-detect

Valid

Valid

Not Available Not Available

Set Prec/DSCP

Valid

N/A

Valid

Valid

Set QoS-group

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Set ATM-CLP

Valid

Not Available Not Available Not Available

Set COS

Valid

Not Available

Police

Valid

Set MPLS-exp

N/A

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

N/A

Valid

N/A

Valid

Valid

Valid

Not Available

N/A

N/A

Version 1.0

945

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

QoS Facts
The following are supported QoS capabilities and scaling numbers to help
you plan and use the Cisco 10000 router in your network.

946

Up to 16,384 access lists per system with 8 access control entries


(ACEs) or less.

Up to 16 match statements per class-map.

Class maps per policy 256 (future 64). With the reduction to 64 class
maps per policy, the number of policy maps per system will change
from 256 to 4096.

Class maps per system: 1000 (includes default).

Policy-Maps per system 256 (future 4,000). This increase in policy maps
per system will occur in conjunction with the decrease in class maps
per policy from 256 to 64.

A packet subject to only one policy (source or d estination interface)


requires one pass through the PXF.

A packet whose source and destination interfaces each have a policy


requires two passes through the PXF.

Max QoS sessions : 8,000.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

QoS Facts

QoS Facts

Supported QoS capabilities


Up to 16,384 access lists per system
Up to 16 match statements per class map
Class maps per policy 256 (future 64)
Class maps per system 1,000 (includes default)
Policy maps per system 256 (future 4,000)
A packet subject to only one policy (source or destination
interface) requires 1 pass

A packet whose source and destination interfaces each


have a policy requires 2 passes

Max QoS sessions: 8000

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

947

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

QoS Facts (continued)

948

Max sessions police in or police out: 32000

Max sessions 802.1Q match or mark: 4096

Max number of mini ACLs (8 entries or less) per system: 16000

Max number of turbo ACLs per system: 570

Max number of ACEs per ACL: 8000

Maximum committed bandwidth for an interface is 99%

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

QoS Facts

QoS Facts (continued)

Max sessions police in or police out: 32000


Max sessions 802.1Q match or mark: 4096
Max number of mini ACLs (8 entries or less) per
system: 16000

Max number of turbo ACLs per system: 570


Max number of ACEs per ACL: 8000
Maximum committed bandwidth for an interface
is 99%

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

949

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

QoS Facts (continued)


Traffic subject to QoS

All in-transit IP packets

Locally destined or originated IP packets that are not control packets

Queues

65,536 total queues

32 queues per interface

Queue numbers: 0 default, 31 pk_priority (OC-48 only, 30 control)

Queue sizes are a power of 2 from 32 to 16,384 packets (rounded up to next


legal value). That is, the legal value is allocated, and the specified value is
actually used.

950

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

QoS Facts

QoS Facts (continued)

Traffic subject to QoS

All in-transit IP packets


Locally destined or originated IP packets that are
not control packets

64K Queues - 32 per interface

0 default, 31 pk_priority (OC-48 only, 30

control)
sizes are a power of 2 from 32 to 16384 packets
(rounded up to next legal value)

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

951

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Policing Considerations
Consider the following when specifying the data rate for policing. The
committed rate includes framing overhead for non-ATM interfaces, and
with ATM interfaces it includes cell overhead.
For example, to specify a committed rate of 1 kbps supporting 64-byte
packets, use the following formulas:

952

Non-ATM interfaces 1 kbps * (64 + 4) * 8 = 544kbps (with 4 bytes of


framing overhead)

ATM interfaces 1 kbps * 2 * 53 * 8 = 848kbps (each 64-byte packet


uses 2 cells)

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Policing Considerations

Policing Considerations

Committed rate includes framing overhead and


cell overhead

For example 1 kbps committed rate for 64 byte


packets

1 kbps * (64 + 4) * 8 = 544 kbps (with 4 bytes of

framing overhead)
1 kbps * 2 * 53 * 8 = 848 kbps (with cell overhead
each 64 byte packet uses 2 cells)

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

953

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

VC Scaling with QoS


Overview
High VC count mode (no atm pxf queuing) enables the Cisco 10000 router
to support 61,500 VCs with PPPoE, PPPoA, or RBE protocols. The High VC
count mode is set on a per-port basis, and it imposes certain limitations,
regardless of how the VCs are defined.
With Low VC count mode (atm pxf queuing), the supported VC count is
limited to 8,000 VCs; however, this mode permits extensive QoS
functionality.
______________________________ Note __________________________
If you intend to disable ATM PXF queuing, to ensure reliable operation,
you must enter the no atm pxf queuing command before you configure
any VCs on an interface. If you have already configured VCs on an
interface, and you need to disable ATM PXF queuing, remove the VCs
from the configuration and then change the ATM PXF queuing mode.
_____________________________________________________________

QoS Support with no atm pxf queuing


The Cisco 10000 router supports the following QoS features when no atm
pxf queuing is enabled on an interface or a UBR VC:

Rate limiting on each session in the input, output, or both input and
output directions

The set qos-group (input only), set ip precedence, and set ip dscp policy
map actions

The following QoS features are not supported when no atm pxf queuing
is enabled on an interface or a UBR VC:

954

Weighted fair queuing (WFQ)

Weighted random early detection (WRED)

Class-based weighted fair queuing (CBWFQ)

Traffic shaping for IP and PPP

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

VC Scaling with QoS

VC Scaling with QoS

High versus low VC count


61,500 VCs vs 8,000VCs
Set on a per-port basis using the no atm pxf queuing
command

For PPPoA, PPPoE, PPP in L2TP, and RBE sessions

Supports

Rate limiting on each session in the input, output, or both

input and output directions


The set qos-group (input only), set ip precedence, and set ip

dscp policy map actions

Does Not Support

Weighted fair queuing (WFQ)


Weighted random early detection (WRED)
Class-based weighted fair queuing (CBWFQ)
Traffic shaping for IP and PPP

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

955

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

VC Scaling with QoS (continued)


QoS Support with atm pxf queuing
With atm pxf queuing, RBE sessions and virtual -access interfaces inhe rit
the service policy of the VC. The router supports the following QoS features
with atm pxf queuing and when the VC is a VBR VC:

956

Rate limiting on each session in the input, output, or in both the input
and output directions

The set qos-group (input only), set ip precedence, and set ip dscp
policy map actions

Weighted fair queuing (WFQ)

Weighted random early detection (WRED)

Class-based weighted fair queuing (CBWFQ)

Traffic shaping

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

VC Scaling with QoS

VC Scaling with QoS (continued)

High versus low VC count


61,500 VCs vs 8,000VCs
Set on a per-port basis using the no atm pxf queuing
command

For PPPoA, PPPoE, PPP in L2TP, and RBE sessions

Supports

Rate limiting on each session in the input, output, or both

input and output directions


The set qos-group (input only), set ip precedence, and set ip

dscp policy map actions

Does Not Support

Weighted fair queuing (WFQ)


Weighted random early detection (WRED)
Class-based weighted fair queuing (CBWFQ)
Traffic shaping for IP and PPP

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

957

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System Status and Alarms


Use the following commands to display system status and alarms:

958

show version displays boot image, code revision, system operational

show facility-alarm status displays temperature alarm

show environment displays system temperature, fan, and PEM

time, available interfaces, etc.

thresholds and system wide alarms


status

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System Status and Alarms

System Status and Alarms

Commands to display system status and


alarms
show version

Code revision, system operational time, available


interfaces

show facility-alarm status

Temperature alarm thresholds, System wide


alarms

show environment

System temperature, fan and PEM status

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

959

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System Status and Alarms (continued)


show version Command
To display system and software information, enter the show version
command. The display output includes the following data:

960

Cisco IOS image

System bootstrap and configuration register

Uptime

Route processor configuration data, memory, flash, etc.

Toaster status

Interface data

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System Status and Alarms

show version Command

P2R2#sho version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) 10000 Software (C10K2-P11-M), Version 12.2(16)BX,RELEASE SOFTWARE(f)
TAC Support: http://www.cisco.com/tac
Copyright (c) 1986-2003 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Thu 03-Jul-03 16:41 by torowe
Image text-base: 0x600109C4, data-base: 0x61C80000
ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 12.0(20020314:211744)[REL-pulsar_sx.ios-rommonE
BOOTLDR: 10000 Software (C10K2-EBOOT-M), Version 12.2(15)BX, RELEASE SOFTWARE)
P2R2 uptime is 3 minutes
System returned to ROM by reload at 09:54:15 UTC Wed Sep 10 2003
System image file is "disk0:c10k2-p11-mz.122-16.BX.bin"
cisco C10005 (PRE2-RP) processor with 946175K/98304K bytes of memory.
R7000 CPU at 500Mhz, Implementation 39, Rev 4.1, 256KB L2, 8192KB L3 Cache
Backplane version 1.0, 5 slot
Last reset from register reset
PXF processor tmc0 is running.
PXF processor tmc1 is running.
PXF processor tmc2 is running.
PXF processor tmc3 is running.
1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
2 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
2 Gigabit Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
4 ATM network interface(s)
6 Channelized T3 port(s)
2045K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.
125440K bytes of ATA PCMCIA card at slot 0 (Sector size 512 bytes).
65536K bytes of Flash internal SIMM (Sector size 512KB).
Configuration register is 0x2102

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

961

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System Status and Alarms (continued)


show facility-alarm status Command
The show facility-alarm status command displays critical, major, and
minor alarms caused by line errors and chassis components alarms.
Most alarms are caused by one of the following line card error conditions:

Loss of signal

Loss of framing

No carrier

Temperature, fan, power, and secondary cutover alarm conditions also


exist.

962

Temperature alarms use two temperature sensors in the C10K: one at


the air intake and one on the PRE motherboard.

The blower assembly contains multiple fans. If any of them fail, a fan
alarm occurs. If multiple fan failures occur, or if the blower assembly is
removed for several minutes, the PRE goes into an overtemperature
condition.

The power alarm is asserted if one of the power modules is defective.

Secondary cutover can also cause an alarm. If the primary PRE in a


redundant system fails, the other PRE takes over and the alarm is
asserted.

Alarm conditions and the clearing of alarms are logged to the console.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System Status and Alarms

show facility-alarm status Command

P2R2#show facility-alarm status

Thresholds:
Intake minor 40 major 49 critical 67 Core minor 45 major 53 critical 85
System Totals Critical: 15 Major: 18 Minor: 0
Source: T3 1/0/0 Severity: MAJOR ACO: NORMAL Description: Near End detects
Loss Of Signal Failure
Source: T3 1/0/0 Severity: MAJOR ACO: NORMAL Description: Other Failure
Source: T3 1/0/0 Severity: MAJOR ACO: NORMAL Description: Physical Port Link
Down
Source: T3 1/0/1 Severity: MAJOR ACO: NORMAL Description: Near End detects
Loss Of Signal Failure
Source: T3 1/0/1 Severity: MAJOR ACO: NORMAL Description: Other Failure
Source: T3 1/0/1 Severity: MAJOR ACO: NORMAL Description: Physical Port Link
Down
Source: T3 1/0/2 Severity: MAJOR ACO: NORMAL Description: Near End detects
Loss Of Signal Failure
Source: T3 1/0/2 Severity: MAJOR ACO: NORMAL Description: Other Failure

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

963

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System Status and Alarms (continued)


show environment Command
The Cisco 10000 router has two power supplies, one fan tray, and two
temperature sensors. To show the current state of all of the environmental
sensors, use the show environment command.

964

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System Status and Alarms

show environment Command

P2R2#show environment
Temperature normal: chassis inlet measured at 30C/86F
Temperature normal: chassis core measured at 32C/89F
Fan:
OK
Power Entry Module 1 type AC status:
OK

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

965

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Checking the Data Path


The following are actions that you can perform to identify problems specific
to a data path or interface on the box.

Check inbound traffic on a particular interface.

Check PXF counters by interface.

Are packets being dropped for any reason?

Check the status of the PXF CEF table.

966

Are packets being dropped? If so why?

Check the Output Packet Buffer Queue .

Are good packets being recognized?

Are the entries correct?

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Checking the Data Path

Checking the Data Path

Are there problems specific to a data path


or interface?
Check inbound traffic on a particular interface.

Are good packets being recognized?

Check PXF counters by interface.

Are packets being dropped?

If so why?

Check the Output Packet Buffer Queue.

Are packets being dropped for any reason?

Check the status of the PXF CEF table.

Are the entries correct?

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

967

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Checking the Data Path (continued)


show interface Command
The show interface command provides a quick indication of the following:

968

Layer 2 status

Input queue information

Output queue information

Queuing strategy

Inbound and outbound traffic statistics

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Checking the Data Path

show interface Command

P2R2#sho int g2/0/0


GigabitEthernet2/0/0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is Half-height Gigabit Ethernet MAC Controller, address
is 0005.dc39)
Internet address is 172.16.2.22/24
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1000000 Kbit, DLY 10 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
Keepalive set (10 sec)
Unknown duplex, Unknown Speed, link type is autonegotiation,
media type is SX
output flow-control is XOFF, input flow-control is XOFF
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
Last input 00:00:01, output 00:00:08, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output
drops: 0
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
306172 packets input, 47829691 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 8 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
0 watchdog, 159851 multicast, 0 pause input
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
491365 packets output, 41279876 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 1 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
4 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 pause output
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

969

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Checking the Data Path (continued)


show pxf interface Command
The show pxf interface <interface> command helps you determine
whether there are errors in traffic from a particular interface. The source
of errors can be extracted by using the details option for the command .
Displaying the details will help you determine the Layer 2 and Layer 3
causes of lost input packets. The details option of this command is
presented next.
The following PXF interface statistics are not associated with an interface
but are at the card level:

970

FBB Rx Cobalt input packet memory stopped accepting packets from


the line card. This counter shouldnt normally increment; if it does
theres a problem.

PXF DMA RE drops Receive error drops are the result of packets
corrupted on the backplane. This counter may increment during OIR or
PRE failover.

Null config drops Null config drops will occur prior to virtual channel
common index (VCCI) assignment when nothing is configured on an
interface (packets will be dropped). This counter should not increment
once the interface is up, but it may increment during OIR.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Checking the Data Path

show pxf interface Command

P2R2# sho pxf interface atm3/0/0


ATM3/0/0 is up, enabled, PXF enabled, IOS encap ATM
(33)
Last clearing of ATM3/0/0 counters: never
Total PXF input errors (pkts/bytes):
0/0
Slot 3/0: FBB Rx: 0x00003000 OCQ debug: 0x00006080, qN_entry_cnt[5:0]: 0
PXF DMA RE drops: 0/0, Null config drops: 0/0
Last clearing of slot 3/0 counters: never

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

971

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Checking the Data Path (continued)


show pxf interface detail Command
The show pxf interface <interface> detail command displays packet
drop errors and statistical data. These statistics are accumulated in
column zero of the PXF. The illustration provides a display of the command
with available statistics.

972

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Checking the Data Path

show pxf interface detail Command

P2R2# sho pxf interface atm3/0/0 detail


ATM3/0/0 is up, enabled, PXF enabled, IOS encap ATM
Min MTU: 4
Max MTU: 4482
VCCI 0x9D0, ICMP address 0.0.0.0
Last clearing of ATM3/0/0 counters: never
Total PXF input errors (pkts/bytes):
0/0
VCCI undefined:
0/0
in l2 max mtu
0
0
in l2 min mtu
0
0
encap not supported
0
0
mlfr fragament
0
0
mpls not enabled
0
0
ip version
0
0
ip header length
0
0
ip length max
0
0
ip length min
0
0
ip checksum
0
0
fib rpf fail
0
0
acl denied
0
0
ttl
0
0
unreachable
0
0
df multicast
0
0
car input drop
0
0
car output drop
0
0
out l2 max mtu
0
0
out l2 min mtu
0
0
tunnel no match
0
0

(33)

Slot 3/0: FBB Rx: 0x00001000 OCQ debug: 0x00006080,


qN_entry_cnt[5:0]: 0
PXF DMA RE drops: 0/0, Null config drops: 0/0
Last clearing of slot 3/0 counters: never

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

973

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Checking the Data Path (continued)


show pxf cpu queue interface Command
The show pxf cpu queue <interface> command provides a view of the
PXF output queues (located in the PXF output packet buffer). Each entry
includes the class ID, class name (the type of queue or a configured queue ),
queue identifier (QID), its length, and whether or not packets have been
dropped.
In the sample output in the illustration, notice the following information
under the column headings ClassID, ClassName , and QID:

A queue named class-default with a QID of 14

A queue named pk-priority with a QID of 2

A queue named label with a QID of 16

By default all interfaces, except the OC-48 POS line card, will have two
queues, class-default with a class ID of 0 and pk-priority with a class
ID of 31. The result is that 30 additional class queues can be configured on
an interface.
The OC-48 interface has an additional queue by default. This queue is the
control queue with a class ID of 30. Additionally, the OC-48 card uses a
buddy queue system so each queue appears twice with two individual
QID numbers.

974

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Checking the Data Path

show pxf cpu queue interface Command

P2R2#sho pxf cpu que g2/0/0


VCCI 2511:

VCCI/ClassID ClassName
2511/0 class-default
2511/1
label
2511/31
-

QID
14
16
2

Length/Max Res
0/132
4
0/256
4
0/32
4

Dequeues
0
0
327026

Drops
0
0
0

Legend:
$: Priority Queue
~: RED Queue
P: MLP Pkt Queue
F: MFR Pkt Queue
M: Max Utilization Pkt Queue

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

975

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Checking the Data Path (continued)


show pxf cpu queue qid Command
The show pxf cpu queue <QID> command provides detailed information
on the interface queues such as committed information rate (CIR), excess
information rate (EIR), and maximum information r ate (MIR). Also
included are queue drop counts along with the reason. Use this command
to determine why a particular queue is dropping traffic.
The following provide an explanation of dropped packets:

Tail Drops The queue is full and operating in FIFO mode and has
exceeded the maximum threshold value.

Random Drops The WRED is configured, there is congestion on the


interface, and the minimum queue threshold has been exceeded.

Max Threshold The WRED maximum threshold has been exceeded


and all traffic is being dropped.

No Packet Handle The packet is dropped by the Cobalt ASIC because


the ASIC is out of packet handles.

Buffer Low The PXF is r unning low on output buffers and is holding
those available for high-priority traffic.

For conveniences, definitions of the CIR, EIR, and MIR parameters are
given below:

976

Committed information rate (CIR) represents the guaranteed


bandwidth that is assigned via the priority, bandwidth and police
commands.

Excessive information rate (EIR) excess bandwidth, distributed


proportionally to queues based on assigned bandwidth, which occurs
when CIR = EIR. The remaining bandwidth is the bandwidth available
after the priority queue, if present, is given its required bandwidth.
Bandwidth distribution may be overridden by the remaining bandwidth
percent command.

Minimum information rate (MIR) shows the proportion of the


bandwidth that has been assigned by the shape command.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Checking the Data Path

show pxf cpu queue qid Command

P2R2#sho pxf cpu que 16


ID
: 16
CIR (in-use/configured)
: 2/2
EIR (in-use/configured)
: 0/0
MIR (in-use/configured)
: 65535/65535
Link
: 2
Flowbit (period/offset)
: 16384/16384
Burst Size
: 8000 bytes
Actual Bundle FIFO Size
: 0
Bandwidth
: 1000008 Kbps.
Channel
: 0
Packet Descriptor Base
: 0x00001000
ML Index
: 0
Length/Average/Max/Alloc
: 0/0/256/256
Enqueues (packets/octets)
: 0/0
Dequeues (packets/octets)
: 0/0
Drops (tail/random/max_threshold)
: 0/0/0
Drops (no_pkt_handle/buffer_low)
: 0/0
WRED (weight/avg_smaller)
: 0/0
WRED (next qid/drop factor)
: 0/0
WRED (min_threshold/max_threshold/scale/slope):
precedence 0
: 0/0/0/0
precedence 1
: 0/0/0/0
precedence 2
: 0/0/0/0
precedence 3
: 0/0/0/0
precedence 4
: 0/0/0/0
precedence 5
: 0/0/0/0

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

977

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Checking the Data Path (continued)


show pxf cpu cef Command
Use the show pxf cpu cef command to check the PXFs FIB table to
determine if the destination route is present.

978

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

Checking the Data Path

show pxf cpu cef Command

P2R2#sho pxf cpu cef


Shadow 10-10-6-6 Toaster Mtrie:
71 leaves, 3692 leaf bytes, 40 nodes, 37600 node bytes
102 invalidations
168 prefix updates
refcounts: 9377 leaf, 9280 node
Prefix/Length
0.0.0.0/0
52.10.0.0/16
52.10.0.0/32
52.10.10.20/32
52.10.100.22/32
52.10.255.255/32
52.20.0.0/16
52.20.0.0/32
52.20.0.22/32
52.20.0.101/32
52.20.255.255/32
127.0.0.0/8
127.0.0.0/32
127.0.0.10/32
127.0.0.11/32

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Refcount
5419
460
4
4
4
4
334
4
4
4
4
2368
4
4
4

Parent
0.0.0.0/0
52.10.0.0/16
52.10.0.0/16
52.10.0.0/16
52.10.0.0/16
0.0.0.0/0
52.20.0.0/16
52.20.0.0/16
52.20.0.0/16
52.20.0.0/16
0.0.0.0/0
127.0.0.0/8
127.0.0.0/8
127.0.0.0/8

Version 1.0

979

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance


You can use various system-level commands to observe traffic loading and
other conditions that affect the performance of the router. The following
system level checks are explained on the pages that follow:

980

Check overall PXF statistics to determine system loading

Check PXF IP, drop, and diversion statistics

Check the PXF route processor queues

Check overall status of PXF buffer handles

Check the status of the PXF microcode

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance

System Wide Statistics and Performance

Commands to check system level


performance
Check overall PXF statistics to determine
system loading

Check PXF IP, drop, and diversion statistics


Check the PXF route processor queues
Check overall status of PXF buffer handles
Check the status of the PXF microcode

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

981

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance (continued)


show pxf cpu context Command
The show pxf cpu context command provides an indication of the current
load on the PXF in addition to the average load for the past minute,
5 minutes, and hour.
The value of null contexts in the illustration is approximately 6.3 million
contexts per second. That is the maximum rate of the PXF without
considering overhead. Overhead increases with traffic load; therefore, this
number will decline as the traffic increases.
The following are descriptions of the parameters shown in the show pxf
cpu context display output:

982

new_work New packets input to the PXF pipeline

from_ lc These are new packets that have come directly from a line
card.

from_rp New packets into the pipeline that were generated by the
route processor.

from_replay This counter represents traffic such as fragmented or


multicast packets that are sent back to the PXF to have a header
written for each fragment or multicast destination interface.

feed_back Packets requiring additional passes through the pipeline


such as those requiring both input and output QoS. The feed_back
counter is incremented one time for each additional pass that a packet
makes.

Null Contexts that do not contain packet headers. Available PXF


bandwidth.

Actual = (feedback + new) / (feedback + new + null)

Theoretical = (feedback + new) / 6.3mpps

Maximum = (feedback + new + null) / 6.3mpps

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance

show pxf cpu context Command

P2R2#sho pxf cpu context


FP context statistics
count
--------------------------------feed_back
113111
new_work_from_lc
2808661
new_work_from_rp
3162988
new_work_from_replay 0
null_context
10991592472601

FP average context/sec
--------------------feed_back
new_work_from_lc
new_work
new_work_from_replay
null_context
--------------------Total
FP context utilization
--------------------Actual
Theoretical
Maximum

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

1min
---------0
1
1
0
6315522
---------6315525

1min
---------0
%
0
%
98 %

rate (since last time command was run)


---------0
2
1
0
6315522
---------6315526

5min
---------0
1
1
0
6315522
---------6315525
5min
---------0
%
0
%
98 %

Version 1.0

60min
---------0
1
1
0
6315677
---------6315680

cps
cps
cps
cps
cps
cps

60min
---------0
%
0
%
98 %

983

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance (continued)


show pxf statistics ip Command
The show pxf statistics ip command provides an overall picture of
system-wide IP statistics by traffic type and action taken.
The following are descriptions of some of these statistics:

984

IP dropped FIB, MFIB, TFIB lookups in Column 1 are not resolved.

Punted Locally addressed packets such as keepalives, link negotiation


(LCP, NCP), glean adjacency (resolve MAC, IP, Frame Relay
addresses), etc. that are diverted to the route processor.

No adjacency CEF has the prefix but cant resolve the address.

No route Router does not contain information for this prefix.

IP unicast RPF A packet has been dropped as the result of a RPF


failure.

ICMP created TTL expired, unreachable, etc.

IP packets fragmented Increment the counter for the first packet


fragment.

Fragments A count of all subsequent packet fragments.

Failed An attempt was made to fragment the packet and it failed.

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance

show pxf statistics ip Command

P2R2# sho pxf statistics ip


Chassis-wide PXF forwarding counts
IP inputs 62851, forwarded 25055, punted 2
IP dropped 36153, no adjacency 0, no route 73960
IP unicast RPF 0, unresolved 0
ICMP created 37807, Unreachable sent 36179, TTL expired sent 0
ICMP echo requests 0, replies sent 0
ICMP checksum errors 0
IP packets fragmented 0, total fragments 0, failed 0
IP don't-fragment 0, multicast don't-fragment 0
IP mcast total 28037, switched 0, punted 28037, failed 0
IP mcast drops 0, RPF 0, input ACL 0, output ACL + taildrops 0
Last clearing of PXF forwarding counters: 3d02h

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

985

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance (continued)


show pxf statistics drop detail Command
The show pxf statistics drop detail command provides information
about PXF input traffic that was not assigned to a particular interface but
that was dropped for the reasons noted. These statistics are for the entire
system.

986

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance

show pxf statistics drop detail Command

P2R2# sho pxf statistics drop detail


PXF input drops:
Unassigned drops (pkts/bytes):
0/0
PXF Unassigned input drop details:
(These input drops are not assigned to a particular PXF interface.)
packets
bytes
generic
0
0
mpls_no_eos
0
0
fib_zero_dest
0
0
fib_drop_null
0
0
fib_icmp_no_adj
36172
3327824
fib_icmp_bcast_dst 0
0
mfib_ttl_0
0
0
mfib_disabled
0
0
mfib_rpf_failed
0
0
mfib_null_oif
0
0
tfib_rp_flag
0
0
tfib_eos_violation 0
0
tfib_nonip_expose
0
0
tfib_label_invalid 0
0
tfib_path_unknown
0
0
tfib_nonip_ttl_exp 0
0
icmp_unrch_interval 331
40190
icmp_on_icmp
1299
166164
icmp_bad_hdr
0
0
icmp_multicast
0
0
icmp_frag
0
0
no_touch
0
0
enq_id_0
0
0
no_pkt_handles
0
0
ipm_replay_full
0
0
re_bit[00]
0
0
inv_resource[00]
0
0
null_config[00]
0
0
Last clearing of drop counters: 3d02h

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

987

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance (continued)


show pxf statistics diversion Command
The show pxf statistics diversion command provides statistics for all
traffic that the PXF has forwarded to the route processor for processing.
The statistics provide the reason why the traffic is diverted or punted.

988

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance

show pxf statistics diversion Command

P2R2# sho pxf statistics diversion


Diversion Cause Stats:
divert
= 0
encap
= 0
clns_isis = 0
clns
= 0
cdp
= 0
cgmp
= 0
arp
= 202
rarp
= 0
mpls_ctl = 0
keepalive = 0
ppp_cntrl = 171118
fr_lmi
= 0
atm ilmi = 0
oam f4
= 0
oam f5 ete= 0
oam f5 seg= 0
mlfr lip = 0
srp topo = 0
srp ips
= 0
ip version= 0
option
= 20000
fib bcast = 2
fib glean = 0
fib dest = 13
tfib flag = 0
tfib ver = 0
tfib opts = 0
mfib 224 = 28094
igmp
= 0
p2p_prune = 0

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

assert
= 0
null_out = 0
direct
= 0
join_spt = 0
register = 0
no_fast
= 0
local_mem = 0
dat_prune = 0
no_group = 0
nest frag = 0
pbr arp
= 0
ipc_resp = 0
fp ipc
= 0
pppoe disc = 2
atm crl
= 0
fib rp punt = 0
l2tp control = 0
acl punt = 0

Version 1.0

989

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance (continued)


show pxf cpu queue Command
The system maintains eight queues for communication from the PXF to
route processor. The show pxf cpu queue command provides data on the
status of each of these queues.
The eight queues are used as follows:

990

QID

Traffic Type

256

Default

257

Netflow

258

ACL Log

259

L2 Ctrl

260

Routing

261

Future

262

Keepalive

263

ATM CRL

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance

show pxf cpu queue Command

P2R2# sho pxf cpu que


VCCI/ClassID ClassName
1/0
1/1
1/2
$
1/3
$
1/4
$
1/5
$
1/6
1/7
-

QID
263
262
261
260
259
258
257
256

Length/Max Res
0/1024
1
0/1024
1
0/1024
1
0/1024
1
0/1024
1
0/1024
1
0/1024
1
0/1024
1

Dequeues
311853
0
51
1071287
7
0
7
0

Drops
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Legend:
$: Priority Queue
~: RED Queue
P: MLP Pkt Queue
F: MFR Pkt Queue
M: Max Utilization Pkt Queue

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

991

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance (continued)


show pxf cpu buffers Command
The show pxf cpu buffers command provides an indication about
whether or not the system is running low on output particle buffers. Small
buffers use up to 3 handles for packets up to 768 bytes in size , whereas
large buffers will use up to 36 handles for packets up to 9208 bytes in size .

992

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance

show pxf cpu buffers Command

P2R2#sho pxf cpu buffers


Cobalt2 ttc running.
Calculations could be off by (+/ -) cache sizes.
cache size
small
512
large
128
pool
# handles
available
-------------------------------small
524288
523808
large
32768
32626

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

993

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance (continued)


show pxf microcode Command
The show pxf microcode displays the microcode image that is running in
the PXF processors, tells how long ago it was loaded, and gives the status
of the four PXF Toaster processors.

994

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Module 9

System-Wide Statistics and Performance

show pxf microcode Command

P2R2#sho pxf microcode


PXF
PXF
PXF
PXF
PXF

complex: 4 Toasters 8 Columns total


processor tmc0 is running.
processor tmc1 is running.
processor tmc2 is running.
processor tmc3 is running.

Loaded microcode: system:pxf/c10k2-11-ucode.6.1.0.0


Version: 6.1.0.0
Release Software created Wed 02-Jul-03 17:03
Signature: dc48471c609871e59fe7cf3befc28e90
Microcode load attempted 1 time(s), latest 2w6d ago
tmc0
tmc1
tmc2
tmc3

FG_PC=0
FG_PC=0
FG_PC=0
FG_PC=0

BG_PC=6
BG_PC=6
BG_PC=6
BG_PC=6

WDog=1024
WDog=1024
WDog=1024
WDog=1024

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

MinPhase=23
MinPhase=23
MinPhase=23
MinPhase=23

SecPreScalerTimer=11542680
SecPreScalerTimer=11542680
SecPreScalerTimer=11542680
SecPreScalerTimer=11542680

Version 1.0

MSecPreScalerTimer=150
MSecPreScalerTimer=150
MSecPreScalerTimer=150
MSecPreScalerTimer=154

995

Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview

Module 9

Summary
Cisco 10000 Series Router Software Overview
In this module, you learned the following:

996

The major elements within the Cisco 10000 router operating system

The Cisco IOS dependencies that exist within the Cisco 10000 router

The major services available when using the PRE-2

The features, functions, and interaction of QoS mechanisms supported


on the Cisco 10000 router

Use Cisco IOS commands to determine system firmware, hardware,


and software

Appropriate show commands for displaying pertinent PXF statistics

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Glossary

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

Glossary1

Glossary

Technology Acronyms
AAA

authentication, authorization, and accounting

AAL5

ATM adaptation layer 5

ADSL

asymmetrical digital subscriber line

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

AToM

Anything over MPLS

AV pair

attribute-value pair

BPDU

bridge protocol data unit

BRAS

Broadband Router Aggregation Server

CAC

Call Admission Control

CAR

committed access rate

CHAP

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol

CLP

cell loss priority

CoS

class of service

CPE

customer premise equipment

DHCP

Dynamic Host Control Protocol

DSL

digital subscriber line

DSLAM

digital subscriber line access multiplexer

HDLC

High-Level Data Link Control

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol

ILMI

Integrated Local Management Interface

IPCP

IP Control Protocol

ISP

Internet service provider

L2TP

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol

LAC

L2TP access c oncentrator

LDAP

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

LCP

Link Control Protocol

LDP

Label Distribution Protocol

LMI

Local Management Interface

LNS

L2TP network server

MLP

Multilink PPP

Glossary2

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Glossary

MLPP

Multilink point-to-point

MPLS

Multi-Protocol Label Switching

NAP

network access provider

NAS

Network access server

NAT

Network Address Translation

NCP

Network Control Protocol

NSP

network service provider

provider

PADI

PPPoE Active Discovery Initiation

PADO

PPPoE Active Discovery Offer

PADR

PPPoE Active Discovery Request

PADS

PPPoE Active Discovery Session-Configuration

PADT

PPPoE Active Discovery Termination

PAP

Password Authentication Protocol

PAT

Port Address Translation

PCR

peak cell rate

PDU

protocol data unit

PE

provider edge

PPP

Point-to-Point Protocol

PPPoA

Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM

PPPoE

Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet

PPPoEoE

PPPoE over Ethernet

PPPoEo802.1q

PPPoE over 802.1q

PTA

PPP termination and aggregation

PTA-MD

PPP termination and aggregation multi-domain

PVC

permanent virtual connection

QoS

Quality of Service

RADIUS

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service

RA-MPLS

Remote Access into MPLS

RBE

Routed Bridge Encapsulation

SAM

Subscriber Access and Management

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

Glossary3

Glossary

SAR

segmentation and reassembly

SCR

sustained cell rate

SESM

Subscriber Edge Services Manager

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol

SSG

Service Selection Gateway

TACACS

Terminal Access Control Access Control Server

TE

traffic engineering

TDP

Tag Distribution Protocol

UBR

unspecified bit rate

UDP

User Datagram Protocol

VBR-nrt

variable bit rate non real time

VC

virtual connection

VCC

virtual channel connection

VCI

virtual connection identifier

VPDN

Virtual private dial-up network

VPI

virtual path identifier

VPN

irtual Private Network

VRF

VPN routing and forwarding

VSA

vendor specific attribute

xTU-R

xDSL Transmission Unit-remote

Glossary4

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Glossary

Cisco 10000 Series Router Acronyms


ASIC

application specific integrated circuit

ACE

Access Control Entry

ACL

access control list

ASP

Automatic Switching Protection

BPE

backplane Ethernet

CAR

committed access rate

CDP

Cisco DiscoveryProtocol

CEF

Cisco Express Forwarding

CBWFQ

class-based weighted fair queuing

CoS

class of service

DMA

direct memory access

DSCP

differentiated services code point

DBS

dynamic bandwidth selection

EHSA

enhanced high system availability

FCRAM

Fast Cycle RAM

FIB

Forwarding Information Base

FPGA

field programmable gate array

GBIC

Gigabit Interface converter

GRE

generic routing encapsulation

HSRP

Hot Standby Routing Protocol

IPC

IOS interprocess communication

IPE

Inter-PRE Ethernet

LoS

loss of signal

MLFR

Multilink Frame Relay

MMF

multimode fiber

MQC

modular QoS CLI

MSP

Multiplex Section Protection

OIR

online insertion and removal

PEM

power entry module

PoS

Packet over SONET

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Glossary5

Glossary

POST

power-on self test

PQ

priority queuing

PRE

Performance Routing Engine

PXF

Parallel eXpress Forwarding

RPR

route processor redundancy

RPF

Reverse Path Forwarding

Rx

receive

SAR

segmentation and reassembly

SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SFP

small form factor pluggable

SMF

single-mode fiber

SONET

Synchronous Optical Network

STM

Synchronous Transport Module

TFIB

tag forwarding information base

Tx

transmit

VCCI

Virtual Channel Common Index

WFQ

weighted fair queuing

WRED

weighted random early detection

Glossary6

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Appendix A
Review Question Answers

Appendix Contents
This appendix contains answers to review questions at the end of each
module.

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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A1

Review Question Answers

Appendix A

Module 1 Broadband Aggregation Architectures


1. List the segments that make up a broadband subscriber network
environment.

Customer Premise Equipment, Network Access Provider, and

_________________________________________________________
Network Service Provider
2. A service provider that provides the access connection to the subscriber
and connects the subscriber to the NSP is characteristic of a
wholesale
_________________________
service.
3. Which of the following is not characteristic of a VC service?
a. NAPs do not need to deal with IP address management.

Answer

b. The NAP determines the users encapsulation method.


c. End-to-end provisioning takes time.
d. It is a wholesale service that a NAP would provide.
e. It does not scale well.

4. Which of the following is a reason that RBE is preferred over strict


RFC 1483 bridging?
a. With RBE, the CPE is in routing mode rather than in bridging
mode.
b. The PC encapsulates Layer 3 data into Ethernet.

Answer

c. RBE is more secure and scalable than RFC1483 bridging.


d. RBE is more suitable for business applications.

5. Which of the following statements are true when comparing PPPoA to


PPPoE?

Answer

a. The CPE functions as a router with PPPoA and as a bridge with


PPPoE.

Answer

b. The PPP session is initiated by the CPE with PPPoA and by the PC
with PPPoE.
c. The CPE is able to run NAT for both methods and conserve IP
addresses.
d. PPPoA functions only with ATM access methods and PPPoE
functions only with Ethernet access methods.

Answer

e. When there are multiple users behind the CPE, PPPoE is more
flexible than PPPoA for selection of multiple services.

6. What is the preferred method for authenticating PPP sessions?


______________________________
RADIUS
A2

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Appendix A

Module 1 Broadband Aggregation Architectures

7. When comparing L2TP to PTA, which of the following identify distinct


advantages of L2TP over PTA? Choose two.

Answer

a. PPP sessions may be terminated at the NSP rather than the NAP.
b. L2TP supports multiple protocols.
c. L2TP shares access to core components.

Answer

d. The access provider only looks at the Layer 2 information.

8. What functionality on a Cisco router do managed LNS and RA-MPLS


Virtual routing and forwarding
make use of? __________________________________________________
9. Which of the following distinguishes RA-MPLS from managed LNS?
a. RA-MPLS supports RBE.
b. RA-MPLS allows use of overlapping IP addresses.

Answer

c. RA-MPLS does not require L2TP.


d. RA-MPLS supports PPPoX.

10. What does SSG enable subscribers to do?


Selectively access different services
________________________________________________________________

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A3

Review Question Answers

Appendix A

Module 2 RBE and RFC 1483


1. How does the CPE function differently between RFC 1483 bridging and
RBE?
a. The CPE functions as a bridge with RFC 1483 bridging and as a
router with RBE.
b. The CPE performs LLC/SNAP or VC multiplexing with RFC 1483
bridging but not with RBE.
c. The CPE will route IP data and bridge all other data.

Answer

d. The is no difference.
2. What is the functional difference at the aggregation device between
RFC 1483 bridging and RBE?

Answer

a. The aggregator functions as a bridge with RFC 1483 bridging and


as a router with RBE.
b. The aggregator performs LLC/SNAP or VC multiplexing with RFC
1483 bridging but not with RBE.
c. For incoming subscriber data, RBE makes forwarding decisions
based on the frame header, and RFC 1483 Routing forwards packets
based upon the Layer 3 header.
d. The is no difference.
3. List two RFC 1483 encapsulation methods for multiplexing and
transporting datalink and network layer protocols over ATM AAL5.

LLC and SNAP


a. __________________________
VC multiplexing
b. __________________________
4. Which of the following ATM interfaces can be used with RBE?

Answer

a. Numbered point-to-point subinterfaces


b. Numbered multipoint subinterfaces

Answer

c. Unnumbered point-to-point subinterfaces


d. Unnumbered multipoint subi nterfaces
5. What must be added to the aggregation router configuration when
using unnumbered interfaces with statically assigned subscriber host
addresses?
Host routes
_________________________________________________________________

A4

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Appendix A

Module 2 RBE and RFC 1483

6. Which of the following configuration methods is preferred for RBE?


a. Numbered interfaces
b. Numbered interfaces with DHCP
c. Unnumbered interfaces

Answer

d. Unnumbered interfaces with DHCP

7. List four parameters that must be configured under the ATM


subinterface to support unnumbered RBE interfaces.

Ip unnumbered loopback
a. _________________________________
Atm routed-bridge
b. _________________________________
pvc

c. _________________________________

encapsulation
d. _________________________________
8. List four advantages of RBE over RFC 1483 bridging.
a. Better
_________________________________________________________
security for IP hijacking and ARP spoofing

broadcast storms
b. Eliminates
_________________________________________________________
Better scaling and performance

c. _________________________________________________________
d. Supports
_________________________________________________________
SSG
9. List four disadvantages of RBE.

Using numbered interfaces wastes IP addresses

a. _________________________________________________________

interfaces without DHCP requires many host routes


b. Unnumbered
_________________________________________________________
configurations increase boot-up time
c. Large
_________________________________________________________
d. Difficult
_________________________________________________________
CPE management
10. Which of the following is common to both RFC 1483 routing and RBE?
a. RFC 1483 routing supports NAT.
b. The CPE functions as a router with RFC 1483 routing.

Answer

c. RFC 1483 routing uses a LLC and SNAP header.


d. Routing updates may be exchanged between the aggregator and
CPE.

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Review Question Answers

Appendix A

11. Which of the following configuration methods is preferred for RFC 1483
routing?
a. Numbered interfaces
b. Numbered interfaces with DHCP

Answer

c. Unnumbered interfaces
d. Unnumbered interfaces with DHCP

12. List three parameters that must be configured under the ATM
subinterface to support unnumbered RFC 1483 routing interfaces.

Ip unnumbered loopback
a. _________________________________
pvc
b. _________________________________
encapsulation

c. _________________________________
13. List four advantages of RFC 1483 routing.
a. Well
_________________________________________________________
suited for business customers

become manageable
b. CPE
_________________________________________________________
Multiple PVCs for different traffic types

c. _________________________________________________________
d. CPE
_________________________________________________________
can implement NAT or PAT
14. List four disadvantages of RFC 1483 routing.

Not easy for accounting for subscriber traffic

a. _________________________________________________________

authentication of subscribers limits service selection


b. No
_________________________________________________________
router configuration become more complex
c. CPE
_________________________________________________________
Aggregation router configuration is more complex

d. _________________________________________________________

A6

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Appendix A

Module 3 PPPoA

Module 3 PPPoA
1. What are the two locations that terminate PPPoA sessions?
a. _____________________________________
Network access server (NAS)

Customer premise equipment (CPE)


b. _____________________________________
2. With PPPoA, which device in the network initiates the PPP session?
Choose two.
a. Subscriber host

Answer

b. Subscriber CPE
c. DSLAM

Answer

d. Aggregation router (not in PPP passive mode)


e. NSPs router
3. When using PPPoA with PTA, which two devices terminate the PPP
session?
Subscriber CPE and Aggregation router
_______________________________________________________________
4. When using PPPoA with tunneling, which two devices terminate the
PPP session?
_______________________________________________________________
Subscriber CPE and NSP router
5. Put the following events in the correct order in which they would occur
when PPPoA is used with PTA. Use numbers to indicate the correct
order.

a. The NAPs aggregation device or RADIUS server authenticates the


subscriber.

b. The subscriber CPE initiates the PPP session.

c. The NAPs aggregation device, RADIUS server, or DHCP server


allocates IP address to the CPE.

d. The user data is routed to the service destination.

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Review Question Answers

Appendix A

6. Put the following events in the correct order in which they would occur
when PPPoA is used with tunneling. Use numbers to indicate the
correct order.

a. The NAPs aggregation device or RADIUS server authenticates the


subscribers domain name.

b. The subscriber CPE initiates the PPP session.

c. The NSPs aggregation device, RADIUS server, or DHCP server


allocates IP address to the CPE.

d. The PPP session is tunneled from NAP router to NSP router.

e. The NSPs aggregation device or RADIUS server authenticates the


subscribers domain and user names.

f. The User data is routed to the service destination.


7. List the three methods for allocating IP addresses to the subscriber
CPE.

Local pool

a. _________________________________
b. _________________________________
DHCP

RADIUS
c. _________________________________
8. Which of the following is not a characteristic of virtual access
interfaces?
a. Virtual access interfaces are cloned from parameters configured on
a virtual template interface.

Answer

b. Once created, virtual access interfaces are created permanently.


c. With PPPoA, a VC is bound to a virtual access interface.
d. With PPPoA, the virtual access interface is created when the PPP
session is initiated.
9. Which of the following are preferred ways to configure the aggregation
router for PPPoA? Choose two.

Answer

a. Using unnumbered loopback interfaces with virtual template


interfaces

Answer

b. Using multipoint ATM interfaces


c. Using point-to-point ATM interfaces
d. Configuring the username database on the router, especially when
many unique subscriber name are required

A8

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Appendix A

Module 3 PPPoA

10. Which of the following are true statements about PPPoA? Choose four.

Answer

a. Users can be authenticated using PAP or CHAP.

Answer

b. IP addresses can be conserved at the CPE using NAT.

Answer

c. High scaling can be achieved using RADIUS for AAA services.


d. PPPoA is limited to one user host per CPE.

Answer

e. Service providers need to maintain a database of usernames when


PPP sessions are terminated at the aggregation router.
f. Oversubscription is not possible with PPPoA.

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Review Question Answers

Appendix A

Module 4 PPPoE
1. At what two locations are PPPoE sessions terminated?
a. _____________________________________
Network access server (NAS)

Subscriber host
b. _____________________________________
2. With PPPoE, which device in the network usually initiates the PPP
session?

Answer

a. Subscriber host
b. Subscriber CPE
c. DSLAM
d. Aggregation router
e. NSPs router
3. When using PPPoE with PTA, which two devices terminate the PPP
session?
Subscriber host and Aggregation router
_______________________________________________________________
4. When using PPPoE with tunneling, which two devices terminate the
PPP session?
_______________________________________________________________
Subscriber host and NSP router
5. List the four messages types that are exchanged between the host and
aggregation device during PPPoE discovery.

PADI

a. ______________________

PADO
b. ______________________
PADR
c. ______________________
PADS

d. ______________________
6. Put the following events in the correct order in which they would occur
when PPP session is used with PTA after PPPoE discovery is
completed. Use numbers to indicate the correct order.

A10

a. The NAPs aggregation device or RADIUS server authenticates the


subscriber.

b. The subscriber host initiates the PPP session.

c. The NAPs aggregation device, RADIUS server, or DHCP server


allocates IP address to the host.

d. The user data is routed to the service destination.

Version 1.0

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Appendix A

Module 4 PPPoE

7. Put the following events in the correct order in which they would occur
when PPP is used with tunneling after PPPoE discovery is completed.
Use numbers to indicate the correct order.

a. The NAPs aggregation device or RADIUS server authenticates the


subscribers domain name.

b. The subscriber host initiates the PPP session.

c. The NSPs aggregation device, RADIUS server, or DHCP server


allocates IP address to the host.

d. The PPP session is tunneled from NAP router to NSP router.

e. The NSPs aggregation device or RADIUS server authenticates the


subscribers domain and user names.

f. The user data is routed to the service destination.


8. List the four methods that IP addresses can be allocated to the
subscriber host.

Local pool

a. _________________________________
b. _________________________________
DHCP

RADIUS
c. _________________________________
9. Which of the following is not a characteristic of virtual access
interfaces?
a. Virtual access interfaces are cloned from parameters configured on
a virtual template interface.

Answer

b. Once created, virtual access interfaces are created permanently.


c. With PPPoE, a session is bound to a virtual access interface.
d. With PPPoE, the virtual access interface is created when the PPP
session is initiated.
10. Which of the following are preferred ways to configure the aggregation
router for PPPoEoA? Choose two.

Answer

a. Using unnumbered loopback interfaces with virtual access


interfaces

Answer

b. Using multipoint ATM interfaces


c. Using point-to-point ATM interfaces
d. Configuring the username database on the router, especially when
many unique subscriber name are required

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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A11

Review Question Answers

Appendix A

11. Which of the following are true statements about PPPoE? Choose four.

Answer

a. Users can be authenticated using PAP or CHAP.

Answer

b. Each subscriber connected to the CPE can be authenticated


individually.

Answer

c. High scaling can be achieved using RADIUS for AAA services.


d. PPPoE is limited to one user host per CPE.

Answer

e. Service providers need to maintain a database of user names when


PPP sessions are terminated at the aggregation router.
f. Oversubscription is not possible with PPPoE.

A12

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Appendix A

Module 5 Cisco Aggregation Optimization Features

Module 5 Cisco Aggregation Optimization Features


1. You may use PVC range with which of the following access methods?
Choose three.

Answer

a. RBE
b. RFC 1483 routing

Answer
Answer

c. PPPoA
d. PPPoEoA
e. PPPoEoE

2. Give the command syntax for creating a PVC range for the following
VCs: 1/1 through 1/127, 2/1 though 2/127, and 3/1 through 3/127.
Range pvc 1/1 3/127
_________________________________________________________________
3. How would you temporarily shut down PVC 2/55 in the range from the
previous question?
_________________________________________________________________
Use the pvc -in-range 2/55 command followed by shutdown
4. What command enables PVCs to be autoprovisioned?
Create on-demand
_________________________________________________________________
5. Using autosense of the encapsulation method permits distinguishing
between which of the following connection types?
a. PPPoA MUX and RBE SNAP
b. PPPoE MUX and RBE SNAP
c. PPPoA MUX and PPPoE MUX
d. PPPoA SNAP and PPPoE SNAP

Answer

e. PPPoA MUX and PPPoE SNAP

6. When using PPPoE profiles, users who do not get their profile from a
global
named BBA group get their profile from the ________________
group.
7. Which of the following are true with respect to using BBA groups?
Choose three.

Answer
Answer

a. BBA groups o vercome the limitations of a single VPDN group.


b. BBA groups allow use of multiple virtual templates.
c. BBA groups may be used concurrently with a VPDN group used for
PPPoE.
d. PPPoA connections get their profile from the VPDN group.

Answer

e. Session limits may be configured on the BBA group.

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Review Question Answers

Appendix A

Module 7 AAA Services


1. Within the Cisco IOS software, AAA can be configured on which one of
the following?
a. console
b. aux console
c. tty
d. vty lines

Answer

e. all of the above

2. What new file is automatically created every 24 hours to contain


RADIUS log information?
a. clients file
b. users file
c. dictionary file
d. radius.debug

Answer

e. logfile.yymmdd

3. What are the distinct phases that a PPP link undergoes? Choose four.

Answer a. Link Establishment


Answer b. authentication
c. Link Alive

Answer

d. Network Control Protocol

Answer

e. Link Terminate

4. Which of the following statements are true? Choose four

Answer

a. RADIUS is a standards based protocol.

Answer
Answer

b. RADIUS protocol uses UDP and not TCP.

Answer

d. The RADIUS-server key must be the same at both the NAS and the
AAA server.

c. RADIUS is designed to operate in a client/server model.

e. RADIUS is supported only on a UNIX platform.

A14

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Appendix A

Module 7 AAA Services

5. RADIUS vendor-specific attributes (VSAs) are derived from which


IETF attribute?
a. attribute 52
b. attribute 62

Answer

c. attribute 26
d. attribute 25
e. attribute 36

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A15

Review Question Answers

Appendix A

Module 7 L2TP
1. True or False. L2TP allows the Layer 2 and the PPP endpoints to
reside on different networks.

Answer

a. True
b. False
2. Select all that apply to L2TP tunneling:
a. Supports only registered IP addresses

Answer

b. Separates the Layer 2 and the PPP session endpoints

Answer

c. Allows end user to appear directly connected to remote servers


d. Supports a single tunnel between LAC and LNS
3. True or False. Tunnel identifiers are at each end of the tunnel must be
identical.
a. True

Answer

b. False
4. Which of the following statements apply to the L2TP call setup process?
Choose two.
a. A call request from the user will be processed only if a tunnel
already exists.

Answer

b. Tunnel setup must be completed before an L2TP session can be


initiated.
c. The Start-Control-Connection-Reply message indicates the
completion of tunnel establishment.
d. The LAC must wait for the Incoming-Call-Reply message from the
LNS before answering the incoming call request.

Answer

e. The Incoming-Call-Connected message completes the session setup


process.
5. True or False. Sequence numbers are present on all data messages
passing through the L2TP tunnel.
a. True

Answer

A16

b. False

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix A

Module 7 L2TP

6. True or False. Local PPP authentication requires that a local database


of usernames be setup in the router:

Answer

a. True
b. False
7. Circle the command that is NOT part of the LAC configuration when it
initiates the tunnel:
a. protocol l2tp
b. vpdn-group (group-number)

Answer

c. accept-dialin
d. request-dialin
e. domain (name)
8. A tunnel request is associated with a particular VPDN group based on
which of the following:
a. Destination IP address
b. Virtual template
c. Protocol type

Answer

d. Domain name
e. VPDN search order
9. The peer IP address pool in the LNS is used for which of the following
purposes:
a. Set the tunnel destination IP address.

Answer

b. Respond to an IPCP request from the remote CPE.


c. Assign an IP address to the Ethernet port of the LAC.
d. Set the IP address of the ATM interface.
e. None of the above.

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A17

Review Question Answers

Appendix A

Module 8 Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview


1. Which of the following statements is not true about the Cisco 10000
chassis?
a. The chassis has eight slots for line cards.
b. The chassis supports two PRE modules.

Answer

c. ATM line cards should be inserted in slots 1 4.


d. Half-height line cards may be used in any slot.
2. What are the two main sections of the PRE?

Route Processor
a. _____________________________________
Forwarding Processor
b. _____________________________________
3. Which functions are performed by the route processor? Choose three.
a. Chassis management
b. System initialization
c. Route processor redundancy

Answer

d. Packet buffering
4. Which functions are performed by the forwarding processor? Choose
three.

Answer

a. Routing protocol updates


b. IP forwarding
c. Layer 3 features
d. QoS features
5. The _________________________
Iron Bus
is the primary data path between the
PREs and line cards.
6. The backplane bandwidth between the PRE-2 and a line card slot is

Answer

a. 3.2 Gbps
b. 1.6 Gbps
c. 800 Mbps
d. 51.2 Gbps

A18

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Appendix A

Module 8 Cisco 10000 Series Router Hardware Overview

7. Which of the following statements is not true about the PXF?


a. The PXF is made up of 64 CPUs.
b. The CPUs are arranged into eight rows and eight columns.
c. Each column of CPUs has its own dedicated 128 MB column
memory.

Answer

d. Each column of CPUs is internal to Toaster ASICs.


8. What are the four resultant operations of the PXF?
a. Forward
_______________________________
b. Feedback
_______________________________
c. Punt
_______________________________
(diversion)
d. Drop
_______________________________
9. Which of the following statements are true about PRE redundancy?
Choose three.
a. The active PRE is in slot 0A,

Answer
Answer
Answer

b. The standby PRE monitors the state of the active PRE


c. The standby PRE maintains of files with the active PRE
d. The standby PRE initiates cutover upon failure of the active PRE
10. Which of the following functions is common to all line cards? Choose
three.

Answer

a. OIR
b. APS

Answer

c. RPR+

Answer

d. Fail LED

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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A19

Review Question Answers

A20

Appendix A

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B
Router Starting Configurations

Appendix Contents
This appendix contains examples of the starting configurations for the
routers in the student pods that are used with the lab exercises. The
examples that follow are for the routers in pod 1. The headings give the file
name of the configuration.
This appendix also includes the configurations of the core routers and PC
CPE routers for pod 1.

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version <x.x>

B1

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

P1R1 Configurations
p1r1-baseline-config
! P1R1 config
version 12.2
no parser cache
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R1
boot system flash slot0:c3640-is-mz.122-8.T.bin
enable password lab
username P1R1 password 0 lab
ces 1/0
framer-type t1
ip subnet-zero
fax interface-type fax-mail
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
interface Ethernet0/0
ip address 52.10.100.11 255.255.0.0
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface ATM1/0
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface FastEthernet2/0
no ip address
shutdown
duplex auto
speed auto
ip classless
ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
B2

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R1 Configurations

password lab
login
monitor
end

p1r1-rbe-config
! P1R1-rbe-config
version 12.2
no parser cache
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R1
boot system flash slot0:c3640-is-mz.122-8.T.bin
enable password lab
username P1R1 password 0 lab
ces 1/0
framer-type t1
ip subnet-zero
! fax interface-type fax-mail
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
interface Ethernet0/0
ip address 52.10.100.11 255.255.0.0
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface ATM1/0
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM1/0.132 point-to-point
ip address 192.168.16.2 255.255.255.0
atm route-bridged ip
pvc 1/32
encapsulation aal5snap
interface ATM1/0.232 point-to-point
ip address dhcp
atm route-bridged ip
pvc 2/32
encapsulation aal5snap
interface FastEthernet2/0
no ip address
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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B3

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

shutdown
duplex auto
speed auto
ip classless
ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

p1r1-routing-config
! p1r1-routing-config
version 12.2
no parser cache
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R1
boot system flash slot0:c3640-is-mz.122-8.T.bin
enable password lab
username P1R1 password 0 lab
ces 1/0
framer-type t1
ip subnet-zero
fax interface-type fax-mail
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
interface Ethernet0/0
ip address 52.10.100.11 255.255.0.0
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface ATM1/0
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM1/0.332 point-to-point
B4

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R1 Configurations

ip address 192.168.18.2 255.255.255.0


pvc 3/32
encapsulation aal5snap
interface FastEthernet2/0
no ip address
shutdown
duplex auto
speed auto
ip classless
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 ATM1/0.332
ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

p1r1-pppoa-config
! p1r1-pppoa-config
version 12.2
no parser cache
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R1
boot system flash slot0:c3640-is-mz.122-8.T.bin
enable password lab
username P1R1 password 0 lab
ces 1/0
framer-type t1
ip subnet-zero
fax interface-type fax-mail
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
interface Ethernet0/0
ip address 52.10.100.11 255.255.0.0
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B5

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

shutdown
half-duplex
interface ATM1/0
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM1/0.432 point-to-point
shutdown
pvc 4/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
interface ATM1/0.433 point-to-point
shutdown
pvc 4/33
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
interface ATM1/0.434 point-to-point
shutdown
pvc 4/34
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template3
interface ATM1/0.435 point-to-point
shutdown
pvc 4/35
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template4
interface ATM1/0.532 point-to-point
shutdown
pvc 5/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template5
interface FastEthernet2/0
no ip address
shutdown
duplex auto
speed auto
interface Virtual-Template1
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user1
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template2
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user2
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template3
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user3
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template4
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user4
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template5
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user5
ppp chap password 0 lab
ip classless
ip http server
B6

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R1 Configurations

ip pim bidir-enable
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

p1r1-pppoe-config
! p1r1-pppoe-config
version 12.2
no parser cache
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R1
boot system flash slot0:c3640-is-mz.122-8.T.bin
enable password lab
username P1R1 password 0 lab
ces 1/0
framer-type t1
ip subnet-zero
vpdn enable
vpdn-group PPPoE
accept-dialin
protocol pppoe
virtual-template 6
fax interface-type fax-mail
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
interface Ethernet0/0
ip address 52.10.100.11 255.255.0.0
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface ATM1/0
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM1/0.632 point-to-point
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B7

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

pvc 6/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.633 point-to-point
pvc 6/33
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.634 point-to-point
pvc 6/34
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.635 point-to-point
pvc 6/35
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.732 point-to-point
shutdown
pvc 7/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface FastEthernet2/0
no ip address
shutdown
duplex auto
speed auto
interface Virtual-Template6
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user1
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template7
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user5
ppp chap password 0 lab
ip classless
ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

p1r1-optimization-config
! p1r1-optimization-config
version 12.2
no parser cache
service timestamps debug uptime
B8

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R1 Configurations

service timestamps log uptime


no service password-encryption
hostname P1R1
boot system flash slot0:c3640-is-mz.122-8.T.bin
enable password lab
username P1R1 password 0 lab
ces 1/0
framer-type t1
ip subnet-zero
vpdn enable
vpdn-group PPPoE
accept-dialin
protocol pppoe
virtual-template 7
fax interface-type fax-mail
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
interface Ethernet0/0
ip address 52.10.100.11 255.255.0.0
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface ATM1/0
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM1/0.432 point-to-point
pvc 4/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
interface ATM1/0.433 point-to-point
pvc 4/33
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
interface ATM1/0.434 point-to-point
pvc 4/34
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template3
interface ATM1/0.435 point-to-point
pvc 4/35
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template4
interface ATM1/0.532 point-to-point
pvc 5/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template5
interface ATM1/0.632 point-to-point
pvc 6/32
encapsulation aal5snap
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B9

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.633 point-to-point
pvc 6/33
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.634 point-to-point
pvc 6/34
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.635 point-to-point
pvc 6/35
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.732 point-to-point
pvc 7/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface FastEthernet2/0
no ip address
duplex auto
speed auto
interface Virtual-Template1
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user1
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template2
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user2
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template3
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user3
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template4
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user4
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template5
ip address dhcp
ppp chap hostname p1user5
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template6
ip address negotiated
no keepalive
ppp chap hostname p1user1
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template7
ip address negotiated
no keepalive
ppp chap hostname p1user5
ppp chap password 0 lab
ip classless
B10

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R1 Configurations

ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

p1r1-aaa-config
! p1r1-aaa-config
version 12.2
no parser cache
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R1
boot system flash slot0:c3640-is-mz.122-8.T.bin
enable password lab
username P1R1 password 0 lab
ces 1/0
framer-type t1
ip subnet-zero
vpdn enable
vpdn-group PPPoE
accept-dialin
protocol pppoe
virtual-template 7
fax interface-type fax-mail
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
interface Ethernet0/0
ip address 52.10.100.11 255.255.0.0
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface ATM1/0
shut
no ip address
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B11

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM1/0.432 point-to-point
pvc 4/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
interface ATM1/0.433 point-to-point
pvc 4/33
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
interface ATM1/0.434 point-to-point
pvc 4/34
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template3
interface ATM1/0.435 point-to-point
pvc 4/35
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template4
interface ATM1/0.532 point-to-point
pvc 5/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template5
interface ATM1/0.632 point-to-point
pvc 6/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.633 point-to-point
pvc 6/33
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.634 point-to-point
pvc 6/34
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.635 point-to-point
pvc 6/35
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.732 point-to-point
pvc 7/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface FastEthernet2/0
no ip address
duplex auto
speed auto
pppoe enable
interface Virtual-Template1
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user1
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template2
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user2
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template3
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1
B12

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R1 Configurations

ppp chap password 0 lab


interface Virtual-Template4
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user4
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template5
ip address dhcp
ppp chap hostname p1user5
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template6
ip address negotiated
no keepalive
ppp chap hostname p1user1
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template7
ip address negotiated
no keepalive
ppp chap hostname p1user5
ppp chap password 0 lab
ip classless
ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

p1r1-l2tp-config
! p1r2-l2tp-config
version 12.2
no parser cache
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R1
boot system flash slot0:c3640-is-mz.122-8.T.bin
enable password lab
username P1R1 password 0 lab
ces 1/0
framer-type t1
ip subnet-zero
no ip domain-lookup
vpdn enable
vpdn-group PPPoE
accept-dialin
protocol pppoe
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B13

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

virtual-template 7
fax interface-type fax-mail
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
interface Ethernet0/0
ip address 52.10.100.11 255.255.0.0
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/1
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/2
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface Ethernet0/3
no ip address
shutdown
half-duplex
interface ATM1/0
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM1/0.432 point-to-point
pvc 4/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
interface ATM1/0.433 point-to-point
pvc 4/33
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
interface ATM1/0.434 point-to-point
pvc 4/34
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template3
interface ATM1/0.435 point-to-point
pvc 4/35
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template4
interface ATM1/0.532 point-to-point
pvc 5/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template5
interface ATM1/0.632 point-to-point
pvc 6/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.633 point-to-point
pvc 6/33
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.634 point-to-point
pvc 6/34
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM1/0.635 point-to-point
pvc 6/35
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
B14

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R1 Configurations

interface ATM1/0.732 point-to-point


pvc 7/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface FastEthernet2/0
no ip address
duplex auto
speed auto
interface Virtual-Template1
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user1@isp1.com
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template2
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user2@isp1.com
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template3
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user3@isp1.com
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template4
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user4@isp1.com
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template5
ip address negotiated
ppp chap hostname p1user5
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template6
ip address negotiated
no keepalive
ppp chap hostname p1user1
ppp chap password 0 lab
interface Virtual-Template7
ip address negotiated
no keepalive
ppp chap hostname p1user5@isp1.com
ppp chap password 0 lab
ip classless
ip http server
ip pim bidir-enable
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
monitor
end

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B15

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

P1R2 Configurations
p1r2-baseline-config
! p1r2-baseline-config
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R2
boot system flash bootflash:c10k2-p11-mz.122-16.BX.bin
logging queue-limit 100
enable password lab
username P1R2 password 0 lab
facility-alarm intake-temperature major 49
facility-alarm intake-temperature minor 40
facility-alarm core-temperature major 53
facility-alarm core-temperature minor 45
card 1/0 6cht3-1
card 2/0 1gigethernet-hh-1
card 2/1 8fastethernet-1
card 3/0 4oc3atm-1
card 4/0 1gigethernet-1
ip subnet-zero
no ip domain lookup
mpls ldp logging neighbor-changes
controller T3 1/0/0
controller T3 1/0/1
controller T3 1/0/2
controller T3 1/0/3
controller T3 1/0/4
controller T3 1/0/5
interface Loopback0
ip address 200.0.0.12 255.255.255.255
interface FastEthernet0/0/0
ip address 52.10.100.12 255.255.0.0
speed 100
full-duplex
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/0
ip address 172.16.0.12 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet2/1/0
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/1
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/2
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/3
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/4
no ip address
B16

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R2 Configurations

interface FastEthernet2/1/5
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/6
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/7
ip address 52.20.0.12 255.255.0.0
interface ATM3/0/0
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/1
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/2
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/3
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface GigabitEthernet4/0/0
no ip address
negotiation auto
router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
redistribute connected
network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0
ip classless
no ip http server
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

p1r2-optimization-config
! p1r2-optimization-config
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R2
boot system flash bootflash:c10k2-p11-mz.122-16.BX.bin
logging queue-limit 100
enable password lab
username P1R2 password 0 lab
username p1user1 password 0 lab
username p1user2 password 0 lab
username p1user3 password 0 lab
username p1user4 password 0 lab
username p1user5 password 0 lab
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B17

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

username p1user6 password 0 lab


username p1user7 password 0 lab
username p1user8 password 0 lab
facility-alarm intake-temperature major 49
facility-alarm intake-temperature minor 40
facility-alarm core-temperature major 53
facility-alarm core-temperature minor 45
card 1/0 6cht3-1
card 2/0 1gigethernet-hh-1
card 2/1 8fastethernet-1
card 3/0 4oc3atm-1
card 4/0 1gigethernet-1
ip subnet-zero
no ip domain lookup
vpdn enable
vpdn-group PPPoE
accept-dialin
protocol pppoe
virtual-template 4
pppoe limit per-vc 2
mpls ldp logging neighbor-changes
controller T3 1/0/0
controller T3 1/0/1
controller T3 1/0/2
controller T3 1/0/3
controller T3 1/0/4
controller T3 1/0/5
interface Loopback0
ip address 200.0.0.12 255.255.255.255
interface Loopback4
ip address 192.168.19.1 255.255.255.0
interface Loopback5
ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0
interface Loopback6
ip address 192.168.21.1 255.255.255.0
interface Loopback7
ip address 192.168.22.1 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet0/0/0
ip address 52.10.100.12 255.255.0.0
speed 100
full-duplex
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/0
ip address 172.16.0.12 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet2/1/0
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/1
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/2
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/3
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/4
B18

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R2 Configurations

no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/5
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/6
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/7
ip address 52.20.0.12 255.255.0.0
interface ATM3/0/0
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/0.432 multipoint
atm pppatm passive
pvc 4/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
pvc 4/33
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
pvc 4/34
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
pvc 4/35
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
interface ATM3/0/0.532 multipoint
atm pppatm passive
pvc 5/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
pvc 12/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
pvc 12/33
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
pvc 12/34
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
interface ATM3/0/0.632 multipoint
pvc 6/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
pvc 6/33
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
pvc 6/34
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
pvc 6/35
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM3/0/0.732 multipoint
pvc 7/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
pvc 13/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
pvc 13/33
encapsulation aal5snap
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B19

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

protocol pppoe
pvc 13/34
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM3/0/1
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/2
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/3
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface GigabitEthernet4/0/0
no ip address
negotiation auto
interface Virtual-Template1
ip unnumbered Loopback4
peer default ip address pool PPPoAPTApool
ppp authentication chap
interface Virtual-Template2
ip unnumbered Loopback5
peer default ip address pool PPPoAPTApool2
ppp authentication chap
interface Virtual-Template3
ip unnumbered Loopback6
peer default ip address pool PPPoEPTApool
ppp mtu adaptive
ppp authentication chap
interface Virtual-Template4
ip unnumbered Loopback7
peer default ip address pool PPPoEPTApool2
ppp mtu adaptive
ppp authentication chap
router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
redistribute connected
network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0
ip local pool PPPoEPTApool 192.168.21.2 192.168.21.254
ip local pool PPPoEPTApool2 192.168.22.2 192.168.22.254
ip local pool PPPoAPTApool 192.168.19.2 192.168.19.254
ip local pool PPPoAPTApool2 192.168.20.2 192.168.20.254
ip classless
no ip http server
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

B20

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R2 Configurations

p1r2-aaa-config
! p1r2-aaa-config
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R2
boot system flash bootflash:c10k2-p11-mz.122-16.BX.bin
logging queue-limit 100
enable password lab
username P1R2 password 0 lab
username p1user1 password 0 lab
username p1user2 password 0 lab
username p1user3 password 0 lab
username p1user4 password 0 lab
username p1user5 password 0 lab
username p1user6 password 0 lab
username p1user7 password 0 lab
username p1user8 password 0 lab
facility-alarm intake-temperature major 49
facility-alarm intake-temperature minor 40
facility-alarm core-temperature major 53
facility-alarm core-temperature minor 45
card 1/0 6cht3-1
card 2/0 1gigethernet-hh-1
card 2/1 8fastethernet-1
card 3/0 4oc3atm-1
card 4/0 1gigethernet-1
ip subnet-zero
no ip domain lookup
vpdn enable
vpdn-group PPPoE
accept-dialin
protocol pppoe
virtual-template 4
pppoe limit per-vc 2
mpls ldp logging neighbor-changes
controller T3 1/0/0
controller T3 1/0/1
controller T3 1/0/2
controller T3 1/0/3
controller T3 1/0/4
controller T3 1/0/5
interface Loopback0
ip address 200.0.0.12 255.255.255.255
interface Loopback4
ip address 192.168.19.1 255.255.255.0
interface Loopback5
ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0
interface Loopback6
ip address 192.168.21.1 255.255.255.0
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B21

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

interface Loopback7
ip address 192.168.22.1 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet0/0/0
ip address 52.10.100.12 255.255.0.0
speed 100
full-duplex
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/0
ip address 172.16.0.12 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet2/1/0
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/1
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/2
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/3
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/4
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/5
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/6
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/7
ip address 52.20.0.12 255.255.0.0
interface ATM3/0/0
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/0.432 multipoint
shut
atm pppatm passive
pvc 4/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
pvc 4/33
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
pvc 4/34
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
pvc 4/35
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template1
interface ATM3/0/0.532 multipoint
shut
atm pppatm passive
pvc 5/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
pvc 12/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
pvc 12/33
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
pvc 12/34
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
interface ATM3/0/0.632 multipoint
pvc 6/32
encapsulation aal5snap
B22

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Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R2 Configurations

protocol pppoe
pvc 6/33
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
pvc 6/34
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
pvc 6/35
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM3/0/0.732 multipoint
pvc 7/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
pvc 13/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
pvc 13/33
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
pvc 13/34
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe
interface ATM3/0/1
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/2
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/3
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface GigabitEthernet4/0/0
no ip address
negotiation auto
interface Virtual-Template1
ip unnumbered Loopback4
peer default ip address pool PPPoAPTApool
ppp authentication chap
interface Virtual-Template2
ip unnumbered Loopback5
peer default ip address pool PPPoAPTApool2
ppp authentication chap
interface Virtual-Template3
ip unnumbered Loopback6
peer default ip address pool PPPoEPTApool
ppp mtu adaptive
ppp authentication chap
interface Virtual-Template4
ip unnumbered Loopback7
peer default ip address pool PPPoEPTApool2
ppp mtu adaptive
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B23

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

ppp authentication chap


router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
redistribute connected
network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0
ip local pool PPPoEPTApool 192.168.21.2 192.168.21.254
ip local pool PPPoEPTApool2 192.168.22.2 192.168.22.254
ip local pool PPPoAPTApool 192.168.19.2 192.168.19.254
ip local pool PPPoAPTApool2 192.168.20.2 192.168.20.254
ip classless
no ip http server
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

p1r2-l2tp-config
! p1r2-l2tp-config
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R2
boot system flash bootflash:c10k2-p11-mz.122-16.BX.bin
logging queue-limit 100
enable password lab
username P1R2 password 0 lab
username p1user1 password 0 lab
username p1user2 password 0 lab
username p1user3 password 0 lab
username p1user4 password 0 lab
username p1user5 password 0 lab
username p1user6 password 0 lab
username p1user7 password 0 lab
username p1user8 password 0 lab
facility-alarm intake-temperature major 49
facility-alarm intake-temperature minor 40
facility-alarm core-temperature major 53
facility-alarm core-temperature minor 45
card 1/0 6cht3-1
card 2/0 1gigethernet-hh-1
card 2/1 8fastethernet-1
card 3/0 4oc3atm-1
card 4/0 1gigethernet-1
ip subnet-zero
no ip domain lookup
mpls ldp logging neighbor-changes
controller T3 1/0/0
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Appendix B

P1R2 Configurations

controller T3 1/0/1
controller T3 1/0/2
controller T3 1/0/3
controller T3 1/0/4
controller T3 1/0/5
bba-group pppoe global
virtual-template 3
sessions per-vc limit 2
bba-group pppoe extranet
virtual-template 4
sessions per-vc limit 5
vc-class atm pppoa
ubr 1000
encapsulation aal5autoppp Virtual-Template1
create on-demand
vc-class atm pppoe
ubr 2000
encapsulation aal5autoppp Virtual-Template2
create on-demand
interface Loopback0
ip address 200.0.0.12 255.255.255.255
interface Loopback4
ip address 192.168.19.1 255.255.255.0
interface Loopback5
ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0
interface Loopback6
ip address 192.168.21.1 255.255.255.0
interface Loopback7
ip address 192.168.22.1 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet0/0/0
ip address 52.10.100.12 255.255.0.0
speed 100
full-duplex
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/0
ip address 172.16.0.12 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet2/1/0
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/1
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/2
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/3
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/4
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/5
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/6
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/7
ip address 52.20.0.12 255.255.0.0
interface ATM3/0/0
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

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B25

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/0.432 multipoint
atm pppatm passive
range pvc 4/32 4/131
class-range pppoa
interface ATM3/0/0.532 multipoint
atm pppatm passive
pvc 5/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
range pvc 12/32 12/131
encapsulation aal5autoppp Virtual-Template2
create on-demand
interface ATM3/0/0.632 multipoint
range pvc 6/32 6/131
class-range pppoe
interface ATM3/0/0.732 multipoint
pvc 7/32
encapsulation aal5snap
protocol pppoe group extranet
range pvc 13/32 13/131
encapsulation aal5autoppp Virtual-Template2 group extranet
create on-demand
interface ATM3/0/1
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/2
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/3
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface GigabitEthernet4/0/0
no ip address
negotiation auto
interface Virtual-Template1
ip unnumbered Loopback4
peer default ip address pool PPPoAPTApool
ppp authentication chap
interface Virtual-Template2
ip unnumbered Loopback5
peer default ip address pool PPPoAPTApool2
ppp authentication chap
interface Virtual-Template3
ip unnumbered Loopback6
peer default ip address pool PPPoEPTApool
ppp mtu adaptive
ppp authentication chap
interface Virtual-Template4
ip unnumbered Loopback7
peer default ip address pool PPPoEPTApool2
ppp mtu adaptive
B26

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R2 Configurations

ppp authentication chap


router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
redistribute connected
network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0
ip local pool PPPoEPTApool 192.168.21.2 192.168.21.254
ip local pool PPPoEPTApool2 192.168.22.2 192.168.22.254
ip local pool PPPoAPTApool 192.168.19.2 192.168.19.254
ip local pool PPPoAPTApool2 192.168.20.2 192.168.20.254
ip classless
no ip http server
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

p1r2-pxf-config
! p1r2-pxf-config
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R2
boot system flash bootflash:c10k2-p11-mz.122-16.BX.bin
logging queue-limit 100
enable password lab
username P1R2 password 0 lab
username p1user1 password 0 lab
username p1user2 password 0 lab
username p1user3 password 0 lab
username p1user4 password 0 lab
username p1user5 password 0 lab
username p1user6 password 0 lab
username p1user7 password 0 lab
username p1user8 password 0 lab
facility-alarm intake-temperature major 49
facility-alarm intake-temperature minor 40
facility-alarm core-temperature major 53
facility-alarm core-temperature minor 45
card 1/0 6cht3-1
card 2/0 1gigethernet-hh-1
card 2/1 8fastethernet-1
card 3/0 4oc3atm-1
card 4/0 1gigethernet-1
ip subnet-zero
no ip domain lookup
mpls ldp logging neighbor-changes
controller T3 1/0/0
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B27

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

controller T3 1/0/1
controller T3 1/0/2
controller T3 1/0/3
controller T3 1/0/4
controller T3 1/0/5
interface Loopback0
ip address 200.0.0.12 255.255.255.255
interface Loopback5
ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet0/0/0
ip address 52.10.100.12 255.255.0.0
speed 100
full-duplex
interface GigabitEthernet2/0/0
ip address 172.16.0.12 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet2/1/0
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/1
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/2
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/3
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/4
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/5
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/6
no ip address
interface FastEthernet2/1/7
ip address 52.20.0.12 255.255.0.0
interface ATM3/0/0
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/0.532 multipoint
atm pppatm passive
pvc 12/33
encapsulation aal5mux ppp Virtual-Template2
interface ATM3/0/1
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/2
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface ATM3/0/3
no ip address
no atm ilmi-keepalive
interface GigabitEthernet4/0/0
no ip address
negotiation auto
interface Virtual-Template2
ip unnumbered Loopback5
B28

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R2 Configurations

peer default ip address pool PPPoAPTApool2


ppp authentication chap
router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
redistribute connected
network 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0
ip local pool PPPoAPTApool2 192.168.20.2 192.168.20.254
ip classless
no ip http server
line con 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B29

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

P1R3 Configuration
p1r3-baseline-config
! p1r3-baseline-config
version 12.3
no service pad
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
hostname P1R3
boot-start-marker
boot system flash disk0:c7400-is-mz.123-3.bin
boot-end-marker
enable password lab
username P1R3 password 0 lab
no aaa new-model
ip subnet-zero
ip cef
no ip domain lookup
no voice hpi capture buffer
no voice hpi capture destination
interface Loopback0
ip address 200.0.0.13 255.255.255.0
interface GigabitEthernet0/0
ip address 172.16.1.13 255.255.255.0
duplex full
speed 1000
media-type gbic
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
interface GigabitEthernet0/1
ip address 200.1.1.13 255.255.255.0
duplex half
speed 1000
media-type gbic
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
interface FastEthernet1/0
ip address 52.10.100.13 255.255.0.0
duplex half
interface Group-Async0
physical-layer async
no ip address
router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0.0.0.0
network 200.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.0
network 200.1.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 4
ip classless
no ip http server
B30

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

P1R3 Configuration

no cdp advertise-v2
gatekeeper
shutdown
line con 0
transport preferred all
transport output all
line aux 0
transport preferred all
transport output all
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
transport preferred all
transport input all
transport output all
end

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B31

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

Core Routers Configurations


cr1-baseline-config
! CR1 config
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname CR1
boot system flash slot0:c7200-is-mz.122-15.B.bin
enable password lab
username CR1 password 0 lab
ip subnet-zero
ip cef
no voice hpi capture buffer
no voice hpi capture destination
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
interface Loopback0
ip address 200.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 52.10.100.1 255.255.255.0
no ip route-cache
no ip mroute-cache
duplex half
media-type mii
interface GigabitEthernet1/0
ip address 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
interface GigabitEthernet2/0
ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
interface GigabitEthernet3/0
ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
interface GigabitEthernet4/0
ip address 172.16.3.1 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0.0.0.0
ip classless
no ip http server
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
B32

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

Core Routers Configurations

gatekeeper
shutdown
line con 0
stopbits 1
line aux 0
stopbits 1
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

cr2-baseline-config
! CR2 config
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname CR2
boot system flash slot0:c7200-is-mz.122-15.B.bin
enable password lab
username CR2 password 0 lab
ip subnet-zero
ip cef
!
no voice hpi capture buffer
no voice hpi capture destination
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
interface Loopback0
ip address 200.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 52.10.100.2 255.255.255.0
no ip route-cache
no ip mroute-cache
duplex half
media-type mii
interface GigabitEthernet1/0
ip address 172.16.4.2 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
interface GigabitEthernet2/0
ip address 172.16.6.2 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
interface GigabitEthernet3/0
ip address 172.16.5.2 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
interface GigabitEthernet4/0
ip address 172.16.7.2 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B33

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

no cdp enable
router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0.0.0.0
ip classless
no ip http server
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
gatekeeper
shutdown
!
line con 0
stopbits 1
line aux 0
stopbits 1
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

cr3-baseline-config
!.CR3 config
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname CR3
boot system flash disk0:c7200-is-mz.122-15.B.bin
enable password lab
username CR3 password 0 lab
ip subnet-zero
ip cef
no ip domain lookup
no voice hpi capture buffer
no voice hpi capture destination
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 52.10.100.3 255.255.0.0
no ip route-cache
no ip mroute-cache
duplex half
interface GigabitEthernet1/0
ip address 200.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
interface GigabitEthernet2/0
ip address 200.1.2.3 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
B34

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

Core Routers Configurations

interface GigabitEthernet3/0
ip address 200.2.1.3 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
interface GigabitEthernet4/0
ip address 200.2.2.3 255.255.255.0
negotiation auto
no cdp enable
interface FastEthernet5/0
ip address 52.30.0.3 255.255.255.0
duplex auto
speed auto
interface FastEthernet5/1
no ip address
shutdown
duplex auto
speed auto
interface FastEthernet6/0
ip address 200.1.3.3 255.255.255.0
duplex auto
speed auto
interface FastEthernet6/1
ip address 200.2.3.3 255.255.255.0
duplex auto
speed auto
router ospf 1
log-adjacency-changes
network 52.30.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 4
network 200.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 area 4
network 200.1.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 4
network 200.2.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 4
ip classless
no ip http server
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
gatekeeper
shutdown
line con 0
stopbits 1
line aux 0
stopbits 1
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
end

2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B35

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

PC CPE Configurations
p1cpe1-baseline-config
! p1cpe1-config
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname P1CPE1
logging queue-limit 100
enable password lab
ip subnet-zero
no ip routing
no ip domain lookup
no ip dhcp conflict logging
interface Ethernet0
no ip address
no ip route-cache
no ip mroute-cache
bridge-group 1
hold-queue 100 out
interface ATM0
no ip address
no ip route-cache
no ip mroute-cache
no atm ilmi-keepalive
pvc 1/32
encapsulation aal5snap
bundle-enable
dsl operating-mode auto
bridge-group 1
hold-queue 224 in
ip classless
no ip http server
bridge 1 protocol ieee
banner motd ^CThis CPE is configured for RBE^C
line con 0
stopbits 1
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
scheduler max-task-time 5000
end

B36

Version 1.0

Implementing Broadband Aggregation

Appendix B

PC CPE Configurations

p1cpe2-baseline-config
!p1cpe2-config
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
hostname P1CPE2
logging queue -limit 100
enable password lab
ip subnet-zero
ip dhcp excluded-address 10.0.0.1
ip dhcp pool PPPoA
network 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0
interface Ethernet0
ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
ip nat inside
hold-queue 100 out
interface ATM0
no ip address
ip nat outside
no atm ilmi -keepalive
pvc 1/32
encapsulation aal5mux ppp dialer
dialer pool-member 1
dsl operating-mode auto
hold-queue 224 in
interface Dialer1
ip address negotiated
ip nat outside
encapsulation ppp
dialer pool 1
no cdp enable
ppp chap hostname p1user7
ppp chap password 0 lab
ip nat inside source list 1 interface Dialer1 overload
ip classless
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 Dialer1
no ip http server
access-list 1 permit 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255
banner motd ^C This CPE is configured for PPPoA ^C
line con 0
stopbits 1
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
2003 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Version 1.0

B37

Router Starting Configurations

Appendix B

scheduler max-task-time 5000


end

p1cpe3-baseline-config
!p1cpe3-config
version 12.2
no service pad
service timestamps debug datetime msec
service timestamps log datetime msec
no service password-encryption
hostname P1CPE3
logging queue-limit 100
enable password lab
ip subnet-zero
no ip routing
interface Ethernet0
no ip address
no ip route-cache
no ip mroute-cache
bridge-group 1
hold-queue 100 out
interface ATM0
no ip address
no ip route-cache
no ip mroute-cache
no atm ilmi-keepalive
pvc 1/32
encapsulation aal5snap
bundle-enable
dsl operating-mode auto
bridge-group 1
hold-queue 224 in
ip classless
no ip http server
bridge 1 protocol ieee
banner motd ^C This router is configured for PPPoE ^C
line con 0
stopbits 1
line vty 0 4
password lab
login
scheduler max-task-time 5000
end

B38

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Implementing Broadband Aggregation