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12.

After accurate determination of the content of available carbohydrate in a wide variety


of cereals, as in vitro method was used to study factors that influence hydrolysis rates of
starch in foods. Fiber, physical form, cooking, and the possible presence of a natural amylase
inhibitor were all shown to affect hydrolysis rates of starch. Fiber only exerted an inhibiting
effect on the rate of hydrolysis when it formed a physical barrier to limit access of the
hydrolytic enzymes to the starch (as in whole brown rice, for example). Particle size played
an important role in determining the rate of hydrolysis. Cooking made the starch much more
readily available for enzymic hydrolysis presumably by gelatinizing it.
13.
14.
15. Glucose
The most important monosaccharide is glucose, the bodys preferred energy source. Glucose
is also called blood sugar, as it circulates in the blood, and relies on the enzymes
glucokinase or hexokinase to initiate metabolism. Your body processes most carbohydrates
you eat into glucose, either to be used immediately for energy or to be stored in muscle
cells or the liver as glycogen for later use. Unlike fructose, insulin is secreted primarily in
response to elevated blood concentrations of glucose, and insulin facilitates the entry of
glucose into cells.
Fructose
Fructose is a sugar found naturally in many fruits and vegetables, and added to various
beverages such as soda and fruit-flavored drinks. However, it is very different from other
sugars because it has a different metabolic pathway and is not the preferred energy source
for muscles or the brain. Fructose is only metabolized in the liver and relies on fructokinase
to initiate metabolism. It is also more lipogenic, or fat-producing, than glucose. Unlike
glucose, too, it does not cause insulin to be released or stimulate production of leptin, a key
hormone for regulating energy intake and expenditure. These factors raise concerns about
chronically high intakes of dietary fructose, because it appears to behave more like fat in the
body than like other carbohydrates.
16.

a. fructose
b. sucrose
c.
d. fructose being the most easily used in anaerobic glycolysis.

e. cellulose because the bonds between the sugars are beta bonds. We only have the
enzyme to break down alpha bonds
f. starch molecules
g. fructose, a ketohexose, is also a reducing sugar
h.glycogen
i. fructans and raffinose
j.plant cell walls

k. Starch is the major energy source in the diet and is broken down into glucose in
the body that can be stored in the liver and in the muscles as glycogen. Glycogen can then
be used to maintain blood sugar at a constant level for optimal energy supply.
l.
m. Pectin
n. sucrose
o. Sucrose (table sugar) contains two sugars (fructose and glucose) joined by their
glycosidic bond in such a way as to prevent the glucose isomerizing to aldehyde, or
the fructose to alpha-hydroxy-ketone form. Sucrose is thus a non-reducing sugar which does
not react with Benedict's reagent.
p. Polimeros
q. Osazone
r. Osazone formation/phenylhydrazine test
s. Starch
t. Agar ingestion
17. Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by
the hydrolysis of starch[1] or glycogen.[2] Dextrins are mixtures of polymers of D-glucose units
linked by -(14) or -(16) glycosidic bonds.
Maltodextrin is a shortchain starch sugar used as a food additive. It is produced also by
enzymatic hydrolysis from gelled starch and is usually found as a creamywhitehygroscopic spray dried powder. Maltodextrin is easily digestible, being absorbed as
rapidly as glucose, and might either be moderately sweet or have hardly any flavor at all.
The cyclical dextrins are known as cyclodextrins. They are formed by enzymatic degradation
of starch by certain bacteria, for example, Bacillus macerans. Cyclodextrins have toroidal
structures formed by 6-8 glucose residues.
18. Salivary Amylase, Sucrase and Lactase, Fiber.

19.
20. starch synthesis in plants, starch can be synthesized from non-food starch mediated
by an enzyme cocktail.In this cell-free biosystem, beta-1,4-glycosidic bond-linked
cellulose is partially hydrolyzed to cellobioase. Cellobiose phosphorylase cleaves to
glucose 1-phosphate and glucose; the other enzymepotato alpha-glucan
phosphorylase can add glucose unit from glucose 1-phosphorylase to the non-ruducing
ends of starch. In it, phosphate is internally recycled. The other productglucosecan
be assimilated by a yeast. This cell-free bioprocessing does not need any costly
chemical and energy input, can be conducted in aqueous solution, and does not have
sugar losses. As a result, cellulosic starch could be used to feed the world because
cellulose resource is about 50 times of starch resource.