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Struggle for Existence: A Case Study About Marginalized People of Sundarban

Samik Chakraborty*

*Samik Chakraborty, (M.Sc. – Geography, B.Ed.), Ph.D. Research Scholar, Department of Applied Geography, School of Earth, Atmosphere and Oceanic Sciences, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack – 753003, Odisha, India. Email ID: samik.chakraborty2012@gmail.com , Contact: +91-

89616-02706.

Abstract:

Sundarban is a vast mangrove ecosystem, located in the eastern coastal part of Bay of Bengal in southern Bangladesh and West Bengal in India (21° - 22°30´ N and 88° - 89°29´ E), it was formed by the sediments brought down by the river Ganga, Bramhaputra and Mehgna. The name ‘Sundarban’ is literally termed as ‘beautiful forest’ in Bengali (Sundar – beautiful, ban - forest). The name may have been derived from the ‘Sundari’ trees (a type of mangrove – Heritiera fomes), that are found in Sundarban in large numbers. It became inscribed as a UNESCO world heritage site in 1984. But, the living conditions of people of Sundarban is not very well due to so many problems like frequent cyclones and floods, embankment breaching, poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, unemployment, lack of safe drinking water and electricity, rapid population growth, infiltration, girl trafficking, poor communication, lack of banking service, soil erosion, forest depletion, loss of navigability of rivers and so on. For these problems they are become deprived and marginalized. Government has taken so many projects for their development. ‘Sundarban Development Authority’ was also established for this purpose but such steps are not enough to mitigate their problems completely. They need much more proper plans for their permanent development from both, Government and NGOs.

Key words: introduction, livelihood pattern, problems, solutions, future of people of sundarban.

Introduction:

Mal distribution of wealth is seen since the beginning of civilization and this situation is still unchanged even today. It is very painful to see that in the most of the cases, economic status

becomes the main indicator to determine the standard of living as well as social status of human beings. In recent years, regional disparities in terms of development are a very popular concern among geographers and scholars from other branches of disciplines, also. The developmental processes are mainly taking place in the large urban centers whereas the rural areas are still in the darkness of deprivation. There are many marginalized group of people in those rural areas who have very least access to basic minimum facilities for their living in terms of food, shelter, employment, health, education, social security and so on. They always struggle with extreme poverty. Even Governments do not have proper master plan to mitigate their problems and permanent solution. Extreme poverty and endless deprivation have made these groups of people and region marginalized. High standard of living, various job opportunities, access to civic amenities of these urban areas act as pull factors which attract mainly the working population from the marginalized regions. Even sometimes children are forced to work as child laborers in various unorganized sectors in those urban centers. Hence, urban areas enjoy the inflow of resources from rural or marginalized regions and become more developed gradually where as rural areas face a lot of problem because of the outflow of natural as well as human recourses. So, we can term this process as Development Terrorism.

People of Indian Sundarban are underprivileged from the basic minimum facilities of living. They always fight with the environmental unreliability for their existence. This is one of the most underdeveloped regions of the country. There are so many problems which have made the people of this region marginalized, these are extreme poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition among women and children, unemployment, lack of safe drinking water, rapid population growth, problems of infiltration from Bangladesh, human trafficking, lack of electricity, underdeveloped communication system, lack of banking system, loss of quantity and quality of land due to embankment beaching, flood problem, increasing salinity and various socio-economic and infrastructural problems.

Das (2005) has done an extensive work on man and environment of Sundarban. He has given the primary focus on the distinct environmental features and problems of marginalized people of Sundarban. This study also includes some plan of development, significance and future of this region.

Das and Pramanik (2010) have also discussed the areas of problem of people of Sundarban. They have given the elaborate explanations of factors responsible for this and they also have classified the types of problems such as physical, socio-economic, infrastructural as well.

A research entitled “living with Changing Climate” (2012), done by Centre for Science and Environment under the direction of Mr. Chandra Bhushan, worked on impact, vulnerability and adaptation challenges in Indian Sundarban. This study consists of effects of changing climate on Indian sundarban, land erosion and management, survival of people, development deficit, causes of rural migration and agendas for action.

Present Study:

Keeping the above facts in mind the present study focuses on the struggle for existence of marginalized people of Sundarban.

Geographically, Indian Sundarban is located at 21º00´ to 22º30´ North latitude and 88º00´ East to 89º29´ East longitude at a height of 3 to 8 meters from the mean sea level on the southern fringes of the state of West Bengal, where the Gangetic plain meets the Bay of Bengal. The site of the world’s largest mangrove ecosystem, the Sundarban is a group of several hundred islands, spread across 9,630 sq km in India and 16,370 sq km in Bangladesh. On the Indian side, it extends over two districts, 13 blocks in South 24 Parganas and 6 in North 24 Parganas. The Sundarban delta has taken its current shape over the past 300 years. The islands are low, marshy, alluvial plains that are still in the process of being formed through siltation and powerful tidal currents, a continuous process of erosion and accretion. As new land is added to the existing mass, some parts are eroded away as part of a natural cycle. The delta is characterized by beaches, mudflats, coastal dunes, sand flats, estuaries, creeks, inlets and mangrove swamps. Rivers, estuaries and creeks carry saline water nearly 300 km inland from the Bay of Bengal. Approximately 2,069 sq km area is occupied by the regions seven main tidal river systems or estuaries, which finally end up in the Bay of Bengal. The delta comprises of 102 low-lying islands, of which 54 are inhabited. All habitation is on reclaimed land, which amounts to an area of 5,363 sq km. Some 4,266 sq km of the Indian Sundarban are covered by these swampy estuarine forests that make up at least 60 per cent of

India’s mangrove stock. The Sundarban has 84 species of mangrove plants, the highest recorded among

India’s mangrove stock. The Sundarban has 84 species of mangrove plants, the highest recorded among the mangroves of the world, and the Sundari tree (Heritiera fomes) is one of these. These trees are eponymous with the region, the area deriving its name from them. Besides these trees, the Sundarban is home to a number of other unique and endangered flora and fauna. It is the only mangrove forest in the world which holds the Royal Bengal Tigers.

History of the Study Area:

Before 19th century, Indian Sundarban had no human population or habitation. In 1771, British collector general Clod Russell initiated a plan to divide the forest land into plots and lease them out to prospective landlords. At stake were timber and the collection of land revenue. These lease-holding landowners encouraged poor farming communities from other parts of Bengal as well as from neighboring states (present day Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh) to come and settle in the Sundarban. These people were put to work on clearing the forests and developing the land. This exercise of forest clearing began in 1781, and was initiated by Tillman Henkel, the then magistrate of Jessore district, currently in Bangladesh. Initially, the forests were

cleared mostly in the northern parts, closer both to Kolkata and Dhaka. By 1873, the blocks of Hasnabad, Bhangar, Haroa, Hingalgunj, Minakhan (North 24 Parganas) and Canning, Joynagar, Mathurapur and Sagar (South 24 Parganas) had been fully or substantially cleared of forests. The migrants were also made to erect embankments to make the place habitable by blocking ingression of saline water. Apart from the lure of paid work, these poor farmers were also offered the bait of small pieces of land by the lease-holders. The initial provisions and some cultivable land of their own made a majority of these migrants stay back in the Sundarbans. Migration continued in the later periods from Midnapur in the west of Bengal as well as from the east (now Bangladesh). Over the years, the population of Indian Sundarban has increased dramatically – from 11.59 lakh in 1951 to 37.57 lakh in 2001, or almost 224 per cent over half a century. The decadal increase between 1991 and 2001 was close to 18 per cent, which is equal to the population growth in the entire district of South 24 Parganas. It was declared as a “World Heritage Site” by UNESCO in 1984 and as a “Biosphere Reserve” in 1989.

Objectives:

The main objectives of the study are as follows:

To examine the livelihood pattern of marginalized people of Sundarban.

To analyze the major socio-economic problems of them.

To find out the factors responsible for such problems.

To find out some remedial measures to mitigate their problems.

Database and Methodology:

The study is based completely on the secondary sources of data collected from Census of India, District Human Development Report, District Crime Data and various reports of Sundarban Development Board and Centre for Science and Environment. The indicators of this study are as follows:

1. Economic Status 1.1.Occupational structures

1.2.Poverty

1.2.1. BPL households

1.2.2. Food security

2.

Social status

2.1.Health

2.1.1. Infant mortality

2.1.2. Malnutrition in children

2.1.3. Doctor patient ratio

2.1.4. Public health centers

2.1.5. Access to safe drinking water

2.2.Education

2.2.1. Upper primary dropout

2.2.2. Number of degree colleges and technical institute

2.2.3. Household with education beyond class X

2.3.Access to electricity and transport and communication

2.4.Crime against women

Analysis:

Occupational structures:

The Occupational structures of the Sundarban are mainly classified as agriculture,

fishing and collection of non-timber forest produce, all natural resource-based activities.

About 85 per cent of Sundarban’s population depends on agriculture. The

productivity of paddy is very low and fails to offer profitable returns to the farmer. It is

about 6,000 per acre against an investment of Rs 4,000. There are three dominant reasons

why agriculture will remain subsistence in Sundarban. Firstly, the land holdings are

small. There is also land loss to deal with. Finally, there is a limited potential to develop

irrigation facilities, which means multi-cropping cannot be practiced extensively.

Over the past 80 years, there has been no significant gain in land in Sundarban.

On the contrary, there has been a net loss. The rate of erosion after 2000 has almost

doubled compared to that in the 70 years between 1930 and 2000. In 1930-2000, almost

283.58 sq km was lost to erosion, while 83.97 sq km was gained. This point to a loss of

approximately 2.85 sq km a year.

Between 2000 and 2008, the total land lost was 64.162 sq km, and that gained was

20.120 sq km. The net erosion thus was 5.5 sq km per year – the rate of land loss had

doubled. The net land lost in the Indian Sundarban was thus 44.042 sq km a year.

Islands

Land Loss (sq. km.), 2009

Sagar

240.00

Namkhana

145.49

Dhanchi

62.20

Dakshin

42.02

Surendernagar

Dalhousie

34.28

Mousuni

28.28

Bhangaduani

26.16

Bulchery

23.29

Jambudwip

4.98

Ghoramar

4.56

AMOUNT OF TOTAL LAND LOSS IN 2009

250 200 150 100 50 0 Area (sq. km.)
250
200
150
100
50
0
Area (sq. km.)

The ten sea-facing islands in southern Sundarbans – Sagar, Ghoramara, Jambudwip, Namkhana, Mousuni, Dakhsin Surendranagar, Dhanchi, Dalhousi, Bulchery, and Bhangaduani – are the most vulnerable. Together, they account for 69 per cent of the land lost to the sea. Islands like Bhangaduani in the east and Jambudwip in the west lost 16 to 20 per cent of their land area between 2001 to 2009. Land, in fact, is a key resource, and is at a premium. Indian Sundarban suffers from an acute state of landlessness – about 47.55 per cent of the households do not own any land.

Blocks

Households with no land (%)

Joynagar I

69.38

Mathurapur I

61.65

Canning I

58.92

Kakdwip

56.58

Canning II

55.86

Joynagar II

52.09

Mathurapur II

51.70

Basanti

43.97

Namkhana

39.00

Gosaba

35.59

Sagar

31.61

Kultali

31.25

Patharpratima

30.66

PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH NO LAND Patharpratima Kultali Sagar Gosaba Namkhana Basanti Mathurapur II Joynagar
PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH NO LAND
Patharpratima
Kultali
Sagar
Gosaba
Namkhana
Basanti
Mathurapur II
Joynagar II
Canning II
Kakdwip
Canning I
Mathurapur I
Joynagar I
%
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70

Fishery is the second biggest source of employment in the Sundarban. On an average, around 4,000 individuals fish daily. With an average catch of 1.5 kg per fisherfolk per day, the annual fish catch amounts to 66,995 tones. Though fishing activities continue throughout the season, production starts increasing at the onset of monsoon and reaches its peak during winter. The two main types of fishing activities in

Sundarban that have substantial commercial value and need capital investment are aquaculture (aquafarming) and marine fishing. The other types of fishing activities are largely at subsistence levels. These include brackish water fishing (nona-ghery or bheri), tank and bile (water pods within paddy fields), fishing in the rivers, fishing in the forest and winter migratory bag-net fishery – where migratory fish and seedlings are trapped in the shallow estuaries. But now, both commercial and subsistence fishing are threatened and declined due to over-exploitation. This is a direct outcome of the increase in the number of people moving towards fishing. The diminishing returns in agriculture prompt many farmers to shift to fishing. The mangrove biomes of Sundarban provide some of the essential components of livelihood of the forest-dependant island villagers of the area. These people collect a wide variety of non-timber forest produce including tannin bark, natural honey, cultured honey, bees wax, fuel wood, prawn, crab, shrimps, lime etc. It is mentionable that villagers often enter into the protected area in search of fish or honey and are killed or injured by tigers and they do not get compensation from the Government.

Poverty:

About 44 per cent of the people of Sundarban live below the poverty line (income - less than Rs 26 a day).

Blocks

Basanti

Sandeshkhali

Sandeshkhali

Canning

Pathatpratima

Namkhana

Kultali

Hingalganj

Sagar

Jaynagar

II

I

II

II

%

of BPL

64.89

59.70

58.29

50.32

49.13

48.17

46.36

44.50

44.46

42.60

Households

Blocks

Mathurapur

Jaynagar I

Minakhan

Gosaba

Kakdwip

Mathurapur

Haora

Canning I

Hasnabad

II

I

%

of BPL

39.59

39.57

38.42

38.03

34.91

34.43

33.73

31.05

28.69

Households

PERCENTAGE OF BPL HOUSEHOLDS

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % of Households
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
% of Households
PERCENTAGE OF BPL HOUSEHOLDS 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % of Households
PERCENTAGE OF BPL HOUSEHOLDS 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 % of Households

Another indicator of poverty is the state of food security. In the 13 Sundarban

blocks of the South 24 Parganas, only about 12.47 per cent people face no shortage of

food: an overwhelming 87 per cent thus have no food security. Close to almost 21 per

cent of the population (more than one person in every five), do not get food even once a

day on a regular basis. In blocks like Basanti, this figure is as high as 37 per cent (or one

in every three).

Blocks

Food

Insecurity

(%)

Basanti

93.46

Canning II

92.40

Sagar

91.03

Namkhana

90.09

Mathurapur I

89.59

Joynagar II

89.2

Patharpratima

88.94

Kultali

88.92

Mathurapur II

86.31

Gosaba

82.48

Canning I

82.37

Kakdwip

81.85

Joynagar I

81.13

BLOCK-WISE PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION HAVING NO FOOD SECURITY % 94 92 90 88 86 84
BLOCK-WISE PERCENTAGE OF
POPULATION HAVING NO FOOD SECURITY
%
94
92
90
88
86
84
82
80
78
76
74

In terms of housing, only about 30 per cent of the families in almost the whole of

the Sundarbans live in pucca or partially pucca houses. Joynagar is the only exception. In

blocks like Basanti, Gosaba, Canning-II and Patharpratima, this number is not even 10

per cent.

Health:

The condition of public health infrastructure of Sundarban is very bad. The

problems range from non-availability of safe drinking water to poor sanitation and collapsing infrastructure. While the lack of sanitation and drinking water escalate the risk of health hazards such as diarrhea, cholera etc. The only source of drinking water in the islands is deep tube wells; there is a limited and rudimentary piped supply system in the areas connected to the mainland. The region suffers from an acute arsenic problem in its groundwater. Close to 58 per cent of the habitations have no access to safe drinking water. The incidence of diarrhea in the district is alarmingly high, with 1.27 lakh cases being treated on an average every year. Sundarban, in fact, has the poorest healthcare facilities compared to any other part of the state of West Bengal. According to the Union ministry of human resource development, the

ideal doctor-patient ratio in the country is 1:1,000; the national average ratio is 1:1,722. In Sundarban, some blocks such as Basanti do not have a doctor for a population of one lakh. Canning has three doctors to serve a population of two lakh,

PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLDS HAVING ACCESS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER % 90 80 70 60 50
PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLDS HAVING ACCESS TO
SAFE DRINKING WATER
%
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

INFANT

MORTALTY RATE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

INFANT MORTALTY RATE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
INFANT MORTALTY RATE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
INFANT MORTALTY RATE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

PERCENTAGE OF MALNUTRITION IN CHILDREN

% 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
%
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

while Gosaba and Patharpratima have a doctor-patient ratio of 1:44,682 and 1: 41,152, respectively. One in every three persons in Sundarban does not have any access to institutional healthcare. As of 2011, there is a

deficit of 62 public health centers across 13 blocks of Sundarban in the South 24 Parganas. According to the norms of Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, there should be one public health centre for every 20,000 people in remote areas. A

deficit of 62 public health centers thus, indicates 12.4 lakh people have no access to primary, institutionalized healthcare across the island. Apart from a massive capacity limitation, the quality of care in public health centers is also extremely bad. These open twice a week for four hours.

Thus, access to institutionalized healthcare is limited to eight hours a week. Many of them have no electricity, safe water, and even access roads. People, naturally, seem to depend on quacks and religious leaders. The difficulties of

transportation in this region act as a crucial deterrent.

DOCTOR PATIENT RATIO

140000

120000

100000

80000

60000

40000

20000

0

DOCTOR PATIENT RATIO 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0
DOCTOR PATIENT RATIO 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0
DOCTOR PATIENT RATIO 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0
PUBLIC HEALTH CENTRE PER 3000 POPULATION 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
PUBLIC HEALTH CENTRE PER 3000 POPULATION
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

Education:

Educational facilities as well as conditions are also very bad in Sundarban. Number of drop outs is very high because in most of the cases children are forced to join working sectors to support their family. The head of the families does not want to send their children into schools because; they think there are no surety of getting jobs after completion of education. The Number of students having matriculation is also very less here. The number of higher education

centers is also very low. None of the high schools and colleges in Sundarban teaches any science subjects

Blocks

Upper Primary Drop Out

Blocks

Households with Education Beyond Class X

Canning II

57.11

Gosaba

20.70

Kultali

52.95

Mathurapur I

17.64

Mathurapur I

46.86

Canning I

16.60

Basanti

45.61

Joynagar I

16.52

Patharpratima

44.33

Patharpratima

16.26

Kakdwip

43.26

Sagar

15.98

Joynagar II

42.83

Kakdwip

15.82

Mathurapur II

40.64

Namkhana

15.70

Canning I

39.31

Mathurapur II

15.63

Gosaba

35.51

Joynagar II

13.71

Sagar

34.85

Basanti

9.88

Joynagar I

33.85

Kultali

9.02

Namkhana

27.40

Canning II

7.91

because the lack of electricity does not allow laboratories to function. Many blocks do not have any college or technical institute.

Access to Electricity and Transport and Communication:

Many blocks of Sundarban do not have access to electricity; this is one of the serious problems of the people. For instance, none of the high schools and colleges in Sundarban teaches any science subjects because the lack of electricity. Absence of electricity leads to large number of cases of snake bites. Even tiger attacks are attributed to unavailability of street lights. Unavailability of power also affects livelihood options like agriculture and fisheries. Absence of cold storages is a major constraint for farmers and fisherfolk.

The transport and communication system of Sundarban is in very poor state. This is one of the primary causes which have made the people of Sundarban marginalized. The people only depend upon waterways. There are only two road ways, from Kolkata to Bishnupur via Nula and another is Barasat to Buranhati. The facilities of railways are mainly confined upto Canning, Diamond Harbour, Lakkhikantapur and Hansabad from Kolkata. During monsoon, roads become impossible to walk on, boat rides become riskier and vehicles need to be pushed out of mud-holes every now and then.

Status of women:

The status of women is not very good here. The rate of crime against them is increasing day by day. Female literacy and work participation rate are not up to the mark. Early marriage, dowry system, malnutrition, unsafe deliveries are the major problems among women.

Blocks

 

Crime against women

2005

2006

2007

Canning I and II

98

170

215

Joynagar I and II

60

82

118

Kultali

79

30

105

Basanti

22

52

66

Gosaba

17

14

21

Mathurapur I

28

30

44

Mathurapur II

20

43

34

Kakdwip

51

90

78

Sagar

50

53

86

Namkhana

20

49

46

Patharpratima

35

46

88

Major Findings:

The major findings of this study are as follows:

Sundarban is one of the most underdeveloped regions of the country.

About 44 per cent of the people live below the poverty line.

About 78 per cent of the economy and 85 per cent of workers are dependent on agriculture – directly or indirectly. The cultivable land per agricultural worker is less than 0.5 ha and about 85 per cent of the farmers are small and marginal. Sundarban is losing land due to submergence and erosion at a high-speed. In the last 80 years it has lost about 250 sq km. Four islands have been completely wiped out. The rate of land loss is increasing. Sundarban is also loosing agricultural land to settlement to accommodate rising population as well as due to land mismanagement and change in land use. Soil salinity has increased because of sea water ingress and retention, largely due to the cyclonic activities, thereby reducing the productivity of the agricultural land. Land loss, soil salinity and land fragmentation have all resulted in reduced agricultural output.

Fishery and collection of non-timber forest produce supplement the agricultural income, but both are under tremendous pressure due to over exploitation and climatic changes. Fish density in shallow waters has reduced and the catches of commercially important fish have declined.

There are no major industries. Marketing infrastructure for agricultural, fishery and non- timber forest produce sectors is negligible.

Today, the resource base of Sunderban is not able to sustain the lives and livelihood of people. As a result, the people of Sunderban are migrating to survive.

Majority of households don’t have access to electricity.

About 60 per cent of the households don’t have access to clean and safe drinking water.

87 per cent people live with some sort of food shortage. So, food insecurity is high.

There is a huge deficit in health care infrastructure. The Sundarban will need more infrastructures such as doctors, public health centers, specialized hospitals etc. About one-third of the population doesn’t have access to primary health care.

The education system does not provide the options to people to expand livelihood opportunities. There is just one degree or technical college in per 250 sq km area. The drop-out rates are very high.

The coverage of institutional banking and insurance facilities in Sundarban is very low. Only about 10 per cent of the population avail institutional banking and there is no agricultural insurance.

Finally, Sunderban still lacks disaster warning and disaster shelters. In fact, it lacks a comprehensive disaster management system.

Suggestions and conclusions:

The people of Sundarban need a long term plan to mitigate their problem and for their development. Following remedial measures can be taken. First of all, guaranteed job opportunity and employment generation may upgrade the quality of life of the people. Besides this, definite supply of safe drinking water, electricity, more health centers with proper medical facilities, school and colleges having vocational and technical education are needed. Government should be responsible about the protection of forests, land reclamation, development of transport and communication system. A new land and embankment policy is urgently required to stop or reduce the detoriation of quality and quality of land. Awareness programs about controlling

population and above mentioned suggestions may help to solve the problems of people of Sundarban. It is mentionable that Sundarban has a very good prospect in terms of tourism, cultivation of medical plants etc. But it will be possible when Government and NGOs will take necessary actions.

References:

1. Das C. S. and Pramanik T. K., (2010), “Human Geography”, Mitram, Kolkata.

2. Das G. K., (2005), “Sundarbans: Environments and Ecosystems”, Sharat book Distributors, Kolkata.

3. Das G. K., (2005), “Sundarbans: Human and Environment”, Sharat book Distributors, Kolkata.

4. De R., (1990), “The Sundarbans”, Oxford University Press, Calcutta.

5. Mandal A. K. and Ghosh R. K., (1989), “Sundarban – A Socio – Bio – Ecological Study”, Bookland, Calcutta.

6. Mukherjee K.N., (1983), “History of Settlement in the sundarbans in West Bengal”, Indian Journal of Landscape System and Ecological Studies, vol.6, Calcutta.

7. “Living with Changing Climate”, (2012), Centers for Sciences and Environment.