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Please feel free to add items to this list of sources for Roman Warfare, Primary or Secondary; as well as whether

they relate to land or sea based operations and battles.


Abbreviations of periodicals generally follow L'Anne philologique:
http://www.annee-philologique.com/aph/files/sigles_fr.pdf
Prefixes such as "van", "von" and "de" in authors' names are generally ignored. An exception is "La" or "Le", and
there are certain other exceptions where usage goes against this principle. Names starting with "Mc" are ordered
as though they were spelled "Mac".

Ancient Sources

Campbell, J.B. (ed.), The Roman Army, 31 BC - AD 337: A Sourcebook, London: Routledge, 1994.

, Greek and Roman Military Writers: Selected Readings, London: Routledge, 2004.
Review by J. Thorne (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Sage, M.M. (ed.), The Republican Roman Army: A Sourcebook, London: Routledge, 2008.
Review by J. Armstrong (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

Secondary Sources

1. General works

Altheim, F., Rmische Geschichte, Berlin: de Gruyter, 1948-1958.


Austin, N.J.E. and N.B. Rankov, Exploratio: Military and Political Intelligence in the Roman World from the Second Punic
War to the Battle of Adrianople, London: Routledge, 1995.
Review by F. Russell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Badian, E., Studies in Greek and Roman History, New York: Barnes and Noble, 1964.
Best, E.E., Jr., The Literate Roman Soldier, CJ 62 (1966): 122-127.
Birley, E., The Roman Army: Papers, 1929-1986, Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1988.
Bringmann, K., Geschichte der Rmischen Republik, Munich: C.H. Beck, 2002.
Review by C. Eplett (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Burckhardt, L., Militrgeschichte der Antike, Munich: C. H. Beck, 2008.
Review by P. Baker (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Burrer, F. and H. Mller (edd.), Kriegskosten und Kriegsfinanzierung in der Antike, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche
Buchgesellschaft, 2008.

Review by D. Colling (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)


Crawford, M.H., The Roman Republic2, London: Fontana, 1992.
Delbrck, H., Geschichte der Kriegskunst im Rahmen der politischen Geschichte, Vol. 1: Das Altertum3, Berlin: G. Stilke,
1920.
(tr. W.J. Renfroe), Warfare in Antiquity: History of the Art of War, Volume 1, Lincoln: University of Nebraska
Press, 1990.
De Sanctis, G., Storia dei Romani, Florence: La nuova Italia, 1956.
Dillon, S. and K.E. Welch (edd.), Representations of War in Ancient Rome, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Review by J. Levithan (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Dodge, T.A., Caesar: A History of the Art of War among the Romans Down to the End of the Roman Empire, with a
Detailed Account of the Campaigns of Caius Julius Caesar, New York: Da Capo Press, 1997.
Domaszewski, A. von, Die Rangordnung des rmischen Heeres, Kln: Bohlau, 1967.
Erdkamp, P. (ed.), The Roman Army and the Economy, Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 2002.
, A Companion to the Roman Army, Oxford: Blackwell, 2007.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Fagan, G.G. and M. Trundle (edd.), New Perspectives on Ancient Warfare, Leiden: Brill, 2010.
Review by T.E. Rihll (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Fink, R.O., Roman Military Records on Papyrus, Cleveland: Case Western Reserve University Press, 1971.
Gabriel, R.A., From Sumer to Rome: The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies, New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.
Gilliam, J.F., Roman Army Papers, Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1986.
Gilliver, C.M., The Roman Art of War, Charleston, SC: Tempus, 1999.
Giuffr, V., Militum disciplina e ratio militaris, ANRW II 13 (1980) 234-277.
Goldsworthy, A., The Roman Army at War 100 BC AD 200, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
Review by R.S. Howarth (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
, Roman Warfare, London: Cassell, 2000.
, The Complete Roman Army, London: Thames & Hudson, 2003.
Goodman, M.D. and A.J. Holladay, Religious Scruples in Ancient Warfare, CQ n.s. 36 (1986): 151-171.
Hanson, V.D., Makers of Ancient Strategy: From the Persian Wars to the Fall of Rome, Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 2010.
Heurgon, J. (tr. J. Willis), The Rise of Rome, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.
Hlscher, T., Images of War in Greece and Rome: Between Military Practice, Public Memory and Cultural Symbolism,
JHS 93 (2003): 1-17.
Hope, V.M., Trophies and Tombstones: Commemorating the Roman Soldier, World Archaeology 35 (2003): 79-97.
Jung, J.H. Die Rechtsstellung der rmischen Soldaten. Ihre Entwicklung von den Anfngen Roms bis auf Diokletian,
ANRW II 14 (1982): 882-1013.

Keppie, L.J.F., The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire, London: Batsford, 1984.
Kromayer, J. and G. Veith, Heerwesen und Kriegfhrhung der Griechen und Rmer, Munich: C.H. Beck, 1928.
Lendon, J.E., The Roman Army Now, CJ 99 (2004): 441-449.
Lloyd, A.B. (ed.), Battle in Antiquity, London: Duckworth, 1996.
Mackay, C.S., Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Review by D.A. Phillips (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
McMullen, R., The Legion as a Society, Historia 33 (1984): 44-456.
Maxfield, V.A., The Military Decorations of the Roman Army, London: Batsford, 1981.
Nock, A.D., The Roman Army and the Roman Religious Year, HThR 45 (1952): 187-252.
Parker, H.M.D., The Roman Legions, Cambridge: Heffer, 1958.
Phang, S.E., Roman Military Service: Ideologies of Discipline in the Late Republic and Early Principate, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Review by J. Levithan (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Raaflaub, K.A. and N. Rosenstein (edd.), War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: Asia, the Mediterranean,
Europe, and Mesoamerica, Cambridge, MA: Center for Hellenic Studies, 1999.
Review by B. Eden (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Rich, J. and G. Shipley (edd.), War and Society in the Roman World, New York: Routledge, 1993.
Richardson, J., The Language of Empire: Rome and the Idea of Empire from the Third Century BC to the Second Century
AD, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Review by N. Methy (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Rostovtzeff, M.I., The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.
Roth, J.P., Roman Warfare, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Rpke, J., Domi militiae. Die religise Konstruktion des Krieges in Rom, Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 1990.
Sabin, P., The Face of Roman Battle, JRS 90 (2000): 1-17.
, H. van Wees and M, Whitby (edd.), The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Review by P.C. Nadig (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Review by J. Levithan (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Scullard, H.H., The Elephant in the Greek and Roman World, London: Thames and Hudson, 1974.
, A History of the Roman World 753-146 B.C.4, London: Routledge, 1980.
Shotter, D., Rome and Her Empire, London: Longman, 2003.
Review by J.B. McCall (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Sidebottom, H., Ancient Warfare: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Southern, P., The Roman Army: A Social and Institutional History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Review by D.W. Madsen (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

Starr, C.G., Jr., Coastal Defense in the Roman World, AJPh 64 (1943): 56-70.
Stoll, O., Rmisches Heer und Gesellschaft, Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 2001.
Review by C. Eplett (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Suolahti, J., The Junior Officers of the Roman Army: A Study on Social Structure, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia,
1955.
Thompson, E.A., Early Germanic Warfare, P&P 14 (1958): 2-29.
Toynbee, A.J., Hannibals Legacy, London: Oxford University Press, 1965.
Watson, G.R., The Roman Soldier, London: Thames and Hudson, 1969.
, Documentation in the Roman Army, ANRW II 1 (1974): 493-507.
Wilkes, J.J. (ed.), Documenting the Roman Army: Essays in Honour of Margaret Roxan, London: Institute of Classical
Studies, 2003.
Review by L.L. Brice (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Wooliscroft, D.J., Roman Military Signalling, Stroud: Tempus, 2001.
Review by A. Di Giorgi (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

2. Topography
Ashby, T., Classical Topography of the Roman Camapgna I, PBSR 1 (1902): 125-281.
, Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna II, PBSR 3 (1905): 1-200.
, The Roman Campagna in Classical Times, London: E. Benn, 1927.
Buck, R.J., The Ancient Roads of Eastern Lucania, PBSR 42 (1974): 46-67.
Fracchia, H., An Ancient Route in Southeastern Lucania, AJA 90 (1986): 441-445.
Frederiksen, M.W. and J.B. Ward-Perkins, The Ancient Road Systems of the Central and Northern Ager Faliscus, PBSR
25 (1957): 67-203.
French, D.H., A Study of Roman Roads in Anatolia: Principles and Methods, AS 24 (1974): 143-149.
Frier, B.W., Points on the Topography of Minturnae, Historia 18 (1969): 510-512.
Goodchild, R.G., Roman Milestones in Cyrenaica, PBSR 18 (1950): 83-91.
Harris, W., The Via Cassia and the Via Traiana Nova between Bolensa and Chiusi, PBSR 33 (1965): 113-133.
Hinrichs, F.T., Der rmische Straenbau zur Zeit der Gracchen, Historia 16 (1967): 162-176.
Horsfall, N.M., The Caudine Forks: Topography and Illusion, PBSR n.s. 37 (1982): 45-52.
, Illusion and Reality in Latin Topographical Writing, G&R 32 (1985): 197-208.
Johnson, J., The Hill-Forts of Latium, AJA 58 (1954): 146-147.
La Regina, A., I territori sabellici e sannitici, DdA 4-5 (1970-1971): 443-459.

, Centri fortificati preromani nei territori sabellici dellItalia centrale adriatica, Posebna izdanja 24 (1975): 271282.
Munro, J.A.R., Roads in Pontus, Royal and Roman, JHS 21 (1901): 52-66.
Platner, S.B. and T. Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1929.
Pohl, I., Was early Ostia a Colony or a Fort?, PP 38 (1983): 123-130.
Richardson, L., A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
Review by D.P. Harmon (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Sflund, G., Ancient Latin Cities of the Hills and Plains, OA 1 (1935): 64-85.
Sherk, R.K. Roman Geographical Exploration and Military Maps, ANRW II 1 (1974): 534-562.
Sommella, P., Antichi campi di battaglia in Italia, Rome: De Luca, 1967.
Sonnabend, H. (ed.), Mensch und Landschaft in der Antike. Lexikon der historischen Geographie, Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler,
1999.
Review by R.S. Bloch (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Stanco, E.A., Richerche sulla topografia dellEtruria, MEFRA 108 (1996): 83-104.
Steinby, E.M. (ed.), Lexicon topographicum urbis Romae, Rome: Edizioni Quasar, 1993-2007.
Review by G.S. Bucher (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Waddelove, A.C. and E. Waddelove, Archaeology and Research into Sea-Level during the Roman Era: Towards a
Methodology Based on Highest Astronomical Tide, Brittania 21 (1990): 253-266.
Ward-Perkins, J.B., Veii: The Historical Topography of the Ancient City, PBSR 29 (1961): 1-123.
Wiseman, T.P., Viae Anniae, PBSR 32 (1964): 21-37.
, Viae Anniae Again, PBSR 37 (1969): 82-91.
, Roman Republican Road-Building, PBSR 38 (1970): 122-152.

3. The archaic and Servian periods and the early Republic


Alfldi, A., Early Rome and the Latins, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1965.
Arnim, H. von, Ineditum Vaticanum, Hermes 27 (1892): 118-130.
Cornell, T.J., The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 B.C.), London:
Routledge, 1995.
Review by G. Forsythe (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
De Sanctis, G., Le origini dellordinamento centuriato, RFIC 11 (1933): 289-298.
Fraccaro, P., La storia dellantichissimo esercito Romano e let dellordinamento centuriato in G. Paluzzi (ed.), Atti del
2o congresso nazionale di studi romani, Rome: P. Cremonese, 1931, vol. 3, pp. 91-97 (= Fraccaro, P., Opuscula, Pavia:
Presso la rivista Athenaeum, 1956-1957, vol. 2, pp. 287-292).
, Ancora sull'et dellordinamento centuriato, Athenaeum 12 (1934): 57-71. (= Opuscula, vol. 2, pp. 293-306).
, The History of Rome in the Regal Period, JRS 47 (1957): 59-65.

Gjerstad, E., Early Rome, Lund: Gleerup, 1953-1973.


, Innenpolitische und militrische Organisation in frhrmischer Zeit, ANRW II 1 (1972): 136-188.
Last, H., The Servian Reforms, JRS 35 (1945): 30-48.
Miller, M.C.J., The Principes and the So-Called Camillan Reforms, AncW 23 (1992): 59-70.
Nilsson, Martin P., The Introduction of Hoplite Tactics at Rome: Its Date and its Consequences, JRS 19 (1929): 1-11.
Ridley, R.T., The Engima of Servius Tullius, Klio 57 (1975): 147-177.
Rosenberger, V., The Gallic Disaster, CW 96 (2003): 365-373.
Rutter, N.K., Campanian Chronology in the Fifth Century B.C., CQ n.s. 21 (1971): 55-61.
Snodgrass, A.M., The Hoplite Reform and History, JRS 85 (1965): 110-122.
Schachermeyr, F., Die gallische Katastrophe, Klio 23 (1929): 277-305.
Sumner, G.V., The Legion and the Centuriate Organization, JHS 60 (1970): 67-78.
Vine, G., The Evolution of the Roman Legion: Part 1, Slingshot 114 (1984): 42-43.
, The Evolution of the Roman Legion: Part II, Slingshot 115 (1984): 13-16.

4. The manipular army


4.1 General works
Bleckmann, B., Die rmische Nobilitt im Ersten Punischen Krieg. Untersuchungen zur aristokratischen Konkurrenz in der
Republik, Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2002.
Blois, L. de, Volk und Soldaten bei Cassius Dio, ANRW II 34.3 (1997): 2650-2676.
Cadiou, F, L'Arme et la guerre dans la Rome rpublicaine. Bibliographie.
http://www-ausonius.u-bordeaux3.fr/ressources/cadiou/biblio_generale.pdf
Caire, E. and S. Pittia (edd.), Guerre et diplomatie romaines (IVe - IIIe sicles) : Pour un rexamen des sources, Aix-enProvence: Publications de l'Universit de Provence, 2006.
Review by F. Canali de Rossi (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Eckstein, A.M., Senate and General: Individual Decision-Making and Roman Foreign Relations, 264-194 B.C., Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1987.
Flower, H.I. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Review by U. Roth (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Head, D., Armies of the Macedonian and Punic Wars 359 BC to 146 BC, Goring-by-Sea: Wargames Research Group,
1982.
Messer, W.S., Mutiny in the Roman Army. The Republic, CPh 15 (1920): 158-175.
Oakley, S.P., Single combat in the Roman Republic, CQ n.s. 35 (1985): 392-410.
Rosenstein, N., Rome at War: Farms, Families, and Death in the Middle Republic, Chapel Hill: University of North
Carolina Press, 2004.
Review by J.D. Muccigrosso (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

4.2 Roman expansion


Afzelius, A., Die rmische Eroberung Italiens (340-264 v. Chr.), Copenhagen: Aarhus University Press, 1942.
Baronowski, D.W., The Status of the Greek Cities of Asia Minor after 190 B.C., Hermes 119 (1991): 175-189.
Beloch, K.J., La conquista romana della regione Sabina, RSA 9 (1904): 269-277.
Eckstein, A.M. Mediterranean Anarchy, Interstate War and the Rise of Rome, Berkeley: University of California Press,
2006.
Review by J. Quillin (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
, Rome Enters the Greek East: From Anarchy to Hierarchy in the Hellenistic Mediterranean, 230-170 BC,
Oxford: Blackwell, 2008.
Review by A. Heller (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Frank, T., On Romes Conquest of Sabinum, Picenum and Etruria, Klio 11 (1911): 367-381.
Gabba, E., Istituzione militari e colonizzazione in Roma medio-repubblicana (IV-III sec. A.C.), RFIC 103 (1975): 144154.
Harris, W.V., War and Imperialism in Republican Rome, 327-70 B.C., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.
Hleskamp, K.-J., Conquest, Competition and Consensus: Roman Expansion in Italy and the Rise of the Nobilitas,
Historia 42 (1993): 12-39.
McDonald, A.H., Rome and the Italian Confederation (200-186 B.C.), JRS 34 (1944): 11-33.
Matthaei, L.E., On the Classification of Roman Allies, C.Q. 1 (1907): 182-204.
Oost, S.I., Roman Policy in Epirus and Acarnania in the Age of the Roman Conquest of Greece, New York: Arno Press,
1975.
Philips, E.J., Roman Politics during the Second Samnite War, Athenaeum n.s. 50 (1972): 337-356.
Rich, J.W., Declaring War in the Roman Republic in the Period of Transmarine Expansion, Brussels: Latomus, 1976.
, Roman Aims in the First Macedonian War, PCPhS 30 (1984): 126-180.
Sordi, M., Roma e I Sanniti nel iv secolo a.C., Bologna: Cappelli, 1969.
Volkmann, H., Griechische Rhetorik oder rmische Politik? Bemerkungen zum rmischen Imperialismus, Hermes 82
(1956): 465-476.
Walsh, J.J., The Disorders of the 170s B.C. and Roman Intervention in the Class Struggle in Greece, CQ n.s. 50 (2000),
300-303.

4.3 Development of the manipular army


Delbrck, H., Die rmische Manipulartaktik, HZ 51 (1883): 239-264.
, Die Manipularlegion und die Schlacht bei Cannae, Hermes 21 (1886): 65-90.
, Triarier und Leichtbewaffnete, HZ 60 (1888): 238-254.

Dobson, B., The Significance of the Centurion and Primipilaris in the Roman Army and Administration, ANRW 1 (1974):
392-434.
Ehrman, R.K., Observations on the Frivolaria of Plautus, Mnemosyne, ser. 4, 45 (1992): 78-83.
Fraccaro, P., Accensi, Athenaeum n.s. 5 (1927): 133-146.
Gatti, C., Riflessioni sullistituzione dello stipendium per i legionary romani, Acme 23 (1970): 131-135.
Gschnitzer, F., Das System der Rmischen Heeresbildung im Zweiten Punischen Krieg: Polybios, die Annalisten und die
Geschichtliche Wirklichkeit, Hermes 109 (1981): 59-85.
Head, D., Orthodox Romans, Slingshot 229 (2003): 16-20.
Hey, S., Non-Developments in the Roman Legion - A Heresy: Part 1, Slingshot 225 (2002): 2-8.
, Non-Developments in the Roman Legion - A Heresy: Part 2, Slingshot 226 (2003): 4-11.
, Non-Developments in the Roman Legion - A Heresy: Part 3, Slingshot 227 (2003): 23-32.
Meyer, E., Das rmische Manipularheer, seine Entwicklung und seine Vorstufen, in Abhandlungen der preussischen
Akademie der Wissenschaften: Philosophisch-historische Klasse 3 (1923).
Ohlson, O., Some Comments on Stewart Hey's Non-Developments in the Roman Legion - A Heresy, Slingshot 229
(2003): 20-22.
Quesada Sanz, F., El legionario romano en poca de las Guerras Pnicas: Formas de combate individual, tctica de
pequeas unidades e influencas hispanas, in Espacio, Tiempo y Forma Serie II, Historia Antigua 16 (2003) 163-196.
http://e-spacio.uned.es/fez/view.php?pid=bibliuned:ETFSerie2-11726F64-4061-7EBE-5C3A-56F509DD425E
, Not so different: individual fighting techniques and battle tactics of Roman and Iberian armies within the
framework of warfare in the Hellenistic Age, Pallas 70 (2006): 245-263.
http://www.uam.es/proyectosinv/equus/warmas/online/Not%20so%20different%20Quesada%20DEFINIT.pdf
, Hispania y el ejrcito romano republicano. Interaccn y adopcin de tipos metlicos / Hispania and the
Republican Roman Army. Interaction and adoption of weapon types, in C. Fernndez (ed.) Metalistera de la Hispania
Romana. Nmero monogrfico de Sautuola 13 (2007): 379-401.
http://www.uam.es/proyectosinv/equus/warmas/online/Quesada%20Sautuola.pdf
Rawson, E., The Literary Sources for the Pre-Marian Army, PBSR 39 (1971): 13-31.
Soltau, W., Die Manipulartaktik, Hermes 20 (1885): 262-267.
Steinwender, T., Die Entwicklung des Manipularwesens im rmischen Heere, ZGW 12 (1878): 705-722.
, Der Polybianische Gefechtsabstand, Hermes 44 (1909): 179-197.
, Zur Schlachtordnung der Manipulare, RhM 65 (1910): 130-148.
Stemmler, M., Die rmische Manipularordnung und der Funktionswandel der Centurien, Klio 82 (2000): 107-125.
Vine, G., The Evolution of the Roman Legion: Part 3, Slingshot 116 (1984): 40-42.
Walters, C.F. and R.S. Conway, Restorations and Emendations in Livy VI-X (Continued), CQ 12 (1918): 1-14.
Zhmodikov, A., Roman Republican Heavy Infantrymen in Battle (IV-II Centuries B.C.), Historia 49 (2000): 67-78.

4.4 Arms and armour

Bishop, M.C. and J.C.N. Coulston, Roman Military Equipment: From the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome, Oxford: Oxbow
Books, 2006.
Burns, Michael T., The Homogenisation of Military Equipment Under the Roman Republic, in Romanization? Digressus
Supplement 1 (2003): 60-85.
www.digressus.org/articles/romanizationpp060-085-burns.pdf
Echols, E.C., The Ancient Slinger, CW 43 (1950): 227-230.
Feugre, M., Weapons of the Romans, Stroud: Tempus, 2002.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Head, D., Duncan Head writes about Marcellus' naval spears, and Libyan weapons, Slingshot 229 (2003): 53-55.
Hollenback, G.M., Polybius Description of the kestros, Mnemosyne, ser. 4, 62 (2009): 459-463.
Kooi, B.W. and C.A. Bergman, An Approach to the Study of Ancient Archery using Mathematical Modelling, Antiquity
71 (1997): 124-134.
http://www.bio.vu.nl/thb/users/kooi/kobe97.pdf
Lang, J., Study of the Metallography of some Roman Swords, Brittania 19 (1988): 199-216.
McCartney, E.S., The Genesis of Romes Military Equipment, CW 6 (1912): 74-79.
Must, G., The Origin of framea, Language 34 (1958): 364-366.
Reinach, A.J., Les Origines du pilum, RA 4e srie 9 (1907): 236.
Stephenson, I.P., Roman Cavalry Equipment, Stroud: Tempus, 2003.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Treloar, A., The Roman Shield: Polybius vi.23.2, CR n.s. 21 (1971): 3-5.

4.5 Cavalry
Frederiksen, M.W., Campanian Cavalry: A Question of Origins, DdA 2 (1968): 3-31.
McCall, Jeremiah B., The Cavalry of the Roman Republic: Cavalry Combat and Elite Reputations in the Middle and Late
Republic, London: Routledge, 2002.
Nicolet, C., Les equites Campani et leurs representations figures, MEFRA 74 (1962): 463-517.

4.6 Fortifications, siege warfare and artillery


Alexander, L., The Origin of Greek and Roman Artillery, CJ 41 (1946): 208-212.
Benvenuti, V., The Introduction of Artillery in the Roman World: Hypothesis for a Chronological Definition based on the
Cosa Town Wall, MAAR 47 (2002): 199-207.
Davies, G., Roman Siege Works, Stroud: Tempus Publishing, 2006.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Dobson, M.J., The Army of the Roman Republic: The Second Century BC, Polybius and the Camps at Numantia, Spain,
Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2008.
Fabricius, E., Some notes on Polybius' description of Roman Camps, JRS 22 (1932): 78.

Fraccaro, P., Polibio e l'accampamento romano, Athenaeum n.s. 12 (1934) 154.


Marsden, E.W., Greek and Roman Artillery: Historical Development, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.
, Greek and Roman Artillery: Technical Treatises, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.
Paul, G.M., Urbs Capta: Sketch of an Ancient Literary Motif, Phoenix 36 (1982): 144-155.

4.7 Command, strategy and logistics


Baronowski, R.W., Roman Military Forces in 225 B.C. (Polybius 2.23-4), Historia 42 (1993): 181-202.
Brunt, P.A., Italian Manpower 225 B.C. A.D. 14, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.
Campbell, J.B., Teach Yourself How to Be a General, JRS 77 (1987): 13-29.
Crawford, M.H., War and Finance, JRS 54 (1964): 29-32.
Erdkamp, P., The Corn Supply of the Roman Armies during the Third and Second Centuries B.C., Historia 44 (1995):
168-191.
Hellegouarch, J., Le principat de Camille, REL 48 (1970): 112-132.
Kroymann, J., Rmische Kriegfhrung im Geschichtswerk des Livius, Gymnasium 56 (1949): 121-134.
Meiklejohn, K.W., Roman Strategy and Tactics from 509 to 202 B.C., G&R 7 (1938): 170-178.
, Roman Strategy and Tactics from 509 to 202 B.C. (Cont.), G&R 8 (1939): 8-19.
Picard, G., Tactique hellenistique et tactique romaine: le commandement, CRAI 136 (1992): 173-186.
Poznanski, L., A propos du Trait de tactique de Polybe, Athenaeum n.s. 58 (1980): 340-352.
Rich, J.W. The Supposed Roman Manpower Shortage of the later Second Century BC, Historia 32 (1983): 287-331.
Roth, J.P., The Logistics of the Roman Army at War (264 BC - AD 235), Leiden: Brill, 1998.
Review by A. Goldsworthy (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Rosenstein, N., Imperatores victi: The Case of C. Hostilius Mancinus, ClAnt 5 (1986): 230-252.
, Imperatores victi: Military Defeat and Competition in the Middle and Late Republic, Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1990.
Shatzman, I., The Roman Generals Authority over Booty, Historia 21 (1972): 177-205.
Sohlberg, D., Militrtribunen und verwandte Probleme der frhen rmischen Republik, Historia 40 (1991): 257-274.
Weigel, R.D., Roman Generals and the Vowing of Temples, 500-100 B.C., C&M 49 (1998): 119-142.
Wheeler, E.L., Stratagem and the Vocabulary of Military Trickery (Mnemosyne supplement 108), Leiden: Brill, 1988.

4.8 Naval warfare


Casson, L., The Ancient Mariners: Sea Farers and Sea Fighters of Ancient Times2, Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1991.
Review by F. Weiskittel (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

Foley, V., Ancient Oared Warships, Scientific American 244:4 (April 1981): 148-183.
Lazenby, J.F., Naval Warfare in the Ancient World: Myths and Realities, International History Review 9 (1987): 438455.
Libourel, J.M., Galley Slaves in the Second Punic War, CPh 68 (1973): 116-119.
Meijer, F., A History of Seafaring in the Classical World, London: Croom Helm, 1986.
Morrison, J.S., Greek and Roman Oared Warships, 399 30 B.C., Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1996.
, Long Ships and Round Ships: Warfare and Trade in the Mediterranean, 3000 BC 500 AD, London: HMSO,
1980.
Nelson, R., Warfleets of Antiquity, Goring-by-Sea: Wargames Research Group, 1973.
Pitassi, M., The Navies of Rome, Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2009.
Review by M.B. Charles (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Rodgers, W.L., Greek and Roman Naval Warfare, Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute Press, 1937.
Roug, J. (tr. S. Frazer), Ships and Fleets of the Ancient Mediterranean, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1981.
Shepard, A., Sea Power in Ancient History, Boston: Little, Brown, 1924.
Starr, C.G., The Ancient Warship, CPh 32 (1940): 353-374.
, The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Steinby, C., The Roman Republican Navy: From the Sixth Century to 167 B.C., Helsinki: Societas Scientiarum Fennica,
2007.
Review by C.J. Dart (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Tarn, W.W., The Fleets of the First Punic War, JHS 27 (1907): 48-60.
Thiel, J.H., Studies on the History of Roman Sea-Power in Republican Times, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1946.
, A History of Roman Sea-Power before the Second Punic War, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1954.
Tipps, G.K., The Battle of Ecnomus, Historia 34 (1985): 432-465.
Torr, C., The Ancient Ships, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1897.

4.9 Other Italian armies


Salmon, E.T., Samnium and the Samnites, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.
Saulnier, C., LArme et la guerre chez les peuples samnites (VIIe-IVe s.), Paris: Boccard, 1983.

4.10 Campaigns and battles


Abel, A., Une interpretation non classique de laffaire des Fourches Caudines, LEC 23 (1955): 404-408.
Balsdon, J.P.V.D., Rome and Macedon, 205-200 B.C., JRS 44 (1954): 30-42.
Barnes, C.L.H., Livy 33.8.13 and 35.35.18 Revisited, CJ 100 (2005): 349-363.

Baronowski, D., A Reconsideration of the Roman Approval of Peace with Macedonia in 196 B.C., Phoenix 37 (1983):
218-223.
Bickerman, E.J., Bellum Philippicum: Some Roman and Greek Views concerning the Causes of the Second Macedonian
War, CPh 40 (1945): 137-148.
Briquel, D. and J.P. Thuillieer (edd.), Le Censeur et les Samnites : sur Tite-Live, livre IX, Paris: Editions rue dUlm, 2001.
Burger, C.P., Der Kampf zwischen Rom und Samnium, bis zum vollstndigen Siege Roms, um 312 v. Chr., Amsterdam: J.
Mller, 1898.
Cadiou, F., Hibera in terra miles: les armes romaines et la conqute de l'Hispanie sous la rpublique (218-45 av. J.-C.),
Madrid: Casa de Velzquez, 2007.
Review by B. Lowe (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Camp, J.M. et al., A Trophy from the Battle of Chaironeia of 86 B.C., AJA 96 (1992): 443-455.
Carey, W.L., Nullus videtur dolo facere: The Roman Seizure of Sardinia in 237 B.C., CPh 91 (1996): 203-222.
Champion, J., Pyrrhus of Epirus, Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books, 2009.
Cobbett, J.H., Rome and the Gauls 285-280 B.C., Historia 20 (1971): 656-664.
Costanzi, V., Osservazioni sulla terza Guerra sannitica, RFIC 47 (1919): 161-215.
Dell, H.J., Anitgonus III and Rome, CPh 62 (1967): 94-103.
, Demetrius of Pharus and the Istrian War, Historia 19 (1970): 30-38.
Delplace, C., LIntervention trusque dans les dernires annes de la deuxime guerre samnite (312-308), Latomus 26
(1967): 454-466.
Dorey, T.A., Contributory Causes of the Second Macedonian War, AJPh 80 (1959): 288-295.
Eckstein, A.M., T. Quinctius Flaminius and the Campaign against Philip in 198 B.C., Phoenix 30 (1976): 119-142.
, Polybius, Demetrius of Pharus and the Origins of the Second Illyrian War, CPh 89 (1994): 46-59.
, Greek Mediation in the First Macedonian War, 209-205 B.C., Historia 51 (2002): 268-297.
Engers, M., Die Vorgeschichte der makedonischen Kriege Roms, Mnemosyne, ser. 3, 6 (1938): 121-138.
Grainger, J.D., The Roman War of Antiochos the Great (Mnemosyne supplement 239), Leiden: Brill, 2002.
Review by R. Strootman (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Grossmann, L., Roms Samnitenkriege: historische und historiographische Untersuchungen zu den Jahren 327-290 v. Chr.,
Dsseldorf: Wellem Verlag, 2009.
Review by E.L. Wheeler (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Gruen, E.S., The Origins of the Achaean War, JHS 96 (1976): 46-69.
Hammond, N.G.L., The Two Battles of Chaeronea (338 B.C. and 86 B.C.), Klio 31 (1938): 186-218.
, The Opening Campaigns and the Battle of the Aoi Stena in the Second Macedonian War, JRS 56 (1966): 3954.
, The Battle of Pydna, JHS 104 (1984): 31-47.

, The Campaign and Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC, JHS 108 (1988): 60-82.
Klotz, A., Livius Darstellung des zweiten Samniterkriegs, Mnemosyne, ser. 3, 6 (1938): 83-102.
Kromayer, J., Drei Schlachten aus dem griechisch-rmischen Altertum, Leipzig: Teubner, 1921.
La Regina, A., Linvasione del Sannio nel 311 a.C., PP 44 (1989): 20-25.
Lefkowitz, M.R., Pyrrhus Negotiations with the Romans, 280-278 B.C., HSPh 64 (1959): 147-177.
Lvque, P., Pyrrhos, Paris: Boccard, 1957.
Lvy-Bruhl, H., La sponsio des Fourches Caudines, RHD 17 (1938): 533-547.
Libourel, J.M., A Battle of Uncertain Outcome in the Second Samnite War, AJPh 94 (1973): 71-78.
Linderski, J., Roman Officers in the Year of Pydna, AJPh 111 (1990): 53-71.
Meadows, A.R., Greek and Roman Diplomacy on the Eve of the Second Macedonian War, Historia 42 (1993): 40-60.
Morgan, M.G., The Roman Conquest of the Balearic Isles, CSCA 2 (1969): 217-231.
, The Defeat of L. Metellus Denter at Arretium, CQ n.s. 22 (1972): 309-325.
, Cornelius and the Pannonians: Appian, Illyrica 14,41 and Roman History, 143-138 B.C., Historia 23 (1974):
183-216.
Niese, B., Zur Geschichte des Pyrrhischen Krieges, Hermes 31 (1896): 481-507.
Nissen, H., Der caudinische Friede, RhM n.s. 25 (1870): 1-65.
Pfiffig, A.J., Das Verhalten Etruriens im Samniterkrieg und nachher bis zum 1. punischen Krieg, Historia 17 (1968): 307350.
Pritchett, W.K., The Battle of Kynoskephalai in 197 B.C. in Studies in Ancient Greek Topography, Part II (Battlefields),
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969, pp. 133-144.
, The Battle of Pydna in 168 B.C. in Studies in Ancient Greek Topography, Part II (Battlefields), Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1969, pp. 145-176.
Reiter, W., Aemilius Paulus, Conqueror of Greece, London: Croom Helm, 1988.
Richardson, J.H., Dorsuo and the Gauls, Phoenix 58 (2004): 284-297.
Salmon, E.T., The pax Caudina, JRS 19 (1929): 12-18.
, The Resumption of Hostilities after the Caudine Forks, TAPhA 87 (1956): 98-108.
Schwarze, K.-H., Zum Ausbruch des zweiten Samnitenkrieges (326-304 v.Chr.), Historia 20 (1971): 368-376.
Sherwin-White, A.N., Roman Involvement in Anatolia, 167-88 B.C., JRS 67 (1977): 62-75.
Sklen, R.J., Sources and Individuality in Two Passages of Livy, Historia 53 (2004): 302-310.
Warrior, V.M., The Chronology of the Movements of M. Fulvius Nobilior (cos. 189) in 189/188 BC, Chiron 18 (1988):
325-356.
, The Initiation of the Second Macedonian War: An Explication of Livy Book 31, Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 1996.
Review by T.D. McClain (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

4.11 The Punic Wars


Acimovic, A., Scipio Africanus, New York: iUniverse, 2007.
Review by J. Jacobs (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Bagnall, N., The Punic Wars, London: Hutchinson, 1990.
Barcel, P., Rom und Hispanien vor Ausbruch des 2. Punischen Krieges, Hermes 124 (1996): 45-57.
Bickerman, E.J., Hannibals Covenant, AJPh 73 (1952): 1-23.
Brisson, J.-P., Carthage ou Rome? Paris: Fayard, 1973.
Canter, H.V., The Character of Hannibal, CJ 24 (1929): 564-577.
Caspari, M.O.B., The Battle of Lake Trasimene, EHR 25 (1910): 417-429.
Caven, B., The Punic Wars, New York: St. Martins Press, 1980.
Christ, K. (ed.), Hannibal, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1974.
Cornell, T., B. Rankov and P. Sabin (edd.), The Second Punic War: A Reappraisal, London: Institute of Classical Studies,
University of London, 1996.
Review by D. Potter (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Cottrell, L., Enemy of Rome, London: Evans, 1960.
Daly, G., Cannae: The Experience of Battle in the Second Punic War, London: Routledge, 2002.
Davis, E.W. Hannibals Roman Campaign of 211 B.C., Phoenix 13 (1959): 113-120.
Dawson, A., Hannibal and Chemical Warfare, CJ 63 (1967): 117-125.
De Beer, G., Alps and Elephants: Hannibals March, London: G. Bles, 1955.
, Hannibal: Challenging Romes Supremacy, New York: Viking Press, 1969.
Delbrck, H., Die Manipularlegion und die Schlacht bei Cannae, Hermes 21 (1886): 65-90.
Donaldson, G.H., Modern Idiom in an Ancient Context: Another Look at the Strategy of the Second Punic War, G&R 2nd
ser. 9 (1962): 134-141.
Dorey, T.A., Macedonian Troops at the Battle of Zama, AJPh 78 (1957): 185-187.
Fitton Brown, A.D., After Cannae, Historia 8 (1959): 365-371.
Fry, E., The Field of Cannae, EHR 12 (1897): 748-752.
Gabriel, R.A., Scipio Africanus: Romes Greatest General, Washington DC, Potomac Books, 2008.
Garland, R., Hannibal, London: Bristol Classical Press, 2010.
Review by F.K. Drogula (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Goldsworthy, A., The Fall of Carthage: The Punic Wars, 265-146 BC, London: Cassell, 2003.
Grimal, P., Le sicle des Scipions : Rome et lhellnisme au temps des guerres puniques, Paris: Aubier, 1975.

Haywood, R.M., Studies on Scipio Africanus, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1973.
Heu, A., Der erste Punische Krieg und das Problem des rmischen Imperialismus (zur politischen Beurteilung des
Krieges), HZ 169 (1949): 457-513.
Hoyos, B.D., Hannibal: What Kind of Genius?, G&R 2nd ser. 30 (1983): 171-180.
, The Roman-Punic Pact of 279 B.C.: Its Problems and its Purpose, Historia 33 (1984): 402-439.
, Unplanned Wars: The Origins of the First and Second Punic Wars, Berlin: de Gruyter, 1998.
, Maharbals Bon Mot: Authenticity and Survival, CQ n.s. 50 (2000): 610-614.
, Hannibals Dynasty: Power and Politics in the Western Mediterranean, 247-183 BC, London: Routledge, 2003.
Review by P. Burton (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
, Hannibal: Romes Greatest Enemy, Exeter: Bristol Phoenix, 2008.
Judeich, W., Cannae, HZ 136 (1927): 1-24.
Kahrstedt, U., Geschichte der Karthager von 218-146, Berlin: Weidmann, 1913.
Lamb, H., Hannibal: One Man against Rome, London: R. Hale, 1959.
Lancel, S. (tr. A. Nevill), Hannibal, Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
Lazenby, J.F., Hannibals War: A Military History of the Second Punic War, Warminster: Aris & Phillips, 1978.
, The First Punic War: A Military History, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.
Review by H. Elton (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Lehmann, K., Das Trebia-Schlachtfeld, HZ 116 (1916): 101-112.
Liddell Hart, B.H., A Greater than Napoleon: Scipio Africanus, New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1971.
Mitchell, R.E., Romano-Carthaginian Treaties: 306 and 279/8 B.C., Historia 20 (1971): 633-655.
Morris, W.O., Hannibal: Soldier, Statesman, Patriot and the Crisis of the Struggle between Carthage and Rome, New
York: Putnam, 1927.
Osiander, W., Der Hannibalweg, Berlin: Weidmann, 1900.
Patterson, M.L., Romes Choice of Magistrates during the Hannibalic War, TAPhA 73 (1942): 319-340.
Peddie, J., Hannibals War, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1997.
Pomeroy, A.J., Hannibal at Nuceria, Historia 38 (1989): 162-176.
Poteat, H.M., Hannibal Trismegistus, CJ 22 (1926): 189-201.
Proctor, D., Hannibals March in History, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.
Rance, P., Hannibal, Elephants and Turrets in Suda 438 [Polybius Fr. 162B] an Unidentified Fragment of Diodorus,
CQ n.s. 59 (2009): 91-111.
Reid, J.S., Problems of the Second Punic War, JRS 3 (1913): 175-196.
, Problems of the Second Punic War: III. Rome and her Italian Allies, JRS 5 (1915): 87-124.

Rosenstein, N., Marriage and Manpower in the Hannibalic War: Assidui, Proletarii and Livy 24.18.7-8, Historia 51
(2002): 163-191.
Sabin, P., The Mechanics of Battle in the Second Punic War, Slingshot 176 (1994): 1-15.
, The Mechanics of Battle in the Second Punic War in T. Cornell, B. Rankov and P. Sabin (edd.), The Second
Punic War: A Reappraisal, London: Institute of Classical Studies, University of London, 1996, pp. 59-79.
Salmon, E.T., Hannibals March on Rome, Phoenix 11 (1957): 153-163.
, The Strategy of the Second Punic War, G&R 2nd ser. 7 (1960): 131-142.
Scullard, H.H., A Note on the Battle of Ilipa, JRS 26 (1936): 19-23.
, Cannae: Battle-field and Burial Ground, Historia 4 (1955): 474-475.
, Scipio Africanus: Soldier and Politician, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1970.
Shean, J.F., Hannibals Mules: The Logistical Limitations of Hannibals Army and the Battle of Cannae, 216 B.C.,
Historia 45 (1996): 159-187.
Smith, P.J., Scipio Africanus and Romes Invasion of Africa: A Historical Commentary on Titus Livius, Book xxix,
Amsterdam: Gieben, 1993.
Smith, R.B., Rome and Carthage, the Punic Wars, London: Longmans, Green, 1912.
Son, D.W.L. van, The Disturbances in Etruria during the Second Punic War, Mnemosyne, ser. 4, 16 (1963): 267-274.
Sumner, G.V., Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, HSCPh 72 (1968): 205-246.
Susini, G., Richerche sulla Battaglia di Trasimeno, Cortona: Accademia Etrusca di Cortona, 1960.
Tipps, G.K., The Defeat of Regulus, CW 96 (2003): 375-385.
Walbank, F.W., Polybius, Philinus and the First Punic War, CQ 39 (1945): 1-18.
, Some Reflections on Hannibals Pass, JRS 46 (1956): 37-45.
Wilkinson, S., Hannibals March through the Alps, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1911.

5. The army of the late Republic


5.1 General works
Astin, A.E., Scipio Aemilianus, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.
Badian, E., Roman Imperialism in the Late Republic, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1968.
Barker, P., Armies and Enemies of Imperial Rome, 150 B.C. to 600 A.D.: Organisation, Tactics, Dress and Weapons,
Goring-by-Sea: Wargames Research Group, 1972.
Brunt, P.A., The Army and the Land in the Roman Revolution, JRS 52 (1962): 69-86.
Dodge, T.A., Caesar, New York: Da Capo Press, 1997.
Fuller, J.F.C., Caesar: Man, Soldier and Tyrant, New York: Da Capo Press, 1991.
Gabba, E., Esercito e societ nella tarda Repubblica romana, Florence: La nuova Italia, 1973.

Gabba (tr. P.J. Cuff), Republican Rome, the Army and the Allies, Oxford: Blackwell, 1976.
Hildinger, E., Swords against the Senate: The Rise of the Roman Army and the Fall of the Republic, Cambridge, MA: Da
Capo Press, 2002.
Keaveney, A., The Army in the Roman Revolution, London: Routledge, 2007.
Review by P. Probst (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Sanders, H.A., The Origin of the Third Cyrenaic Legion, AJPh 62 (1941): 84-87.
Smith, R.E., Service in the Post-Marian Roman Army, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1958.

5.2 Development of the cohort


Bell, M.J.V., Tactical Reform in the Roman Republican Army, Historia 14 (1965): 404-422.
Cadiou, Franois, Les Guerres en Hispania et l'mergence de la cohorte lgionnaire dans l'arme romaine sous la
Rpublique: une rvision critique, Gladius 21 (2001): 167-182.
http://gladius.revistas.csic.es/index.php/gladius/article/download/84/84
Davies, R.W., Cohortes equitatae, Historia 20 (1971): 751-763.
Hastings, J., Comments on Stewart Hey: Non-developments in the Roman Legion, Slingshot 229 (2003): 22-23.
Head, D., The Maniple and the Cohort, Slingshot 120 (1985): 10-11.
, Orthodox Romans, Slingshot 229 (2003): 16-20.
Hey, S., Non-Developments in the Roman Legion - A Heresy: Part 3, Slingshot 227 (2003): 23-32.
Kertsz, I., The Roman Cohort Tactics: Problems of Development, Oikumene 1 (1976): 89-97.
McCartney, E.S., On the Tactical Towers of the Romans, CJ 23 (1927): 214-216.
Ohlson, O., Some Comments on Stewart Hey's Non-Developments in the Roman Legion - A Heresy, Slingshot 229
(2003): 20-22.
Steinwender, T., Zur Kohortentaktik, RhM 70 (1915): 416-440.
Veith, G. Die Taktik der Kohortenlegion, Klio 7 (1907): 303-334.
Vine, G., The Evolution of the Roman Legion 4, Slingshot 114 (1985): 16.

5.3 The Marian reforms


Schulten, A., Zur Heeresreform des Marius, Hermes 63 (1928): 240.
Tansey, P., M. Titius, Menas and the insignia scutorum, Klio 90 (2008): 62-75.

5.4 Arms and armour


Bishop, M.C. and J.C.N. Coulston, Roman Military Equipment: From the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome, Oxford: Oxbow
Books, 2006.

DAmato, R., and G. Sumner, Arms and Armour of the Imperial Roman Soldier: From Marius to Commodus, 112 BC-AD
192, London: Frontline, 2009.
Review by J. Levithan (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Feugre, M., Weapons of the Romans, Stroud: Tempus, 2002.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Gmirkin, R., The War Scroll and Roman Weaponry Reconsidered, Dead Sea Discoveries 3 (1996): 89-129.
Stephenson, I.P., Roman Cavalry Equipment, Stroud: Tempus, 2003.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

5.5 Cavalry
Cagniart, P.F., Studies on Caesars Use of Cavalry during the Gallic War, AncW 23 (1992): 71-85.

5.6 Fortifications, siege warfare and artillery


Davies, G., Roman Siege Works, Stroud: Tempus Publishing, 2006.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Eychart, P., Chanturgue, Camp de Csar devant Gergovie, Clermont-Ferrand, Editions Volcans, 1975.
Fischer, W., Das rmische Lager inbesondere nach Livius, Leipzig: Teubner, 1914.
Redd, M., Le sige dAlsia : Rcit littraire et ralit du terrain in P. Barral et al. (edd.), Alsia : Fouilles et recherches
franco-allemandes sur les travaux militaires romains autour du Mont-Auxois (1991-1997), Paris: Acadmie des Inscriptions
et Belles-Lettres, 2001, vol. 1, pp. 489-506.
Schnurbein, S. von, Camps et castella in P. Barral et al. (edd.), Alsia : Fouilles et recherches franco-allemandes sur les
travaux militaires romains autour du Mont-Auxois (1991-1997), Paris: Acadmie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 2001,
vol. 1, pp. 507-513.

5.7 Command, strategy and logistics


Alston, R., Roman Military Pay from Caesar to Diocletian, JRS 84 (1994): 113-123.
Armstrong, D., Caesars Art of War, Classical Weekly 32 (1939): 291-293.
Cuff, P.J., Caesar the Soldier, G&R 2nd ser. 4 (1957): 29-35.
Keppie, L.J.F., Vexilla Veteranorum, PBSR 41 (1973): 8-17.
Le Bohec, Y., Csar chef de guerre : Csar stratge et tacticien, Paris: Editions du Rocher, 2001.
Millar, F., The Mediterranean and the Roman Revolution: Politics, War and the Economy, P&P 102 (1984): 3-24.
Parker, H.M.D., A Note on the Promotion of the Centurions, JRS 16 (1926): 45-52.
Radin, M., The Promotion of Centurions in Caesars Army, CJ 10 (1915): 300-311.
Roth, J.P., The Logistics of the Roman Army at War (264 BC - AD 235), Leiden: Brill, 1998.
Review by A. Goldsworthy (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Seaver, J.E., Publius Ventidius, Neglected Roman Military Hero, CJ 47 (1952): 275-280, 300.

5.8 Campaigns and battles


Anderson, J.G.C., Pompeys Campaign against Mithradates, JRS 12 (1922): 99-105.
Brure, R.T., Palaepharsalus, Pharsalus, Pharsalia, CPh 46 (1951): 111-115.
Brunt, P.A., Italian Aims at the Time of the Social War, JRS 55 (1965): 90-109.
Bucher, G.S., Fictive Elements in Appians Pharsalus Narrative, Phoenix 59 (2005): 50-76.
Burns, A., Pompeys Strategy and Domitius Stand at Corfinium, Historia 15 (1966): 74-95.
Busset, M., La Question de Gergovia, Revue dAuvergne 263 (1935): 57-68.
Carney, T.F., Pila at the Battle of Pharsalia, CR n.s. 8 (1958): 11-13.
Desforges, E. and P.-F. Fournier, La Battaille de Gergovie 52 av. J.-C., Mmoires de lAcadmie des Sciences, BellesLettres et Arts de Clermont-Ferrand 33 (1933): 5-77.
Dubs, H.H., An Ancient Military Contact between Romans and Chinese, AJPh 62 (1941): 322-330.
Duval, P.-M., La Campagne de Csar Alsia, Annales 24 (1969): 444-447.
Ellis, P.B., Caesars Invasion of Britain, London: Orbis Books, 1978.
Eychart, P., La Battaille de Gergovie (printemps 52 av. J.-C.) : Les Faits archologiques, les sites, le faux historique,
Nonette: Editions Crer, 1987.
Fallue, L., Etudes archologiques sur lhistoire de Csar par lEmpereur Napoleon III et sur la carte officielle des Gaules,
Paris: A. Durand & Pedone-Lauriel, 1867.
Gilliver, C.M., Caesars Gallic Wars, 58-50 BC, London: Routledge, 2003.
Goldsworthy, A., Caesars Civil War, 49-44 BC, London: Routledge, 2003.
, Caesar, Life of a Colossus, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
Review by J. Levithan (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Gorce, M.-M., Csar devant Gergovie, Tunis: Editions de Minaret, 1940.
Gurval, R., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995.
Review by J. Clauss (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Gwatkin, W.E., Jr., Some Reflections on the Battle of Pharsalus, TAPhA 87 (1956): 109-124.
Hahn, I., Appianus Tacticus, AAntHung 18 (1970): 293-306.
Harmand, J., Une Campagne csarienne, Alesia, Paris: Picard, 1967.
Hillman, T.P., Strategic Reality and the Movements of Caesar, January 49 BC, Historia 37 (1988): 248-252.
Hinard, F., Sullana varia: Aux sources de la premire guerre civile romaine. De l'archologie l'histoire, Paris: Boccard,
2008.
Review by F. Santangelo (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Holmes, T.R., Caesars Conquest of Gaul2, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1911.
, Octogesa, Anquillaria, The Bagradas, Aggar, CQ 9 (1915): 167-178.

Holroyd, M., The Jurguthine War: Was Marius or Metellus the Real Victor?, JRS 18 (1928): 1-20.
Jimnez, R.L., Caesar against Rome: The Great Roman Civil War, Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000.
Katz, B.R., The Siege of Rome in 87 B.C., CPh 71 (1976): 328-336.
Le Gall, J., Les Conditions dun sige : Alsia, REL 47 (1969): 72-84.
, La Battaille dAlsia, Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 1999.
Lendon, J.E., The Rhetoric of Combat: Greek Military Theory and Roman Culture in Julius Caesars Battle Descriptions,
ClAnt 18 (1999): 273-329.
Levick, B.M., Sullas march on Rome in 88 B.C., Historia 31 (1982): 503-508.
Lewis, R.G., Catulus and the Cimbri, 102 B.C., Hermes 102 (1974): 90-109.
McDermott, W.C., Caesars Projected Dacian-Parthian Expedition, AncSoc 13-14 (1982-1983): 223-231.
MacVeagh, L., Caesar, De bello Gallico 7.45-52: The Attack at Gergovia: A Case of the Limited Objective, CW 21
(1928): 177-181.
Maier, U., Caesars Feldzge in Gallien (58-51 v. Chr.) in ihrem Zusammenhang mit der stadtrmischen Politik, Bonn:
Habelt, 1978.
Malitz, J., Caesars Partherkrieg, Historia 33 (1984): 21-59.
Mrime, P., tudes sur lhistoire romaine : guerre sociale, conjuration de Catalina, Paris: Lvy, 1853.
Morgan, J.D., Palaepharsalus The Battle and the Town, AJA 87 (1983): 23-54.
Nagle, D.B., An Allied View of the Social War, AJA 77 (1973): 367-378.
Noch, A., Gergovie : Vieux problmes et solutions nouvelles, Leiden: Brill, 1974.
Osgood, J., Caesars Legacy: Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2006.
Review by J.A. Lobur (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Parker, E.M., Caesars Battlefields in 1908, CJ 4 (1909): 195-204.
Paschoud, F., La battaile de Pharsale : Quelques problmes de dtail, Historia 30 (1981): 178-188.
Peaks, M.B., Caesars Movements, January 21 to February 14, 49 B.C., CR 18 (1904): 346-349.
Pelling, C.B.R., Pharsalus, Historia 22 (1973): 249-259.
Renzi, A., La Guerre de Spartacus, en trois campagnes, Paris: privately published, 1832.
Richardson, G.W., Actium, JRS 27 (1937): 153-164.
Riggsby, A.M., Caesar in Gaul and Rome: War in Words, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.
Review by A. Melchior (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Salmon, E.T., Notes on the Social War, TAPhA 89 (1958): 159-184.
, The Cause of the Social War, Phoenix 16 (1962): 107-119.

Sampson, G.C., The Defeat of Rome: Crassus, Carrhae, and the Invasion of the East, Barnsley: Pen & Sword, 2008.
Review by J.M. Schlude (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Saulcy, F. de, Les campagnes de Jules Csar dans les Gaules : Etudes darchologie militaire, Paris: Didier, 1862.
Searle, A., Note on the Battle of Pharsalus, HSPh 18 (1907): 213-218.
Shaw, B.D., Spartacus and the Slave Wars: A Brief History with Documents, London: St. Martins, 2001.
Smith, F., Die Schlacht bei Carrh, HZ 115 (1916): 237-262.
Spann, P.O., Saguntum vs. Segontia: A Note on the Topography of the Sertorian War, Historia 33 (1984): 116-119.
Tarn, W.W., The Battle of Actium, JRS 21 (1931): 173-199.
, Antonys Legions, CQ 26 (1932): 75-81.
, Actium: A Note, JRS 28 (1938): 165-168.
Thielscher, P., Die Schlacht am Muthul nach Sallust, Jurgutha 48,2 54,4, Klio 29 (1936): 173-201.
Trow, M.J., Spartacus: The Myth and the Man, Stroud: Sutton Pub., 2006.
Veith, G., Geschichte der Feldzge C. Julius Caesars, Vienna: Seidel, 1906.
Verbrugghe, G.P., Siciliy, 201-70 B.C.: Livy, Cicero and Diodorus, TAPhA 103 (1972): 535-559.
Walser, G., Bellum helveticum. Studien zum Beginn der caesarischen Eroberung von Gallien, Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 1998.
Wiemer, H.-U., Der Beginn des 3. Makedonischen Krieges. berlegungen zur Chronologie, Historia 53 (2004): 22-37.

6. The Imperial army


6.1 General works
Barker, P., Armies and Enemies of Imperial Rome, 150 B.C. to 600 A.D.: Organisation, Tactics, Dress and Weapons,
Goring-by-Sea: Wargames Research Group, 1972.
Breeze, D.J., The Organization of the Legion: The First Cohort and the Equites Legionis, JRS 59 (1969): 50-55.
, The Career Structure below the Centurionate during the Principate, ANRW II 1 (1974): 435-451.
, A Note on the Use of the Titles Optio and Magister below the Centurionate during the Principate, Brittania 7
(1976): 127-133.
Campbell, J.B., The Emperor and the Roman Army, 31 BC AD 235, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984.
, War and Society in Imperial Rome, 31 BC AD 234, London: Routledge, 2002.
Charles, M.B., Trajans Guard at Adamklissi: Infantry or Cavalry?, Historia 53 (2004): 476-489.
Davies, R.W., The Daily Life of the Roman Soldier under the Principate, ANRW II 1 (1974): 299-338.
Fink, R.O., Centuria Rufi, Centuria Rufiana and the Ranking of Centuries, TAPhA 84 (1953): 210-215.
Forni, G., Il reciutamento delle legioni da Augusto a Diocleziano, Milan: Fratelli Bocca, 1953.

, Estrazione etnica e sociale dei soldati delle legioni nei primi tre secoli dell impero, ANRW II 1 (1974): 339391.
Frere, S.S., Hyginus and the First Cohort, Brittania 11 (1980): 51-60.
Gilliam, J.F., The Veterans and Praefectus Castrorum of the II Traiana in A.D. 157, AJPh 77 (1956): 359-375.
Hanson, W.S. (ed.), The Army and Frontiers of Rome: Papers Offered to David J. Breeze, Portsmouth RI: Journal of Roman
Archaeology, 2008.
Harmand, J., Les origins de larme impriale. Un tmoignage sur la ralit du pseudo-principat et sur lvolution militaire
de lOccident, ANRW II 1 (1974): 263-298.
Junkelmann, M., Die Legionen des Augustus. Der rmische Soldat im archologischen Experiment, Mainz: P. v. Zabern,
1986.
Keppie, L.J.F., The Changing Face of the Roman Legions (49 BC AD 69), PBSR 65 (1997): 89-102.
Le Bohec, Y., The Imperial Roman Army, New York: Hippocrene Books, 1994.
(ed.), Les Lgions de Rome sous le haut-empire : actes du congrs de Lyon (17-19 septembre 1998), Paris:
Boccard, 2000.
Le Roux, P., LArme romaine et lorganisation des provinces ibriques dAuguste linvasion de 409, Paris: Boccard,
1982.
Malone, S.J., Legio XX Valeria Victrix: Prosopography, Archaeology and History. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2006.
Miller, H.F., Legio I Adjutrix, G&R 2nd ser. 28 (1981): 73-80.
Parker, H.M.D. ,The Antiqua Legio of Vegetius, CQ 26 (1932): 137-149.
Richmond, I.A., Trajans Army on Trajans Column, PBSR 13 (1935): 1-40.
Roth, J. The Size and Organization of the Roman Imperial Legion, Historia 43 (1994): 346-362.
Saddingon, D.B., Tacitus and the Roman Army, ANRW II 33.5 (1991): 3484-3555.
, Roman Military and Administrative Personnel in the New Testament, ANRW II 26.3 (1996): 2409-2435.
Speidel, M.A., Centurial Signs and the Battle Order of the Legions, ZPE 154 (2005), 286-292.
, Heer und Herrschaft im Rmischen Reich der hohen Kaiserzeit, Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 2009.
Review by M. Weiskopf (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Stout, S.E., Training Soldiers for the Roman Legion, CJ 16 (1921): 423-431.
Syme, R., Some Notes on the Legions under Augustus, JRS 23 (1933): 14-33.
Thomas, C., Claudius and the Roman Army Reforms, Historia 53 (2004): 424-452.
Webster, G., The Roman Imperial Army of the First and Second Centuries A.D.3, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma
Press, 1998.
Review by A.A. Barrett (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

6.2 Auxiliary units and the army in the provinces


Alston, R., Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt: A Social History, London: Routledge, 1995.

Review by S. Stephens (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)


Bagnall, Roger S., Army and Police in Roman Upper Egypt, JARCE 14 (1977): 67-86.
Birley, E., Pannonians in Roman Britain, ZPE 73 (1988): 151-155.
Bloomaert, D.C., Tribunus equitum singularium? Two Fragmentary Inscriptions concerning Egyptian Legionary Prefects,
ZPE 78 (1989): 185-195.
Brewer, R.J. (ed.), Roman Fortresses and their Legions: Papers in honour of George C Boon, London: Society of
Antiquaries of London, 2000.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Cheesman, G.L., The Auxilia of the Roman Imperial Army, Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1975.
Cuvigny, H., Ostraca de Krokodil. La correspondence militaire et sa circulation (O. Krok. 1-151). Cairo: Institut franais
d'archologie orientale, 2005.
Review by T. Kruse (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Daris, S., Documenti minori dell esercito romano in Egitto, ANRW II 10.1 (1988): 724-742.
, Le truppe ausiliarie romane in Egitto, ANRW II 10.1 (1988): 743-766.
Davies, J.L., Roman Arrowheads from Dinorben and the Sagitarii of the Roman Army, Brittania 8 (1977): 257-270.
Devijver, H., The Roman Army in Egypt (with Special Reference to the Militiae Equestres), ANRW II 1 (1974): 452-492.
, A New Roman Auxiliary Cohort in Egypt? P. Egypt. Mus. Inv. S.R. 3055, ZPE 104 (1994): 69-72.
Dise, R.L., Jr., The Recruitment and Assignment of Beneficiarii Consularis in the Danube Provinces, AncW 28 (1997):
149-166.
Dobson, B. and J.C. Mann, The Roman Army in Britain and Britons in the Roman Army, Brittania 4 (1973): 191-205.
Fink, R.O., The Cohors XX Palmyrenorum, a Cohors Equitata Miliaria, TAPhA 78 (1947): 159-170.
Gilliam, J.F., The Ordinarii and Ordinati of the Roman Army, TAPhA 71 (1940): 127-148.
Gilliver, C.M., Mons Graupius and the Role of Auxiliaries in Battle, G&R 43 (1996): 54-67.
Hassall, M.W.C., Batavians and the Roman Conquest of Britain, Brittania 1 (1970): 131-136.
Henderson, B.W., The Roman Legions in Britain, A.D. 43-72, EHR 18 (1903): 1-23.
Holder, P.A., The Roman Army in Britain, New York: St. Martins Press, 1982.
, Auxiliary Units Entitled Aelia, ZPE 122 (1998): 253-262.
Jarrett, M.G., Non-Legionary Troops in Roman Britain: Part One, the Units, Brittania 25 (1994): 35-77.
Jones, R.F.J., The Roman Military Occupation of North-West Spain, JRS 66 (1976): 45-66.
Kennedy, D.L., Miliary Cohorts: The Evidence of Josephus, BJ III.4.2(67) and of Epigraphy, ZPE 50 (1983): 253-263.
, The Composition of a Military Work Party in Roman Egypt (ILS 2483: Coptos), JEA 71 (1985): 156-160.
, The Construction of a Vexillation from the Army of Syria and the Origin of Alae Milliariae, ZPE 61 (1985):
181-184.

(ed.), The Roman Army in the East, Ann Arbor, MI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 1996.
Review by A.D. Lee (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
, Ala Phrygum and Ala VII Phrygum, ZPE 118 (1997): 300-304.
Kirwan, L.P., Rome beyond the Southern Egyptian Frontier, GJ 123 (1957): 13-19.
Knight, D.J., The Movements of the Auxila from Augustus to Trajan, ZPE 85 (1991): 189-208.
Kos, M.S., The 15th Legion at Emona: Some Thoughts, ZPE 109 (1995): 227-244.
MElderry, R.K., The Second Legionary Camp in Palestine, CQ 2 (1908): 110-113.
Mann, J.C., A Note on the Numeri, Hermes 82 (1954): 501-506.
, The Settlement of Veterans Discharged from Auxiliary Units Stationed in Britain, Brittania 33 (2002): 183188.
Millar, F., The Roman Near East, 31 B.C. - A.D. 337, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.
Review by A.G. Keen (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Mitchell, S., Legio VII and the Garrison of Augustan Galatia, CQ n.s. 26 (1976): 298-308.
Pavkovi, M.F., Singulares Legati Legionis: Guards of a Legionary Legate or a Provincial Governor?, ZPE 103 (1994):
223-228.
Peters, F.E., Romans and Bedouin in Southern Syria, JNES 37 (1978): 315-326.
Pollard, N., Soldiers, Cities, and Civilians in Roman Syria, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.
Review by G. Forsythe (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Pryce, F.N., The Army List of Roman Britain, British Museum Quarterly 5 (1930): 12-13.
Ramsay, W.M. and A.M. Ramsay, Roman Garrisons and Soldiers in Asia Minor, JRS 18 (1928): 181-190.
, Roman Garrisons and Soldiers in Asia Minor, Part II, JRS 19 (1929): 155-160.
Rsch, A., Arae Flaviae. Die Militrlager und die Zivilseidlung in Rottweil am Neckar, ANRW II 5.1 (1976): 560-600.
Saddington, D.B., The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Augustus to Trajan, ANRW II 3 (1975): 176201.
, The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian: 49 B.C. A.D. 79, Harare:
University of Zimbabwe, 1982.
Scorpan, C., Cohors I Cilicum at Sacidava and Scythia Minor, JRS 71 (1981): 98-102.
Sherk, R.K., Roman Imperial Troops in Macedonia and Achaea, AJPh 78 (1957): 52-62.
Simpson, G., Britons and the Roman Army: A Study of Wales and the Southern Pennines in the 1st-3rd Centuries, London:
Gregg, 1964.
Southern, P., The Numeri of the Roman Imperial Army, Brittania 20 (1989): 81-140.
Speidel, M., The Pedites Singulares Pannoniciani in Mauretania, AJPh 93 (1972): 299-305.
, The Rise of Ethnic Units in the Roman Imperial Army, ANRW II 3 (1975): 202-231.

, Citizen Cohorts in the Roman Imperial Army: New Data on the Cohorts Apula, Campana and III Campestris,
TAPhA 106 (1976): 339-348.
, The Roman Army in Arabia, ANRW II 8 (1977): 687-730.
, Legionaries from Asia Minor, ANRW II 7.2 (1980): 730-746.
, Legionary Cohorts in Mauretania: The Role of Legionary Cohorts in the Structure of Expeditionary Armies,
ANRW II 10.2 (1982): 850-860.
, Nubias Roman Garrison, ANRW II 10.1 (1988): 767-798.
Swan, V., Ethnicity, Conquest and Recruitment: Two Case Studies from the Northern Military Provinces (Journal of Roman
Archaeology Supplement 72), Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2009.
Syme, R., The Lower Danube under Trajan, JRS 49 (1959): 26-33.
Woolliscroft, D.J. and B. Hoffmann, Romes First Frontier: the Flavian Occupation of Northern Scotland, Stroud: Tempus,
2006.
Review by B. Eden (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Worp, K.A., Observations on Some Military Camps and Place Names in Lower Egypt, ZPE 87 (1991): 291-295.
Zahariade, M., The Thracians in the Roman Imperial Army: From the First to the Third Century A.D. I. Auxilia, ClujNapoca: Mega Publishing House, 2009.
Review by C. Davenport (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

6.3 Praetorians and other guard units


Charles, M.B., Trajans Guard at Adamklissi: Infantry or Cavalry?, Historia 53 (2004): 476-489.
Durry, M., Les Cohortes prtoriennes, Paris: Boccard, 1938.
Speidel, M., Riding for Caesar: The Roman Emperors Horse Guards, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994.

6.4 Arms and armour


Bishop, M.C., Lorica Segmentata, Vol. I: A Handbook of Articulated Roman Plate Armour, Duns: Armatura, 2002.
Bishop, M.C. and J.C.N. Coulston, Roman Military Equipment: From the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome, Oxford: Oxbow
Books, 2006.
Charlesworth, D. and J.H. Thornton, Leather Found in Mediobogdum, the Roman Fort of Hardknott, Brittania 4 (1973):
141-152.
D'Amato, R., and G. Sumner, Arms and Armour of the Imperial Roman Soldier: From Marius to Commodus, 112 BC-AD
192, London: Frontline, 2009.
Review by J. Levithan (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Deschler-Erb, E., Ad Arma! Rmisches Militr des 1. Jahrhunderts n.Chr. in Augusta Raurica, Augst: Rmermuseum
Augst, 1999.
Review by J.P. Holoka (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Feugre, M., Weapons of the Romans, Stroud: Tempus, 2002.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

Greep, S.J., Lead Sling-Shot from Windridge Farm, St. Albans and the Use of the Sling by the Roman Army in Britain,
Brittania 18 (1987): 183-200.
Lang, J., Study of the Metallography of some Roman Swords, Brittania 19 (1988): 199-216.
MacMullen, R., Inscriptions on Armor and the Supply of Arms in the Roman Empire, AJA 64 (1960): 23-40.
Meucci, R., Roman Military Instruments and the Lituus, Galpin Society Journal 42 (1989): 85-97.
Stephenson, I.P., Roman Cavalry Equipment, Stroud: Tempus, 2003.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Thomas, M.D., Lorica Segmentata. Vol. II: A Catalogue of Finds, Duns: Armatura, 2003.
Review by R.H. Cowan (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

6.5 Cavalry
Dixon, K.R. and P. Southern, The Roman Cavalry: From the First to the Third Century AD, London: Routledge, 1997.

6.6 Fortifications, siege warfare and artillery


Alan, V.R. et al., The Roman Fort at Cramond, Edinburgh: Excavations 1954-1966, Brittania 5 (1974): 163-224.
Birley, R., The Roman Legionary Fortress at Carpow, Perthshire, Scottish Historical Review 42 (1963): 126-134.
Breeze, D.J. et al., The Roman Fortlet at Barburgh Mill, Dumfiresshire, Brittania 5 (1974): 130-162.
Breeze, D.J., J. Collingwood Bruces Handbook to the Roman Wall, 14th edition, Newcastle upon Tyne: Society of
Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne, 2006.
Review by T.C. Rust (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
, Edge of Empire: Romes Scottish Frontier, the Antonine Wall, Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2008.
Review by B. Eden (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Campbell, D.B., The Roman Siege of Burnswark, Brittania 34 (2003): 19-33.
Crummy, P., Colchester: The Roman Fortress and the Development of the Colonia, Brittania 8 (1977): 65-105.
Davies, G., Roman Siege Works, Stroud: Tempus Publishing, 2006.
Review by D.B. Campbell (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Fox, A. et al., The Roman Fort at Nanstallon, Cornwall, Brittania 3 (1972): 56-111.
Haverfield, F., Notes on the Roman Coast Defences of Britain, Especially in Yorkshire, JRS 2 (1912): 201-214.
Hopewell, D. et al., Roman Fort Environs in North-West Wales, Brittania 36 (2005): 225-269.
Hopkins, C., The Siege of Dura, CJ 42 (1947): 251-259.
Johnson, S. et al., Excavations at Hayton Roman Fort, 1975, Brittania 9 (1978): 57-114.
Jones, G.D.B. and D.J. Woolliscroft, Hadrians Wall from the Air, Stroud: Tempus, 2001.
Review by K. Brodersen (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Keppie, L.J.F. and J.J. Walker, Auchendavy Roman Fort and Settlement, Brittania 16 (1985): 29-35.
Richmond, I.A., The Roman Siege-Works of Masada, Israel, JRS 52 (1962): 142-155.

Riley, D.N., Two New Roman Military Stations in Mid-Nottinghamshire, Brittania 11 (1980): 330-335.

6.7 Command, strategy and logistics


Adams, C.E.P., Supplying the Roman Army: Q. Petr. 245, ZPE 109 (1995): 119-124.
Alston, R., Roman Military Pay from Caesar to Diocletian, JRS 84 (1994): 113-123.
Beebe, H.K., Caesaria Maritima: Its Strategic and Political Significance to Rome, JNES 42 (1983): 195-207.
Bennett, J., The Origins and Early History of the Pontic-Cappadocian Frontier, AS 56 (2006): 77-93.
Brogan, O., The Camel in Roman Tripolitania, PBSR 22 (1954): 126-131.
Brunt, P.A., Pay and Superannuation in the Roman Army, PBSR 18 (1950): 50-71.
, Did Imperial Rome Disarm her Subjects?, Phoenix 29 (1975): 260-270.
Burns, T.S., Rome and the Barbarians, 100 B.C. A.D. 400, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.
Review by M. Kulikowski (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Conole, P. and R.D. Milns, Neronian Frontier Policy in the Balkans: The Career of Ti. Plautius Silvanus, Historia 32
(1983): 183-200.
Davies, R.W., The Roman Military Diet, Brittania 2 (1971): 122-142.
Devine, A.M., Arrians Tactica, ANRW II 34.1 (1993): 312-337.
Dodgeon, M.H. and N.C. Lieu (edd.), The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, London: Routledge, 1991-2002.
Donaldson, G.H., Signalling Communications and the Roman Imperial Army, Brittania 19 (1988): 349-356.
Drummond, S.K. and L.H. Nelson, The Western Frontiers of Imperial Rome, London: M.E. Sharpe, 1994.
Edwell, P.M., Between Rome and Persia: The Middle Euphrates, Mesopotamia and Palmyra under Roman Control,
London: Routledge, 2008.
Review by L. Gregoratti (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Farnum, J.H., The Positioning of the Roman Imperial Legions, Oxford, Archaeopress, 2005.
Review by P. Probst (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Ferrill, A., Roman Imperial Grand Strategy, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1991.
Heichelheim, F.M., Supply Bases for Caracallas Parthian Campaign, CPh 39 (1944): 113-115.
Jarrett, M.G., An Unnecessary War, Brittania 7 (1976): 145-151.
Luttwak, E., The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire from the First Century A.D. to the Third, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1976.
Martin, C., The Legionary Hospital at Inchuthil, Brittania 26 (1995): 309-312.
Mattern, S.P., Rome and the Enemy: Imperial Strategy in the Principate, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
Review by M. Peachin (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Morgan, M.G., The Opening Stages in the Battle for Cremona, or the Devil in the Details (Tacitus, Histories 3,15-18),
Historia 54 (2005): 198-209.

Oates, D., The Roman Frontier in Northern Iraq, Geographical Journal 122 (1956): 190-199.
Pitts, L.F., Relations between Rome and the German Kings on the Middle Danube in the First to Fourth Centuries A.D.,
JRS 79 (1989): 45-58.
Richmond, I.A., Palmyra under the Aegis of Rome, JRS 53 (1963): 43-54.
Roth, J.P., The Logistics of the Roman Army at War (264 BC - AD 235), Leiden: Brill, 1998.
Review by A. Goldsworthy (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Speidel, M.A., Roman Army Pay Scales, JRS 82 (1992): 87-106.
Stadter, P.A., The Ars Tactica of Arrian: Tradition and Originality, CPh 73 (1978): 117-128.
Vishnia, R.F., The Shadow Army: The Lixae and the Roman Legions, ZPE 139 (2002): 265-272.
Watson, G.R. The Pay of the Roman Army: Suetonius, Dio and the quartum stipendium, Historia 5 (1956): 332-340.
, The Pay of the Roman Army: The Auxiliary Forces, Historia 8 (1959): 372-378.
Wells, C.M., The German Policy of Augustus: An Examination of the Archaeological Evidence, Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1972.
Wheeler, E.L, The Occasion of Arrians Tactica, GRBS 19 (1978): 351-365.
, Stratagem and the Vocabulary of Military Trickery (Mnemosyne supplement 108), Leiden: Brill, 1988.
, Methodological Limits and the Mirage of Roman Strategy, JMH 57 (1993): 7-41, 215-240.

6.8 Naval warfare


Belfigio, Valentine J., A Study of Ancient Roman Amphibious and Offensive Sea-Ground Task Force Operations, Lewiston,
NY: E. Mellen Press, 2001.
Bounegru, O. and M. Zahariade, Les Forces navales du Bas Danube et de la Mer Noire aux Ier Ve sicles, Oxford: Oxbow
Books, 1996.
Gilliam, J.F., A Roman Naval Roster: P Rylands 79, CPh 48 (1953): 97-99.
Pitassi, M., The Navies of Rome, Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2009.
Review by M.B. Charles (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Saddington, D.B., The Origin and Nature of the German and British Fleets, Brittania 21 (1990): 223-232.
Starr, C.G., Jr., The Roman Imperial Navy, 31 B.C. A.D. 324, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1941.

6.9 Campaigns and battles


Ash, R., An Exemplary Conflict: Tacitus Parthian Battle Narrative (Annals 6.34-35), Phoenix 53 (1999): 114-135.
Barrett, A.A., The Military Situation in Britain in A.D. 47, AJPh 100 (1979): 538-540.
Broughton, T.R.S., Some Notes on the War with the Homonadeis, AJPh 54 (1933): 134-144.
Bruun, C., The Spurious Expeditio Iudaeae under Trajan, ZPE 93 (1992): 99-106.

Bosworth, A.B., Arrian and the Alani, HSPh 81 (1977): 217-255.


Davies, R.W., The Abortive Invasion of Britain by Gaius, Historia 15 (1966): 124-128.
Downey, G., Aurelians Victory over Zenobia at Immae, A.D. 272, TAPhA 81 (1950): 57-68.
Fuks, A., Aspects of the Jewish Revolt in A.D. 115-117, JRS 51 (1961): 98-104.
Gilmartin, K., Corbulos Campaigns in the East: An Analysis of Tacitus Account, Historia 22 (1973): 583-626.
Hanson, W.S. and D.B. Campbell, The Brigantes: From Clientage to Conquest, Brittania 17 (1986): 73-89.
Jameson, S., Chronology of the Campaigns of Aelius Gallus and C. Petronius, JRS 58 (1968): 71-84.
Jones, B.W. The Dating of Domitians War against the Chatti, Historia 22 (1973): 79-90.
Keppie, L.J.F., Legio VIII Augusta and the Claudian Invasion, Brittania 2 (1971): 149-155.
Lepper, F.A., Trajans Parthian War, London: Oxford University Press, 1948.
Lightfoot, C.S., Trajans Parthian War and the Fourth-Century Perspective, JRS 80 (1990): 115-126.
Longden, R.P., Notes on the Parthian Campaigns of Trajan, JRS 21 (1931): 1-35.
Minorsky, V., Roman and Byzantine Campaigns in Atropatene, BSOAS 11 (1944): 243-265.
Murdoch, A., Rome's Greatest Defeat: Massacre in the Teutoburg Forest, Gloucestershire: Sutton, 2006.
Review by J. Lendering (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Oldfather, W.A., The Defeat of Varus and the German Frontier Policy of Augustus, New York: Johnson Reprint, 1967.
Philips, E.J., The Emperor Gaius Abortive Invasion of Britain, Historia 19 (1970): 369-374.
Platnauer, M., On the Date of the Defeat of C. Pescennius Niger at Issus, JRS 8 (1918): 146-153.
Rossi, L., Trajans Column and the Dacian Wars, London: Thames and Hudson, 1971.
Salmon, E.T., Trajans Conquest of Dacia, TAPhA 67 (1936): 83-105.
Speidel, M.P., Valerius Valerianus in Charge of Septimus Severus Mesopotamian Campaign, CPh 80 (1985): 321-326.
Starr, R.J., Did Alfenus Varus Campaign in Germany?, Historia 43 (1994): 249-252.
Tausend, K., Bemerkungen zum Wandaleneinfall des Jahres 271, Historia 48 (1999): 119-127.
Webster, G., The Military Situations in Britain between A.D. 43 and 71, Brittania 1 (1970): 179-187.
Wolters, R., Die Schlacht im Teutoburger Wald. Arminius, Varus und das rmische Germanien, Munich: C.H. Beck, 2008.
Review by D.B. Cuff (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

7. The late Roman army


7.1 General works
Crump, G.A., Ammianus and the Late Roman Army, Historia 22 (1973): 91-103.
Dignas, B. and E. Winter, Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2007.

Review by A. Farahani (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)


Drinkwater, J.F. The Alamanni and Rome 213-496 (Caracalla to Clovis), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Elton, H., Warfare in Roman Europe, A.D. 350-425, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
Gibbon, E. (ed. J.B. Bury), The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, London: Methuen, 1896-1900.
Grosse, R.E., Rmische Militrgeschichte von Gallenius bis zum Beginn der byzantinischen Themenverfassung, New York:
Arno Press, 1975.
Helgeland, J., Christians and the Roman Army A.D. 173-337, ChHist 43 (1974): 149-163, 200.
Isaac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Review by D.S. Potter (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
, The Army in the Late Roman East: The Persian Wars and the Defense of the Byzantine Provinces in A.
Cameron (ed.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East III: States, Resources and Armies, Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1995, pp. 132-137.
Jones, A.H.M., The Later Roman Empire, 284-602, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
Le Bohec, Y., Larme romaine sous le Bas-Empire, Paris: Picard, 2006.
, Das rmische Heer in der Spten Kaiserzeit, Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 2010.
Review by M. Weiskopf (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Lee, A.D., War in Late Antiquity: A Social History, Oxford: Blackwell, 2007.
Review by J. Levithan (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Nicasie, M.J., Twilight of Empire: The Roman Army from the Reign of Diocletian until the Battle of Adrianople,
Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1998.
Potter, D.S., The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395, London: Routledge, 2004.
Review by D. Engels (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Southern, P. and K.R. Dixon, The Late Roman Army, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
Review by H. Elton (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)

7.2 Developments in strategy, tactics and technology


Bivar, A.D.H., Cavalry Equipment and Tactics on the Euphrates Frontier, DOP 26 (1972): 271-291.
Born, L.K., Tanks and Roman Warfare, CJ 23 (1928): 564-572.
Burns, T.S., Barbarians within the Gates of Rome: A Study of Roman Military Policy and the Barbarians, ca. 375-425 A.D.,
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.
, Rome and the Barbarians, 100 B.C. A.D. 400, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.
Review by M. Kulikowski (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Charles, M.B., The Rise of the Sassanian Elephant Corps: Elephants and the Later Roman Empire, IA 42 (2007): 301-346.
Dorjahn, A.P. and L.K. Born, Vegetius on the Decay of the Roman Army, CJ 30 (1934): 148-158.
Eadie, J.W., The Development of Roman Mailed Cavalry, JRS 57 (1967): 161-173.

Kaegi, W., Constantines and Julians Strategies of Strategic Surprise against the Persians, Athenaeum n.s. 59 (1981):
209-213.
Menndez Arn, A.R., Evolucin del armamento del legionario romano durante el s. III d.C. y su reflejo en las tcitcas,
Habis 31 (2000): 327-344.
Parker, H.M.D., The Legions of Diocletian and Constantine, JRS 23 (1933): 175-189.
Rance, P., Elephants in Warfare in Late Antiquity, AAntHung 43 (2003): 355-384.
, Drungus, and : A Gallicism and Continuity in late Roman Cavalry Tactics, Phoenix 58
(2004): 96-130.
, The Fulcum, the Late Roman and Byzantine Testudo: The Germanization of Roman Infantry Tactics?, GRBS
44 (2004): 362-326.
, The Etymologicum Magnum and the Fragment of Urbicius, GRBS 47 (2007) 193-224.
Speidel, M.P., Raising New Units for the Late Roman Army: Auxilia Palatina, DOP 50 (1996): 163-170.
Tomlin, R., Seniores-Iuniores in the Late-Roman Field Army, AJPh 93 (1972): 253-278.
Wheeler, E.L., The Legion as Phalanx, Chiron 9 (1979): 303-318.
, The Legion as Phalanx in the Late Empire [I] in Y. Le Bohec and C. Wolff (edd.), LArme romaine de
Diocltien Valentinien 1er, Actes du Congres de Lyon (12-14 septembre 2002), Paris: Boccard, 2004, pp. 309-358.
, The Legion as Phalanx in the Late Empire [II], Revue des tudes militaires anciennes 1 (2004): 147-175.

7.3 Arms and armour


Bishop, M.C. and J.C.N. Coulston, Roman Military Equipment: From the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome, Oxford: Oxbow
Books, 2006.
James, S., Evidence from Dura Europos for the Origins of Late Roman Helmets, Syria 63 (1986): 107-134.

7.4 Fortifications, siege works and artillery


Davies, G., Cremna in Pisidia: A Re-Appraisal of the Siege Works, AS 50 (2000): 151-158.
Gregory, T.E., The Late Roman Wall at Corinth, Hesperia 48 (1979): 264-280.
Lightfoot, C.S., Facts and Fiction: The Third Siege of Nisibis (A.D. 350), Historia 37 (1988): 105-125.
Petrikovits, H. von, Fortifications in the North-Western Roman Empire from the Third to the Fifth Centuries A.D., JRS 61
(1971): 178-218.

7.5 Naval warfare


Dolley, R.H., The Warships of the Later Roman Empire, JRS 38 (1948): 47-53.

7.6 Campaigns and battles


Austin, N.J.E., Ammianus Account of the Adrianople Campaign: Some Strategic Observations, AClass 15 (1972): 77-83.

, Julian at Ctesiphon: A Fresh Look at Ammianus Account, Athenaeum n.s. 49 (1971): 301-309.
Blockley, R.C., The Division of Armenia between the Romans and the Persians at the End of the Fourth Century A.D.,
Historia 36 (1987): 222-234.
Browning, R., Where was Attilas Camp?, JHS 73 (1953): 143-145.
Bruun, P., The Battle of the Milvian Bridge: The Date Reconsidered, Hermes 88 (1960): 361-370.
Bullough, V.L., The Roman Empire vs. Persia, 363-502: A Study of Successful Deterrence, Journal of Conflict
Resolution 7 (1963): 55-68.
Burns, T.S., The Battle of Adrianople: A Reconsideration, Historia 22 (1973) 336-345.
Burrell, E., A Re-Examination of why Stilicho Abandoned his Pursuit of Alaric in 397, Historia 53 (2004): 251-256.
Chalmers, W.R., Eunapius, Ammianus Marcellinus and Zosimus on Julians Persian Expedition, CQ n.s. 10 (1960): 152160.
Downey, G., The Persian Campaign in Syria in A.D. 540, Speculum 28 (1953): 340-348.
Ehrhardt, C., Monumental Evidence for the Date of Constantines First War against Licinius, AncW 23 (1992): 87-94.
Greatrex, G., Rome and Persia at War, 502-532, Leeds: Cairns, 1998.
Review by Peter Riedlberger (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Hatt, J.-J. and J. Schwartz, Le Champ de battaille de Oberhausbergen (357-1262), Bulletin de la Facult des Lettres de
Strasbourg 42 (1964): 427-436.
Hughes, I., Belisarius: The Last Roman General, Yardley, PA: Westholme Publishing, 2009.
Review by N. Popov-Reynolds (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
Kettenhofen, E., Die Rmisch-persischen Kriege des 3. Jahrhunderts n. Chr., Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1982.
Pazdernik, C.F., Procopius and Thucydides on the Labors of War: Belisarius and Brasidas in the Field, TAPhA 130
(2000): 149-187.
Rance, P., Narses and the Battle of Taginae (Busta Gallorum) 552: Procopius and Sixth-Century Warfare, Historia 54
(2005): 424-472.
Ridley, R.T., Notes on Julians Persian Expedition 363, Historia 22 (1973): 317-330.
Speidel, M.P., Maxentius and his Equites Singulares in the Battle at the Milvian Bridge, ClAnt 5 (1986): 253-262.
Woods, D., Ammianus versus Libanius on Barbatios Alleged Bridge across the Rhine, Mnemosyne, ser. 4, 63 (2010):
110-116.