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Pre - Interm ed io te

- Jenny
Dooley
Evons
Virginio

aEJx
Express
Publishing

ffim$ffiKffi
ffiXffiw
UNIT 1
Readmy lips
(pp.6 - e)

a
a

UNIT 2
ln the PublicEye
(pp. 10-13)

UNIT 3
Aroundthe world
(pp. 14- 17)

gl

*
s

UNIT 4
Travellers'Tales
(pp. 18-21)

physical/character
description PresentSimple- Present
clothes
Continuous- stativeverbs
linkingwords
physical/character
description o relativepronouns
interests/hobbies
(who-whose-which)
r adverbsof frequency
Phrasal verbs: look
. forming adjectives

use of the senses in


describingplaces

holidays
adjectivesdescribingplaces
givingdirections;making

a
a

PastSimple- PastCont.PresentPerfect- Present

accommodation
weatherdescription
adjectivesdescribingplaces

PerfectContinuous
for-since-ago-already-yef
while-sofar-ever-when-never

prepositionsof place
"the"

such/so... that

recommendaiions
Phrasal verbs: run

UNIT 5

EnjoyReading
(pp.22- 25)

UNIT 6
The Lost World
(pp. 26 - 29)

Past Simple - Past


Contrnuous
avoidingrepetition

types of stories
feelings
use of the senses

a
a

a
a

describingpeople
buyingclothes
Pronunciation:
lsl,lzl, hzl
describingpeople
people'shabitsand

mt
friendlyletterto a
pen{riend

describinga
famousperson

routines
Pronunciation:
lnl, lnl, lnkl
o
a
a

describingthe weather friendlyletter


askingfor information describingyour stay
catchingup with news
at a holiday resort
Pronunciation:
ftl,ldl,lrdl

describingplacesusing describinga visitto


the senses
a prace
givingdirections

makingrecommendationsabout a place

settingthe scene
describingpeople's
feelings

settingthe scene

!o

llr
ji

lr

l(

r
lr

story: Episode 1
expressingobligationi
prohibition/absence
of

Past Perfect - Past


PerfectContinuous

expressingobligation/
prohibition/absence
of

compansons

necessity

necessity
M O D U L E S E L F - A S S E S S M E N lT, 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6

UNIT 7
A GhostlyWelcome
(pp. 32 - 35)

a
a
a
a

project:
describinganimals

describinganimals
tpp. 30 - 3il

stories
feelings& emotions
use of the senses
time words;sequencewords

pasl tenses

putting eventsin the


correct order
narratingevents

stones

Phrasal verbs: break

UNIT 8
HardTimes
(pp.36- 3e)

giving advice/making
recommendations
making suggestions/offers/
invitations

will- be goingto PresentContinuous


1sttypeConditionals

ff
tll

UNIT 9

fr
0

ln the Land of
the Pyramids
(pp.40-43)

utiilT to
Citizens2050
(pp.44-47)

story:Episode2
. say - tell

reportedspeech
- questions)
(statements

r asking forigivingadvice friendlylettergiving


. makingplans/predictions advrce
r makingsuggestions/
offers/invitations
Pronunciation:
lsIl,lzdl
o describingancient
monuments

project:
descriptionof the
Pyramids

i
I

It

ju

It
IC
ll
ta

. life in the future


. expressingopinions (/ thrn(
I believe, etc.)/giving reasons
. linkingwords (similar/
contrastingideas)
Phrasalverbs: come

FutureContinuous
FuturePerfect

r makingplans/predictions
expressingopinions
. expressingopinions
- how lifewill be in
. comparingpast,
2050
presentand future
situations

Iftunrrr
Escapes

fi

u
J
!

0
0
I

a
a

ftt'tano*

ae-stt
flhn.

&

punrre
pl{ature's
Fury

reportedorders/commands/
requests

accidents;survivors
givingadvice;expressing
criticism(shouldhavedone)
car accident
fire

sa'or)
&(pp.

Hhil

a
a

a
a

Fil*il'
a

o
lrl
J

t
0
0
t

vocabularyrelatedto jobs
joiningsimilar/contrasting
ideas
types of sportsihobbies
equipment
sportsihobbies

a
a

story:Episode4

fScarv
D
S|,

watull

a
a

o commentingon jobs
r makingwishes
Pronunciation:
lu.l, lju.l

lnfinitives
the -ing form

o describingsports
Pronunciation:
lerl, larl

questiontags
reflexivepronouns

prurars

expressingreason
clausesof result

endangered
species
wildanimals
voicesof animals

Roo.74 - 77)

F.Ull|Tr8

of the
Problems
$
q.

$ Planet

$i1pp,ze-er)

| | *urrzo
I I $ett's,ooo

i 1 $ (rn'ea-stl
t $ u]{lr2l
3$o*oo.,ntr,n

i p,tnc'szssr
J

Sh'r

. types of food
o makingcomplaints

types of films
. types of TV programmes
. makingrecommendations
Phrasalverbs: take
story:Episode6

M O D U L ES E L F . A S S E S S M E N4T U N I T S 1 9 , 2 0 , 2 1 , 2 2
REFERENCE
SECTION (pp, 102-1151
GRAMMAR
IRREGULAR
VERBS (pp, I 16)
W O R DL I S T ( p p , 1 1 7 . 1 2 8 1

essay:advantages/
disadvantages

prolect:
comparingand
contrastingsports

o describinganimals
Pronunciation:
laal, laal

proiect:
describing
animals

rdh

expressingcauseand
effect
providingsolutions

essay:providing
solutionsto problems

lpp. 82 . 831

r countable-uncountable
nouns
o how much/howmany
. comparative/superlative
oegree
makingdeductions(mustcan't - may/might/could)

story:Episode5

'

+nn-annr

biography

askingfor confirmation project:


sights
or agreemenr
describing
describingsights

o clausesof purpose

ecology
expressingcause and
effect
makingsuggestions

I , | O D U I ES E L F - A S S E S S M E N3T U N I T S 1 3 , 1 4 , 1 5 , 1 6 , 1 7 , 1 8

uNlT 19
Qualityor
Quantity?
(pp.84-87)

project:

2nd and Srd type


Conditionals
wishes

70-73)
a

describingexplorers'
lifestyles

skills/qualities
Phrasalverbs: turn

's Burning

rz
$lrn but
lovelv

narratingpast events

o commenting/describingnewsreports
naturaldisasters
Pronunciation:
lal, laal

passrvevorce

naturaldisasters
Phrasalverbs: put

givingadvice/
expressingcriticism
describinga car crash
Pronunciation:
lIIl, ldSl

a
a
a

present& past participles


expressingpreferences
so/neither
causativeform

comparingrestaurants letterof complaint


makingcomplaints

life in the past

project:

makingdeductions

describingfuture

describingfuturecars

cars

TV programmes
film reviews
recommending
expressingpreferences

describingfilms

makingpreparations
talkingabout
inventions

(pp, lOO.1Oll

proiect: describing
inventionsand
inventors

CULTURE GLIPS {pp. 129-1391


AMERICAN ENGLISH - BRITISH ENGLISH (pp. 14O-1421
PHOTOFILE

Pre-lntermediafe
is a complete course for
ing Englishat pre-intermediate
level. lt
withthe necessary
skillsto successfully
in both the oral and written forms of the
consistsof four modulesof twentv-twounits in
present
a storyin episodes.Eachmodule
of a care of useful languagerelatd to
interestwith which the studentsneed to
The units follow the same basic structure,

sections which draw on the students'


of thegiventopic.The lead-insectionends
listening
activity,requiringstudentsto listento
textand completea task,suchas fillingin
information,underliningthe correct item,
matching,True/Falsestatements,etc. This
activitypreparesstudents to deal with the
text which follows. Having encounteredthe
of the text,studentsare betterequippedto
the readingtask.
sections which consist of cross-cultural
textsallowstudentsto developskillssuch
for gist, readingfor specificinformation,
vocabulary from context and
ng te)din theirown words.
Practice sections which focus on
thevocabularyintroducedin the readingtext
varioustypes of exercisessuch as 'word
(in which studentsdeduce the meaningof
from context),gap-filling,collocationswhich
remembervocabularyitems as parts of
ions, and sets of commonly confused
Text-relatedidioms, phrasal verbs and
arealsoincluded.
sections which focus on encouraging
to e)dractand reproducerelevantinformation
thetextthroughdiscussionas wellas mastering
the
coveredin the VocabularyPracticesection.
Developmentsections which present
linkedto the topic and extendstudents'
at the appropriatelevel.

Listening and Speaking exerciseswhich focus on


communication.
Studentsare giventhe opportunityto
developcompetencein their listeningand speaking
skillsthroughvariousexercises
and activities.
Grammar in Use sections which presentgrammar
structuresin a clear,easily understoodway. These
sectionsare usedwiththe GrammarReference
section
(foundat the back of the book),allowingstudentsto
reinforceand expand their knowledgeof grammar
througha varietyof usefulexercises.
Pronunciationsections which help students gain
confidencein recognisingsounds and pronouncing
them correctly. All pronunciation exercises are
recordedon tapeswhichaccompanythe coursebook.
Writing sectionswhich introducethe most important
aspects of compositionwriting in an easy-to-follow
way. All writing exercises(eitheressays or projects)
are guided so that studentswill not feel frustrated.
Notes on successfulwriting, plans and model
compositionshelp studentsunderstandeach type of
writingpresented.
Words of Wisdomsectionswhichfamiliarise
students
with famousquotationsand proverbs.
Module Self-Assessmentsections which reinforce
students'knowledgeof the topics, vocabularyand
structurespresented in the previous exercisesand
help preparethem for the tests.A markingscheme
allowsstudentsto evaluatetheir progressand identify
theirweakness.
CultureClips sections
The course is accompaniedby: a) an easy-to-use
Teacher's Book containingall the answersto the
exercisesin the Student'sBook along with useful
suggestionsfor presentingthe exercisesand four tests
(each in two different versions) b) audio CDs
containingall the listeningactivities(teacher'sset,
student's set) c) Enterprise 3 Pre-lntermediate
Workbook in which studentscan revise vocabulary,
and grammarstructurespresentedin the coursebook,
d) Enterprise3 Test Booklet containingsevenwritein tests,a Midterm and an Exit test, which aims to
assessstudents'progressthroughoutthe course.

rll,

I
10...
how
* lenrn
o
o

Uffi{al;':,i,,,:
(

a
o
a

typesof stories
feelings

a
o
a

describepeople& places
buyclothes
describepeople'shabits/
routines/feelings
theweather
describe
askfor information
givedirections
animals
describe
obligation/Prohibition/
express
absenceof necessity
makerecommendations

* Ptuclise...
a
o
a
a
a
a
o
o

$ hffiff

presentsimple/continuous
pronouns
relative
adverbsof frequency
prepositions
of place
the definitearticle
such/so...that
pastsimple/past
continuous
presentperfect/present
Perfect
continuous
perfect
pastperfect/past
continuous
comparisons

\,

animals
extinct
sPecies
endangered
rules

I llltile...
a
o
a
a
a
o

a friendlyletterto a Pen-friend
of a famousPerson
a description
yourstay
letter
describing
friendly
a
at a holidayresort
of a visitto a Place
a description
a story:settingthe scene
animalfactfiles

UNII
1
d-in
Responsible, qui ck-temp ered and
generous are adjectives which
describe people's character. Can
you think of any more adjectives?

WWil
.,r::ii,,.'

tsailinl

Read the text and a) check your answers for the listening activity,
b) explain the words in bold as in the example.

3
E
nead the adjectives under
each picture, then listen to the
tape and tick (/) the adjectives
you hear.

responsiblef
immature K

Forget aboutfortune tellers ond horoscopes.Ihe shope of a person's lips


con sdy o lot about them.The 5,000-yeor-old art of face reoding is goining
populority. So, toke a look ot the shape of someone's lips to find out
about their personolity ...
People
withfulllipsareusuallyresponsible.
Youcanalwaystrustthemto do whalyou
quickly.0n theotherhand,
pake
decisions
askthemto do.Theyarealsodecisive;
they
theytendto beratherbossy.Theylike{ellingotherpeoplewhatto dol
Theyworkveryhard
People
whohavea thinupperlip ahdfulllowerlip areenergetic.
Theyareambitiousas well;theywanttobe
in a lot-ofactivities.
andlikepadicipating
Theyseemt0 onlycare
thesepeopletendto beself-cenlred.
in life.However,
successful
feelings.
forgetaboutotherpeople's
andtheysometimes
aboutthemselves
theyknowwhattheywantandtheydo alltheycan
People
withthinlipsaredetetmined;
andthought.
to getit. Theyarecatefulpeoplewhodo theirworkwitha lot of attention
or expressing
theydon'tlikeshowingtheirfeelings
However,
theytendto be reserved;
thingsor spending,money,
Theycanalsobe mean;theydon'tlikesharing
theiropinions.
Theylovegiving
cornersareverygenerous.
whohavelipswithdown{urning
.People

decisive
bossy

thin upperlip with a full lowerliP

energetic
careful

e.g. Responsib
le peopleore thosewho you can alwaystrust to da whot you osk
them to do.

ambitious
self-centred
l

and
them.Theyarealsointelligent
andhelping
things
to otherpeople
quickly
other
0n
the
and
easily,
difficult
subiects
understand
easily,
theygetupset
attimes;
theycanbesensitive
hand,
of whatyousayt0them.
sobecareful

:$rcatdng
a)

b)

determined
I
careful K

reservedI
mean

generous T
intelligentf

sensitiveT
secretive

tr

tr

Look at these famous people's lips and


talk about their characters.
Stalltnehas gat.lips with down-turning
e"g. Sylvester
lt meonshe is generous.
corners.
Talk about your partner's character by reading
his/her lips.

1
UNIT
ualBlleunlnpmEnt

A film director is trying to decide on two


B
actors (one mate, one female) for the leading
roles in his new film. Look at the pictures then
listen to the tape and find the two people.

of the following adiectives are positive and


are negative?
dent,coring im oginotive,outgoing,
self-confi
unrelioble,
selfsh,shy,
stubborn,cooperotive,
rude,eosygoing,
ised,forgetful,active,lozy,loyol,arrogongpolite

you can include


youdescribepeople'scharacter,
(e.g.kind)andnegative(e.g.Iuy) qualities.
rnyoutalkaboutnegativequalities,you can use
in bold. e.g. He tends tolcan be
expressions
attimes.Heis often aggresslve'(NOT:He
ne). Look at the ways you can join the
qualities
Sheis friendly.Shels Pollte.
Sheis friendlyand (also) Polite.
Sheis friendlyand Politeas well.
qualities
Heis hetpful.He can be arrogantat times'
Heis helpfulbut he can be arrogantat times.
Heis helpful.On the other handlHowever,he
fendsto be arrogantat times'

Read the following descriptions and match them


with the pictures above.Then fill in the table
below with words from the paragraphs.Finally'
cover the paragraphsand describe each person'

Mary'sshortand in her earlytwenties.She'sgot an oval


face,longblackcurlyhairanda smallnose.Hereyesare
brown.
He'sgot a longfaceand
Paul'stallandin hisearlythirties.
quite
largeand he's got a
is
nose
long blackhair.His
smallmouth.
She'sgot
Sally'sshortandplump.She'sin herlatesixties.
the ideas using: and (also)' but, however'
grey
a wide
hair
and
wavy
a squareface,shoulder-length
onthe other hanp.x
green.
mouth.Hereyesare
'
rur'd d/@
witha squareface'
and middle-aged
Mike'stall,well-built
4
caring.
friendlflRegr-+s
r isfriendl!.*egpr-+s
ioger
+ Ao
.i
*.,q_it
,_ .*,
big' He haslarge
is
rather
nose
Hismouthis wide,andhis
is inte||igent'Jeh++ist
/s
grey
..........'..
hair.
darkbrowneyesandshort
* "":
:i,"^i ^5-- nNtl*ddisorganisqd
ewis stubborn.*ndrevlris
tt.r-l-D,
f orgetful.
is cooperative.-Facrl-ts
T
tr'uut ' w""?i5
ael is energetic:*A'iehaefsbossy.
Height:
at the list of adiectives in Ex.4 and make
about people you know using:andralso,

ar well,but, however,on the other hand'


andcaringas well"
e,g, Tomis friendly

Build:
Age:
Face:

Hair:
in the gapswith: earlY'mid' late.
13- 14 =
gg- 39 =
44- 46 =
21- 29 =
67- 69 =
57- 59 =

in his/her
in his/her
in his/her
in his/her
in his/her
in his/her

Eyes:
Mouth:
Nose:
l0

Write a short paragraph describingyour best


friend's physicalaPPearanceand character'

UNIT
I
11 Match the pictures with the words from the list:
jeans,shorts,leggings,
mini skirt,woistcoo't,
high heeledshoes,tie, fur coot,
eveningdresqsul4bow tie, denim jocket,troiners,T-shirt,
bosebol!cop,V-neck
jumper,scorf,flot shoes,oyerolls,polo-neck,trocksuit"dungorees,
shirt
Which of these items are casual and which are formal?What do
you wear when you go: a) to the gym, b) on a trip, c) to work, d)
to a party, e) to a reception?

13

Match the adjectivesand the


adverbswith the words below.
cosually,upturned,
b right,formolly,n eatly,
hooked,
darlggolden,silky

1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d r e s s3e d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . n4 o .s.e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

'r""nrammar
in Use
l,:iL'r"'

14

,i:

l\*t

-'-K,
i

Paulworksasa
singer.
2 Heis singing
now.
3 Heis staying
ata
hotelat present.
Heis goingto
LyononSunday.
Hisflightleaves
at
9.00am.
Helikestennis.

e.g. When I go to the gym I wear a trocksuit,troiners


...etc.
E
Reaa the dialogue and fill int, motch- go with - suit- fit.Now, listen
to the tape and check your answers. Then, act out a simitar
dialogue.

A: Good morningmadam.May I help you?


B : I hope so! l'm lookingfor somethingreallyspecialto wear to my cousin,s
w e d d i n g .S o m e t h i n gi n b l u e ,l t h i n k .
What about this lovely dress?lt has a jacket in the same colour to 1)

. . .. . . .. .i t .
B : Yes, it's beautiful,but it looks a bit small. Do you think it will 2)
A:
B:
A:
B:

c
d

e
I

temporary
situatr0ns
scheduled
actions
:
(timetables)
future
anangemen
actions
happening
n0w
likes
anddislikes
permanent
states

.'q.

l5

12

Match the tenses with their


ning.When do we use present
ple?When do we use present
tinuous?

. . . .m e ?
Whydon'tyou try it on? ... (aftersomeminutes)
There!Howdoesit look?
It'sperfect!
Thecolour3) .........................
you.
Do youthinkso?Nowall I needis a pairof shoesto 4) .............
.

Put the verbs in bracketsinto the


correct tense.

Steven1) ..................
(work)as a director.
He's in the studionow. He 2) ...............
(direct)a scenefrom his newfilm "Raiders
of the Lost Treasure".
He 3) ...............
(stay) in London at present,but he 4)
(fly) to Egypttomorrowto shoot
s o m e s c e n e s .H i s f l i g h t 5 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(leave)at 6.00 am and, althoughhe 6)
(like)travelling,
he 7)
(hate)earlymornings.
Verbsexpressing
(like,Iove,
likes/dislikes
hate, dislike, can't stand, don't mind
etc.) are not used in continuoustenses
andtakea nounor -ingformafterthem.
e.g. I love rock music.ll don't mind
cleaningmy room. (NOT:l'Mg-rock
music.)

UNII
I
15 E

Read these sentences,then listen to the tape


and mark each statementT (True) or F (False).

Paul likes playing


games.
computer
He enjoysmeetingnew
peopre.
He lovessciencefiction
stories.

He hates doing his


homework.
He doesn'tmindtidying
hisroom.
He can't stand pop
musrc.

17 What do you like/don't like / love /don't mind/ hate


enjoy/ can't stand/ dislike doing?

il
tnmn-

First listen and tick.Then,listen and repeat.

/s/

tzl

tst

ltzl

watches
sits
plays

(a tetterto a pen-friend)

Fill in each sentence into the right place.


a) | love sports.
b) My nameis Ben Smithand I'm from England.
c) I'm twelve years old.

20

Dear Claude.

. t live in Sussexwith my
.....
0
parents,
my
my sisterEmily,aged
there
are
our
of
us;
amily.
f
f
4, and me.My mumworksin a bank.My dad'sa dentist.
( m t a l l , a b o u t 1 , 5 0 ,a n a
2)....................
slinr.As you can seefrom my photo,I've got greeneyesana

Pronunniatinn
18

Wfitin[

lzl

ltzl

catches
goes

shortfair hair. t usuallywearjeansand trainers.


My f avouriteis basketball.
3) ....................
with my friendsat the weekend.I
t usuallyplay basketball
alsoenjoyridingmy bicycle.t enjoyreadingbooksbut I don't
like readingcorrics.
write backto rnesoonand tell me aboutyol\llll .. -..Sendme a photograph
of yourself.
Bestwishes.

talks

Ben

. '.;

1 9 Work

in teams. One person chooses a picture,


the other asks three questions trying to find out
who the person is. Finally, describe each person.

fair
13,tall,slim,
Canada,
generous,
hair,
caring,
playing
likes
theguitar,
watching
honor
hates
tilms

21

Look at the plan, then write a letter to your penfriend. Use the letter from Ex.20 as a model.

Plan
(yourpen-friend'sfirstname)
INTRODUCTION
Para1: name,wherefrom,placeyou livein,family
MAINBODY

,s

Para2:.age,height,build,eyes,hair,clothes

Y
.

,i.

Australia,
12,short,
slim,shorl
kind,
brown
hair,friendly,
hales
likes
swimming,

like/don't
mind
Para3: whatyou like/don't
CONCLUSION

watchingTV

Para4: askhim/her
to writebackandsendyouhis/herpicture

Bestwishes,
(yourfirstname)

)T

Slnrdsnf Wisdnm
Readthese sentences.Whatdo they mean?
'.0anada,
13,tall,plump,
fairhair,polite,caring,
likes
going
tothecinema,
hates
watching
horror
films
js!,Xtr\
i.rf:;i;;pit-.

Australia,
12,short,
slim,
longbrownhair,generous,
TV,
kind,likes
watching
hates
maths

o
o
o
o
o

Clothesmakethe man.
Theeyesarethewindowof the soul.
Oneman'smeatis anotherman'spoison.
Nevertrustappearances.
Firstimoressions
arethe mostlastinq.

e ffirffi
,ffiffitrffif
rmffiffiffi
ffif
,,:ii|iacint
4

lD*nyn
H"*r*h

Bjorn Borg

lead-in
Look at the pictures above.Who
is famous for:
a) losing a battle?
b) painting pictures?
c) winning tennis matches?
d) starring in films?
e) playing the violin?

Can you think of any other


famous people? What are they
famous for?
E
Guess whether the
following statements about
Daryl Hannah are true or false.
Then listen to the tape and find
out if your answers were correct.

1 Daryllikeswearingexpensiveclothes. I
2 Sheisshy.
I
3 Shelikesgoingto Hollywood
parties.T
4 Shebelieves
in truelove.
5 Shedoesnotwantto livein thecity.
6 Shecaresabouttheenvironment.

r0

You are going to read an article about the actress Daryl Hanna
For questions | - 5 choose the best answet A, B, C or D.

I
T
T

Theprettymermaid lookedup from


the golden sand and the world fell in
Iovewith her. Thefilm was sp/ash,and
the mermaidwas the famousactress,
Daryl Hannah,who has also staned in
such films as ftoxanne and Bjade
Runner.
Darylis tall and slender.Shehasgot
Iong blond hair, Iarge blue eyes and
stunning features.Shelooks fantastic
in expensiveclofies, but she prefers
casual clothes which show ofr her
naturalbeauty.
Sheis more thanjust anotherpretty
face, however.She is a complicated
person whose characterhas many
sides.Sheis oftenin thepublic eye,but
she is acftrallya very shy personwho
dislikes the crowds and noise of
Hollywoodparties.Her shynessis a
problem which she is trying to
overcomewithherfriends'help.Sheis
notthesortofpersonwhoexpectshelp
withoutgivinganythingback,however.
Daryl is an extremelycaring person,
and she saysthat she forgetsher own
problemswhen she is helping others.
Sheis also a romanticwho believesin
truelove,so shewantsto find someone

very specialbeforeshestartsa famiiy


Daryl'slifestyleis guitesimple.wrer
she is not working, her favourit
activities are gardening, playing the
pianoand makingpottery a]l of whicl
reveal the creative side of he
character.
Darylmaypreferto sit in theshadow
at parties, but when it comes to he
beliefs she is not afraid to speak her
mind. She has strong views on the
environment. She believes that our
modern lifestyle is destroying the
enWonment,For this reason, she is
cunently looking for a place in the
countyside where she can build an
environmentally.friendly house. She
saysthat she feels most relaxedwhen
sheis closeto natue.
Underneaththe success,shynes
and simple lifestyle are Daryl's very
sftongviews on life. As she says,"Find
out what is important to you - and
don'tbe afraidto live itl'
It is a pleasureto meet an actress
who remains down-to-earth and
sincere in a world where fame and
success can often harm one's
character.

2
UNII
life,DarylHannah
Inhereveryday
A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D

andselfish.
issuccessful
bigparties.
enjoys
goes
to parties.
never
inlarge
feels
uncomfortable
groups
ofpeople.

activities.
doing
creative
people.
being
withsimple
inhergarden.
resting
music.
writing

for
herfriends
asking
isalways
help.
to helpothers.
B iswilling
to herfriends.
c doesn'tpayattention
intotrouble.
D getsothers

findoneshelikes.
A cannot
the
B cares
about
environment.
people
to
C wants
':::li::
herviews.
know
''
D dislikes
oldhouses.

Read the article again and answer the questions.


a) ln which films has Daryl Hannah acted?
b) What does she have strong feelings about?

Fill in the correct particle(s).

t0

look after:
look for:
look forwardto:
look up:

Practite
Tncabulary
Look at the words in bold on p l0 and try to explain
them, then choose any three and make sentences.
Match the numbers to the letters.

slender
overcome
reveal
beliefs
currently
tindout

a
b
c
d
e
f

gelover
now
discover
show
ideas
slim

Fill in the correct word from the list below. Use the
words only once.
naturol,public,foll, speak
true,strong,golden,shadows,

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

to takecareof sb/sth
to try to find
to expectsthwithpleasure
to try to finda word,name,etc.in a
referencebook

.
herphonenumber- letme lookit.......
I don'tremember
work.
we're
at
while
ourchildren
Julielooks........
hersister'swedding.
Janeis reallylooking
new
house.
a
Helenis looking........

Wrrds [ftEn oonfusnd

fi

Fill in the blankswith the correctword(s).


fomousfor- popularwith

skiers.
is .............
1 Switzerland
. . i.n. .n. .i n
. fgo u rg o l dm e d a l si n
2 C a r lL e w i si s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .w
Games.
the 1988Olympic
woitfor - expect

. . . . . . . . . . . . , , . , . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . s.a. .n. .d. . . . . . , . . . b e a u t y


to geta letterfromJohntomorrow.
3 | ....................,...
6 t o s i ti n t h e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Please
in lovewithsb
...me; I am almostreadY.
to ..........
. .w
. .s. . . . .
i nt h e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e.y. .e. . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v. .i e
. .rm
. . .i .n d
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . .t |oo. v. .e. . . . . . . . . .h. e

FrBIo$itions
I

;':ii'

ia:

uer[s
Phrasal

c) What sort of clothes does she prefer to wear?


d) What are her views on life?

I
2
3
4
5
6

when
sheisnot
A isonlyhappy
working.
a filmstar.
B likesbeing
oPinions.
strong
C doesnothave
Hollyfiood
actress.
D is nota typical

herown
Daryl
wants
to build
because
she
home

outstanding
One
ofDaryl's
isthatshe
characteristics

tellsusthatDaryl
article
5 Thewhole
Hannah

enjoys
Inher{reetimeDaryl

Fill in the correct prepositions,then chooseany


three and make sentences.

expensive
a film;2 to look fantastic
1 to star...........
5 to
thecountryside;
sth;4 ...........
3 to believe
clothes;
life
sth;6 to havestrongviews...........
beclose...........

lnllnw-uI
. Read the article again and make notes under the
following headings, then talk about Daryl Hannah.
Appearanee

Character

Hobbies

Beliefs

il

Ul,lII
2
Erammar
in Use
12 took at the words in bold and say which a) are
used for peopfe,b) show possession,c) are used for
things.
1 Darylis not the sortof personwho/thatexpectshelp
withoutgivinganythingback.
2 Shepreferscasualclotheswhich/thatshowoff her
naturalbeauty.
3 Sheis a complicated
personwhosecharacrer
hasmanysides.
l3 loin the sentencesusing who,whichor whose.
1 Ms Brownis a friendlyperson.Shelikesmeetingnew
people.e.g.Ms Brownis afriendlypersonwho likes
meeilngnewpeople.
2 Shelivesin a big house.Thehouseis nearthe oark.
3 Stevenis a lawyer.Hisofficeis in BakerStreet.
4 Claireis a model.Shehasbeenin manyfashionshows.
5 Sarahis wearinga nicedress.Thedressfitsher
perfectly.
14 Undertinethe correct word.
who's = who is/whohas
1
2
3
4

whoseshowspossession

That'sthe manwho'slwhose
Sally,s
friend.
That'sthe manwho'slwhose
son is my friend.
That'sthe manwho'slwhose
got an Alsatian
dog.
That'sthe manwho'slwhose
dog keepsbarking
at night.

Adverbsof frequency(sometimes,
usually,never,etc.)go
beforethe mainverbbut after the verb,,tobe,'and after
auxiliaryverbs. e.g. He never gets up /ate. She is
sometimeslate for work.
16

E
Readthe table,then listen to the tape and
tick (/) the correct boxes.Finally,write
sentencesas in the example.

Howoften
doesDaryl
...
playthepiano/
pottery?
make

alwaysusually sometimesl
rarelyl,neve
occasionally
hardly
ever
{

travel
by
plane?
goto parties?
getupearly?
eatlattening
food?
e.g. Daryl usuallyp/cysthe piana ar makespotteryin het
free time.
17 Wtrat do you
always/usuallylsometi mes/occasional lyl
y ever/ never do in your daily routine?

15 Write sentencesas in the examples.


18 filt in each gap with only one word.

&ffi

&

12

e.g. A porter is someonewho carriessuitcases.


A vocuumcleaneris a machinewhicltcleans corpets.

NaomiCampbell,
thefamous
m o d e li,s v e r yt a t l1 ) . . . . . . . , . . .a. . . ,
p e d e c t f i g u rSeh. e2 ) . . . . . . . . . . a
.....
dark complexionand beautiful
browneyes.3).......... straight
black hair falls past her
shoulders. When she 4)
not working, she
usuallywears casual clothes.
N a o m5i ) . . . . . . . . . . .r.e. .a. d i n ag n d I
often goes to the theatre. I
Travelling
is what she tikes6) |
. She alwaystravels I
abroadwhenshe hasfreetime. I
Naomispendsa lot of time 7)
|
the gym andshedoes I
not eat fatteningfood. She I
believesthat workinghard 8) |
the only way to
succeedin life.
*

UNII
2
Prununriatiun
J

19 E

Ulfiting

First listen and tick.Then, listen and repeat.


tnl

tnt

lrJkl

tnt

hing

stn

hrn

sink

hink

srng

tt)t

hkt

Wecanformadjectives
fromnounsor verbsby adding
-ful (e.9. wonder + wondertul),-ous (e.9. danger :
-ibfe (e.9.terror- terrible),-ing (e.9.excite
dangerous),
-ed (e.9.bore s bored)and -ive (e.9.create
+ exciting),
. creative)

(describing
a famousperson)

Whenwe describe
a person,we talkabouthis/her
appearance,
characterand hobbies/interests.
We starta
newparagraph
for eachtopic.

n,

lmagine you are a


reporter. Look at the
paragraph plan
beloq then write an
article describing
Harrison Ford.
You may use the
information given
i n E x .2 l .

20 fitl in the correct derivatives of the words in bold.


What is each paragraph about?

BradPitt is one of Hollvwood's


brightest
stars.
Heisa very1) ..........
(success)
actorwhohasstarredin .,
many
films,suchas lnterview
with
theVampireandTwelveMonkeys.
H ei st a l a
l n ds l i mH
. i s2 ) . . . . . . . . . . .
(beauty)blue eyes and good
looksaredifficultto forget.
BraP
d i titsa 3 ) . . . . . . . . . . .(.h. .u. .m o u r )
person;
hisfriendsenjoyhis company
Heis a sensible
oersonwho does not leada
(glamour)
4)................
life.
Whenhehasfreetime,he enjoysreadingaboutarchitecture,
(interest).
a subject
thathe findsvery5) ................
He also
enjoys
listening
to musicand hasa hugeCD collection.
(talent)as wellas a handsome
BradPittis a 6) ................
young
actor.
Wearesureto seea lot moreof himin thefuture!
21 E Readthe table,then listento the tape and fill
in the missingwords.
job:

a..............

films:

S...........
W.......,
Raiders
of theLostArk

well-built,
hardlyanywrinkles,
appearance:1..............,
t a n n e sd . . . . . . . . . f. a
. .c. .e b, . . . . . . . . . .e.y. .e. s ,
brownhairstartingto turn9""""""""

Plan
INTRODUCTION
Para1: name- whathe is famousfor
MAINBODY
(looks,e.g.tall,well-built,
Para2: appearance
etc.,clothes,
e.g.casualclothes,etc.)
Para3: character(whathe is likee.g.kind,patient,etc.
withjustification)
(activities
Para4: hobbies/interests
he enjoysdoing/doesn't
enjoydoing)
CONCLUSION
Para5: finalcomments(saywhetheryou likehimor not
andwhatyouthinkof him)

Wnrdsnf Wisdum
Read these sentences.What do they mean?

character:

private,
s..............,
caring

interests:

workswithenvironmental
9..............

hobbies:

l i k e sw . . . . . . . . . w
. . .i t. h
. h i sh a n d sa n d
b . . . . . . . . . .t.h. .i .n g s

"A famousoersonis someone


whoworkshardarl
hislifeto becomeknown,thenwearsdarkglasses
so that nobodywill recognisehim." (FredAllen)
.Trynotto become man
a
of success,but rathertry
to becomea manof value."(AlbertEinstein)
.Allthatglittersis notgold."(William
Shakespeare)

t3

}WW
leail-in
7

What places can you see in the pictures?

Where do you usually go for your holidays? When do you


What do you enjoy doing most while you are on holiday?
E
Read these questions then listen to the tape and
them.

1 Where
areBarbara
andJohn
staying?
2 Where
isJanetstaying?
3 Where
is Bobstaying?

f,nadinI
Read these letters and find the
sentence which best describes
each picture. Now look at the
words in bold and try to explain
them, then choose any three and
make sentences.

4 Whohastriedfishcurry?
5 Whohasputon weight?
6 Whohastriedsnails?

DearTim,
Creetings
tt's such
from wiombassa!
an exoticplace!We'restayingat a
f abuloushotel.Theweatheris hot
and sticky here.
Yesterday,
we wenton a safari
throughTsovoEostNationrlpark.We
s6wmanywildanimals
there.While
we weredrivingthroughin ourjeep
a hugerhinochasedus!We'vebeen
swimming
at NyaliBeachalmost
everyday andwe'vegot greattans.
rhe f oodhereis delicious.
We've
beeneatingmangoes
andpineapples
andwe'veeventriedfishcurryt
L}ve,
Barbaraand lohn

14

.&,

. ,,,

DearTim,
Hi! lm on holidayin Crete.I'm stayingat a marvellouscamp-site
the sea.Theweatheris warmand sunnv.
I've seenthe inuedible trtinoanpalaceat the ancientcity of K
LostweekI visitedthe trchaeological
museum.
I havebeenexploring
the gorgeoussandybeaches
in the area.yesterdaywhilet wos scu
diving,t foundan amazing
underwater
cave.
I havebeeneatinga lot of traditional food.I'veeventried snails.
is a wonderful
island.t'm havingso muchfun!
Ljve,

Bob

UNII
3
Look at the two pictures.What is the weather like in
each picture? Read the extracts and underline the odd
word out from the words in bold. In which extract is
the weather a) hot and sunny?b) cold, rainy and
cloudy? c) snowy and freezing? d) stormy, windy and
rainy?How did the people feel in each situation?

dhpnalrinu
Readthe letters again. In teams, ask and answer
questionsabout where the people are staying,the
weother,ploces they have visited things they have been
doing ond their good or bad experiences.

llgvelnpment
ffianuuaue

ffi
:,:

Find the adjectives in the three letters on p. | 4


which are used with the following nouns.
ploce,hotel,guest-house,
beoches,
comp-site,
weother,paloces,
food,city,cove,islond
Readthe paragraph below and replace the words in
bold with their oppositesfrom the list.

e.g. lt wssculdanrl
rainy.t"lefe/tunhcppy,
nrisercble
onddepresse<l
It wascoldand rainy.Theskywascoveredwithdark
greyclouds.I didn'tgo anywhere
and spentmostof
timein my hotelroomwatchingTV.I feltso calm,
unhappy,miserableand depressedthatI tookthe
firsttrainbackhome.

unfriendly,
dirty,avrful,lousy,horrible,crowded,disgusting,
cloudy,
filthy
Now write the new paragraph.

whata 1)fabulousplacethisisl
Youwon'tbelieve
Wearehavinga 2) wonderfultime.Theweather
is 3) sunny,and the hotelwe are stayingin is
really4) clean.The beach is 5) quiet and the
wateris 6) clear.The local peopleare very 7)
friendlyand the food is 8) delicious.l've never
hadsuchan 9) enjoyabletimein my life!

2 Strongwindskept blowingthe wholetime we were


there.Onthethirdnioht.a terriblestormbroke.lt was
pouring
litupthenightsky.
withrainandthelightning
I wasso frightened,relaxed,scared and uneasy
thatI leftearlythe nextmorning.
It was hot and sunny.Everyday we sat in the guestln theafternoons
housegardenenjoying
thesunshine.
a lightbreezeblewin fromtheseaandcooledus.We
feltso happy, refreshed,sad and cheerfulthatwe
stavedtherea wholemonth

The next day, we woke up to see that everythingwas


white.Snowwas fallinglightlyand it was freezing.We
spent the day makingsnowmenand skiing on the
slopes.We felt so excited, joyful, moody and
delightedthatwe decidedto go thereagainnextyear.
E Listen to the dialogue and write down four
questionsasking for information. Now act out a
similar dialogue trying to persuade your partner
to go on holiday with you.You may use adjectives
from Exs.5 and 5 to help you.
e.g.A: Whot is Malta like?
I gorgeouslfontasfic.
etc"
B: lt'sreallyfabulaus

Fill in the correct verb from the list.


do-go-toke-hove

1
2
3

......on holiday/on
a trip
someshopping
, a holiday

4
5
6

for a walk
.........
somesightseeing
. . . . . .s. .k i i n g

t5

UNII
3
Grammar
in Use
tu

1
2
3
4
5
6
a
b
c
d
e
f

12

ldentify the tensesin bold,then match them


with the correct
tense description. How is each tense formed?
when do we use
each tense?
Yesterday
morninglwent to St Stephen,s
Cathedral.
WhileI was takingpictures
someonestolemy bag.
I have been exploringall the gorgeoussandybeaches
in the area.
We've been swimmingat NyaliBeachalmostevery
day and we,vegot
greattans.
I'veseenthe incredible
Minoanpalace.
| thinkI'veput on weight.
tongerpastactioninterrupted
by a shorteraction
actionwhichhappened
in the pastat a definite
time
pastactionhavingvisibleresultsin the present
actionwhichbeganin the pastanOis siittgorngon
statementof personalexperiences
or chanoes
recentactionwhenthe time is not mentionJd

PastSimple:ago,yesterday,
lastmonth/week,
etc.
PastContinuous:
when,while,as
PresentPerfect:never,ever,before,already,yet,for,
since
PresentPerfectContinuous:for, since
11 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

a
1 Whileshe....(have)luncnsomeone............
(steal)hercamera.

Reaa the diafogue and fiil in


E
the correct tense, then listen to
the tape and check your answers,
Now act out the dialogue.

A: Hi Sally!| didn,tknowyou were


When1)
B : LastFriday.
A : So you2) ........ .. .. .. .. . (be)
fora week,right?
B : Yes,we'restayingat the paradise
When3)
A ; Lateyesterday
evening.l,m stayingai
a guest-house
by the sea.So, whatr
B:
A:

everyday.Thebeachesare so ctean.
6) .......... ..
(you/see)
the
templeyet?

B:
thereon Monday.lt,sreally
Unfortunately,
as we g) ...... . . ...
(explore)it Jane 9) ..... . . .
(slip)and 10) .......................
(twisr)
ankle.
A : Oh dear!ls sheanybetternow?
B : Much better,thanks.Listen,have
got anyplansfor tonight?
Notreally.
B : Why don't you come with us to
beachparty?We 11) .. .. . (go)
onea fewdaysagoandit 12)...........
(be) greatfun. They 13)............
(serve) deliciousfood and we
(dance)tiil the eartyI
Thatsoundsgreail WhereshallI

you?

2 He is dirty.He.
(repair)carssincemorntno.

l3

Fitl in the gaps with the correct


adverb.Then say what tense they
go with.
for, since,ogo,already,yet,while,so for,
ever,when,never

1 Sheleft for herholidayin Spaina

3 He is sunburnt.
He
(lie)in thesunfor hours,

dbl

(",-"

2l

iw

-tt
. :{i ii

5 W h i l es h e. . . . . . . . . . . . . .( .s.k. .i .).

6 Sheis tired.She

have been going on holidavto


fouryears.
Haveyou
travelledbv
before?
l've..............
. . . b e e nt o
foreigncountrybefore.
She has been skiing
wasa child.
6 | don'twantto go to Hawaiiaqain.I

3
UNII
so I can'tgo out.
7 | haven'tunpackedmy suitcase
Mumwas reading
8 Dadwasdrivingthecar
themapandgivingdirections.
it startedto rain.
..................
9 Shewassunbathing
10 I'vebeento fourdifferentbeaches

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.


In which paragraph doesVicky talk about a) the
weather? b) sights/activities?c) food/experiences?

16

rA

)?

el.
)?
I

4)

D?
n)
rld
o)
v.

er

14 Stuaythe pairs of sentencesbelow,then


completethe following sentencesusing the words
in bold.Use two to five words.
havenevertravelledby planebefore.
thefirsttimeI havetravelledby plane.
a longtimesincewe wenton holiday.
beenon holidayfor a longtime.
haven't
long
,When/How ago did he leavefor Cyprus?
"Howlongis it sincehe leftfor Cyprus?
ThelasttimeI wentto Spainwas lastsummer.
beento Spainsincelastsummer.
I haven't
Jameslastwentto Munichthreeyearsago.
Jameshasn'tbeento Munichfor threeyears.

I oearengie'
ttrvlamitv
' (write)to }/ouf"y '.y!!':l''
| 1)............"

roki"niiii^'^'?)t'l!v^'!!'i
c,v
nnrt
| 2t
'l"li'"'li;
i
lr*#+.'[*;,il;il:;fir,i
r,,nrii

"Ii:i',;;r;',,,#,#,;il

Thelasttimewe wentfishingwaslastsummer.
lastsummer'
have We ..............
food
before.
ShehasnevereatenChinese
{ood.
Chinese
time lt'sthe .........
go
Whendidhe to Naples?
. to Naples?
since Howlong
It'sa longtimesincewe ateout.
a longtime.
eaten We ...............
years
ago.
Helastwentto Delhifive
......fivevears.
Hehas
for

:;;':,3i
i:"iTiiiH;l*
'
u'tmniit
r:i"nli
ilin
*-fliq].:*;ffi
'

1
tttt'-tfr:ll.;.ffi
rainins'
it started
today.
-ili;iedo
g0 flow - werc av"'e

'

Well, I must

Lout'
Vicky

Ii.,
;

.'*"----r.

a-"!r-''!,r.,,rJ-\.
..

17

I*ugirr" you are on holiday. Use the paragraph


plan below to write a letter to your friend.

cialinn

Plan
friend'sfirstname)

^.^r
u
( . u t . . , . . .$our
..:1...
E

itayed

INTRODUCTION
saywhereyou are
Para 1: greetings,
,I'
MAINBODY
Para2: saywhereyouare stayingandwhattheweatheris like

ooked
cainted

Para3: sightsyou haveseen/activities

First listen and tick.Then, listen and repeat.

trl

tdl

hdt

f.

ru

Para4: food you havetasted/goodand bad experiences


(a letter describing your stay at a
holiday resort)

a letterdescribingyour stay at a holiday


shouldtalkaboutthe place(whereit is, whatit
(whereyou
youarrivedthere),accommodation
you
have
visited,
activities
the
weather,
sights
,
been doing, the food, any good or bad
youhavehadandyourimpressions.
Organise
in paragraphsand be carefulto use the

CONCLUSION
Para5: end the letter
Love,

(v..9!!:.!!r:J..r.e.ns

,i.t,:l,t:,"

":'W[rd$nf Wisdnm
Read these sentences.What do they mean?

o Travelbroadensthe mind.
o Allworkand no playmakesJacka dullboy.

11

* ffiffi
f,eading
You are going to read an article about a tour ofthe west coast of
the United States. For questions I to 8, choose from the places
mentioned in the tour (A - D).The places may be chosen more th
.There is an example at the beginning (0).

PncificPnnndisr
Toun

tOad-in
Have you ever travelled abroad?
Where did you go? What did you
see there?
Match the pictures with the places:
San Francisco, Los Angeles, San
Diego, Hawaii.What are these
places famous for?
E
Mrt.lt two things from the list
to each place. Now listen to the
tape and check your answers.

1 San Francisco
2 LosAngeles
3 San Diego
4 Hawaii

1B

a cable cars
b traditional

oances
a zoo
Disneyland
goldenbeaches
a famous
bridge
richpeople's
houses
h watersports
c
d
e
f
g

The PacificParadiseDisneyland
wherewesawE.T.
Tour took us to shookhandswithMickev
'
California,
on the west Afterthattheytookusto
coastof the United
States,to seethehouses
of.thestars
andtotheHawaiian
islands
inthe havemadea lotoffilms- anda
Pacilic 0cean. With beautifulofmoney!
countiyside,
excitingcitiesand The last placewe visited
fantastic
beaches,
thisholidav
had California
wasSanDiego,a city
evefihing.
sun,sand,seaandall kinds
Thefirstplacewestopped
at was watersports.
We wentto the
San Francisco,in noilhern DiegoZoowhichis one of
California.
Thiscityisfamous
forits world's
largest
zoos.
Wealso
cablecars- andit certainly
needs Mexico,
which
is onlya short
thembecause
San Francisco
is away
fromSanDiego.
extremely
hillyandhassomevery Finally,
we wentto Hawaii.
steep
roads!
Bythesea,nextto the paradise!
Wesatongolden
fishingboats,therearethe fish withgreen
palmtreesano
restaurants.
Here we enjoyedamazing
redsunsets.
Wealso
watching
the streetactorsand colourful
fishat SeaLifepark
musicians
asweatedelicious
fresh wentsnorkelling
inHanauma
Bay.
fish.Onethingwe'llnever
forget
is theevenings
we enjoyed
the
theGolden
GateBridge,
whichisvery clubs,
barsandice-cream
bigandbeautiful.
Bestof all,weatefantastic
Hi
TheneKcityonthetourwasLos foodwhilewatching
Hawaiian
Angeles.
Thiscityis veryexcitingperforming
traditional
and has some very famous dances.
attractions.
Thenearby
beaches
are Thisholiday
was fantastic.
longandsandy
andthemountains
whenyouhavetime,getonthe
,, outside
thecityarehighanddry.We plane
tothewestcoastofThe
thebeachwheretheywere States
:.rvisited
andhavethetimeof vour
",.lilming
Baywatch.
Wealsowentto

UNII
4
sentencesrefer to which place(s)?

Replace the words in bold with


others from the list.

C SanDiego
D Hawaii
isbuilton hills.
isa famous
themeoark.
closeto another

foodis delicious.
performasyou

colourful, perfecgdelicious,
gorgeous,
tiny,delightful,huge,fontastic

E
T fl
:[

LastwinterI wenton a skiing


holiday
to theAlps.Westayedin a
1) smallchalet
whichhada 2) big
f ireplacein every room. The
weather
was3) good so we were

wt:
g n
til tf
r t:

ableto go skiingeveryday.In the


evenings
we haddinnerat 4) nice restaurants
in the village.Thefood

wasreally5) good.Thereweresome6) nice shopsso I boughta 7) i


nice jumper.
Westayedtherefor a week.Wehada 8) good time.

lil tf

seethe homesof famous

seeInterestrng
creatures
sea.

f,lnrils rftnn Goilfilsod

n tf
rn

Fill in the gaps with one of these words.

look-wotch - see - toke -bring

1 C a ny o u. . . . . . . . . . . . .t.h, .a. t.g.i r l ?


3 .........
at thisstatue!
lt'sgorgeous.
She'shidingbehindthetree.
4 Can you .............
me a glassof
2 | always
my favouriteTV
water,please?
programme on
Saturday 5 .............
the booksbackto the
afternoons.
library,please.

laryPrautine
at the words in bold in Ex. 4
to explain them, then choose
and make sentences.

Fill in the correct particle(s).

l0

Phrasal
Ucrls
eachword from column A
its opposite from column B.

w
a dull

run into sb:


run out of:
run after:
run over:

b ugly

1
2
3
4

c southern
d tasteless
e wet
I stale

to meetsb by chance
to finish;haveno moreof
to chase
to hit sb/sthwitha car,etc.

A c a ra l m o srta n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m
. . y. .d. o. .g .
Theballrolleddownthehillandthechildren
ran .......................
it.
Whilewe weredriving
petrol.
to Paris,
thecarran ....................
GuesswhatlI ran ......................
yesterday.
BillGarring

PrcR[$lllons

the correct word from the


Use the words only once.

polm,steep,
streelshort,fshing
golden

...boats

II

Fill in the correct prepositions,then chooseany three and make


sentences.

1 .........
the westcoast.........
the UnitedStates;
2.........the pacificOcean;3
famous.........
sth;4 .........
a tour;5 shakehands.........
golden
sb; 6 sit .........
beaches;
7 get.........
a plane

oances

,:fnllnw-uI

r:illllil,'
UgquI

IEJ

roads

Read the article again and talk about San Francisco, Los Angeles,
San Diego and Hawaii in terms of sights / activities.

l9

UNII
4
Language
lleuelo[mcnt
When you describe a place, you can
give examplesof what you can see, hear
and smell. This makes the descriotion
more interesting.
12

Read the phrases and say which


sense each one describes.Then,
choose suitable phrases to fill in
the descriptions below.
croshingwoves,/eovesrustling,blue seo,
smellof wet soil strow umbrellos,toll
greentrees,smellof suntonoil, birds
chirping,bright sun

14 toot at the map and fill in the gaps with one of the prepositions
the list.
obove,next tolbeside,opposite,below,over,nearI closeto,by

1 Therestaurant
is ..........the
square. 5
2 Thecarparkis
the cinema
3 T h es c h o oi ls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .t.h. .e. . . .6.
library.
7
T h eh a i r d r e s s ei sr '.s. . . . . . . . . . . .t.h. .e. ,
chemist's.

T h ec h e m i s ti' s . . . . . . ..... . . . .
hairdresser's.
T h ec h u r c hi s . . . . . . . . . . .t .h.e.
Thereis a bridgecrossing
...
the river.

uJ
IJJ

z
d

My holiday
was perfect.
From
my
balconyI saw
1) ...........,.....
l which lined
the beach. I
spentmy daysunderthe2) ..,.......
swimmingin the 3).....
... and
playingin the 4)
........ The5)
. . . . . . .f.i.l.l e dt h ea i r .

The4)

13

The forest
was peaceful.
Therewere
1 ) . . . . . . . .........
allaroundme.
Theonly
soundsI heard
werethe2) ...
on thetreesand3)
.........
filledtheair.

Listen to the tape and tick the


E
phrases that you hear.What can
the man hear/see/smell?

MILLST

i I

.:Churchi

t t '-'-'-:
+
'
""-'
Hotel i
j
River
i
" '*'4w&1,

-i

go straighton, go past,takethefirst/second
turnleft/right,
turningon
right/left,
carryon/keepgoinguntilyou get,turninto

15

E
Listen to the tape and fill in the gaps with the words you
hear.Then, read the dialogue and mark the route on the map
starting from the library. Finally, in pairs ask for and give
directions a) from the hospitol to the hotel and b) from the
theatre to the librory, using the expressions in the box above.

Tom: Excuseme, sir. Can you tell me the way to the post office,please?

1 honking
horns

M a n : Yes.Well1) ........................
LoringRoaduntilyougetto Park
2) ........................
andgo straight
on untilyougetto CrossStreet.

2 loudmusic

Tom: Okay.

Man: Then 3)
... into Cross Streetand 4)
suoermarket
whichis on vour left.CrossMill Streetand keeo
You'llsee a hotelon one corner,and 5)
... the hotel
newsagent's.
Thepostofficeis 6) ........................
the newsagent's
can'tmissit.

4
5
6
7

20

t:
f]
carexhaustfumes tf
a largecarpark
[f
tallskyscrapers t:
saltyair
[f
thebusystreetbelow n

Tom: Thanksverymuch.

UNII
4
19

in Use
at the Grammar Reference Section on pp. 103 definitearticle).Then, read the following text
atick(/) for every correct use ofthe and a
(JQfor every incorrect use of it.

wasa busyday.I tookJennyto the

t:

andthenI wentto the stationto pick up my f.]


whohadjustanivedfromthe Spain.We l--l
-ower
Bridge
andtheBuckingham
Patace. n
opedshecouldseetheQueen.Thenwe
[f
theTrafalgar
Squareand took lotsof photos |-l
visited
theBritishMuseumand Soho.

f.]

the numbers to the letters, then, join the


as in the example. How are such/so used?
wossucho livelyplacethat I went out everynrght.
wosso livelythat I went.out every night.

l:l.l,lli:,
place.
, a I didn'tsleepwell.
ls peaceful. b We spent a whole day
\
WAS
there.
c
Wemissedtheappointment.
\
r hotel.
Wefeltcompletely
d
relaxed.
\
re crowded. \ e I wentout everynight.

Read this article from a school magazine and fill


in each gap with an adjective ending in -ous, -ly,
-ic, -y,-fuL Then say what each paragraph is about.

(fame)Black
The1l famous
picturesque
Forest
andthe
town
of BadenBadenare in
southwestern
Germany.
I went
there
recently
insearch
ofa 2)
(peace),
relaxing
holiday
andI certainly
wasn't
disappointed.
Thetownissunounded
bv
(marvel)
3) .................
scenery,
lakes
clear
andtall
mountains.
Theweather
duringmy visitwasso c00land4)
(mist)thatit created
a wonderfulty
5)................
(mystery)
atmosphere.
places
There
areplenty
ofinteresting
tovisitincluding
thetown's
(delight)
palace
6)...........,.,...
15thcentury
andtheRoman
baths.
I alsoexplored
(shade)
the7).,...............
Black
Forest
where
allI
couldhearwasthegentle
soundofflowingstreams.
Thefoodwas
excellent.
I triedseveral
(taste)
8).................
local
dishes.
I also
bought
some
cuckoo
clocks
assouventrs.
I hadtheholiday
of a lifetime
in Baden
Baden.
Withits g)
(friend)
people,
(fantasy)
and10)
natural
sunoundings,
I wouldcertainly
recommend
itto anyone
whowants
togoonholiday
inthenear
future.

Imagine you visited a place in your country which


you really liked. Describeit using the paragraph
plan below.

at the different expressions you can use to


(or not recommend) a place.
oughttolshould,
I stronglyodviseyou to (not to),
thingyoucon do is to, It'sworth goinglvisiting,
etc.
complete sentences using the expressions
and the notes below as in the example.
reollyoughtto visitDisney/ondos it's fun for the

fomily.
family
RockBeach/perfect
for windsurfino
Beach/water/deep
crowded
things/see

Plan
INTRODUCTION
Para 1: wherethe placeis and why you wentthere
MAINBODY
Para2: furtherdetailsaboutthe place/weather
conditions
Para3: whatyou sawand whatyou did there
CONCLUSION
Para4: howyou feel.aboutthe placeand whetheryou
recommend
it or not

(a visit to a place)
,,trt:t:,:

anarticledescribing
a visitto a place,we use
whatwe saw,whatwe did there,the
describe
impressions
of the place.We use present
theplaceis and whatit is like.We can
(sight,hearing,smell) to make the
interesting.

Wnrdsnf Wisdnm
Read these sentences.What do they mean?
"Whena manis tiredof London,he is tiredof
life."(SamuelJohnson)
Whenin Rome,do as the Romansdo.

21

ffiw$W
ffiw.wW
lead-in

A lungletloor,sticky,icy,hissing,
python,
thrilled,help,screamed

What types of stories can you think of and which of them do


you enjoy reading? Look at these three pictures. How do you
think the people feel in each one? What do you think is
happening? Can you guess what they are saying or thinking?
E
Loot at the words under each picture and guess which of
them might appear in the story based on the picture you can
see.Then listen and underline the words you hear.

HnadinU
3

frower:T1:';til?'lflJ,ljlit?l
the
upfrom
E ,,un.r,
rooked
crarr<

.Lr'r*
[Jt;T,iyxm::xl"'Tr':H
:llifi

branches,
Freezing,
sea,pool,thunder,
lightning,
horror,cold

herheadl:l:nil;;.i.lLom'on'
rehind
hissins
somethins
shesc
her'"Help!"
around
ou*.t."tttUitsel{

i
tli

l
&

First read the following beginnings of stories and underline the


sentences which best describe the pictures.Then try to explain
words in bold. Finally, answer the questions below.

r''tp*t

E"0hno,I can'tholdon,"Sammyshouted.Hegrabbeddesperately
forthe

rF

of atreeasthefreezing
wateroftherivercarried
himtowards
thesea.Coldrain
pouring
downwhile
thethunder
boomed,
covering
hisshouts
forhelp.
The
lightning
made
thenight
seem
likeday.Sammy
wasstifffromthecold.

&

h
p

t
t

them::tf::t:int ,:ffJ',ilr}:'S11'i::
throush
walkins
Billwere
luk, uno
tiredsudden
reerrns
and were
*iJnisnt

*?fiffifJ[uui,]#i;ili
n' *i'**t'lio
it'','
"There
stopped.

]hey
atme
hisgun'armed
eiilSrt*iyheraised

thenlired'
shaPe,

A moonless
torest,snow,rain,midnight,
tired,whispered,
darkshape,
Fired

27

1 Whereandwhendid eachstorytakeplace?
2 Whatwasthe weatherlikein eachstory?
3 Whowasinvolved
in eachstory?Howdid thesepeoplefeel?
Whydid theyfeelthisway?Whathappened?
4 Underline
theuseof thesensesin thebeginnings
above.

UNIT
5
6

Readthe sentencesand match them with the


adjectivesbelow.
embarrossed,
nervous,
hoppy,ongry,surprised,
frightened,
bored.miseroble

Readthe beginningsagain and match them with


thetitles: a)The Flood b) Horror in the Jungle
c)TheMonster
Canyou think of another title for each story?
2
3
4

[alE llsuslo[mEnt
The use of various adjectives makes stories more
interesting.Read the list of adjectives and match
them with the nouns as in the examples.You may
usesome adjectives more than once.

6
7
8

moonlit"
rough,colm,moonless,
stormy,dork, sunny,
cleo[cloudless

',0rflmmar
in Use

nioht

pebbly,noisy,crowded,high,norrow,expensive,
steep,
sondy,tree-covered

Join the sentences below using when, while, and,


so, or as/becauseas in the example.
e.g. Thesun was shiningand thebirdswere singtng.

restaurant
mountain
showa person'sfeelingsby describingtheir
. Thismakesa story more lively.
at the pictures and say how each person
Then match the adjectives in the list with
pictures.When do you feel like this?
onnoyed,
sod,angry,miseroble,terrified,glod,
thrilled,pleosed, depressed,
furious, d elighted

His kneesweretrembling;he thoughthe was goingto


faint.e.g. He was frightened.
Ann sat at her deskstaringout of the window.
Everybodylaughedat him and his facewentvery red.
His eyes and mouthwere wide open but he couldn,t
say anything.
Lizsat quietlyin the cornerwith her headin her hands,
sighingfromtimeto time.
Shestartedto shakeas she went intothe examroom.
The drivershookhis fist and startedshouting.
Tim'seyeswereshiningand he had a hugesmileon
his face.

1
2
3
4

Thesunwasshining..
BillwaswatchingTV.\
lwas havinga Ohfr.
I heard a noisein the \
garden.
He wentto bed earlylast
night.

a His wife was getting


dressed.
b He wasverytired.
c Thebirdsweresinging.
d I wentto seewhatit was.
e My doorbellrang.

Look at the sentences in Ex. T.Which tenses are


used for: a) octions which hoppened one after the
other? b) o post oction in progress interrupted by
onother post action? c) post octions of a certoin
durotion which hoppened ot the sorne time? d) on
dction which hoppened ot o definite post time? e)
giving o background description to events in o story?
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
Justify the use of the Past Continuous.

scaredwhenI go to the dentist.

Paula1)
. . . . . . .( t o o k ) o u t o f t h e w i n d o w . l t
2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(.b. .e ) d a r k a n d w e t o u t s i d e .B i g r a i n d r o p s
3 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(.r.u. .n ) d o w n t h e g l a s s . T h e n s h e 4 )
. . ( s e e ) t h e m a n d 5 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(.g. .a.s p ) i n
h o r r o r .T w o t h i n ,w h i t e c r e a t u r e s6 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .( .w. .a l k )
towards the window. Her hands 7) .........
( b e g i n ) t o s h a k e a s s h e 8 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(.r.e a t i s e ) t h a t
t h e i r e y e s 9 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .( .s.t.a r e ) r i g h t i n t o h e r s .

23

UNII
5
'ltlfiting

(rain)heavilyandthewind2)
It 1) ................
(walk) back home. lt 4)
(blow). Sam 3)
(be) very lateand the streets5) ................
(hear)footsteps
(be)empty.Suddenlyhe 6) ................
(get)closerand closer.
behindhim.They7) ................
(see)
(turn)roundand 9) ................
Sam8)
a slimwomanin a dirtyraincoatwalkingtowardshim.
(work) in the garden.He 2)
Peter1)
( d i g )a d e e ph o l ew h e nh e 3 ) . . . . . . . . . . . .(.f.i.n. d )a n o l d
(open)it, he
silverbox.When he 4) ................
5 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .(.b. .e. .)s u r p r i s etdo s e ea n o l d m a p .

formsin the same


Whentherearetwo pastcontinuous
you can avoidrepetition
by justusingthe -ing
sentence,
participle.e.g. He was looking aroundand he was crying
for hismother.He waslookingaroundcrying for hismother.

r0

(settingthe scene)

Whenwe writea storywe beginby settingthe


orderto do this, we imaginethat we are looking
pictureandwe try to describethe place (where),the
(when),the weather,the people involvedand
feelings.We canuseoursensesto makethe
morelively.Thatis,we can describewhatwe see
huge python),hear (e.9. hlssrng),feel (e.9.soft
floor)or smefl (e.9.the scentof pine trees).
We use direct speech (e.g. "Help!" she
variety of adjectives (e.9. horrified,stormy),
(e.9. silently, strangely)and verbs (e.9.
screamed)to makea storymoreinteresting.
13

Put the verbs in bracketsinto Past Simple


Past Continuous, then answer the questions.

Now do the same with these sentences.

1 He was runningfastand he was carryinga big box.


2 They were standingat the edge of the cliff and they
wereadmiringthe view.
Tim was watchingTV and he was eatinghis supper.
11

Fill in the gaps with words from the list.Then


underline the direct speech in the paragraph.
croshing,soiling,enjoying,trying,blowing,sitting,moking
talking,helping

It was a sunnyafternoon.
Davidand his friends
w e r e1 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
along the coast,
2 ) . . . . . . . . . . .t .h. e. . .
warm weather.
S A light breeze
/ !

was3)

acrossthe bay.
all felt
TheY
*;ffi}
t'
!
relaxed.Rick and
. *,,fl. ,.---;'
T y l e rw e r e4 ) . . . . . . . . . .
F:'
Davidsail the boat as
theotherswere 5) ...........,
a b o u tt h e i r
6) ...............
plansfor the summerholidays.Suddenly,the wind started
blowingstronglyand the sea becamerough.Wavesbegan
7l .............
a g a i n s t h e b o a t ,8 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
everyonelosetheir balance.Darkcloudscoveredthe sky.
to lowerthe sailswhen Rick
Davidwas 9) .......................
cried"Where'sTyler?"...
i
I

12 What is direct speech?Find examplesof it in the


beginningson p.22 and underlinethem.

74

a
b
c
d

Whenand wheredid the storytake placee


Whatwas the weatherlike?
Who werethe peopleinvolvedand how did they
Whichsentencesdescribethe senses?

I t 1 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (. .b.e. .).a b i t t e r lcyo l dn i g h t l.t 2 ) . . . . . . ,


(walk) alongthe
(rain) heavily.Sally3) ................
(run)
roadand tears4)
......
downher
. .c h )a s t r e e tl a m pa n d
5 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (. .r .e. a
.. (have) nowhereto go to, no
She 6)
stay with ... nothing!She was soakedto the skin
7 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(. n. .o. .t./.s e e mt)o b o t h e rh e r .
(feel)a gentletap on hershoulder.
8) .................
(turn)around.In the paleyellow
she 9)
(see)
10)
.
....
a stranger.He 11) .....
(wear)clothesas blackas night,but hisface 12)
(be) kind and calm.

UNII
5
Loot at the picture and think of as many
E
words as you can that relate to the scene.Then
listento the tape and answer these questions.
r What was the weather like?
. Where and when did this happen?
t Who was involved? How did they feel?Why?

the beginningsand endings and match


How does the writer set the scene? How
he finish each story? Underline the direct
in them.

16

nt. paragraph below sets the scene of a


E
story. Read it and try to fill in the missing words.
Now listen to the tape and check your answers.
Can you think of any other beginnings for the

story?
DianeBrookes
1) .........
at herwoodendesk.lt wal
about midnight and
everything was
2l
. She fett 3)
after all this
hard work, but now the
computerdisc was ready.
Suddenlyshe hearda 4)
outside her
office. Someone was
tryingto 5) ................
in.Dianewasn'tsurprised.
Sheknewthev
werecomingfor her.Shelookedat thedoor,thencalmlvasked-,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6)
. . . . . .y. o
. u?"
17

fnint of a sentencefor each picture using


E
direct speech,then write a beginningfor picture
A and an endingfor picture B usingthe words in
the bubbles.Finally,listen and find out how
similar your version
is to the one on the
tape.

n$
Black
lookedoutof thewindowof theold building.
darkandwet.Rainwascomingdownheavily.
The
wereempty.No cars,no people... nothing.
a flashof lightningtore acrossthe sky. She
withfear.A hugespaceship
was approaching
"They've
foundme,"shegasped."l can'tget

,now."

Thewindwasblowin9;
wantto diel"Davidshouted'

the'"1\ulll:l*ii, {
onto
iis.Ci*. asheheld
!'
hecouldkeephimself
longer

il;iil"* howmuch
g
sky'Suddenly
morning
* Hrf."f,.Oupatthecle-ar
him'
approaching
f
ti. tornOof a helicopter

could
hearthesirenofanambulance
asthehelicopterI
1,People
werewaitinganxiously
for them.A man
Jtheambulance
door."Don'tworrylEverything
will
" themantoldhim.Davidlookedup at hiskindface
weakly.
Hewasexhausted
buthewasalive. t'

sigh with relief safe - it's OK -

ltll::

Wurdsnf Wisdum
Read these sentences.What do they mean?

can'tbetrue!",shecried'
no!This

Thereare no dullsubjects;thereare onlydullwriters.


Thepen is mightier
thanthe sword.

i
h

Readthe text and for questions I - 4 choose the best answeri A, B, C or D.

JamesKearnsopenedhis eyes,and everything


. Theairfeltheavyandwet.Thickgreenforestsand
of rockssurrounded
him.
a giantlizard ranfromthe forestand triedto attack
withitssharpclaws,but he wasableto diveout of thewav.
appeared,
and another.Theyallwalkedon two feet,
tails,
andtheirheadswerelikethoseof alligators.James
seenthesecreaturesin booksbefore.Thevwerecalled
andtheyweredinosaurs
whichlikedto killin groups.
of theseangry-looking
creatureswere circlinghim,
growlingnoises.
horrible
forhelp,buthe onlyheardhisownvoiceecho
theair.Thevelociraptors
wereaboutto attackwhena
rusbrokethroughthe trees.lt musthavebeen
in height.Twoof the velociraptors
triedto attackthe
buttheenormous
grabbedone,killedit
creature
jawsanddroppedit on the ground.Theothersran

Had the doctor said ,


that?The professor'shead
t'
,*
hurtandhefeltweak.He lay down
&
for a few moments,and soon he WAS
fastasleep.
The roar of a dinosaurwoke him up. lt was night-time,and
nothingwas visible.Therewas only the soundof something
breakingthroughthe trees,then graduallyit faded away.He
tooka lighterfromhis pocketand usedthisto starta fire.Then
he beganwritingin his notebook,keepinga recordof all his
thoughtsandfeelings.
The next day, James left the cave to pick fruit from the
nearbytrees.Whilehe wasout he sawa smallbabydinosaur,
no biggerthana chicken.lt hadyellowand greenstripeson its
backand whitelegs.lt lookedso smalland harmlessthat he
triedto touchit. Suddenly,
something
movedin the bushes.A
woman,dressedin animalskinsand carryinga spear,pushed
him out of the way. She lookedat him as if he had done
Jamesfounda caveto hide in. lt was a deep,dark something
wrong,then,to showhimwhatshe meant,she held
hestayednearthe frontwheretherewas lightcoming herspearnearthe dinosaur's
mouth.Thebabydinosaurtooka
largebiteout of it,thenranawayquickly.Jameswasshockedat
memories
wereunclear.
Heand DrApplebaum
had thedinosaur's
viciousness.
homefromthe university
"Canyouspeak?"he askedher.
wherethey bothtaught.
hadbeentalkingaboutan experimenthe had been
The womanseemedconfusedby his voice.She madea
workingon for quite a long time. "l
gruntingnoise,thenpushedhim awayfromthe fruittreeswith
haveseenthingsyoucan'timagine,"
he
nersoear.
hadsaid.Theneverything
wentblack.
Theywerestandingin an openarea,whena hugeshadow
James looked at the notebookhe
coveredthemboth.Thewomanlookedup, thenjumpedout of
alwayskept in his coat pocket.The theway.A flyingpteranodon
swoopeddown,pickedJamesup
lastentry said:
with its sharpclawsand flewaway.
"lt's as if you are
Jameslookeddown and saw the womanstaringup at him,
falling.
Youfeelnothing, buttherewasnothingshecoulddo.
"Somebody
then,boom,you'rein
helpme!"he yelledhorrified,
but hisvoicejust
anothertimeoeriod."
echoedoverthe hillsandvalleysof thisprehistoric
land.
.&, ,

hadanideaofwhatthevelociraptors
werebecause
hadwritten
a bookaboutthem.
hadwatched
a filmaboutthem.
lookedlikealligators.

hadseenoictures
ofthem.
hadtoldJamesabout

timeperiod.
experiment.
dinosaurs.
university.

*4

Whydid Jameswakeup in the night?


A He hearda noise.
B Hewantedto writesomethingin his notebook.
C He hada headache.
D Hewastoo cold.
Whenthewomansawtheshadow.she
A hid in thefruittrees.
B movedawayquickly.
C bentdown.
D layon the ground.

21

UNII
6
Practire
Uncabulary

Put the verbs in brackets into the Past


Simple or Past PerfectContinuous.

By the timewe got to the cinema,the film


(already/start).
2 Shelet me use her cameraaftershe
me howto useit.
(travel)for threedays
3 Henrietta
reached
her
destination.
Fill in the correct word(s) frcim the list below.
(type)forso longthathisfingers
4 Mark......................
Use the words only once.
(save)
heboughl
5 He....................
upformonths
before
fost,to mokegrowling,towork on,thick,to pick,
(practise)for the big match
6 Theteam
sharp,to scfeom,dork,to run,to stort
January.
left the room only aftershe ......................
f o r e s t s 6 a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c a v She
e
for hermissingbracelet.
everywhere
. . . . . .c. .l a w s 7
She............... (leave)beforePaularrived.
. . . . .n. o r s e s I
....for help
I
awayin fear 1 0
9 Read the short dialogue, then working in

Look at the words in bold on p.27 and try to


explain them, then choose any three and make
sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

out similar dialogues using the notes below.

frllnw-up
k,

When did Professor Kearns feel a) horrified and b)


shocked?
Describe the baby dinosaur and the velociraptors.
Read the summary in Ex.3,then close your book and
tell the story to your partner in your own words.

a
a

A:
B:
A:
B:

10

bv thetimehermother
Shehadfinishedherhomework
got home.
2 He wastiredbecausehe had beenworkinghardall day.
3 He had been studyingfor two yearsbeforehe got his
oegree.
pastactioncontinuing
overa periodup to a certaintime
in the oast
b pastactionwhichhappenedbeforeanotherin the past
c oastactionof a certaindurationwithvisibleresultsin the
oast

Past Perfect Simple: by the time, after, before,by six


o'clock/midnight,
etc.
Past PerfectContinuous:for, since

2B

1 theatre/two
weeks
ago/entertaining
2
3 opera/last
winter/boring
4 circus/three
weeks
ago/fascinating
fashionshow/last

Irunnssin!0blilatinn/prnhibit!0n/
rI llecessity

in Use
Srammar

ldentify the tensesin bold then match them to


the correct tense description. How is each tense
formed?When do we use each tense?

Have you ever


beento azoo?
Yes,I have.
Whenwasthal?
Lastyear.
Whatwas it like?
It wasexciting"

Look at the sign and match the words in


with their synonyms, then say what each
verb expresses.

a. don't have to

b. have to

c. are not

Wrigglesworth
Safari
Youmust stayin your
Youmustn'tfeedthe
Childrenunder5 needn

payfor an entrance

UNIT
6
l4

You witl hear a museum guide talking to some children


E
about the dinosaur exhibits in the museum. Read the table then
listen to the tape and fill in the missing information.

habitat
Compsognathusall overthe

food

stze

weight

cmtall

kilos

meat

special
features
veryfast

exceptin
Antarctica
Pteranodon
leavea1y l
valuablesI
in therooml

_.-i

........,
Asia
andNorth
America

Velociraptor

How do we
When do we
we use thon?

small
animals

very

verylong

light

beak

medium
size

strong,fast
runners,
claws

+
Tyrannosaurus
America
and
EastAsia
thanspiders.

.thansnakes.

15

other
big
metres
dinosaurs tall

very

strong
legs,
long........

E
First read the notes then listen to the second part of what
the museum guide said to these children and underlinethe
correct words.

and the notes

with girafies

dinosaursdisappeared
150/65millionyearsago

, rnor...thon.

Theoriesaboutwhy they disappeared:

.
o
TheoryA:
a giantmeteorite
fromspacehit/brokethe earth
. huge dust clouds rose up and blocked the
moon/sunlight
o all plantsdiedand dinosaursstarvedor lrozel burnedto
death
TheoryB: o climatechangeda lot/a litile becausethe continents
weremovingaround
. summers got hotter/colder and winters got
hotter/colder
o dinosaurshad such big problemswith these changes
thattheydied
TheoryC: o a poisonousplant/animalappearedwhichkilled
dinosaurs
. as a resultthe meat-eating
dinosaurshad no food, so
theydied
-*,\

ffi:

---

Pruniln$ (Project)
qtf'

Using the information about dinosaurs in this unit write your


project describing them. Say when and where they lived, what they
ate and looked like and why they disappeared. Cut pictures from the
Photo File Section at the back of the book to use with your project.

29

,:l: ::,",'' ,::'


:.:, il ::l i li,

Choosethe correct item.

Tinais a very...................
childwholovesgivingpresents.
A ambitiousB generous C determinedD sensitive
Thechildfelt...................
whenthelionroaredat him.
A frightenedB depressed
C furious
D miserable
you.Youlookterrificl
Thatdressreally...................
A matches B goeswith C suits
D fits
person;
Janeis a ..........,........
sheneverlies.
A sincere B caring
C shy
D creative
Please
don't...................
my secretto anyone.
A find out B reveal
C overcome D remain
Theexplorer
hearda snake...................
in thegrass.
A yelling
B shouting C hissing D screaming
7 W e v i s i t e da ( n ) . , . . . . . . . . . . . . .t.e. .m. p l et h a t w a s b u i l t
thousands
of yearsago.
A traditionalB modern C ancient
D new
A Whose
My voice
A echoed

thatstrangemansittingoverthere?
B Which
C Who
D Who's
in the emptyhouse.
B grunted C roared
D rustled

1 0 You...................
buya ticket; l'vegota spareone.
A mustn't B needn't C must
D need
Fill in the correct word.

Fill in the correct particle(s) from the list.


for,up, ofter,forword to, out of, into,ofter,over

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

30

pic( speoks,
strong,
true,pebbly,
thick,public,osleep,
cosually
fishing,
Itwassucha ,....beachthatit wasn'tcomfortable
to lieon.
In autumn,farmers
fruitfromtheirtrees.
Shewas
dressedin jeansanda T-shirt.
peoplearealwaysin the .....,.............
Famous
eye.
Shehas
viewson environmental
oroblems.
Colourful
boatslinedthesmallharbour.
Theskichaletwassurrounded
by ...................
forests.
Ann always
her mindand doesn'tcarewhat
othersmightthink.
Peoplealwaystry to find
lovein theirlife.
BythetimeI got home,Susanwasfast.........,.........
.
(10 marks)

Fill in the correct preposition.

lwas quiteimpressed
whenlvisitedHollywood,
lastyear.Myfavouritepartof thetripwasa visittoa
wherea film was beingmade.I saw the actor
starring1) .................
the film and I evengotto
hands2)
him! | couldn'tbelievethatI
close3)
sucha big star.He was
expensive
clothesand lookedfabulous,
an experience
thatl'll neverforget.

(5 marks)

We did an interesting
...................
in science
classtoday.
My dog is quite...................;
he neverbites.
Sheis talland
. She'sgot a lovelyfigure.
Thefox ...................
therabbit,butit gotaway.
Susanaimedat thetargetand...,..........,....
thegun.
AfterMaryfellintotherivershewas.............
fromthecold.
Jillis tryingto
herfearof flying.
Theyhadproblems
in thebeginning,
buttheirrelationship
improved.
@marks)
Fill in the correct word.

| looked
hisnumberin theteleohone
W e ' v er u n . . . . . . . .,...... . . . . . . e 9 9 s .nWeee dt o b u y
| am looking
a newflat.
Themotorcycle
almostran ................
thecat.
Shelooks..........
heryounger
sisterwhenMumisat
Tomis looking
hisfirstdayat college.
On mywayhomefromwork,I ran .,........
myfriend
Thepoliceman
was running
thethief,

A Last May Joe and I


visited Hawaii, 1)
the Pacific
Ocean. Hawaii is
f a m o u2s ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
its beautifulbeaches
and dark volcanoes.
We
went
3) ,,r,
a tour of
all the islands,
which
Joe reallyenjoyed.
We alsospenthourslying4) ...
goldenbeaches. Whenit was timeto get 5) ,,....
the planeand go backhome,we bothfeltverysadl

s/ender,overceme,
stiff,fired,grodually,experiment,
chosed,
hormless
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

(Unils
I 6)

6
1
2
3
4
5

Underline the correct word.

We looked/watchedthe matchon TV.


Canyou watch/seethat manoverthere?
Couldyoutake/bringme a cup of tea,please?
Athensis famousforlpopularwith the Parthenon,
I waitedforlexpectedAnnfor ten minutes,thenI
(c
Complete the sentences using the words in
Use two to five words.

It'sthefirsttimeI havetravelledby plane.


never 1....................
Whendid you buyyournewcar?
Thelasttimewe wentto thetheatrewasweeks
have We ...............
. thetheatre
for
He lastsawGregtwoweeksago.

(Unils
I 6)
1l

in the correct tense.

Wednesday
afternoon,I left the officeearlyand 1)
(go)home.l2)
(invite)
.
. .
friends
to comeoverfor dinner.| 3) . .
.....(ring).
thetablewhenthe phone4)
myfriendMary.She5) .,.............. (tell)me
cometo my housebecauseshewasn't
shecouldn't
well.I wasdisappointed.
Luckilyeveryone
else6)

Fill in the gapswith:


who,which,
whose,
whot

1
2
3
4
5
12

(go)camping
1).....................
lastmonth.
andSusan
(plan)the tripfor weeksand
2) .............................
1
... (have)
really
excited
aboutit.They3)
4) .......................
timewhentheweather
suddenly
2
3
(decide)to leave.
As
sothey6) .........................
. (drive)back home,they realised
4
.......(leave)theircamerabehind,so
by
to go allthewaybackto get it. Unfortunately,
5
.... (reach)the camp-site,
they9)
(take)it.
10)........................
outthatsomeone
(17 marks)

the correct word.

theirwork.
already
/ stillfinished
always/ nowlatefor appointments,
prepared
a mealby the time / afterJohnarrived.
thestreetwhen / since the bus came.
crossing
ever/ neverbeento Brazil?
beentalking
on thephonefor / sincehours.
before/ ago did you graduate?
soakedto the skin becausethev had been
intherainfor / sinceearlyin the morning.
4 marks)

13

Thatis the man


bagwasstolenon thetrain.
Thefilm...............
is on at theOdeonis a boxofficehit.
fatheris a doctor,is a {riendof mine.
Janet,
gota Porsche.
That'sTom...............
Steveis planning
to visithisfriend
livesin Africa.
Fill in the gapswith:

(5 matus)

needn't,mustn't,must
presentis - it's
You
tellSarahwhatherbirthday
a suronse.
You
havea passportif you wantto travelabroad.
You
bringa raincoat*the weatherforecastsaid
it wasgoingto be sunny.
handin theirexampapersat the end
Students
the
of
exam.
You
collectme from work *l'll take the bus
home.
6 marks)
Look at the picturesand the notes then compare
the ostrich with the pelicanusing(not) as ... as or
than. brgwings,Iongneck,shortlegs,smol/head,Iongbeok,

Fill in "the" where necessary.


My sisterrecentlywon a trip to 1)
New York,where she visited2)
Statueof Libertyand went on a
ridethrough3) ............
carriage
Central
Park.She had a meal at an exoensive
restaurant
whereshe saw 4)
mayor
New
York
himself.
of
City
!
A

NT

WritinI

B
My cousinSimon
&
-*
w
o
r
k
f
s
o
r
1
)
.
.
.
. . . . . ." .K. .n i g h t sa" ,
,'- f
14 Answer the questions.
largecompany
in thecentreof 2)
l\ (
Liverpool.
He oftenhas to
1 Howdo we starta letterto a oen-friend?
I I \
Paris
3)............
onbusiness. 2 Whatplanwouldyoufollowif youwereaskedto describe
I 1 \ travelto
Hehaspromised
to takemewithhim
nexttimehe goes,and showme all
thesights,suchas 4) ...........,
Eiffel
Towerand5) ............
Louvre.
(9 marks)

a person?
3 Howdo we signoff an informalletter?
4 Whatplanwouldyou followif you wereaskedto describe
a placeyou havevisited?
(B marks)
TOTAL:100
marks

31

yoll
Betore
slnil

o ltlluldoes
your
olltlhere
your
[esllilend
look
like?
lll|hil
ishehhe
lilre?
doyou
spend

; Reud,
lislen,
lnllr
und
wille
uboul...

stories/narrati
ng events
describing
feelings
& emotions

o askingfor/givingadvice
o making

predictions/offers/
suggestions/
invitations

,,q,-

o describing
ancient
monuments

life in the future


makingpredictions
expressingopinions

narrateand put eventsin the


rightorder
ask forlgiveadvice
makeplans/predictions/
ns
suggestions/off
ers/invitatio
expressopinion/criticism
describemonuments
comparepast,presentand
futuresituations
describeaccidents

doenriho

past tenses
futuretenses:will- be going
to - presentcontinuous
Type 1
Conditionals
reportedspeech
futurecontinuous/future
perfect
reportedorders/commands/
requesrs

a
c

a
a
o
a
a

givrng
advice
expressing
criticisnr
describing
accidents

a
a
a

lifaetrrlae

naccirro rrnina

as - like

theVikings
explorers'
lifestyles
a
a
a
a
a
t

a srory
a friendlylettergivingadvice
a factfileaboutthe Pyramids
an articleexpressing
opinion
a narrative
a biography

UN
v-. 7

\ /?'

*tl-ir
"/:'.1

*j
! 4

You are going to read a stor


removed from it. Choose frortrfthe sentFl
the one which fits each gap ( if,p;. There
example at the beginning (0). )1
l

Lightningflashedacrossthe sky,followedby the crashof


Philipswas drivingcarefully
alongthe narrowcountrylane.lt was
and he was lookingforwardto reachinghis hotel.Suddenlyhis
"Btast!"he saidangrity.Up aheadin the
oiea. Il-F-l
couldsee a lightcomingfrom a casile.He got out of the car and
throughthe pouringraintowardsthe hugebuilding.
Georgereachedthe castle'sbig woodendoorand rangthebell.

qgg!:lgrylygeqkedopen.Infrontof himstooda youngwoman.


pleasecomein out of the rain,"shesaid.
El-l"oh,
thankedher and entereda big hall, then introducedhimselfand
whathad happened.
Shetold himthat he waswelcometo spend

thecastleandtedhimintothetibrary.
E

l-l

Georgewent

himselfin frontof it. Theyoungwomanofieredto makesometea


room.
Georgehad beenstandingtherefor a few minuteswhenhe
behindhim."Goodevening.l'm Mrs McDougall.
My daughtertold
a guest.Please,havea seat."
Soonafterwards
the daughtercamein. E
finishedtheirtea,MrsMcDougall
offeredto showhimto hisroom.
followingher up the hugestaircasewhenhe heardherweeping.
"ls somethingwrong?"he askedher.
"l'm so sorry,"shewhisperedastearsrandownherwrinkled
that you remindme so muchof my husband.I haven,tseenhimfor
Thewindwar howlingoutsideand Georgefelta chill run down his
WhenGeorgewokeup the nextmorning,thesunwasshining
and

weresingingf

Look at the pictures and the titte


of the story.What do you think the
title means? What type of story
does it suggest? How do you think
the three people feel?Where does
the story take place?

E
Listen to the sounds on the
tape. Can you guess what happens
in the story?

32

E
Listen to the tape and find
out if your guesses in Ex. 2 were
correct.

l-lHe

puton hisctothes,
andwent

thankthetwo women.He had beenlookingfor themfor sometime


realisedthat he was alonein the castle.He wrotea notethanking
theirkindnessand returnedto his car.To his relief,whenhe turned
the car startedwith a roar.
Ten minuteslater, Georgestopped at a caf6 to have
waitresswasfillinghis coffeecup she said,"Thatwas a terrible
lastnight,wasn'tit?"Georgenoddedand took a sip of hot coffee.
that,as hiscar had brokendown,the McDougalls
had put himupfor

in theircastle.E

"Nobodyhas livedin that castlesinceMrs McDougalland her


in a car accidentten years ago!" Georgestaredat her in
tremblingwithshock,droppedhis coffeecup ontothe floor.

Ul'lII
7
bigcracklingfirewas burningin
fireplace.
hadsleptverywell the night
and felt refreshed.
waitress
lookedat him in

As she lookedup at Georgeher


face lit up.
He triedto startthe car again,but
nothinghappened.
She was carryinga silvertray with
a largeteapotand threechina
CUOS.

Prartire
at the words in bold in Ex. 4 and try to
them, then choose any five and make

the letters to the numbers.

a
b
c
d
e

visitor
showthe
way
say"yes"withthehead
cry
frightening
coldfeeling

correct word from the list. Use the


once.
country,
chino,pouring,to take,uash, wrinkled,
to rin$to turn

lane
................
rarn
thekey
,........
......
cheeks
a sipof coffee

correct particle.
to stopworking(ofcars,engines,
etc.)
to entera placeby force
to beginsuddenly(ofwars,fires,storms,
etc.)
to stopfor holidays(of schools,etc.)

Underlinethe correctword.
1 The wooden door crackedlcreakedas Tim opened it
slowly.
2 Drystickswerecreakinglcracklingin the fire.
3 We shoutedlwhispered
so that the burglarcouldn'thear
US.

4 Sam staredlglanced
overhis shoulderand realised
that
themanwasstillfollowing
him.
5 Everyonewatchedlstaredal him when he enteredthe
roomwearingtwo different-coloured
shoes.

Pnepnsitinns
10

Fill in the correct prepositions,then chooseany


three and make sentences.

1 to get ........
the car;2lo leadsb ........
a place;3 ........
his
relief;4 to die ........
a car accident;
5 to stare........
sb ........
disbelief;
6 to tremble........
the distance;
shock;7 ........
8 to
remindsb ........
sb/sth

.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g

Read the text again and say:


where and when the story took place.
what the weather was like.
what Georgedid when his car enginedied.
who welcomedhim into the castle.
what happenedwith Mrs McDougall.
what happenedthe next morning.
what happenedat the end of the story.

Direct speech is the speaker's exact words. Read


the story again and underline the examples of
direct speech in it.

E
Listen to the sound effects from Ex. 2 again
and say what you hear.
e"g.o croshaf thunder

....in 1939.
....forChristmas
on
...so I tookit to the garage.
....my houselastnightand

jewellery.

fullnw-up

PhnasaltlgrD$

ll broke
to break
December.

Wurdsoftsn Gonfu$sd

33

UNII
7
Grammar
in llse
I I

Read the story again and underline the sentences


which include Post Continuous, Post perfect and
Post Perfect Continuous.When do we use these
tenses?

12

Give reasons for each of the situations below


using Post Perfect Continuous as in the example.
e"g. Tins was wer.Shehod beenwcikingin the rainwithaut
an umbrella.

1 Fiona'seyeswerered.
2 Timfeltexhausted.
3 Johnwasdirtv.

13

4 Annfeltsleepy.
5 Tomwas hot and sticky.
6 Lizhad a headache.

Put the verbs in bracketsinto the correct tense,


Post PerfectSimple or Continuousand PostSirnple.

When you write a story:


o Begin by settingthe scene, that is,
when the story takes place,who is
what happens.You can use directspeech
varietyof adjectives,adverbsand verbsto
story more interesting.
You can also
weatherand people'sfeelings.
Develop your story by narratingthe events
happenbeforethe main (themostimportant)
thendescribethe maineventitself.The
eventsis impofiant.Usetimewordssuchas:
then, while, when, after,before, finaily,etc.
End your story by referringto people,s
commentsand reactionsor the conseo
can use direct speech and a varietyof
makethe endingmoreinteresting.
NOTE: Past Simple, Past Continuous and
Perted are normallyused in stories.

Bythetimewe ................
(get)home,Saily
15 Read the following story and underline the
(prepare)a delicious
meal.
correct time words.Then underline the
Thefarmer
... (take)a breakbecausene
of direct speech. Finally, answer the
(work) in the fieldsfor hoursano
he wasexhausted.
a Whereandwhendid thestorytakeplace?
It .................
(be)themostbeautiful
b Whowas involved?
dressshe
c Whatwasthe maineventin the story?
.'."...'.(everlsee).
When|
(enter)the room,| ....................d Whathappenedat the end of the story?
(notice)thatsomeone
(draw)the cuftains.
e Howdid thewriterbeginand endthestory?
Afterhe
f Canyouthinkof a different
...(finish)packinghis
ending?
suitcases,
he ................
(calt)ataxi.
"lsn'tthisexciting?"
whispered
JanetPorter
t0thestranger
6 By the timeSusan
.. (arrive)at the station,
seat
plane
1)
as/after
the
flew
through
the
dark
sky."yes,
I
thetrain
. (eave)
he
replied,
politely
smiling
2)
as
soon
as/
before
continuino
She............,.
......(travel)throughEurope
fora year
newspaper.
Sheglanced
atherwatch.
lt washalfoasteleven
al
beforeshe
.......(decide)to setilein Spain.
just
Janet
was aboutto startreading
Theroom
herbook3)
...(be)muchcooler
uphisbriefcase
aftershe
andstarted
......(turnon) theairconditioning. picked
moving
towards
thefront
14

GAME
Work in two teams.Continue the
story that your teacher starts. lf you fail to
continue the story,your team loses.

Teacher:lt wasmidnight.Tim waswatkinEalongfhe sfreef


TeamA 51: Suddenlyhe sawe beggar.
Team B S1: #e waswearingan ale|dirty caat,etc.

Wfiting

(astory)

Before you write a story:


Decideon the plot (the eventsyou will includein
your story and the chronologicalorder they will
appearin).
Decideon the characters
who will be involved.

34

Calmly
andquietly,
Janetstoodupandstarted
tofollow
him.
thecockpit
door,walked
inside,
4)then/before
closed
itbehind
0fthepassengers
ontheplane
wereasleep,
butthose
wno
werewatching
everymovethatJanetmade.
Shesoueezed
i
spacebehind
thecockpit
doorandwaited.
b) At

doorflewopenandtheman
came
"This
agun.
isahijackl"
he
no,it'snot,"Janet
said
calmly
guntotheback
herpolice
ofhi
"Drop
yourweapon
said,
and
thefloor."
6)Afewhours
laler/As
soon
as
landed
attheairport,
Janet
fell

Apolice
carwaswarting
forthem.
manin thecar.Janet
smiled
at
officers
andsaid,"lt'sover.
injured.
What's
next?"

UNII
7
,e
)d
and

ke
be

s.Y
rds

Put the sentences in chronological order.


listen to the tape and see if your guesses
correct.

18

Look at the pictures and decide on a plot.Then,


using the plot, the words given and the plan,
write a story entitled "Luclcy to be olive",

[-l Twomencameout of a building.


f_l Markwasdrivingthroughthestreets.
f_-] Markfollowedthem.
the men.
f_-l Markarrested
jumped
The
men
intoa carandsped
[--l
away.
f-l wtarkradioedfor herp.
handcuffed
themen.
f_l Thepoliceofficers
f_-] Policecarsblockedthe road.
Look at the pictures.Where and when did
story take place? Who was involved in the
How did he feel?What happened?Work
your partner and think of a sentence for
picture to make a plot. Now, listen to the
and find out how different your version was.
write the story in your own words.

Mark!Jumponto
myboardand push
yourstowardsthe
shark.

Words to be used in the story: sunnySundoymorning'No


beoch- goldensond- srgnSwimming- Shorks"-ignorestort surftng- sharkoppeor- yell- get onto his boord- paddle
towordsthe beach- other boord in pieces- sofe- lucky to be olive

i:il

Plan
I
.e F
l

INTRODUCTION

ns

'/:.

Para1: setthe scene(who,when,where,what)

;i
.'il

iil

MAINBODY
Para2: describeeventsleadingup to the mainevent
Para3: describethe mainevent
:::
CONCLUSION
Para 4: end the story (feelings,reactions,comments,
consequences)
':,.

'Wordsnf Wisdum
Readthese sentences.Whatdo they mean?
- French
"Wordsare loadedpistols."(Jean-PaulSartre
philosopher)
"Do notfearwhenyourenemiescriticiseyou. Beware
whentheyapplaud."(VoDongGiang)
"Whatyou reallyvalueis whatyou miss,not whatyou
have."(JorgeLuls Borges- Argentinianwriter)

35

UNII
B

IeadinU
Read these extracts, identify each person's problem, then
the advice Auntie Claire gives each one of them.Which pi
advice matches each problem?

fffifi*fiffif
E ,

lead-in

65andr n"u"

Look at the pictures.What


do you think these people
are worried about?
2 a. E
Listen to the three
extracts (A, B, C) and match
the speakers with the
problems.

;::;ti$whe'che*on
- "l'm afraidl'll feeluseless."
l--l
- "l missmy old friends." t]
b. E Now listen toAuntie
Claire and write down one
piece of adviceshe givesto
each person.

o""nn"o,orrv*,r,,r;t

"r but I will be retiring


"r*uy)"
shop,
in February,so I'm not goingto hi
anythingto do. l'm an activepersonand it will be impossible
me to sit aroundthe house.lf I spend my time just going
pensioners'trips
or walksin the park,l'll feeluseless.Anvide

1 Thebest ihingYou
stoP
con do is to
so
ore
There
worrYing.
monYthingsYoY.:on
now
do io feel usetul'
o
uP
obout toking
hobbYwhichYoY1"u":
hod time for betores
some
Youcouldolsodo
onq
work for chorities
with.
helP others
YSur
exPerience ond

obiltttes'

'to think
2 You ought
best tor
obout whot is
con
lf
vour fomilY You
less
on
live
oftord to
You
then
money,
tor
oPply
should
:
wttt
port-timeiob' This
ior. You
t" ,nrth better
hove
becouse You'll
more time for . Your
'l
son. AhernotivelY'
presenl
youf
'workplo."
hos got. o
tor
child-mindingcenJr.e,
children'
its emPloYees'
I sironglYodvise You
woY
to stoY' ln this
to
Your
close
vou'll be

son ond You con


seek Promotion'.
this odvice is ot
help to You'
ldor
3
shouldwo
Why dort
gym? Yot
of friendr
were yo
be ofroid
lhe new
positive. <
sure thot

will be OK'

UNII
B
Pranlice

"'"''Grammar
in Usg
rli:::*:'i:'

Look at the words in bold on p. 36 and try to


explainthem, then choose any three and make
sentences.

ldentify the tensesin bold,then match them with


the correct tense description.

Fill in the correct word from the list below.

It'scold.I'll take a coat


withme.
\
2 Ithinkit'll raintomorrow.\
3 I'mgoingto startatmy

seeking
teose(opplyfor,promotion,retire,pensioner;

/"n

fttl

JL

ts

?
)

to ...,...........,. a job at thepostoffice.


I'vedecided
(otticially
reguest)
people
whentheyreacha
,Most
age.(stop working)
certain
grandfather
spendsmostof his time gardeningnow
. (retiredperson)
heisa(n)
mewhenthey
laughed
and...........
friends
mynewhaircut.(madefun of)
gota(n)
........lastweek;nowhe is the
(higher position at work)
manager.
getthreeweeks'holiday
..........
tactory
year.(workers)
you
you're
to yourproblems,
............ solutions
talkto a friend.(lookingfor)

new school nextweek.


I'm playing golf with
Paul tomorrow.

a Plans/intentions
D llxeoTUIUTe

1u?:9*-":"

c onthe-spot decisions
d predictions

lH
1.nny is moving from her village to a big
city. Listen to the dialogue and take notes.Then
say what she thinks, hopes, expects, etc. she
willlwon't do.
e.g.Shehopesshe'll$nd a flat to shore...

Listen to the dialogue. First keep notes, then


E
say what this man is going to do when he goes on
holiday.Then make similar sentences for the
second situation using be going to.

p
the expressionsthat Auntie Claire used
giveadvice.Then,using these expressions,think
further advice to give to the three people.

WhenI go on holiday,I'm
goingto lie on the beach
all day long ...

(
'l

lleuelnpmBnt

Listento Betty and Frank talking and tick


what Frank suggests she should
do.Then, using the expressions
in the box below, give advice to
Betty.

Whenmy childrengo to
summercamp,l'm not
goingto ...

l've put on weight.


yourbike

tf
f]

dietpills

agym

tl
tf

10
5 stop eatingfattyfoodsE
6 cut out milkand
E
bread
7 goonadiet
E

ADVICEIMAKING RECOMMENDATIONS
tyou...?;You(eally) oughttolshould...; You
about + nounl-ingform?;lf I
;HowaboutlWhat
I'd ...;The bestthing you can do is to ...; I
you to ...
advise

Filf in "will" or "em going to".

1 A: Sheilais thirtyminuteslate.
. . . . . . .o. i.v eh e ra c a l l .
B : I t h i n k| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A: Yourshirtis dirty.
w a s hi t ,
B : I k n o w|. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A: Wouldyou liketeaor coffee?
havea cupof tea,please.
B: Oh,I ...................
A: Thegrassneedscutting.
. . . .c. u ti t t o m o r r o w .
B : I k n o w|. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A: Haveyou decidedwhichdressto buy?
. . . . . .b. .u yt h er e do n e .
B : Y e s ,| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

UNII
B
We don't usefutureformsafter: when (time
conjunction),
while, before,until, after,as soon as,
by the time, if (conditional),etc.
BUT:when (asa questionword) + will is correct.
e.g. When tl/l(reach Hawail,t'ttcattyou.(wiil is wronghere)
When will he be back? (will is correct here)
11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
12

Cross out the unnecessarywords where necessary.


Afterwe}{l sit our exams,we'llgo on holiday.
| willringyouwhenI getto theairport.
By thetimeI willretire,l'll be veryrich.
lf yourparentswillcome,givethemthisletter,please.
Whenwillyou knowyourholidaydates?
Turnoffthe lightsbeforeyouwillgo to bed.
Buyme a newspaper
whenyouwillgo out,please.

Making suggeslionsIoffersIinvitations:
Let's..., Shallwe...?,Whydon't we ...?,HowlWhat
about ... + -ing?,Wouldyou tike to ...?
- Refusing:
I'd love to, but ..., l'm afraid t can't ..., t,m sorry I
can't...
- Accepting:
I'd love to!, That soundsbrittiant!,Whata great ideal

k
b
j

lflgetapromotion,
buy a car
goona
moveI0
nouse
buy
clothes
havea
14 Join the sentencesusingif or unless.
lWemaygoona

al

n inn in

2 l'llbuildmoreschools
,b
3 The dog won't bite
lc
iif
you
d
4 I won'tgo shopping unless , g
.' 65
l'll buya newjacket
f
I won't get a
promotion
i

15

lwork
I have

you
it rains.
I can

Chain story; Look at the examples in


then continue these people's thoughts.

lf I drivethroughthe city,
l'll run intotraffic.lf I run
intotraffic,l'll be late...

2 lf I don't

passmy,
passmy

MondaY: 4o Lo dentiel;
teet
TuesdaY: revise for rnat;he
Fhil
WednesdaY: PIaY tennio with
ThursdaY: 4o ehoPPin4

{e

FridaY: have dinner wif;h Parenl;e

t-

Saturday: 4o Lo Tom'ePartY

tr

SundaY: free

3B

13 What is Lucy thinking?Make sentences


notes.

E
Reaathe dialoguethen listen to the tape
and fill in the missingwords.Now read the
theory box and the diary.In pairs,act out similar
dialoguesusingthe expressionsfrom the theory
box and the notes from the diary.
1 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .g. .o o u tt o n i g h t ?
l'd loveto, but l'm attending
a meetingat worktonight.
2 ) . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . .g.o. .o u tt o m o r r o nwi g h tt,h e n ?
l'mafraid3) ................
........ l'mbabysitting
formy sister.
4 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .t.o. .m e e o
t n F r i d a yt h, e n ?
l'm sorry.l'm workinglatethatday.
5) ..........................
Saturday?
Doyouhaveanyfreetime?
Yes,thatsoundsbrilliant!
Whereshallwe go?

"l*

1st type Conditional


lf + present simple -r will/may/can + bare
(usedto talk aboutthingsthat may happenin
e.g. lt it rains,we won't go to the beach.
We can go to the beach if the weatheris fine.
We can use unless (=if not) withthistype of
conditional.e.g. Unless it rains, we will go to
(=if it doesn'train,...)

16

What will you do a) if the weather is fine


tomorrow?, b) if you finish your homework
this evening?

UNII
B
19
First listen and tick.Then, listen and repeat.

/sV lzdl

bi

claire'
DearAuntie

tlll^,1'Y
l'vejustfound.t*
"i' r',
u'n't':',Io"#,,i'-rH\,';

:eased
seized
chased
based

rutse

You are Auntie Claire.This is part of a letter that


a lS-yeanold student has sent you. Read it,then
write him/ her a letter giving your advice. Use
the following useful expressions and plan.

# ; J';l',1.il01'

!^:Y,
^:,"#i':,:;:

T!,Tj,,,",i^'il.;';.;.li11':^,!,0^'f,
whotconI
';iif aitasaint
?;'::;i,#,i:'#i''r"o*
dci?PleasehelPmet

Readthe table then listen to a teacher


advice about the best way to prepare
an exam and fill in the missing words.
looking at the notes, say what You
or shouldn't do.

Startwith: I just got yourletterand I thinkI can helpyou./


I wassorryto hearaboutyourproblem.
Youought
Givingadvice:lf lwereyou,l'd...,Youshould...,
to...,Whydon'tyou...,lt wouldbe a goodideato...,Thebest
thing you can do is...,I stronglyadviseyou to ..., You
...
shouldn't
Finishwith: I hopethishelpsyou./ Letme knowwhat
happens.
/ Hopethisadviceis of somehelpto you./ Things
willget bettersoon.

rd.
le.
>rit.

Plan
INTRODUCTION

rd it.

:...,
9.19.0.
.?.:q.
lf 1.191.?)
oear.(!L?..P.
Para 1: expresssympathy

il

MAINBODY
Youshould
revisethe
mostimpartant
polnfs.

revising/stop
Para2: giveyouradvice(tellparents/start
worrying/etc.)
CONCLUSION
Para3: end the letter,offeringsomeencouragement
Goodluck,
AuntieClaire

(a letter giving advice)

Wnrdsnf Wisdnm
te a lettergivingadvice,first you
sympathyto the personwho has got
, thenyou givehim/heryour advice.
yourletterby wishingthe persongood

Read these sentences.What do they mean?

A troublesharedis a troublehalved.
It'sno usecryingoverspiltmilk.

g
[,|l.{IT
i Li Lti :i
.g

M,

wp,,.$

::
;Pi
r

1",

.$

.j]

tu,
%.,

-s.

"'%,

i'*
Who are the people in the picture?
Where are they? What is this place famous for?
EEnLool< at the sentences below and try to put
thern in the correct chronologicat order.Then listen

to the tape and check your answers.

a The professor
told Antonyabouttravelling
through
time.
b The professorsaw Antonyand Cleopatra
ridingin chariots.
c Theguardstookthe professor
to the royal
palace.
d The professor was thrown to the
crocodiles.
e A crowd of peoplegatheredaroundthe
professor.
f Thepteranodon
letthe professor
go.

40

[]

rl
rl
rl
E

the text and,for questions | - 5,


the best answe4 A, B, C or D.

theair,hebegan
offallingthrough
pteranodon
butinstead
letgoofJames,
supernatural
quickly,
by
some
asif hewerebeingcontrolled
then
slowly,
closinghiseyes.Suddenly,
wasblack,buthe didn'tremember
people
He
was
sittinginthemiddleof a
cheering.
and
hornsblowing
anarmyof menridinghorseswerecomingtowardshim,so hequickly
hesawthatallthe
thedustoffhisclothes,
theway.Ashewasbrushing
robes,withsandalsontheirfeet.
strange
himwerewearing
hewasin AncientEgypt.The
andrealised
atthebuildings
around
wereledupto thesteps
ridinginchariots,
andCleopatra,
andAntony
professor
the"Queen
of Kings",
callCleopatra
heardAntony
the
When
thattheyearmustbe34 BC.
ofpeoplehadgatheredaroundJames.Theystartedtouchingthe
pointing
at hisshoesandlookingat himin wonder
hewaswearing,
whowasshortandfatwithdarkcurlyhair,askedhimifhewasa Roman.
saidno,themanaskedhimwhathethoughtof AntonyandCleopatra's
willendin disaster.
"Well,
to knowthattheirrelationship
I happen
willcommit
andAntonyandCleopatra
Egyptwillbedefeated,
willattack,
Traitor!"
themanshouted.
nearbycameandgrabbedhim.Hetriedto
whohadbeenstanding
butnoonewas
hewasonlytellingthemwhatheknewabouthistory,
himoffto the royalpalaceto explainbeforethe Roman
Theyrushed
whyhehadspokenoutagainstthem
thequeen
a longgoldendress,whileAntony
onherthronewearing
wassitting
James,
military
uniform.
a silverandredRoman
byher.Hewaswearing
before
standing
hewasactually
believe
couldn't
heldbytwoguards,
whatthe
manwasthereexplaining
Thefat,curly-haired
Cleopatra.
patiently.
said,andAntonywaslistening
Antonyasked.
willcometo Egypt?"
doyouthinksucha disaster
backintimefromthefuturesoheknew
thathehadtravelled
toexolain
him.Antonywassuretheprofessor
happen,
butthatonlyworkedagainst
whattheyshoulddo withhim.
mind,
andheaskedCleopatra
shesaidcasually.
himtothecrocodiles,"
wasmarchedoutto a placeby the River
itwasdone.Theprofessor
ofthethroneto bethrownintothewater.
for
enemies
waited
crocodiles
"Traitor!Traitor!Traibehindhimscreaming,
werestanding
ofpeople
Two
in
a goldenchariot.
of
the
crowd
to
the
side
stood
andCleopatra
by hisarms.He beggedthemto sparehislife,butas
theprofessor
gavethesignal,
Jameswasthrownintothewater.

to Jameswhenthe
1 Whathappened
pteranodon
lethimgo?
through
time.
A Hetravelled
theair.
B Hefellthrough
cheering.
C Hestarted
ona horse.
D Helanded
lookatJamesin
2 WhydidtheEgyptians
wonder?
wereoldjashioned.
A Hisclothes
likea Roman.
B Helooked
C Hewassittingin themiddleof the
road.
clothes.
strange
D Hewaswearing
takeJamesto the
3 Whydidtheguards
royalpalace?
A Heknewa lotaboutEgyptian
history.
wantedto
B AntonyandCleopatra
meethim.
to
wouldhaPPen
C Hesaidbadthings
Antony
andCleopatra.
D HehadtoldliesaboutCleopatra.
4 HowdidAntonyreactwhentheguards
Jamesin?
brought
A Hewasoatient.
B Hewasangry.
C Hewasoleased.
D Hewasanxious
takento the
5 Why was the professor
River
Nile?
A to seethecrowd
B to besentaway
C to seethecrocodiles
D to bekilled

g
UNII
Uncabulary
Practice
4

fnllnw-uI

Look at the words in bold in Ex.3 and try to


explain them, then, choose any three and make
sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

Fitf in the correct word from the fist below. Use


the words only once.
supernaturol,to ride,to end,to commit,to rush,militory,royol,
to give,/ost,to spore

1
2
3
4
5

.....,................thesignal
............... suicide
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .i n
. .d. .i .s.a. s t e r
a ......................uniform
a...........................force

Read the story again and answer the

Whatwerethe peoplein the storywearing?


Whatdid the shortfat manaskthe professor?
Whatdid the professortellAntonyand Cleopatral
Whodecidedto feedthe professorto the crocodil
Whendid thestorytakeplace?
Use the list of eventsin Ex. 2 to retell the

Grammar
in Use
I

Read the sentences in the speech bubbles.


one is a statement and which a question?

Wurils lflgll G[nftl$Gil


6

Underline the correct word.

2 Andwhydo
thinksucha
willcometo
'

1 She couldn'trealise/understand
why Jessiewas angry
withher.
2 "Becarefulnotto fall/dropthisvase!,,
3 "l can'thear/listen
you.Speakup!',he saio.
4 He dropped/fellfromthetreeand brokehisleg.
5 "Stoptalkingand listen/hear
to me,,,shesaid.
6 | didn'tunderstand/realise
howlateit was.

7
t
I
;
I
I
I

Reaa the passage below and try to fill each


E
gap with one word.Then listen to the tape and
check your answers.

Although
Cleopatra
Vllwas1) ........., ....eueenof Egypt,
she
wasactually
Macedonian.
Shebecame
well2) ...................
for
hercharm,intelligence
and incredible
ambition.
Cleopatra
first
becamequeen3)
herfatherdiedin 51 BC,Ieaving
herand herbrother,Ptolemy,
in chargeof the kingdom.Soon
afterthis,shewasaccused
4) ............
tryingto killherbrother.
She then starteda civil war. At the sametime,
JuliusCaesar,
theemperorof Rome,fellin love
with her and helpedher to take controlof
Egypt.Cleopatra
stayed5) ...................
him
i n R o m eu n t ihl e6 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .m
. .u
. .r.d. e r ei d
n
44 BC. Sevenyears7) ............
......,the
Romangeneral,
MarcusAntonius,
fellin love
with her.Soontheymarriedand had three
sons.Together,
theywantedto takeoverthe
R o m a nE m p i r eB. ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .a. . r e s u l t ,
in 31 BC, therewas a huge battle
betweentheir armiesand those of
Octavian,Caesar'sson, at Actium.
After losing the batile, they both
returnedto Alexandria,where thev
killedthemselves.

47

Octavianwill attack,
Egyptwill be defeated,
andAntonyandCleopatra
willcommitsuicide.

Now read the following sentences. How are


different from the ones in the speech

ProfessorKearnssaid that Octavianwould


would be defeatedand Antony and Cleopatra
commitsuicide.
b Antony asked the professor why he thought
disasterwouldcometo Egypt.
Directspeech is the exactwordssomeone
Thesewordsare put intoquotationmarks.
Reportedspeech is the exactmeaningof what
someonesaid,but notthe exactwords.
Studytheexamplesandexplainwhensayandtell
Say;

Tell:

"l like tea,"he said.


(direct
"l liketea,"he saidto me.
(direct
He said (that) he tiked tea. (reported
He told me (that) he likedtea.(reported

g
UNII
lmagineyou met an Ancient Egyptian.Thinkof
three questionsyou would ask him/her.Thentell
your partner which questionsyou asked.

the gaps with soid or told.

13

to me.
he ....................
at5 o'clock,"
theclassabouthertripto Kenva.
thatthefilmwashorrible.
angrily.
myglass!",
she....................
take

e.g.I askedhirn what hisjob was./ a/so wantedto know if he


playedanysporfsand if he cauldreadhieroglyphics.

'lluiz
SPEECH
IN REPORTED
CHANGES
have been playing + had
beenplaying
was playing -r had been
-t had played playing/was
playing
played/played

^Q

playing
play

{
\

ff

thenanswerthe questions.
examples,
"l'mleavingtomorrow,"he saidto me.
He told me (that)he wasleavingthe
nextday.
thepronoun"/" changein reportedspeech?
to the PresentContinuousin reported
younoticeaboutthe quotationmarks?
thetimewordtomorrowchangein reported

pyramid
Pyramid
of
istheGreat
2 Thelargest
A Cleopatra B KingKhafre
IttooktheEgyptians
Pyramid.
820
A100

these sentences in rePorted speech.

patients
all morning,"the doctorsaid.
seeing
to walkthedog,"the boysaidto hismother.
't goouttonight,"
Craigsaidto hiswife.
fora newjob,"themansaid.
he saidto me.
myhomework,"
finished
the bosssaid.
secretary,"

G KingKhufu

years
to buildtheGreat

1
*

cl20

#
T

Pyramid?
to buildtheGreat
4 Howmanymenworked

A 100,000 B 1,000,000

a5

c 1,000

wereusedto buildtheGreat
Howmanyblocks
of stone
t
Pyramid?
*
c 23,000,000
A 2,300,000 B 300,000
*

weighed
about
6 Eachblockof stone
B 1Otons
A 2Stons

examples,then answer the questions.

thefat manaskedthe professor.


a Roman?"
askedtheprofessorif he wasa Roman.
youthinkof Antonyand Cleopatra's
friendship?"
urhathe thoughtofAntony
askedtheprafessor
's
friendship.
verbis usedin a reportedquestion?
'17"
questions?
weuse in reported
differencesare there between direct and

werebuill
1 ThePyramids
B between
2575- 24658CC in 34AD
A in34BC

&

C 2.Stons

#
E
*
I

werebuildings
where
7 ThePyramids
wereplaced.
A deadkings
andqueens
lived.
B kings
andqueens
gotmanied.
andqueens
C kings

ts

theSeven
Wonders
ofthe
ThePyramids
areamong
Ancieni
Worldbecause
theyare

A huge.
perfect.
B geometrically
C madeof stone.

t
fi
F

?
k
1

questlons?
these sentences in direct speech.

mewhatI wantedto eat.


thathisfriendwaswaitingfor him.
saidthathe hadpaidthe bill.
Janetthatshehadn'tboughta newdressyet.
meif I wouldheloherwithherhomework.

llUfitinU (project)
Use the information from the questionnaire, and
any other information you can find, to write a
project about the history of the Pyrornids. Cut
pictures from the Photo File Section at the back of
the book to use with your project.

A2
-tu

f,eadinI
You are going to read a newspaper
articre about tl
For questions l-5, choose the
best answerA, B,C

Look at
the pictures and
describe
them.
Which of

the followfing do you 4think will happenin your lifetime?

!
)*<"

We'llmakecontactwithaliens.
Robotswillbe doingthe nousework.
We'llbe travelling
to otherplanets.
We'llbe livingin citiesunderthesea.
2 S Readthe sentences,listento the
tape and underlinethe correct
word.
Peoplewill make friendsthrough
the
TV/lnternet.
Children
willbe usingcomputers/rulers
rnschools.
3 Manwillregularly
visitVenus/Mars,
4 Therewill be no buses/carsin
the citv
centres.
We will have a much healthier/
unhealthier
societv.
a
b
c
d

44

Canyouimagine
whatourlives
will by 2050robotswilt be doing
belikeintheyear2050?
perhaps
you nousework
andwewillbeeating
re
willbeftyingofffora hotiday
onihe madefood.A lotof people
think
moon,or maybe
youwillbetakino mightonlycook
for funinthefr
yourdogforawalkinvirtual
realitv,
Wi
Spaceexploration
will
recently
carried
outa survey
of i,OOOincreasingly
popular.
percr
Fifty
people
fromdifferent
countries
to find mepeople
we
talked
to
believe
outwhattheythinklifewillbetikeinthe
manwillregularly
visitMars.
Thev
future. The results clearly
believe
thattravel
onou,o*no
demonstrate
bothourhopes
andfears. willprobably
change.
Almost
Thesurvey
suggests
thatfriendshiothinksthattherewillbe
nocarsin
- oneof themostimportant
human city centres.
Some
even
think
- will havechanged
relationships
environmentally-friendly
electric
people
dramatically.
willmake
friends sorar-powered
carswillhave
through
theInternet.
Whatrsmore,
a thecarsweusenowadays.
targe
number
ofpeople
willeven
come Pollution
is something
that
across
theirfuture
husbands
orwives io worrymanypeople.
Some
fear
in this waylComputers
will have it willcontinue
to getworse,
ano
oecome
absolutely
essential
by2050. ourptanet
willbecome
impossible
rvennow, somepeople
describeliveon.Others
evenforesee
that
r
rnemas theirbestfriendl0thers,
oaywe'llhaveto payforclean
air
ir
nowever,
saythatwe will becomelikewedo
nowforclean
water.
muchmoreisolated
fromeacnother 0ntheotherhand,people
seem
oecause
wewillhave
litilerealhuman bequiteoptimistic
about
the
contact.
of geneticengineering,
asthevthir
Education
willhavechanged
a lot scientists
willuseit to curediieas
too.Asmore
andmore
children
willbe like cancerand AIDS.lf
usrng
computers
in schools,
certainmanage
to finda cureforthese,
abilities,
suchas mental
arithmetic.
nave
a much
healthier
society,
won'tbenecessary
since
there
willbe
Some
people
worryabout
.
computerprogramslor most tuture,
whileothers
arefullofhone
calculations.
Even
writing
byhand
will enthusiasm.
No
matter
trowOirk
nave
oecome
a thing
ofthepast.
brightit mayseem,
it
is
up
toustolo
According
to thesurvey,
homelife ailerourplanetandtry to
make
it
willbebetter.
Mostpeople
believe
that better
placeto live

UNII
IO
people
believe
thatin 2050
wewillnotpayforcomputers.
wewillnever
leave
ourhomes.
wewillnothave
anyfriends.
partners
wewillfind
through
compulers.
article
suggests
thatin2050
students
willwritewithtypewriters.
fiftypercentofpeople
willhave
travelled
toMars.
lessons
willbeverydifferent.
willlearnto cook.
ascars
areconcerned,
some
believe
that
willnothaveany.
won'trunonpetrol.

C theywillbeeven
more
harmful
to
theenvironment.
D people
won'tbeableto afford
them.
people
Some
believe
thatpollution
will
nave
A
B
C
D

disappeared.
killed
everyone
ontheplanet.
problem.
become
aneven
bigger
planet
place
made
our
a better
to live.

people
Many
think
thatby2050
A there
willbea cure
forcancer
andAIDS.
B people
willhave
stopped
dying.
G scientists
willhave
replaced
doctors.
D people
won'tgetdiseases.

Frartice

2 The doctoraskedthe nurseto


the wound
withsomesoecialcream.
3 She feels very
in her new school as she
doesn'tknowanyone.
4 | like goingon holiday
. becauseI can do
whateverI like.
5 The peopleon the islandremained
..................
untilthe
government
builta bridgeto the mainland.

at the words in bold in Ex. 3 and try to


them, then choose any three and make

the numbers to the letters.

a
b
c
d
e
f

advantages
show
predict
excitement
often
illnesses

in the correct word(s) from the list below.


the words only once.

Fill in the correct particle.

PlrasalUerls
come across:
come back:
comeround:
comeinto:

to meetsb/sthby chance
to return
to visit
to inheritsth

1 My brothercame
homefromuniversity
lastweek.
2 | came
an oldschoolfriend
whilelwas doingmy
shoppingtoday.
,,,...............
reality 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f o o d
3
Jenny
came............
a lotof moneywhenherauntdied.
7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e. x. .p. .l o
. ration
4
You
should
come
............
for dinneroneevenino.
8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. .a. .r.s. . . . . .
I ..................................air
Prelrsitinns
10
engineering
Fill in the correct prepositions,then chooseany
I
torils [RBnGonfuseil
three items and make sentences.
humon,virtuol,
computer,
cleon,to corryou\
mentol,genetic, solor-powered

the blanks with the correct word.

isolated-lonely- alone
managed
to ...................
himof asthma.

1 to takeyourdog ......a walk;2 to be full......hope;3 to make


friends.......the Internet;
4 to becomeisolated.......sb/sth;5 to
cook......
fun;6 .......
thecitycentres;
7 to pay.......
sth;8 .....the
otherhand;9 to be optimistic
.....sth;10a cure .....sth

45

UNII
1O
tollnw-up

Languaue
lleuelrpmsnl

Read the article again and decide


which changes will be for the better
and which for the worse.
"We might only cook for fun in the
future." What other everyday
activities might only be done for fun
in the future?

12

E
nead the table then listen to the tape
and fill in the missing information. Using
the notes, talk about the past, present
and future as in the example.

Grammar
ir Use
l0

ldentify the tensesin bold,then


match them to the correct tense
description.

1 Computers
will havebecomeabsolutely
essential
by 2050.
2 Thirtyyearsfrom now I will be flying off
for a holidayon the moon.
3 More and more childrenwill be using
computers
in schoolsin thirtyyears'time.
a action which will be in progressat a
certaintimein thefuture
b actionwhichwillbe routinein thefuture
c actionwhichwill havefinishedbeforea
certaintimein thefuture
11 B
Readthesentences,then
listen to an author talking about
how his life will be different in ten
years'time and mark these statements as true (T) or false (F).
1
2
3
4
5
6

l'll stillbe writingnovels.


l'll havewrittentwo books.
l'll be travelling
all roundtheworld.
| won'thavestarteda fami|y.
l'llbe livingin thesamehouse.
i'tt rraveboughta yacht.

people
travelled
by....."............
and weuse..."..............
andaeroplanes
carriage
orby..............
lifespan
is about........
mostpeople
diedbefore
theywere theaverage
years
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .o.lyde a r s
goto
m a ncyh i l d rheandt o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .all
. . .children
..
cities
were
.......
and cities
j
aremuch............
morepeople
livedinthecountrysideand
fullofhuge
..................
offlatsr.:
people
communicated
by
to eachother
PO

Now think of yourself in a) five


yeors'time,b) ten yeors'tirne,c)
twenty yeors'tirne.What will you
be doinglwillyou hovedone?Think
about education,home,work,
travel and family.
in fiveyeors'
e.g.l'll havefnisheduniversity
jab
a
in ...
time.J?belooking
for

46

IOOyears ago

wecommunicate
by.....................,
ande-mail

A hundredye6rsogo peopletrave/ledby horseand carriage


orby
Now,we usec6rscnd cieroplcnes.
ln 2 | AA,we will be using
ond electriccars.

\-6
To linksimilarideas,we canuse:also,furthermore,
in addition.
etc. e.g.By theyear2050we willhavestartedusingcleanerformsof
ln addition, we will have discovereda way to get rid of rubbish
damagingthe environment.
To link opposingideas,we can use: however,but, on the other
afthough,etc. e.g. By the year 2050 we will have startedusinq
formsof energy.On the other hand, the rivers,/akesand seas
becometoo difi to swimin.

UNII
1O
Readthe following predictions and reasons for
life in the future and decide which are optimistic
and which pessirnistic.Then, expand these ideas
into complete sentences by joining
them with becouse,os or since. Finally,
using the ideas and appropriate linking words, give a short speech on how
life will be different by the year 2050,

Ithink,I believe,
In my opinion,In my view,lt seemsto
methat...
15

Your schoolmagazinehasaskedits
readers to submit articles entitled
'Whot kind of life con a child
born in the yeor 2050 expect?'
Write your article using
ideas from the previous
exercises and the plan
below. Do not forget to
use appropriate language
to express your opinions
(l thinlgl believe,ln my
oPinion, Furthermore,
Moreover, etc.) The
beginning and ending
have been written

pollution
levelsin citiesdecrease- scientists
invent
environmentally-friendly
cars
- we cut themall down
therebe no morerainforests
people
liveincitiesunderthesea- normalcitiesbecome
toocrowded
peoplelive longer- scientistsfind curesfor many
diseases
r w0 go on holidayto other planets- space travel
improve
wedo morecreativejobs - computers
dothemostboringjobs
morepoorpeople- therebe fewer
jobs
crimeincrease- more people
without
work
Bytheyear 2050 pollutionlevelsin citieswill have
decreosed
becouse scientistswill have invented
environmentally-friendly
cars.However, there will be na
morerainforests
os ... Furthermore,people"..

Plan
INTRODUCTION

q
at the spidergram and the expressions in
box (top right).Then say how you think life
have changed by the year 2050.You can add
own ideas.

health
e.g.longerlives

food
e.g.mealpills

,.'''

pointsto consider

jobs
e.g. betterpaid

e.g.flying
cars

Para1: Howwilla childfeelwhenhe openshiseyesin the


yeat2050?| thinklife*willbe verydifferentthen.
MAINBODY
Para2: stateoptimisticprediclionsand reasons
predictions
Para3: statepessimistic
and reasons
it

CONCLUSION
Para4: In conclusion,
whatever
the futurebrings,I believe
that children'sliveswill certainlybe verydifferentin
theyear2050.
::::iiir'

teachers

holidays
e.g. to Mars

the environment
e.g. fewerwild animals
I thinkthotin theyeor2050we will be living
longerlives.etc.

lilurdsnf Wisilnm
Readthese sentences.Whatdo they mean?
"Therealproblemis not whethermachines
think,but whethermendo." (8.F.Skinner)
Necessity
is the motherof invention.

4t

''ffffrF
ffeading

You are going to read about three people who survived


For questions I to 8, choose from the survivors (A - C).The
survivors may be chosen more than once.There is an example
the beginning (0).

Etoavio

Eleu"
EvaHartfeltexcitedwhen,in 1g

{n
boarded
thefamou
DavidFranklin
wasridinO
hismotorbike andherfamily
tlip,
the
Titanic.lt
was
thefirstvoy
",,
throughtheCanadian
mo"untains.
lt wasa
amazing
ship,andalsothel
coolevening.
Helovedthequiet,lonely
$.this
shiPneverreached
itsdestin
roadandreallyenjoyedtheieeling
- of
\the
speeding
atons
intherresh
air
1?l"tTlTiljl."^tl'"::_f91
rt?anlc
crashed
intoa hugeiceh
ro .orn.r theback $

ryreskidded.
rhat's
theii.iir'i'gr'

E.

l:'-::n"::::,::lj:1f,:J'*
started
rushingintotheship'
remember,"
saysDavid.
oavii'io]t'contror
ot 6F "All
around
me'people
were
q"
thebikeandwhenh. *"-n;'r;,1; ;;r ;;.
andrunning
tothe
* screaming

bottom
ofahittHewasbteedins
andhis'.ft

dr,;ff;:i:]t
ffi|#i',!.il'#:,
legwasbroken.
otthem.,Hold
yourmother's
ha
;f
Heknewhe hadto getbackto theroad
hesaidtome.rr
f, oon'tbeafraid,,
for help.Slowly,
he beganthepainful
j. shaxtng
withfear.,,
crawlup thehill.Hewasin aqony,but F tr

'."duu"v'
uu'L
fl .,^?l;J$:L:3:fl:;H
Eventually
he reached
theroad.A
enougrr

kept
soins

lead-in
Look at the pictures.What accidents
might happen?What other types of
accidents can you think of? Look at
the title.What does it mean?
E Read the sentences,then
listen to the tape and say who
said what: Dovid, Evo, Patriclg
Potrick's mother or Evo's father.

b
c
d

"Hold your mother's hand and don't


be afraid."
"Don't play on the rocks."
"He should have come with us."
" A s l w a s t u r n i n g a s h a r p c o r n e r ,t h e
back tyre skidded."
"l screamedfor helo."

rifeboats
foreveryone.
Eva
\
,,He
passingcarstoppedto helphim,Davidfelt sawherfather
again.
shoulo
na
$
extremely
relieved.
Hewasexhausted,
but
he knewhewasluckyto be alive.

I p",ri"t
"Don'tplayon therocks,Patrickl"
my mothersaidas I leftthehouse.
ltwas
rathercloudyday,justa weekbeforeourholidav
wasover.Thebeach
was
butthetidesweredangerous;
twicea daytheseacameup andcovered
the
I wasplaying
on therockswhensuddenly,
to my horror,
I realised
I was
surrounded
bywater.I climbed
up higher,
butthewaterwasrisingfast.The
werewetandI keptslipping.
I thoughtI wasgoingto drown.
ThewaterhadreachedmywaistwhenI sawa fishingboat.I screamed
for
Theboatcametowards
meandthefisherman
wasableto rescue
mejustin
Fromthatdayon,I neverplayedon therocksagain.

UNII
1I
Which survivor(s)

g H
aboutsomethingdangerouslE n
g n
greatphysical
painl
g E
in a roadaccident?
lil n
by boat?
H E lil[
ina famous
tragicaccident?

Prepusitiuns
Fill in the correct preposition,then chooseany
three and make sentences.

1 ............
thefreshair;2 to be ............
thebottomof a hill;3 to
be ............
agony;
4 to crash
sth;5 to shake............
fear;
6 to play
the rocks;7 ............
my horror;8 to be
surrounded
sth;9 to scream
help;10 to do sth
just............
time;11
thatdayon

inllnw-up

a n rn

bystrangers?

ry practiue
at the words in bold in Ex. 3 and try to
them, then choose any three and make

Read the three stories again and find one sentence


in each story which best describes how the main
event happened.Then answer the questions below:
a) Who are the peopleinvolvedin eachaccident?
b) Where and when did the eventstake place?
c) How did eachpersonfeel?
d) How did they survive?

'::r::,r::1,'

'::.:',i.hnI
gnt
l|A[B llEUelURm
correct word from the list below:

Giyingliluicn/lx[rsssin[ Griticism

destinotio4
exhausted,
ogony,rescued,
drowned

.. the manwhowastrappedin
(saved)
building.
whenhe wasinjuredduringthe
(greatpain)
whensheheardthatherson had
crash.(comforted)
, theplanewasableto reachits
nearly
...........

whenhisboatsank.

afterworkingin the gardenall day.

should(n'l) + bare infinitive is used to give advice


e.g. Youshould give up smoking.
should(n't) + perfect infinitive is used to express
criticismabout a past event.
e.g. He should have checked the battery.@uthe didnl)
He shouldn't havegone alone.(buthe did)
9

Read the following descriptions of events,then


make sentencesusing should(n't)+ perfect
infinitiveas in the example.

correctword from the list. Use the


once.

to ride,fishing
to feel,shorp,to keep,
reoched
a motorbike
corner
of sth
,.gorng

5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r. .e.l.i.e. .v.e. d
6 ............................aship
7 he .........
hisdestination
8 a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .b. o. .a. .t . . . . .

WurilsnflnnGunlusnd
the correct word.

intheeast.
answer,
rise/raiseyourhand.
ona banana
skinandbrokehisarm.
acrossthe roadand hit a tree.

1 Robertwentskiingin themountains
lastMonday,buthisday
endedin disasteras he got lostin a snowstorm.
He didn't
checkthe weatherforecast.
He didn'ttakea compasswith
him.Hewentalone.
e^9. Roberlshouldhavechee&edfhe weaiherforecasf.

4g

UNIT
I1
Stevewentfor a drivein the desertbuthisjeepbrokedown
andhe nearlydied.Hewentwithouttellinganyone.Hedidn,t
takeenoughpetrolwithhim.Hedidn'ttakea hat.
Gloriasunbathed
in her gardenlastweekendand she got
burnt.She didn'tput any sun creamon. She didn,tuse a
sunshade.
Shefellasleep.
Shestayedinthesunforsixhours.
Samanthanearlydrownedyesterday.
Shewentto an empry
beach.Shedidn'ttellherparentsshewasgoingswimming.
She went swimmingafterlunch.She didn,tstav nearthe
beach.
10

12

What might/could happen to the children


pictures? set fire, get burnt, be poisoned,d
Match the pictures with the orders, then n
them. Start with: I told himlher

l. Don'tploy neor the pool!


2. DonI touchthe iron!

3. Keepowoyfrom che
4. Don'tploy with motc

;g
Read the dialogue between a policeman and
a witness o,f a car accident and fill in the words
from the list.Then listen and check your answers.
brckes,traffic lights,collided,speedingskjdde{ coshing

Policeman: Now sir, I'd liketo ask you a few questions.What

is yourname?
Witness: My nameis BradRichards.
Policeman:Wheredo you live,Mr Richards?
Witness: I livejustroundthe corner,on MapleStreet.
Policeman:Whatwereyou doingat thetimeof thecrash,sir?
Witness: I was on my way homefromwork.
Policeman:Whatdid you see,Mr Richards?
Witness: Well,I sawa redcar 1) ......... ........
downthe
streetjust as a bluecar wasturningthe corner.
Thebluecar'sdriverputon the2) ..........
andthenthecar3) ...............
...... Thetwocars
4 ) . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . . .w
. i t ha h o r r i b t5e) . . . . . . . . . . . .
notse.
Policeman:Just one more question,sir. Were the 6)
. on thecornerredor green?
Witness: Oh,l'm sorry.I can'tremember.
you'vebeenmosthelpful.
Policeman:Thankyou,MrRichards.

t3

Now, using the following words,write the dialogue


in reported speech.

"Don'ttouchthe switchwithwet hands,"she


to
Shetold
the switchwith
"Whatdid you seein the distance?,,
sheasked
seen Sheasked
..............
inthe
"Haveyou got a pen?"he askedher.
if
He
"Don'ttouchthe exhibits,"
the museumguide
warnedThemuseumguide ..........
"Bequiet!"theteachersaidto us.
told
Theteacher...
"Haveyou spokento Annyet?"he askedme.
had
He askedme
"Whydidn'tyou callthe police?"he askedme,
called He askedme .
"lwillneedyourhelp,"he saidto Jane,
would He toldJane

. Firstof all...,Then
...,After
that...,Finolly
...,etc.
. osked,
replied,
told,soid,odded,etc.

Grammar
in llse
11

Look at the sentences and say how we report


orderslrequestslcommo nds.Which introductory
verbs are used?

"Holdyourmother's
Directspeech:
hand,"hesaidto me.
Reportedspeech: Hetold meto hold my mother'shand.
Directspeech:
"Don'tplayon the rocks,Patrick!"
his
mothersaid.
Reportedspeech: Patrick's
motherwarnedhimnot to play
on the rocks.

50

Complete the sentences using the words


Use two to five words.

14

Look at the pictures and the reported


then fill in the bubbles with the
words.

UNII
II
re

l6

t.

t
I

he had a

E
Loot at the picture and, with the hetp of the
list of words, try to guess what has happened.
Then listen to the tape and make notes to
answer the questions.

2 He asked her if she


goingwithhim.

burning,
smoke,
collfirebrigode,kitchenin flomes,lying
unconscious,
wroppedhim in o blonket"
sove,shaking
with feor,put
firefighters,
4 Shesaidtheorisoner out the
fire,mothercouldn'tkeepbockherteors,ombulonce
was movingtowards
1 Whendidtheeventhappen? 6 Whatdid he do afterwards?
saidit wouldn'thurt.
the frontgate.
2 Wherewasthe narrator? 7 WhosavedTommy/John?
3 Whatdid he see?
8 Whereweretheboystaken?
4 \l/heredidtheeventhappen? 9 Whatwas Mrs Blake's
5 Whodid he call?
comment?
17

Using the information from Ex. 15,as well as the


plan below,write a composition narrating the
event of the fire.

INTRODUCTION
whoit was.

6 Thejudgesaidto takehim
to orison.

Para 1: set the scene(who/where/wheniwhat


happened)
MAINBODY

It||l
and tick, then listen and repeat.

t{t

t$l

jest

PLAN

&

Para2,3:describethe eventswhich happenedbefore the


maineventand the maineventitself

s
CONCLUSION
Para4: consequences,
people'sfeelings,comments

chain

Jane

rds nf Wlsdnm
(narrating past events)

a past eventwe say when and where it


wasinvolved
in it,whatexactlyhappened,
what
were,whatthepeoplesaidandhowtheyfelt.

Read these sentences.What do they mean?


o EverVcloudhas a silverlining.
o lt neverrainsbut it pours.
o Lookbeforeyou leap.

51

il:,\

I l=i-

irli\liiil

N2
,d

.h

^:#..",
.'

\,

t,:."']

:+

,,.
-f

4{

.; 1f:
"o
{

#i

"t.
$..

l'l''*
't

*.,.i',r,

Who aerd wlta'f ean'r )r,'l'lilr::e,r: ilii i:i'i r: ,:rir,.,ri:t.t-:'eJ


Where did theVikimgs ilirre: i,rl lr\llr r"rl,,ii',:r,.,:,i:urthernor
lHasrlers^,r
Eur"ope?
E,t"tycluaknour ari"lyrll'llrny;
i::loorit"lli
inlq l;:'1111
;,q5i

iffi ReaO t3^lesenitenc.-::;eilrrer:


ii:-.ri.;r.:ir
. ir
eleri:ieie
ivhet['ler thclr ar''e ri'i;e ;, i \ '''

'ril i:i;11)eano
_

,i ll: ll

1 l-he year was gSLlALI


2 [rik r,ilasa si^naliilail.
"i-he
I
p r O f e S S1
O,t,., 3g9j , r ; , : . : , , i .
4 : i : e p r o f e s s oirr * l p - ^ (i i r : v , : .
5 LJias parenis v!'er*ijea,i-).
{5 rJiagave 'ihe prni*ssri' ;i r,ri.:ilr,iiiiji.r;!.
7 The professcrwas sir|'i,

q?
t) 1..

rl

.i

t(
*l

, l

'-

.:

UNII
I2
InI
the text then, for questions l-4,choose the best answeq

B,Cor D.
never
feltthecrocodiles'
teeth,Theguardslet go of
falling
through
theair,theneverything
wentblack.Whenhe
wasona Viking
shipintheicywatersoffthecoastol
realised
thathetravelled
through
timeonlywhenhe
Buthowhadthistimetravelling
started?
Onlyhiscolleague
, andhewasfaraway.
was986AD,andEriktheRed,thefamousVikinq
discovered
Greenland,
wasleadinghismenon
Noonenoticed
James.
Hewasatthebackofthe,
.Theothermenwererowingandlooking
straight
a bigman.Hehadredhair,a redbeardanda red
Heworea helmetonhishead,liketheothers,
withhorns
ofthesides.
WhenhesawJamessittingdoingnothing,
himtotakeanoarandhelpout.Neither
henortheother
anynoticeof thefactthathe lookedcompletely
different
fromtheriil
reached
land,hetoowasgivena swordanda shield.Someone
even
goingintobattleagainst
onhishead.
Theywere
menwhohadoccupied
coast.
Professor
Kearns
triedto avoidthefighting,
buthehadnochoice.
waniors
ranat himwitha sword,butheblocked
itwithhisshieldthen
mantotheground.
Hestoodoverhimwithhisswordraised,buthedidn't
man.Suddenly,
hehearda womanscream.
wall,aViking
waschasinga womanwithlongblondehair.TheViking
bythehairandthrewherto theground.
Jamesrantowards
her,pickedup
theViking
overthe
head.Hehelped
thewomanto herfeetandlookedinto

Theprofessor
suddenly
understood
thal
hetravelled
through
timeonlywhen
A hewasdreaming.
B hewasn't
feeling
well.
C hislifewasindanger.
D hisfriendwasn't
withhim.

eyes,
"l'mnotgoingto hurtyou."
" hesaid.
seen
James
knocktheVikingdown,andsenthismento grabhimandthe
thembackto theboat.Hehadtheirhandsandlegstied,andhesaid
tothrowthemintotheicywatersassoonastheysetsail.
youevenrealiseyou'reinthewater."
dead
before
name
wasUla.Herpeoplehadbeenfighting
theVikings
foryears,
and
herbrothers
andherparents
killed.
Shethought
itwasbetterto diethanto
that,"
theprofessor
said."Youhaveto wantto live.Togiveuphopeis like
never
worthliving,
andthatsimplyisn'ttrue."
ofUla'seyesfascinated
him.Theylookedsad,innocentandbeautiful
tofreeoneof herhands.
Shereached
intothepocketof herdressand
pieceofwood.Carvedinthecentrewasthefaceof ananimal.
round
itwasthewhitefox,andherpeoplegaveitto travellers
beforetheyleft
bring
themgoodluck."You're
a kindmanandI wantyouto haveit,"she
intothepocket
ofhisjacket,
andasshedidso,Erikandsomeo{theother
takethemto theboat'sedge.
socoldtheywouldprobably
dienotlongaftertheywerethrowninto
looked
oncemoreat Ula,thenhewasthrownintothewarer.

Whatwas the Vikingdoingnearthe


castlewall?
A Hewasrunning
aftera woman.
B Hewashelping
a woman.
C Hewasfighting
withErik.
D Hewasshouting
at Erik.
WhydidUlapreferto loseherliferather
thanto live?
A Shewastiredoffighting
theVikings.
B Shedidn'twantto livewithouther
family.
C Shewasveryold.
D Shedidn'twantto livewithout
the
professor.
Whatwasso important
aboutthepiece
of wood?
A Ulahadmadeit.
B lt coulddestroy
theVikings.
C lt wasluckyfortravellers.
D lt protected
whitefoxes.

53

UNII
]2
Praclire
Uuna[ulary
4

Look at the words in bold in Ex.3


and try to explain them, then
choose any three and make
sentences.

Fill in the correct word(s) from the


list below. Use the words only once.

Read the text and choose the best answer for each gap.

(0) ...8...fromDenmark,
TheVikingswereScandinavian
Norwayand
peoplecolonised
Thesetall,fair-haired
many1) .......of Europebetween
Theywereexcellent
and 11thcenturies.
sailorswho 2) .......in long
......withmanyoarsand largerectangular
sails.Erikthe Redwasoneol
.......
famousVikings.
He5) .......
Greenland
andsetup a colonytherein
LeifErikson,
hisson,wasthe6) .......European
to setfooton theNorth
7l .......
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

to hove,icy,toreoch,c/oseto, to occupy,
to bring,to set,to go into,to give up, to toke

1 .....no noticeof
6
2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . w a t e r7
s
3 to be.......
death 8
4 . . . . . . . . . . .l.a. .n. d
.. 9
5 . . . . . . . . . . .b. a. .t.t l e 1 0

. . . . . .n. .o c h o i c e
. . . . . . . . . . . . s. .a. i. l. . .
. . . . . . . . . . .n.o. .p. .e
a castle
. . . . . .g. .o o dl u c k

A soldiers
A parts
A travelled
A canoes
A most
Aleft
A first
A island

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

warriors
pieces
toured
rafts
much
discovered
one
continent

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

princes
places
went
boats
many
invented
only
ocean

Wnrdsoftcn Gonfu$Bd

Erammar
in Use

Underline the correct word.

1 My motherdidn'tleave/letme go to the
pany.
2 "Leave/Let
me alone!"sheshouted.
3 Darwin invented/discoveredmany
strangeanimalsduringhistravels.
Thomas Edison invented/discovered
thelightbulb.
Tom avoided/preventedthe traffic in
the city centreby going throughthe
backstreets.
Bad weatheravoided/preventedthe
shipfromleaving.
7 ls it realltruethatyou'vemetthe Queen?
8 The diamondsin this necklaceare not
real/true.

Read the two sentences and identify the subject (S), the
and the object (O) in sentence A.What changes do you
sentence B? How do we form the passive? In which
the action more important than the person who does
which sentence is the person more important than the
itselfl

A ActiveVoice: TheVikingsthrewJamesintothewater.
B PassiveVoice: Jameswas thrown intothe waterbv the

Weformthe passiveby usingthe appropriate


tenseof theverbto
participfe.e.g. Theprofessorwas given a sword.

fulluw-uI
. Describe Erik the Red and Ulo.
. Readthe storyagain and answerthe
followingquestions.Then,
usingyour
answers,retell the story.
1 Where did James find himselfat the
beginning
of the story?
2 Whatdid he see?
3 Whatdid Erikthe RedtellJamesto do?
4 WhatwasJamesgiven?Why?
nearthe castlewall?
5 Whathappened
6 WhowasUla?
7 Whathappenedat the end of the story?

54

Look at the table below. How do the verbs change in

Active
make
is making
wasmaking
made

+
-r
+
+

Passive
is made
is beingmade
wasbeingmade
wasmade

Active
havemade -)
had made -)
willmake -)
can maKe -)

Passive
have
had

willbe
can0e

o The agent (by ...) is omitted when it is not important


understood. e.g. The house was broken into (by
easily understood ll was offereda cup of tea.- agent

UNIT
I2
Putthe verbs
in brackets
intothe

13

Rewrite the following questions into the passive.Then, choosing


names from the list below, answer them.
Shokespeore,
Bell,Edison,Columbus,daVinci,Curie

passive.

1 Who discovered
America?
2 Whoinvented
the lightbulb?
3 WhowroteRomeoandJuliet?
of a Vikingship 1)
by diverslast week. The wreck 2)
(now/examine)
by expertsto see
(lift)to thesurface.
3)..................
lf it
......(find)to be in goodcondition,
(make)next
toraise
it5) ..................
Afterwards,
it 6) ..................
(clean)so
can7) ..................
(put) in the local
Museum.
Other Viking remains8)
(discover)
.......
in thisarearecently.
fromactiveinto passive
oftheactiveverbbecomesthe
in the passivesentence.The
changesintoa passiveform
subject of the active verb
the agent, which is either
with"by"or is omitted.

the subject and the object


sentences.Then rewrite
in the possive.

Millsis preparing
an expedition
to
Pole.
TV networks will film the
aregoingto showthe expedition
television.
Millshasalreadyboughtall the
equipment.
goingto set up an observation
there.
people
haveraisedobjectionsto

the sentencesand say how


passivequestions with
we omit "by" in this

passive
question?

Like is used for similarities.


e.g. He works like a slave.(He isn,ta slave.l
As is usedto say what sb or sth reallyis. e.g. He worksas a teacher.(He
is a teacher.)
14

Fill in the gapswith as or like.

1 Heworks
a waiterat a
4
restaurant.
2 Joanboughta dress...........
mine. 5
3 Sometimes
Mikebehaves
,............ 6
a child.

Helenwantsto find a iob


a secretary.
Heswims..................
a fish.
Craigwasoffereda job .............
a
chef.

Writing (project)
t5

E
Look at the table, then listen to the tape and fill in the
missing words. Finally, use the information in the table to write
a project about one of the explorers. Cut pictures from the
Photo File Section
at the back of
the book
to use
with your
project.

Placeof birth:
Dateof birth:

1254

Family:

son of a

merchant

son of a weaver

.1271stafteda................Travels/
o made................
voyages
Achievements:
yearjourneyto Asia
. sailed............
. spentseventeen
vearsin
hopingto reach
a reachedthe Bahamas
o arrived
in Venicein .......... a landedon Cubaand Haiti

Voice:Whogaveyou this
Voice:Whowereyou given
helmet
by?

4 Whodiscovered
radium?
5 Who paintedtheMona Lisa?
6 Whoinvented
thetelephone?

calledIhe Travelsof
Marco,Polo
Diedin:

1324

the CarribeanSeaand
.....................
America
1506

55

$t,liti'l,,,jiiirl:;::lri:::i:r:$lX?{i}f?g
X (UnilS
7 I 2)
Choose the correct item.
6
7

inthedoonruay.
Thedoor.......
openandI sawa manstanding
B howled C cracked D whispered
A creaked
the lostclimbers.
Theymanagedto .......
B drown C occupy D gather
A rescue
Henryfoundit .......
to solvethe physicsproblem.
A active
B miserable
C useless D impossible
In the old days,peoplepunished.......
by killingthem.
B guards C generalsD employees
A traitors

8
I
10

4
1
2
3
4

peoplebelieve
.......
thatlifein thefuturewillbe better.
A lsolated B PessimisticC Optimistic D Friendly
Hewasfilledwith.......
whenhe sawtheterriblemonster.
A hope
B wonder C relief D fear

5
6
7

Afterthe longwalk,theywere.......to seethecabin.


A painful
B exhaustedC sharp D relieved

B told

Lastnighta coupleof friendscame..........


fora
Whendo schools
break...........
forthesummer
Theburglarbroke...........
ourneighbours'
Whenyou come...........
fromwork,l'lltellyou
newneighbours.
Hismotorcycle
inthemiddleofthe
broke........
He came
a fortunewhenhisuncledied.
Mysistercame...........
a valuable
old bookwhile
cleaning
the attic.
A firebroke...........
anddestroved
the entire

D rowed

10 TheVikingswore.......on theirheadsfor protection.


A clubs
B shields C helmetsD oars
A said

Fill in the correct particle from the list.


into,bocNdown,ouoss,out,up,round

Thesoldiers.......
downthe streetduringthe parade.
B marched C entered D attacked
A led

They.......theirboatup the river.


A rose
B chased C led

M a n y p e o p l eb e l i e v et h a t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
shouldbe banned.
Thedriver...........
controlof thecarandhit
The passengers
. the ship and it
harbour.
Theso|diers..............
battleagainst
theirenemies
Thearmy
. thewholecity.
When I took the exam,I had a rabbit'sfoot
. me goodluck.

C spoke

Fill in the gaps with the correct

D expressed

12 Shelooks.......a modelbutsheis actuallv


an architect.
Bas
D like
A such
C as if
(12 marks)
Fill in the gaps with words from

the list.

releosed,
benefits,
dropped,feed,
bleeding
diseosg
weep
defeot,
thevaseandit broke.
1 He ..........
whensheheardthebadnews.
2 Thewomanbeganto ...........
. of travelis that one learns
3 Oneof the many
aboutothercultures.
. the animalsat the zoo.
4 You mustn't
killedhundreds
......................
of villagers.
5 A mysterious
6 Tinacutherfingerandit was...........
7 lf we can..................
theFrench
team,wewillwinthecup.
. the birdfrom its caoe.
8 John
(8 marks)

Fill in the correct word.

pouringlost,wentinto,
spoce,
boarded,
bring,supernoturol,
occupi
ed,militory, geneti
c
1 The......................
rainmadedrivingdifficult.
2 The officerslookedvery handsomein their
uniforms.
forceliftedtheboyofftheground.
3 A ......................
4 Ourgovernment
spendsa lotof moneyon ......................
exploration.

56

Yesterday,I went to the Westminster


Bank
..........
the citycentre.I wasgettingsome
cashpointwhen a car pulledup and parked
m a ng o t2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .t.h. .e.c. .a ra n d
face looked familiarand he remindedme
4) ..........
somebody.
Suddenly,
my horror,
hetri
my walletfrom me. I screamed5) ..........
..........
my relief,
a groupof boysheardme.1
just7) ..........
timeto grabthemanandhold
oolicearrived.
Somepeoplebelievethat one of the best
lonelinessis to usethe Internet.Theysaythat
makefriends2) ..........
the Internet.
3) ..........
hand, some people argue that people
Internetto makefriendsbecomeisolated4) ,,
world.I believethatpeopleshouldget out
ratherthansit in frontof a comouterscreenfor

Give advice to the people in the following situations,


using the expressions from the list below'
The best thing,tf I were you,Why don't you,Youought to'

l0

the correct word.

to leave/ let me stayout laterthan 11


refused

HowlWhotobout...

rainavoided/ preventedus from havinga picnicin


wasa(n)alone/ lonely manwho livedall by himself
smallcottage.
keptstaring/ glancingover her shoulderto see
wasbehindher,
James
'efuloryou'lldrop / fall yourglasses'
gavehim medicationbut couldn'ttreat/curethe
(6 marks)

Mary wants to get fit.

joina gym?

test,
2 Markhasfailedhis PhYsics

studyharder.
exhausted.
feeling
been
has
3 Nick
takinga longholidaY?

' '::l::::::::li

"::Y

youcandoistorinda'atmate

at work.
5 ErikahasProblems

the sentences in the passive voice'

l'd finda newjob.


(5 marks)

Australia?
discovered

l1

Mary'snewhouse.
isdesigning
in theiroffice'
air-conditioning
willinstall
up MountEverest'
an expedition
areplanning
fedalltheanimals?
(5 marks)

in "willt' or "am going to"

rt areyoudoingtonight?
stayin andwatchTV'
notsure.I thinkI
grassneedscutting.
callthe gardenerand ask
| ..,.......
know.
imto cutit.
youlikejuiceor soda?
.....havesoda,Please.
issittingherexamsthisweek.
do well'
.......
she
hope
ryoumadeanYPlansfor the summer?
..'....do a courseat Oxford'
I
I have.
(5 marks)
the following sentences using the
in bold. Use two to five words.

Fill in the correct tense.

(look)
1) ......'..'.........
A Everyone
forwardto the schoolPicnicfor
weeksbeforeit took Place.The
students 2)
(organise)the gamesa week
before and Parents 3)
(PrePare) the
food on the morningof the
p i c n i cW
. e 4) .....'.........'..'......'
(have)a wonderfultime when
suddenlYit 5)
(start) to rain. We all 6)
. (get) completely
soaked,and it 7)
(turn) out to be the worst
picnic we 8)
(ever/have).
' (live)in
B Helen1)
past
two years,but she 2)
England{or the
problems
withthe language'Everytime
(still/have)some
(try)
to
speak,she is afraidshe 4)
.
she 3)
Mostpeoplewho 5)
(make)a mistake.
........................
... (learn)a foreignlanguagemay feel this
way.The bestthingto do is to keeptalking'
(13 marks)

sheaskedme'
12 Say how your life will be different in five years'
yourhomework?"
youfinished
mYhomework.
time. Make sentencesusing future continuous
Sheasked
and future Perfect.
comesoon,"he saidto me.
6 marks)
....soon'
me.....
Hetold
gonearthedog,"Mothersaidto me.
. nearthe dog.
d Mother
sheaskedus.
'
youspeakto the manager?"
Answer the following questions.
Sheaskedus ................' to themanager
1 Whattensesdo we normallyusein stories?
theteachersaidto me.
carefully!"
' carefullY'
2 Suggestvariouswaysof endinga story.
Theteacher
3 Howdo youfinisha letterof adviceto a friend?
roundthecorner,"he saidto her'
justroundthecorner'
4 Whatis includedin the mainbodyof a story?
He .................
opinion'
5 Listvariouswaysof expressing
(6 marks)
(10marks)
[ 7
marksi I
\OTAL:100

'',,r,wriliIlu

--i

ri'i
,--'
, - ---,

- ,'

i
'-t-

'-

t',
a-,

* Beforeyottslrrl
o Whnl
yettrs
doy0uliketeodinul
Whylo Whrt
doyoulhink
lifewillbelikeinlhirty

t Reud"
lislen.
lnlkund
wtile
nhnul...

o naturaldisasters

o
o

jobs
makingwishes

typesof sports/hobbies
sportsequipment
skills& qualities

life in the future


makingpredictions
expressing
opinions

*l

I
how
10...
t leurn

$rcl

O
a
a

a
a
a

wildanimals
endangered
species
animalsounds

o
a
o
a

describe/comment
on natural
disasters
commenton jobs
makewishes
describe
sports
askfor confirmation/
agreement
describe
sights
describe
animals
expresscauseand effect
providesolutions

* Pruclise...
o

Y;F- *."

a
a
o
a

Pf$&ar,:,

o
a
a
o

o ecology
o expressing
cause& effect
e living
conditions

the passivevoice
ConditionalsType2&3
makingwishes
-ingform
infinitives/the
question
tags
pronouns
reflexive
plurals
expressing
reason
clausesof result/purpose
too/enough

I Wrile...
o
o

o
a
a

;iu{,qt*

'-e*t;$

{, .Yf.'

a newsreport
an essaydescribingthe advantages/
disadvantages
of sth
a shortarticlecomparing
&
contrasting
sports
a description
of a sight
a description
of an animal
an essayproviding
solutions
to
problems

lT13
UN
Lead-in
What disasters are shown in the
pictures? What other natural
disasters can you think ofl

Match the following words


with the natural disasters
shown in the pictures.
Can you think of
any more words?

ash,mud,explotde,
burn,shoke,
smoke,
croter,lavo,
debris,
volcano,flames,
cosuo/tles

You are going to listen to a


E
news report. Read the sentences
below and put them in the correct
chronological order. Now listen to
the tape and check your answers.

&

ll

heatinside
Thetremendous
wasreleased.
Mudfromthevolcanois filling
flooding.
rivers,
causing
was
Thetop of the mountain
blownoff.
Hugeblocksof iceand rockfell
area.
ontothe surrounding
washit by two
Themountain
earthquakes.
f Thehoi ashstartedfires.
g Hotashand gascameout of
causinga
the mountain
storm.
lightning

5B

Washington
in ClarkCounty,
thevolcano
MountSt Helens,
atleast
hascaused
Thedisaster
morning.
erupted
0n Monday
inthatregion
ofthestate,
deslruclion
deaths
aswellasmassive
justbeforehalfpast
washitbytwoearthquakes
Themountain
wasblownoflby
Then,at eightthirty{wo,thetopof themountain
of
Huge
blocks
miles
away.
twohundred
thatwasheard
explosion
tltas
areaandthemountain
androck{ellontothesurrounding
was
heatinside
Then
thetremendous
feetshorter.
1,300
causing
a lightning
Hotashandgascameoutofthemountain,
continue
withsleamandthickmud,
ash,along
asit roseintotheair.White
pourfromthegiant
crater
leftbytheexplosion.
people
The
killed.
have
been
eruption
ofthisdramatic
Ateachstage
people
wereinlured
ordiedduetothe
several
thefirstcasualties;
caused
vaslareas
fireswhichhaveburned
andheatof it.Thenthehotashstarted
havemanaged
to
fire-fighters
Fortunately,
moredeaths.
forest,
causing
anddarkthatitwas
wassolarge
cloud
mostofthemout.Thevolcanic
One
more
lemporarily.
to close
lorcing
airports
have
turned
dayintonight,
intothecloudandhitelectricity
waslostasa pilotflewhisaeroplane
andfilling
downthemountainside
is running
Mudfromthevolcano
their
forced
to Ieave
nearby
havebeen
People
living
flooding,
causing
to rise.
continues
asthewater
byhelicopter,
andsurvivors
upcasualties
workers
havepicked
Rescue
are
Morevictims
areas.
themawayfromthedangerous
aremoving
like
saidthatit hadbeen
0newitness
thenextfewdays.
during
to befound
to die,"Jenylrvine
wewereallgoing
thought
endof theworld.
"l really
inmvlife.'
"l'venever
been
soterrified
'growing'
leet
byfive
hadbeen
saythatthetopofthemountain
Scientists
Theysaythatashandmud
theexplosion.
before
weeks
dayforseveral
the
for upto fifteenyears.Meanwhile,
to poutoutof St.Helens
continue
fury.
to copewithnature's
County
arelearning
of Clark
nt#d&trlmEc,e

UNII
I3
Before
theeruntion

thevolcano
erupted,
thetopof
mountain
A made
verydark
evefihing
B damaged
many
aeroplanes.
verybig.
c wasn't
D damaged
theforest.

grew
taller.
milesaway.
landed
twohundred
intomud.
turned
intopieces.
wasbroken

hadtoleave
4 People
theirhomes
as
by
lirstpeople
to diewerekilled
A theirhouses
wereburnt.
B themountain
fellontheirhomes.
c theyhadnoelectricity.
D there
wasflooding
inthearea.

fires.
theforest
theexplosion.
mud.
thethick
thelightning
storm.

ry practiue

Phrasalugrbs

9
at the words in bold in Ex.4 and try to explain
then choose any three and make sentences.

flow
huge
because
oi
free
point
area
largehole

in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use


wordsonly once.
mossive,volcanic, blocks,
hrt,thick,tremendous,
rescue,to stort
eleAricity,

, . . . . . . .o. .f .i c. e
heat
torm
mud

.,. 6
- 'r l- ryn. +
' -i 'n n I
6
7
. . . . .c. a b l e s
I ......by twoearthquakes
....worKers
9
10
. . . . . . .f.i.r.e s

Wrrdsrftgil Gonfuseil
the correct word.

at the stationyesterday.
erupted/exploded
diedintheolanecrash:therewereno survivors/
Miamithismorninq.
hurricane
hit/knocked
of thefirehavebeentakento hospital.
wasstruck/beaten
by lightning

Fill in the correct particle.

putout:
putup:
puton:
putoff:

the numbers to the letters.

a
b
c
d
e
I
g

hadbeen
makino
A scientists
the
mountain
bigger.
had
B thepeople
ofClark
County
howto cooe
witha volcano.
learnt
getting
hadbeen
C themountain
taller.
pouring
D ashandmudhadbeen
out
forfifteen
ofSt.Helens
vears.

to stopa fireburning
to letsb stayin yourhouse
to placeclotheson one'sbody
to postpone

1
Heput ........
hiscoatandleftthehouse.
week.
2 He put ........
themeeting
untilthefollowing
forthenightas I couldfindnowhere
else
3 Billput me.........
to stay.
thecandlesbeforeyougo to bed.
Don'tforgetto put ........

10

Match the letters with the words.


Iovo,cloud of ash,lightningstorm,steom,forest fire,flooding,
victim,survivors,folling rocks

UNII
I3
Pnepnsitinns
11

13

Fill in the correct prepositions,then chooseany


three and make sentences.

1 ..........
least;2 to rise..........
the air;3 ..........
eachstage;
4 due........
sth;5 to turnday
night;6 thetop .........
the
pieces;8 to be growing........
mountain;
7 to break........
five
feeta day;9 to cope
sth;10to fall...........
an area

fnlllw-up
. Read the article again and answer the questions.
a) What happened just before the explosion?
b) What caused the lightning storm?
c) What caused the forest fires?
d) How did the pilot die?
e) What did the rescue workers do to help the
victims?
. Using the events in Ex. 3, talk about the eruption
of Mount St Helens.

Look at the picture and the notes. First try


explain the words in bold, then expand the
into full sentences.

Severalvillagesin
completely
cut otf davssnowstorm.- it
Saturdayat 4 pm.
one person- found
three- stillmissing.
- trappedmotorists
cars fivehoursrescued.Manyroadscompletely
blockedfood suppliesquickly.Food- helicoptervillages
today.Peoplepolice- avoidthearea
weatherconditions expected continue- threemore
e.g.

Seyera/villagesin Scatlandhavebeen
for threedays...

Grammar
in Use
language
lleuelo[mgnt
12

Match the people's comments with the natural


disasters, then rewrite their words in the passive.
hurricone,eorthquake,volconiceruption,drought"flood,
fomine

It is blowingdowntrees
and houses!

2 Theyhavesentfood
to helpthe starving
peopre.

\
4 Television
stations
gavewarningsbefore
it exploded.
exoecteven more rarn
in the nextfew davs.

a
v .nv1' '

60

6 Thegovernment
has
people
asked
not
to wastewater.

hurricane:Treesand housesarebeino blawn


down.

14

Complete the sentences using the words


Use two to five words.

1 Theywillsenda reporter
to the sceneof the
sent
A reporter
..........
to thesceneofthe
Theyaretakingthe survivors
to the hospital.
taken
Thesurvivors
Theydidn'tinformthe policeaboutthetheft.
informedThepolice
..........
about
Fireplanesdroppedwateron the burning
foresl.
was
Water................
burning
forestby
Theyhavefoundtwentypeoplein the building.
been
Twentypeople
....inthe
6 Thelifeboatteamhaverescuedfivecrew
been
Fivecrewmembers............
the
Policearecarryingout an investigation.
being Aninvestigation...............

't5

Rewrite the following in the passive.

1 Factorywastepolluteda localriver.The
finedthe ownerst20,000.e.g.A localriverwas
factorywaste.Ihe ownershavebeenfined
LastmonthJamesSmithburntdowntheTown
judgesenthimto prisonfor fiveyears.
Lastweeka careless
drivercauseda serious
accii
aregoingto sendhimto prisonforfouryears.
Craig McDrewwas attackingan old lady
arrested
himlastweek.Thejudgehassenthim
fifteenvears.

UNII
I3
18

iatiun
rnd e
Lrted

Bonglodesh,
hit by
heovyrains,serious
flooding,people
died,othersmade
homeless,
onimols
drown,rescue
workers,tropped,
food,medicines,
tents.

leul

John
goat

),
rir
;till
rd

using the words


from the list.

List"n and tick, then listen and repeat.

lol

got

fU (. news report)
the text and rewrite the highlighted senin the passive.Then answer the questions.

information
is givenin thefirstparagraph?
paragraph
which
is the maineventdescribed
in detail?
whichparagraph
are the consequences
of the event
paragraph
which
arepeople'scomments
mentioned?
paragraph
which
is theactionto be takenmentioned?

Ishilr

tl

Anearthquake
struck
thetownof $antaMaria
in Peruearlyyesterday
morning.
Thequake
measured
7.5onthe
Richter
scaleandis oneof
to havestruck
theareain overfiftyyears.

ilnriu

t|

have
reported
liltypeople
missing.
struck
at5 amlocaltime,andlastedfor abouthalfa
buildings
collapsed,
tenpeople
havediedand
stillburied
under
debris.
0lhercountries
arenow

tothetown.Volunteers
medical
supplies
are
andRedCross
doctors
lheinjured
arelreating
in a nearby
havetakenothersto a hospital
city
willgivemoney
lo thetownto helppayfor
ofthehouses
which
theearlhquake
has
people
"lt
Local
arestilltrying
t0 getovertheshock.
' oneresident
"l'llnever
said.
foroet
it."

Loot at the picture and the list of words.


E
What kind of news report do you expect to hear?
First listen to the tape, then make sentences

Listen again and answer the questions.


E
Finallygive a summary of the event.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Whathashappened?
Whenandwherehasit happened?
Howmanypeoplehavebeenmadehomeless?
Howmanypeoplehavedied?
Whathashappened
to theanimals?
Whatare rescueworkersdoing?
Whosaid,"l'velosteverything.
My houseand all my
cattle."?
8 Whatis beingsentto the area?

19 You work as a journalist.Using the plan below


and the information from Ex. 18,write a news
report about the recent flood in Bonglodesh.

Plan
INTRODUCTION
Para1:

summaryof the event(what,when,where,who)

MAINBODY
Para2:

detaileddescription
of the event,consequences
i::
CONCLUSION
Para3:

actionto be taken,people'scomments

lilords nf Wisdnm
ditfersfrom a story. lt givesonly lacts
storyhasa personaland chattystyle.A news
hasa headlineand is writtenin a formal,
style.Thewriter'sfeelingsand emotionsare
Passivevoice is frequentlyused.Direct
alsousedto mentionoeoole'scomments.

Readthese sentences.Whatdo they mean?


r Aftera stormcomesa calm.
o Bad newstravelsfast.
o A drowningmanwill clutchat a straw.

UNIT
14

lead-in
. Match the pictures with the
jobs in the list:
combotsoldier.
tropeze ortist,vet
What do you think
the title means?
. For which of the
jobs shown do you
need to be:
tough,tolented,courageous,caring,
dedicoted? ..i.s:,11,
. What
,liF\
'irt,.
are the
risks involved '

teadinU

Read these texts and say what the positive and


points of each job are.

Howmanyof us usedto dreamof joiningthe circuswhenwe


children?
Well,ChrisSayers,
a trapezeartistat Zippo's
that. lt took him ten yearsof training beforehe felt confident
performsixmetresabovetheground.Sincethenhehasbecome
peoplein theworldwhocando foursomersaults
oneaftertheother.
manyrisksinvolvedin thisjob.Trapeze
artistsneedto workwitha
candepend
on.Whenflyingthrough
theairat60mph,theyhave
tobe
partner
willcatchthem."Manytimesin thepast,if I hadn'thada
trust,I wouldhavefallenand probablyhurt myselfseriously,,,
Peoplewhoworkin the circuslovethe risksandthe thrillof their
Brokenbonesarepartof thejob."ljustwishtheydidn'ttakesolong
Chrisexplains.Heearnst500 perweek,butit is certainlv
noteasv

in these jobs?
E First read the following sentences,then
listen to the tape and
find out who said what:
the trapeze artist, the
combat soldier or the vet.

.*
.:!

,l'::i
ar::
r!

"l wouldneverignorea sickanimal,


evenif it was dangerousenoughto
k i l lm e . "
"l justwishtheydidn'ttakeso long
to mend."
"lf I didn't know how to handle
some animals,I would probably
havepermanentscarsby now."
"Manytimes in the past, if I hadn't
had a partnerI could trust,I would
have fallen and probably hurt
myselfseriously."
"lf the enemy had caught us, they
wouldhavekilledus."

E2

*E

Art
combats9f{ie1 intheBritish
Thereareonlytwohundred

the#' ;il;;;'Y:f:f:i;3;,';li5:lffl
into
parachute
can
successfullv'

"tt's
"lt's
fti"rv territory
inenemyterntory-suuuel._.'iOliiia,
i.
secret.
11ff::t:?:
n"otsecret.
Oekept
nai to l.,t"

'iJ'Y.'r.*r
:'-i*fiil;.Hiil:'.'ili{ffi
exciting
iob'bu.lI s arsu
ij':{:llg**i","ru:i:',
irainingbeforesucha soldier
"t

H:fii;il;#''I;l':fl::;lJflffiiff
'll,':I.,:ll
:
:?:
$ff;
;i'"e
on31?1.:l^T':'l:T1ft:fi:,,
bgen
yei
per
n'ilft
145,000
us"t45'000
kirred
hu'e
ffi;"ilwould
:#^Iifl".i:ilfii.iJ
livesforless'
their
risk
buttewpJopft
soundlikea lot,

I4
UNII
they meet manyfamouspeopleand get lots of public
A singer'sjob can be very 3) ..........'......,
attention.
if a songbecomesa hit,but it canalsobe very
especially
to perform
they haveto continue
because
4) ................
theywillno longerbe successful'
well,otherwise

patients
arethankful
for the caretheyget fromtheir
5,butwhenitcomes
toan
it,s,a
different
story.
Every
rnows
owsthat
rharanimals
animara
-,.^lT!
are
", much
,or" rL.r1,
io ,r, ,",i.o.llJ

Steve
oiu.oi. in.*per,.",i..ou.,
li:r*1j[Athem.
bee1bittenby couniless

catsandOogr.W,ihrnor.

lT

7
First describe the iobs below,then answer the
jll'"sll.!9nlesspeciar.,,.lFoi.*,,p,.,
ilil11,#:T:11
rl*.:, hekeeps
questions:
them
in
org,

l^oj35
'ilffT?#,':,.fi1,:|3.
".roir., ;il;;"J

q!t .i'.in*.,,
1':9.go,*n

a) Which of these peoplewear uniforms when


they work?
b) Which of these peoplework indoors and
which outdoors?
c)What are the pros and cons of each iob? Give
reasons.

ishands.
"lfI didn,tknowhowtohandle
someari#t:I

" st.u.,,y,
ql,no*,
litl*l:"t::'",f,':T:!
:T':ioi..ort
ittakes
many
years
of.tuov
. ,i.i,it
i'Alunirrr.ln
cal.eer..
jtii:::g ylf_p?id
nli';;r, "
never
ignore
r ri.t rnir],"#i;i';"J
lyor,,O
enough
to kill
me,,,says
steve.

ary Practire

the numbers to the letters.

countless
thrill
vet
profession

e danger
f doctorfor
animals
excitement

Look at the words in bold and say how each word


is used.

at the words in bold in Ex. 3 and try to


them, then choose any five and make

5
6
7
8

flight
trafficwarden,waiteqdoctor,policeman,
Postman,
farmeri
teacher,
typist,gardener;
porter,dustman,
attendant,
surgeon
butcheri
optician,
pilogfire-fighter,
secretary,
builder,

9 handle
1 0 courageous

h job
i tool
j brave

B
had to do one of the three iobs mentioned
texts, which would you choose and why?
would you definitely not choose?WhY?

lB llsuclo[ment
the adjectives from the list, then say what
and cons of being a singer are.

rewording
exciting,stressful
job because
theyhave
havea very1) ................
perform
late at
to
great
have
deal and often
a
since
however,
2l
.........,......,
Theirlivesare often

Joiningsimilarideas
It'sa tiringjob asyou haveto standon yourfeetall day long.
Also/ln addition to this/What is more/Furthermore/
this, you haveto workon Saturdays.
Moreover/Besides
Joiningcontrastingideas
job becauseyou mightget burnt'
o lt'sa dangerous
you do
Howeverionthe other hand/Nevertheless,
get longholidays.
. Although/lnspite of the fact (that)/Despitethe fact
(that)it is a difficultjob, it is verypoorlypaid.
o In spiteof/Despitebeinga difficultjob, it is verypoorly
paid.
. lt'sa difficult
job,yet/butit is poorlypaid.

Replacethe words in bold with other words from


the boxes above.

However,mending
Workingon a fishingboatis exciting.
the netsis tiring.
becauselwork longhours.Moreover,it is
It'sexhausting
job.
nota well-paid
I can't
in frontof audiences,
AlthoughI like performing
allthetime.
standtravelling
job,yet it is rewarding
to knowthat
It'sa verydangerous
you havesavedpeople.
It's a verysociablejob as you meetmanynew people'
Moreover,it'swellpaid.
you
for thisjob. Furthermore,
You needto be qualified
haveto be older.
Despitethe fact that his job involvesmany rtsks,he
decidedto renewhiscontract.
I lt is a tiringjob.Also,it takesa lot of physicalstrength.

63

UNII
I4
t0

foin the followingsentencesin all possibleways.

13 Make sentences as in the

example:
e.g.lwishI had qllmy reerh.lf I hc'd all my teeth,l
eot the opple.

1 It'sa riskyjob. lt is poorlypaid.


job. I earna lot of money.
2 It'san interesting
3 It'sverytiringbecause
youspendalldayin frontof a computer.lt'sboringas you do the samethingallthetime.
job.Youtravela lotwhichis exhausting.
4 It'san exciting
5 It'snota steadyjob. lt's notwellpaid.

'srammar
in Uss
navea friend
lonely
I I

Read the sentences and identifythe types of


conditionols.Which refers to the present/post?

a "lf I didn't know how to handle some animats,twould


probably have permanenf scars by now."
b "lt the enemy had caught us, they woutd have kiiled us."
Now fill in the missing information in the table
below, then say how each type is formed and how
it is used.

{it-"tarse FLYain.9'H_l
{ use
Type 2
unreal lf +
present

would/could/ imaginary
situation
might+
inthepresent
or
future(unlikely
to
happen);also
usedto giveadvice

Type 3
unreal
past

would/coutd/ imaginary
situation
inthepast;itisused
to express
criticism
and regrets

12

lf +

'l::lI _

Read the sentences.Whichexpressesan unreol


situotion in the present?Which expressesregret
about o post eyent?

not havea
work faster

14

Make sentences as in the example:


e.g.I wish we hodn't storen the money.lf we
stolen the money,thepolicewouldn't have

ffixH
not stealmoneypolicenot arrestus

checkPetrol
haverunout

3 wakeuP earlY not


missbus

be careful:
my knee

a I wish I hadn't left school.(butI did)


b I wish I earned more money. (but I don't)
Now make wishes for the following situations.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

64

Youliedto yourbestfriend.
Youcan'taffordto go on holiday.
Yourbrokenleg hurts.
Youfailedyourexams.
Yourmumis angrywithyou.
Youmissedan important
meeting.
Youaren'told enoughto get a drivinglicence.

UNIT
I4
::i:i:a

lWfiting

in the correct tense.

't liedto myboss,he ........................


(not/fire)
me.

Beforewriting a compositionabout the advantages and


disadvantagesof a certaintopic you should make a list of
the good and bad points,givingreasonsfor eachone.Start
your compositionby brieflystatingthe topic,then present
giving
the pointsfor and againstin two separateparagraphs,
reasons.Endyourcompositionby restatingthe factthatthe
Remember
topic has both advantagesand disadvantages.
to use appropriatelinkingwords (e.9. furthermore,to start
with, also, what is more, on the other hand, in conclusion,
etc).Also begin each paragraphwith a topic sentence(a
whatthe paragraphis about).
sentencewhichsummarises

Now,I can'tpaythe phonebill.


(have)his car,he wouldgiveus
tothestation.
qualified,
(find)a goodjob.
she.......................
were
(find)a job,he'llmoveto a biggerhouse.
(not/haveto) worksuchlong
1............................
I couldspendmoretimewithmy son.
Then,
.. (lose)
keepcomingto worklate,you
job.
(not/be)late
hadleftontime,he ................
meeting.
you.............. (be)in better
smoking,
stopped
you................ (follow)heradvice.
lf youhad
what
shehadtoldvouto do,vou..............
allyourmoney.

(advantagesand disadvantages)

18 You havebeen askedto write an article for your


school magazine about the odvontogesand
of being either o nepofteror a
disodvontoges
surgeon.Use the notes from Ex. | 7 and the plan
below to write your article.The beginningand
have
endingas well as the linkingwords/phrases
beenwritten for you.Underlinethe topic sentences
after you havewritten your composition.

Plan

First listen and tick.Then, listen and repeat.

luJ

1iu:l

suit
true
new
proof
Readthe table, then listen to the tape and
the missinginformation.

INTRODUCTION
Para1: statetooic
i:
MAINBODY
Para2: listthe advantages
and givereasons
givereasons
Para3: listthe disadvantagesrand
CONCLUSION
and
Para4: restatethe factthatthereare bothadvantages
disadvantages
Haveyou ever considered
becominga .........................?
to doing this
Thereare manyadvantagesand disadvantages
kindof job.
is that
of beinga .....................
Oneof themainadvantages

because
reasons
ina very
haveto doeverything
oftenworkin placeswheretherearewars

. Furthermore,

.
to becoming
a ...........,..
However
therearedisadvantages
because
Firstly,
.........
a s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I na d d i t i ot ont h i s ,
A l lt h i n g sc o n s i d e r ebde, c o m i nag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i .s. . . . . . . . . . .
a good idea,as longas you areawareof the drawbacks.

reasons
thejobneeds
a lotof skill
people's
lives
it'sgreatbeingableto .........
reasons
hours
worklong,unsteady
lives
forpeople's
responsible

ll:::'r I

Wnrilsnf Wisdnm

Readthe sentence.Whatdoes it mean?


,

o A bad workmanalwaysblameshistools.

)
nr

NJ

[ead-in
. Match the pictures with the sports: rofting
slcydiving"scubo-diving rock-climbing,porogtiding
How is the title related to these pictures?
What other extreme sports can you think of?
. What do you enjoy doing in your free time?

2
1
2
3
4
5
6

66

E neaa the sentencesthen listento the tape


and find outwho saidwhatGillWilliams,Bob
Card or SandraQuiggen.
"l lovescaryanimals."
"l believe
thereisanadventurer
insideeveryoneof us.,'
"lt doesn'tmatterhowold or strongyouare.',
"Yourlifewilltakeon newmeaning."
"Thosehipposhavebig teeth.Buta litflefearmakes
the brainworkfaster."
"lfyoudon'tdo thingsright,youareaskingfortrouble.,,

15
UNII
Prartire
Uumbulary

rng

Look at the words in bold in Ex.3


and try to explain them, then
choose any three and make
sentences.

this magazine article about extreme sPorts. Choose the


'4)'
s u i t a b l eh e a d i n g f r o m t h e l i s t A ' D , f o r e a c h p a r t ( l

adventurers
fear

freetimeactivities
C Thrilling
rewards
D Riskv

Match the numbers to the letters.

1
2
3
4
5

limits.
whotakessportto itsmostdangerous

thrilling
trainer
leap
concerned
abilities

a
b
c
d
e

worried
veryexciting
teacher
jump
skills

Fill in the correct word(s) from the


list below. Use the words only once.

them'Great
saysGill."l lovebeingnearthemandtouching
animals,"
scary
comeandattackthebarsofthecage.I touchthem,butI don'tletthem
aremorepeoplelikeGillthanyou mightthink.Theyleavetheir
There
things.
dangerous
to spendtheirfreetimedoingextremely
andbusinesses
others
while
caves,
go
themflyjetsacrossdesertsor divingin unexplored
morethantheir
All of themwantto experiencesomething
rivers.
African

to
scary,toos( to sotisfr,foce,business,
on,everYdoY,
test,to go,to do,toke
win
exominotion,to

,lives
canoffer.Theywantadventure.

2
and
peopleto leapoutof aeroplanes
Heteaches
trainer.
isa skydiving
untilthevery
theirparachutes
theairwithoutopening
fallthrough

3
4
5
6

insideeveryone of us,"he says."lt doesn't


thereis an adventurer
is there- it'sjusthiddenaway
oldorstrongyouare.Theadventurer
. lfyoufindthatspirit,yourli{ewilltakeon newmeaning."
isthat
sportsto satisfyyourneedforadventure
of doingextreme
problems'
AsBobsays:"Youcan't
forgetaboutyoureveryday
completely
resultswhenyou're
phonecallsor examination
aboutbusiness

7 . . . . . . . . . . .d.i.v. .i n g
I ......phonecalls
trouble
extreme 9 yourlifewill......
newmeanlng
spons
animals 1 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t h e i r
ownabilities
. . . . . . .p. r. o b l e m s
to face 1 1 . . . . . .y. .o u rn e e d
results
apr|ze 12
for

PhrasalUerhs
7

outofa plane."

Fill in the correct particiPle.

turn into:
turn down:
turn on:
turn up:

panicis
to SandraQuiggen,
cana persontake?According
danger
onthe
hippopotamus
youcomefaceto facewitha badtempered
when
"Yougetscared,"
shesays."Thosehipposhavebigteeth.Buta
River,
thebrainworkfaster,as longas youdon'tletit turnintopanic'"
makes

to changeinto
to refuseto accept
to switchon
to arrive

1 We waited for hours, but she never


turned
J e n n yc, o u l dy o ut u r n . . . . . . . . . . . . . .t.h. .e. . .
lightplease?
you
"lf
right,
you
don'tdothings
sports.
ofriskin allextreme
anelement
magicianmade the bird turn
The
helpto &
saysCard.Buttrainingand properequipment
fortrouble,"
a rabbit.
t
soortssafer.The differencebetweenextremesportand "normal" \ u 4
. .ej o b
T h e yt u r n e dh i m. . . . . . . . . . . . .f.o. .rt. h
g
most
these
sports,
for
competitions
organised
are
there
that,although
because he didn't have the right
thanin
in testingtheirownabilities
qualifications.
peoplearemoreinterested
,sports
Edmund
Sir
mountaineer
with
agree
would
them
of
prizes.
Infact,most
it'sthere'"
whenaskedwhyhewantedto climbEverest:"Because

67

UNII
I5
Jim likes adventurea lot and is in excellentphysical
condition.He workswellwithothersbut he is imoatient.
e.g. I thinkthat theirest hobby for Jim woutdbe
raftingbecauseyou have to be fit and
cooperative.I thinkthat
fishlngwouldbe lhe
worst hobby far him
becausehe l'sn't

Prelnsilions
Fill in the correct prepositions,
then chooseany three and make
sentences.

1 to leap........
of an aeroplane;
2 to fall........
theair;3 a need........
sth;4 to forget..........
sth; 5 to be concerned
..........
sth;6 to be
interested
.......
sth;7 to agree.........
sb

pailent.
Antony is a very active

personand quitefit, but he can'taffordto buy expensive


Peteris a very energeticpersonwho enjoystaking risks.
anythingto do withthe sea.
Davidis veryadventurous.
He lovesbeingcloseto nature,
the mountains.

lnllow-uI
.

Read the text again,then talk


about the reasons why people get
involved in extreme sports.

11

E
Read the table, then listen to the tape and fil! in the
information. Finally, looking at the table, talk about each

lanuua0n
lleuelnnment
I

Look at the list of sports/hobbies


and their equipment,and underline
the odd words out.

Now read the list of skills/guolities


and say which are needed for the
above sports and hobbies.
Skr/h/Quolitiesneeded fiL potien4 imaginotive,
courogeous,
good senseof bolonce,cooperotive,
strong,determined,
goodtraining,odventurous
e.g"Youneed to be fi ond strongand you rnrrst
slso hoye o good senseof lrolonceto g0 wndsurfng.etc.

6B

$;*,$_

windsurfing

wind-surfing
board,camera,wetsuit,sail
knrttingneedles,ropes,wool, patterns
roftingpaddles,life-jacket,
raft,binoculars
boat,
fishing
rod, hooks
fshingtrainers,
stamp-collecting:album, stamps, helmet,
magnifying
glass
scubo4iing mask,oxygentank,life-jacket,
flippers
rock<limbingropes,boots,light clothes,bat
painting:
palette,canvas,brushes,club
skis,parachute,gloves,goggles
skydiving
shorts,
stick,trainers,ball
footboll:
jet-skiinglife jacket,jet ski, flippers,swimming
suit

10

equipment$pros gcons

Read the following information


and decide what hobby/sport would
be best/worst for each person,
giving reasons as in the example.
Then say which hobbylsport you
would like to do and why.

board,
wet-suit

keepfit, expensive
senseof

skateboarding skateboard,fun,
kneepads,
helmet
parachuting

hurtyourself senseof
fit

parachute thrilling
expensrve

basketball

ball,
trainers,
shorts

cneap

Erammarin Usn
12

Look at the sentences, identify the to-infnitive, the


without to and the -ing form and say how they are used.
read the text on p.67 and underline the same forms.

1 You should wear a life-jacket


whenyou'resailing.
2 He doesn'tmindwaitingfor hoursfor fishto bite.
3 I wouldliketo play football.

13

Say whether the following go with the to-infinitive,the


without to or the -ing form?
must,rlrcy,con,will learn,teoch,ogree,hope,like,nrind,con't ston4
expect,iti worth,keep f= continuej,wouldlike,look forwardto,it'sno
wont,wouidprelbaovoid,suggest,
inrngine,wsuld ruther,nroke,let

Ul'lII
I5
Putthe verbs in brackets into the correct form:
(to) infinitive or -ing form.

(take part) in team


enjoyed1) ...............
always
sowhenmy P.E.teacherasked me if I wanted2)
(play)rugby,I decided
(learn)how3)
......
(try)it. lt soundedidealfor me as I don'tmind
........
(be) outsidein cold weather,and I like 6)
(find)it easy,
7) ................
I expected
....(exercise).
but it wasn't.I kept 8)
(practise),
though,and now I'm
quite good. My coach
thinks I may 9)
(become) a
professional rugby
playerone day.

WritinU
18

Read the text and fill in the correct word derived


from the words in brackets.Then cover the text
and compare and contrast the two sports.

out the unnecessary words where necessary.

fancy}(trying a sportwhichdoesn't
usingtoo muchenergyor money,
to visitthe BrymouthBilliardsclub.
should
priceperhouris t1.50 and we willto help
yourgame.So, if you
improve
snookeror pool in a
to playingbilliards,
we suggestto tryingour club.
setting,
in the correct form of the infinitive or -ing form.

(play)tennis.
(practise)more
must.............
wantto win the race.
jobisworth
(do), it's worth
itwell.
(be) courageousif
haveto
(try)
......
rockclimbing.
want.............
(meet)us at the pool.
..........
agreed
(see)you soon.
to ................
forward
... (get up) early.
mind...........
doesn't
playcards.
mademe

(tidy) my room.

(enjoy)
(relax)and 2) ........,.........
Golfis a very 1)
you canspendtimein naturalsurroundings,
but it
sportbecause
greatskill.Learning
howto playgolftakes
isalsoonethatrequires
(patient).lt'salso
a longtime,so you needa lotof 3)
(expense)
the equipment
because
sport
rather
4)
..................
a
prices
golf
courses
can
be veryhigh.
and
at
a
lot
of
money,
costs
(excite)
spott
is
roller-blading
an
5)
the
hand,
On other
you
you
fit
keeps
because
lt's
fast
and
fun
and
is
to
learn.
and easy
you
your
only
lt's
also
cheap
because
muscles.
haveto useall
However,
rollerneeda helmetand a pairof roller-blades.
you
(danger)
spoft
as
................
bladingcan be a 6)
mightloseyourbalanceandhuttyourself.

r9

Project
Using the information from Ex. | |
write two paragraphs comparing
and contrasting a) windsurfing
ond porachuting, and b) skotel.
boarding and bosketbolL Say
which you would like to do
*
most and why. Cut pictures
from the Photo File Section
at the back of the book to
use with your project.
on the otherhand
Useful words: ond,also,too,but,however,

nEiatinn

::4,::::i.'

First listen and tick.Then, listen and repeat.


le,,l

larl

"ttnril$nf Wisdnm
Read these sentences.What do they mean?

tay
lie
hate

height

. Thereis an exceptionto everyrule.


. Practicemakesperfect.
o Varietyis the spiceof life.

*
t

'j

!:{ty
r].l

,. t.l

.t

l.:. :) i::""
I,l;
:

t . l t , , , : ,t . . . ,
tli,

;l:r

,rl.

I6
UNII
Ing
the text. Six sentences have been removed from it. Choose
the sentencesA-F the one which fits each gap ( l-S).There is
exampleat the beginning (0).

legs,andhe sank
hadtieda weightaroundthe professor's
Thewater
he
feel
Hedidn'tfeelthecold; didn't anything.
thewater.
beingpulleddown.Thentheweightbroke
andhecouldfeelhimself

free.iffi
hisarmsandlegscame
ropes
around

i ,-n-:!

plaguehadkilled75,000peoplein London,
A horrible
was1666.

thattheywerecursed.
Everyone
thought
citywasburning.
passing
bucketsof
sawsomepeople
wasoutoftheriver,James
put
person
to help
tothenexttryingto outthefire.Hedecided
one
[_::, j Healsotoldthemthatthecitywouldbe rebuiltin a

way.
better
youknow
suspiciously.
onemanasked
allthis?"
said.
spy,"another
he's
a Dutch
he'stheonewhostartedthefire,"thefirstmanadded.
wasatwarwiththe Dutch,andmanypeoplethoughtthattheyhad
fire.Thepeopledroppedtheirbucketsandbeganchasingthe

il*::

thestreetsof Londonwiththe angrycrowdchasingafterhim


burning
allaround.He ranintoa dead-endstreet.Therewasa
him.Allhecoulddo waswaitfor thecrowdto closein on him.

to
TheKingaskedhimif he hadanything
say.
Jamesswamto thesurface,andwhenhe
out hisheadabovethewaterhe sawthat
he was in the RiverThamesduringthe
was
GreatFireof London,and everything
burning.
They were screamingand shouting,
callinghima spy,andsoonmorepeople
joinedthe crowd.
and orderedthe
He silencedeveryone
head.
guardsto chopotf theprofessor's
As he wasdoingso, he triedto tellthem
thatthefirewouldendthe plague.
There,he wasbroughtbeforeCharlesll,
the Kingof Englandat thattime.

Theprofessor
also
tothepalace.
James
-._'."i
ffiiffi i"..""
whowouldrebuildmostof the
Wren,
thefamousarchitect
significanceof the
, andhewasamazedat the historical
madehimforgetthetroublehewasin,
Jameswerereadoutto the King,accusinghimof
against

ofthefire.ffiffi
thepossible
cause

l-.-:"-.,l

me."
toldyouthetruth,"hesaid,"youwouldn'tbelieve
himhewouldbe sentto theTowerif he did notanswerthe
him,buthetoldthemit wasthe
thinktheywouldbelieve
didn't
thefireby accidentandthatit hadspread
hadstarted
weremadeof wood.
allthebuildings
windandbecause
TheKingaskedhimhowhe knewthis.
withinterest.

l'vebeensentherebvmistake,"
21st
centurv.
to laugh.TheKingwasfurious.Hethought
began

himlikeafool.ffi,ffii--.---"j
wastreating
placed
hisheadon the block,Jameshopedthathe
fromdeath,buthedidn'tfeelsure.
again
wildlv
andhismindraced.
hesaid.
togetbackto the21stcentury,"
a thudastheaxehittheblock.

k
.,,.t+

11

UNII
I6
$Ocanulary
Frantine
4

;::ui,0*-uo
What did the professor see
he swam to the surface of
Put the events in the
happened, then retell the

Look at the words in bold in Ex. 3 and try to explain them, then
choose any three and make sentences.
Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the words
only once.

He told themthatthe firewould


plague.[-l

beot,deod-end,toanswer,tobe,to stortlputout,to set,to chopoff,to teil,to treot"


come,to accuse

1
2
3
4
5

. . . . . . . . . . . .t .h. e
. .f .i r e
. . . . . . . . . . . .a
. .t.w. .a. r
. . . . . . . .s. .t .ho n f i r e
a(n) ...........
street
. . . . . . . . . . . . .o. .fs b
th

Thecitywasburning
andper
tryingto putoutthefire.[-l
c Thepeople
thought
hewasa

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .s. .b. . . . .1. 0. hisheart


likea fool
wildly
7 ..........sb
thetruth 11 the ropes
I .........the
charges
free
9 . . . . . . . . . . . . shbe' sa d

d Jamesfound himselfin

year 1666.l-l

e Hewastakento KingCharles
f He decidedto helothe
g TheKinqordered
theouards
hishead.l-l

Wnrds[REn G[nfu$Ed

Underline the correct word.

1 The fire-fighters
couldn'tfind the
cause/reason
of thefire.
Thereareseveralcauses/reasons
whylwas late.
Hewalkedpast/passedthe bank
andturnedleft.

He felt very happy when he


passed/pasthis exams.
Some people believe/thinkin
ghosts,but I don't.
Whatdo you think/believeof my
newshoes?

Fill in the gaps with words derived from the words in brackets.

He was
(fury) when
AlthoughI was tellingthe truth,
hiscar brokedown.
he lookedat me ....(suspicion).
J u l i ew a sr e a d i nag . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . Shedidn'tunderstand
the
(history)novel.
(signify)of hiswords.
Cross out the unnecessary words.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

t2

On September
2, 1666a smallfireb(started
in the houseof the King'sbakerin pudding
Lanenearthe LondonBridge.A strongwind
madethefireto spreadquicklyand it burned
for threedays.Thefire it destroyed
about13,000homes.Thousands
of people
gathered
theirbelongings
andwereescaped
to the
river.Otherpeopleranoutto the hillsand
openfields.TheGreatFireof Londonwas
the mostworstfirethe city had everexperienced
as it wasdestroyed
morethanhalfof its buildings.

...'ffiammar
in lf$B
9

Read these sentences.


guestion togs formed?

1
2
3
4

Theyaretwins,aren'tthefl
Helenwasn'tthere,was
YoustudyFrench,don't
He left early,didn't he?
Studythesequestiontags.
1 I am taller than
you,aren'tl?
2 She used to live
she?
here,didn'tshe? I Jitl
3 Please post this
last
letterfor me, will
she?
you?
4 Let's go to the
cake
cinema,
shallwe?
isn't
5 Let hercomewith 10This
us,willyou/won't
isn't
you?
6 Don't talk to any
strangers,
willyou?
l0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Fitt in the question


It doesn'trainmuchinthe
Theweddingwaslovely,
Theylockedthefront
Thisis whereyoulive,
Don'ttellanybody,
...........
Let'sgo dancing,
.........
He hasa bicycle,
.........
Youdon'tlikespicyfood,

16
UNII
in the question tags.

'tforget
'....'."?
to ringme,
...?
yet,
."......"."
.............
typedthoseletters
haven't

(pass)hisexamsif he hadstudiedharder.
4 Tom .............
... (be)here,shewouldhelpus.
5 lf Sarah
(stop) makingso much
you
.............
6 Unless
you'll
wake
the
babY.
noise,

"{ilritin[
16

sureandwe expectan answer,we usea rlslng


({ in the tag. lf we are sure and don't really
we usea fallingintonation(r)in thetag.
answer,

(Project)

toot at the table,then listen to the tape and


E
fill in the missing words. Finally, use the information
to make o Poster for o tourist informotion centre in
London. Cut pictures from the Photo File Section
at the back ofthe book to use with your proiect.

Listenand tick, then listen and rePeat.

SURE NOTSURE
wasn'tit?
anawfulfilm,
at 2 pm, doesn'tit?
trainleaves
go
home,won'twe?
to
able
be
filmisontonight,isn'tit?
seeverywell,can he?
TOWERBRIDGE
at the sentences and the box below. How
reflexivepronouns formed? When do we use

couldfeelhimselfbeingpulleddown.
herselfwhilechoppingthevegetables.

myself
yoursell
himself

-1894
...........
builtbetween
by SirHoraceJones
. steam....................
were
usedto raisethe bridge
could
so that.............
oassunderneath
. imoressive
twinGothic

THE TOWEROF
century
builtduringthe.........
theConqueror
by William
. wasthe RoyalResidence
century
untilthe..........
. has 19towers
. seethe CrownJewelsin
t h e, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

we + ourselves
lou I yourseNes
they r themselves

the sentences using a word from the


and a reflexive pronoun.

killed,
dry,help,burnt,hurt
wet.Here,
soaking

.............
really
andJuliet

....withthistowel.
quitebadlyon the hotiron.
whenhe felloffthe ladder.
to somecoffeewhileit's hot.
. duringtheskiingtrip.

verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

(be)lateforwork.
getup soon,you .............
(lose)yourjob?
youdo if you ...........
(not/die)if
to feedtheml
remembered

BIGBEN
. .y. t. h
. .e. .
b u i litn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b
of
Buckingham
Duke
o the largestclockin Britain o Victoriawasthefirst
o thebellweighs.........
to livethere
tons
o the name"BigBen"refers o RoyalStandardis flying
when theQueenis in
notthe
to the...................,
residence
clockitself
o evervmorninga changing
o{ the guardceremony

73

$i#ffry
JJ-ts# j*;
teadinU
Read the following texts and
answer the questions:

lead-in
1 . Can you name the animals in these
pictures? What do they have in
common?

. What other endangered animals


can you name?
. Which of the animals in the
pictures:
a livein swamps? c liveinthejungle?
b attackfarm
d eat plantsand

animals?

orass?

EH neaa the statements and


guesswhether they are true or
false.Thenlisten to the tape to
see if your guesseswere right.

1 Peoplekill crocodilesfor their beautiful skin.


2 Crocodilesare protectedby law.
3 Somecrocodileslivesafelvon farms.
4 Wolvesare verygood hunters.
5 Wolvesattackand kill people.
6 The government
will pay farmers
if wolveskilltheiranimars.

t4

Crocodiles
For centuries,
peoplelivedwithand respected
the all-powerful
crocodile.Those snapping iaws and I
lethalteethfrightened
all attackers
away,whetherhumanor
animal.Peoplewerealsofascinatedby theircharacteristic
calls,theirbeautyand theirintelligence.
Unfortunatelv,
it was
beautiful
skin whichput them under threat.Whenexolorers
r
valuable
crocodile
skinwas,everything
changed.Hunters
risked
and sometimeslost them - in order to satisfythe world,s
crocodile
skin.
Worsewas to come.The crocodiles,
homesbeganto
townsand industriesweredeveloped
on the lanonears
Luckily
forthecrocodiles,
peoplerealised
thata worldwithout
not be the same,and now they havebeenofficiallvdeclaredan
species.In some partsof the world,thereare now parks
may livesafely,withlawsto protectthem.
"lt is illegaltokillcrocodiles,"
saysconservationist
Charles
spentthe lastthirtyyearsprotectingthe Jamaicancrocodiles.
thatwhenfarmanimalsarekilledby crocodiles,
farmers
ignore
them.This is what Charlesis fightingagainst.,,Crocodiles
are
scaredof usthanwe areof them.Theyarescarybutlovelytowa
lf Charles,
and otherslikehim,can convince
theworldto share
crocodiles
willbe withus forever.

UNIT
I7
Wolves

,.$['ealdnU

chasesLittle Red
eatsthe poorlittlepig or
wolf
'il.-;t;

t'19-:1?-;
comes
hunter
Young

'.'^
fi;.]i'JIn'rrvini
fi:'[[; more
I
::::,ffi
:l':"
"u"lY',
wolves in tl:^:"^l
no

e are
i:tiii
'ff
t,;'i# I4*::il.*::Uru',,ftl#"
misunderstooo-,
thisrrrrDuilvv'v'---jl,"v
lCI,IIlls
rfact,

--^r^, hrrniinn wild

prefe, hunting wild


aresuPerbhunters't r
Thevdo notover'populate"but
;;t;;;;t"s'
cat,ltt^Lf,t::lll?:
levelihev
-,-u.tt Jir;
not true'
insistthat this is simplv
#;;*r;

thatworves
world
:&;;i;:il"nau9 to.t9u91the

in fairytales'"
nurnun'O.ing.

Answer the following questions:


a) Do you think it is right for people to wear animal
skins?Why/Why not?
b) Do farmers havethe right to shoot wild animals?
WhylWhy not?
c) Would you ever kill an animal?Why/Whynot?

,:'.'[tnnutgs
llcueln[ment

*'.!i:I':J?
il;ii y"
ffi
the idea' "we
about H:1#:::,#J
lubts uu"lll"l.lll.,.""
douols
7
have
butlocalpeople

e plalrbI'v u"r'v

rorthousand:
#;il."il;Y -lived
-tf""nl:one
rorouranimals''
rear

il *"
:i;fi:i' ;;
tnl''l"Yll,l?t
nasannounced
ment
*.''ii.' got;tn
inravour'or
Peopre

Look at the pictures and the list of words below.


Can you label the parts of the animals?
feet,mane,wing clows,beok whiskers,uil, wsk trunN ears,pows

fi'*:f;:f ii"o'iv''"J"'s'
"Letourl'!:"-l,ng:.*tl;
lir'*"ii'J".nsavtnis:
onast*r'scottish
'noon
ff#.l;1ii;1i' "iir'"
thatwemadeit Possible"'
Proud
;;iil;;

nowthanbefore?
aretherefewercrocodiles
hasbeendoneto protectcrocodiles?
havea problemwith
ica,whydo conservationists
in fairvtales?
arewolvespresented
arelocalpeoplein Scotlandworriedabout?
howwill the government
try to stop farmers
wolves?
killing

[ularyPractice
at the words in bold in Ex.3 and try to
them, then choose any three and make

the numbers to the letters.

a
b
c
d
e
I
g

goodpoints
excellent
state
formally
quietnight
verybad
persuade

Look at pictures B and D.


o Both ofthem have got paws.
r Neither of them has got a trunk.
Look at pictures B, C and D.
o All of them are mammds.
o None of them have/hasgot a beak.

the animals with the sounds.


roor,cluck,mioow,buzz,bork,quock,neigh
bleot,

4 dogs
5 hens
6 bees

7 cows
8 sheep
9 ducks

Study the sentences below. How many animals do


we compare in each case?When do we use both
and neither? When do we use oll and none? When
do we use a singular/plural verb?

Now look at pictures B and C and make


sentences using both and neither,then look at
pictures B, C and D and make sentences using
all and none.

75

UNIT
I7
10

2
3
4
5

1t

12

Read the sentencesand guesswhat the animals


con or con't do.
A leopardcan/can'tsee muchbetterthana humanin the
dark.
Thechimpanzee
can/can'trecogniseitselfin a mirror.
The jaguarand leopardare the only big cats that can/
can't roar.
An adulttigercan/can'teat31 kgs of meatin a night.
A greyfox can/can'tbe tamedeasily.
Think of other things that certain animals conor
con't do.
e.g"Birdscan fly.
Fill in the correct word from the list below.Use
the words only once.

14

Listen to the tape and tick the

why these animals are in danger.Then,


sentences using os, becouseof,due to, etc.
the example;
e.g. Ihe harp sealis in dongerof extinction
are huntingit for its skin.

i Sea
I Turtle

Harp
Seal

hunting(food)
destruction
of habltat
seapollution
increased
fishing
hunting(skin)

sworm,pride,pock,flocNherd,school
1 a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .o. .f .s.h. .e. e p
2 a . . . . . . . . . . . . . .o. f.w
. . o. .l v e s
3 a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .o. .f.c. o
. .w
. .s

such a(n) + adjective+ singularcountable

such+ adjective
+ uncountable
noun/plural
so + adjective/adverb

Gnammar
in Use

15

Study the sentences. How are clousesof


introduced? What is the result in each

An elephantis such a big animalthat it can


225 kgs of grassin one day.
A kangaroohassuch stronglegsthat
it canjumpovera car.
Dolphinsare so intelligent
that they can communicatewithpeople.

Mostnounstake-s or -es in the plurale.g.dog - dogs,box


- boxesbut there are some irregularnounse.g. sheepsheep(SeeGrammarReference
Sectionon p. 111for
spellingrules.)

13 Now form the pluralsof these words.


1 fox 2 monkey3 flv-

4 wolf
5 fish6 mouse-

7 g o o s e- . . . . . . . . .
8 l o u s e- . . . . . . . . . .
9 oeer-

Look at the waysyou can join the sentencesin orderto


expressreason.
because/as+ noun
becauseofldue to + noun
due to the fact thatibecauseof the fact that + clause
o Largenumbersof fishhavedied becauselasseawater
hasbeenpolluted.
o Becauseof lDue to polluted seawater,largenumbers
of fishhavedied.
. Because of the fact thaUDue to the fact that sea
water has been polluted,large numbersof fish have
died.

76

16

Fiff in: so,suchor sucha(n).

Whaleshave......................
good hearing
hearthe callsof otherwhalesover800km
2 Ratsare
. dirtythattheycan
3 Theblackwidowspideris
can killhumans.
4 The pythonhas .......................
big mouth
swallowa wholesheep.
17

Make sentences using so, such and such


e.g.He/enls so inte/lrgentthot she con so/ve
moths broblems.

UNII
I7
23
+ enough

Reaa the table, then listen to the tape and


E
fill in the missinginformation.Finallytalk about
these animals.

'---'iaianlq-11$-ai;
ElePhant Po

these pairs of sentences. Do they differ in

Theringwastoo expensivefor herto buy.


Theringwasnot cheapenoughfor herto buy.
Thecalfwastoo weakto standup.
Thecalfwasnot sfrong enoughto standup.
te the sentences with too or enough.

notwarm
to playoutside.
lionsarenotstrong
to hunt.
instructions
were.........
difficult
for himto understand.
are,..........
dangerous
to keepas pets.
rockwas...........
heavyfor the elephant
to pickup.
penguin
wasn'tquick
to catchthefish.
small
bearwas...........
shortto reachthebees'nestin
tree.
look at the examples, then rewrite the
in as many ways as possible.
riverwostoo deep for the men to cross.
riverwosn't shallow enough for the men to cross.
riverwosso deep that the men couldn'tcrossit
sucho deep river thot the men couldn'tcrossit.

wastoo lowfor the lorryto passunder.(high)


bridge
ocean
is notwarmenoughfor tropicalfishto survive
rabbit
wassofastthatthedog couldn'tcatchit. (slow)
sucha smallsignthatMarycouldn'tseeit. (big)

Listen and tick.Then listen and repeat.

lqsl

laal

tone
nose
nouse

the sentences.What do the words in bold

asa mule. Jim is as strongas an ox.


likecatand dog. Rayis like a fish out of water.
likea horse.
Freddrinkslike a fish.

Rhino

where it
lives

Southwestern

food

flowers,
bamboo

how it has
become

r destruction hunted
of habitat for their

endangered

o varietyof
bamboois
decreasing
o huntedfor

what has
beendone
to protectit

o illegalto
t h e . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .areas are
. . . . . . . . .t .h. e. m and trading
guarded
. specialwild- of ivoryhas
r the sellingol
l i f e. . . . . . . . . . . . been
..
banned
rhinohorns
havebeen
has been
set up
banned

Africa
Africa

grass,rwrgs, grass,
some

WritinU(Project)
Use the information in the
table above to write about
these
animals. Mention
where they live,whot they eot,
how they became endongered
ond what hos been done to
protect them. Cut pictures
from the Photo File Section
at the back ofthe book to
use with your project.

hunted
for their

UNIT
1B

#J'uuJg
J ,#
t*

lJf
#ffiffi

lead-in
EH Lirt.n to the poem.What is it
about?

7B

Choose three pictures which best


match the poem. Now look at the
list of problems and match them
with the pictures.What do you
think has caused these problems?
woter pollution,Iitter,destructionof the
roinforests,oir pollution,drought

&u",

UNII
1B
rS-

the sentences, then


to the tape and underline

teadinI

rl:lr'

word.
andhumani animalspecies
are being cut / chopped
paperor to make room for
animalslose / miss their
are pollutingour riversand
h dangerous
oils / chemicals.
is threatened
with extinction/
factoriesare giving ofl
waste/ fumes.
planttreesand adopt / adapt

Read this article about the problems of our planet. Choose the
most suitable heading from the listA - F for each part (l - 4).
There is one heading you do not need to use.There is an
example at the beginning (0).

A A waterygrave.
B Running
outof time.
C Chokingto death.

D Naturecanhealitself.
E Notrees- no life.
F Wecando it!

Wehavespentthousands
of yearsfightingfor our suruival.Yetnow we havediscoueredthatourplanetis underthreatand,to makematters
worse,it'sallourtauft.

frr_r

The rainforestsare dying,rareplantand animalspeciesare disappearing,


riversand seasare beingcontaminated,
cropsarefailingto grow,peopleare
dyingof hungerand the air is beingpolluted.lt's timewe wokeup to these
problems
andstartedrepairing
thedamage.

E-

Oneof themajorpr,oblems
isthedestructionof therainforests
in SouthAmerica.
Theyarehometo halftheworld'sspecies
andto millions
of people.Moreover,
the
rainforesfs
cleantheairbyabsorbingcarbondioxideandgivingout oxygen.
The
treesarebeingcut downfor paperor to makeroomfor cattlefarmd.As a result,
birdsandanimals
losetheirhomesanddie.Thisdestruction
isalsobringing
about
changes
in theclimate,
airpollution,
flpoding,droughtandfamine.lf we continue
to burnandcutdowntheainforests
aswe aredoingnow,theearthwillneverbe
thesameagain.

z-

Anotherbig problemis waterpollution.Do you likeswimmingin the seaor


drinkinga coolglassof wateron a hotday?Thesesimplepleasures
maysoon
becomea thingof the past.Factories
are pollutingour riversand lakeswith
dangerous
chemicals.
Oil tankersarereleasingthick,blackoil intoouroceans.
Tonsand tons of industrial
and domesticwaste are pouredinto our seas.
Consequently,
sea life is threatened
withextinction.

E-

Air pollutionis"another
important
issue.Thecarsandfactories
in and alound
ourcitiesaregivingoffdangerous
fumes.In thepastfewyears,rhoreandmore
p'eople
thaneverbeforehavedeveloped
problems.
allqrgies
andbreathing
lf we
don'tdo something
now,ourcitieswillbecome
impossible
to llvein.

r-

Fortunately,
it is not too lateto solvetheseproblems.
We havethe time,the
moneyandeventhetechnology
prepare
to
thewayfor a better,cleanerandsafer
future.Wecanplanttreesandadoptanimals.
Wecancreateparksfor endangered
put
power
pressure
species.Wecan
on thosein
to take action.Togetherwe can
saveourplanet.
Allweneedto do is openoureyesandact immediately.

79

UNIT
1B
Unnahulary
Prantics
5

Look at the words in bold in Ex.4


and try to explain them, then
choose any three and make
sentences.

destruction
of the
rainforests

treesare burnt
cut down

birdsand animals
theirhomesand

lanuuage
lleuehpmsnt

Match the numbers to the letters.

1
2
3
4

drought
contaminate
famine
absorb

a
b
c
d

lackoffood
takein
lackof rain
pollute

Fill in the correct word(s) from


the list below. Use the words only
once.
to be threotened,corbon,to become,
endangered,to give off, breathing,to toke,
industriolIdomestic,oil,to d evelop

1
2
3

. . . . . . . . . .w. .a. .s t e
dioxide
7
a thing
of the past
I
4
tankers 9
.. es 10
5 . . . . . . . . . .f.u. m

with
extinction
. . . . . . .a
. .l.l e r g i e s
. . . . . . .p. r. o b l e m s
. . . . . . . .s. .p.e c i e s
. . . . . . . . . .a. .c.t.i o n

PrnInsilinns
Fill in the correct prepositions,
then choose any three and make
sentences.

1 to fight.........
threat;
sth;2 to be .........
3 to
d i e . . . . . . .h. .u n g e r4; t o l i v e. . . . . . .a. .c i t y ;5 t o
putpressure
power
........
sb;6 those........

lnlluw-uI
Read the text again and make
notes under the following headings:
Problem - Couse - Effect as shown in
the table.Then look at your notes
and talk about the problems our
plonet is facing. Use conseguently,os
o result, therefore, os o conseguence
or so,to link the causes with the
effects.

BO

Look at the text on p.79 again. Find the following words


underline them: yet, moreover, fortunately. Now match the
words with the following: furthermore,however,
luckily.

lx[rnssinu Gausnilnil lffEct

t0

Link the following sentenceswith: as o result,therefore,


or os o conseguence.
conseguentry

1 Treesarebeingcutdown.Manyspecies
willbecomeextinct,
2 Peoplein citiesbreatheexhaustfumeseveryday. Manyof them
problems.
breathing
3 Industrial
wasteis dumoedintothesea.Fishdie.
4 Peopledroplitterin the streets.Peopleget diseases.
5 Mostfactories
do not usefilters.Theair oetsdirtv.

1l

Readthe table,then listen to the tape and fill in the


E
information. Finally,talk about the problems,causesand
mentioned.

li++^| | Ll9l

alr
pollution

factoriesand
pollutethe air

water
pollution

factoriesdump wasteinto peoplesufferfrom


problems,fishare
sea is polluted
with...........
fromtankers riversare con

destruction peoplecut down or


forests
of forests

animalsand plants
animals
becomeextinct,
l e s s. . . . . . . . . . .t .o. . . .

Erammar
in llse
r
.
.

(in order) to - infinitive(affirmative


purpose)
purpose)
so that + can/will-infinitive(affirmative
purpose)
so that + can't/won't-infinitive(negative

UNII
IB
Readthe following sentences. How are the clouses
ofpurpose introduced?

should
stopusingcarsto reduceairpollution.
shouldstop usingcars so that we can reduceair
shouldstopusingcarsso that we won'thavepolluted
join the sentences using to or so thot.

should
stopcuttingdowntrees.Animalswon'tlosetheir
habitats.
should
buildwildlifeparks.Wecanprotectanimalsfrom

ilfnili--

llt-lUlIU

Beforeyou write a compositionprovidingsolutionsto


problems,
you shouldmakea listof thesuggestions
andthe
results.Startyourcomposition
by statingthe problem(s)
and
cause(s),
thenpresenteachof yoursuggestions
and results
in separateparagraphs.
Join your suggestions
and results
using so, consequently,therefore,by doing this, rn this
way,eIc.Endyourcomposition
youropinion.
by summarising
15

plantmoretrees.Wewillhavemoreoxygen.
should
should
cleanup the litterin cities.Wewon'tcatch
from it.
should
findcleanformsof energy.We can savethe

(Providingsolutionsto problems)

Use the plan below to write an article for your


school magazine entitled "How can we moke our
town o better ploce to live in?'Draw ideas from
Exs.l3 and l4.The introduction and conclusion
have been written for you.
PLAN

at the boxes and match the suggestionswith


results.Then, link the sentences with so that
to and talk about how we can improve the
conditions in our cities.

publictransport.
shouldimprove
getinvolved
should
in recycling
schemes.
should
bancarsfromcitycentres.
shouldforcefactories
to putfilterson
should
stopusingthe productsof companies

willbelessrubbish
to pollutetheenvironment.
force
themto useenvironmentally
friendly

INTRODUCTION
Para1: statethe oroblem:
The living conditions in our city are getting
worse and worse. Exhaust fumes and smoke
from the factories are pllluting the air and
trees are being cut down. Furthermore, the river
is being polluted by chemicalsfron the factories
and people are suffering from breathing
difficulties and stomach problems. we should do
somethingbefore it is too late.
:]i
MAINBODY
Para2z suggestion
1 & result,.
Para3: suggestion
2 & result"

make
thestreets
cleaner,
saferandquieter.
won'thaveto usecarsto oetaround.
gaseswon'tbe ableto pollutetheatmosphere.

Para4: suggestion
ili

CONCLUSION
town is facing serious problems.The streets
of rubbish,there are too many cars, people
cutting down the trees to make space for
buildings,the nearby river is
polluted with chemicals
the factories and people
from breathing
and stomach illnesses.
wa)rsto imProve the

exploiningthe resultsof
You can use
from the whole
well as your

Para5: summarise
youropinion:
nll things considered, there are many solutions
to all the problems. Thesooner we put them into
practice, the better our lives will become.

.'''II[rdsnf Wisdum
Read the sentences.What do they mean?

. ln the eyesof naturewe arejust anotherspecies


in trouble.
o "Theworldbeganwithoutman,and it will complete
itselfwithouthim." (ClaudeLeyr-Strauss,)

B1

%w$$.&ffiswssw,ry**x&
l3 lB)
i$(Unils
4

Choose the correct item.


The...................
erupted,destroying
the nearbyvillages.
A earthquakeB volcano C explosion D flooding

2
3
4
5

Thechildren
werelookingat ,.................
in themirror.
A itself
B himself C themselves
D vourselves
3 ...........,..
cameout of the kettlewhenthewaterboiled.
A Steam
B Ash
C Gas
D Force

for,obout,out of, with, in,through,to,of

We couldhearthe wolves
in the distance.
A neighing B mooing C clucking D howling

Due............
hisneed
adventure,
he
the risksof parachuting.
So, aftermonthsof
hefinallyleapt..........
theaeroplane
andfell..

No one knewthespy's...................
as he wascarrying
a
falsepassport.
A identity
B mission C experienceD element

Peoplewho live
citieshaveto cope
pollutionand heavytraffic.Those concerned
environmental
issuesand those.........
oower
actionin orderto solvetheseproblems.

Thefirequickly
to the nearbybuildings.
A pulled
B sank C dragged D spread

Thesnake's
A lethal
B scary

C illegal

1
2
3
4
5
6

D dangerous

is dumpedintotheworld'sriversandseas.
A damage B destructionC pollutionD waste
(10marks)
Fill in the correct word from the list.

pouring,furious,unexplored,troiningdeclored,roored,
occused,oxe

1
2
3
4

He was
when he found out they had lied to him.
He used a(n) ...............
to chop wood for the fire.
The tiger
as it attackedthe zebra.
Lava kept
out of the volcanofor days afterthe
eruption.
5 Mrs Jones
Jim of breakingher window.
6 Thereare no maps of this .................
area of the country.
7 It takes years of
to become a vet.

Fill in the correct particle from the list.


into,up, off, down,on

1 0 A lotof

The witnesses/victimsof the earthquakehave


homesandarenowlivinoin tents.
Thetreewasstruck/beatenby lightning.
Tomwalkedpast/passedme withouteven
Whatwasthe cause/reasonof the accident?
Do youthink/believe
in ghosts?
Fill in the correct prepositions from the

He ........
on hisfamilyfor helpwhenever
he hadproblems.
A joined
B involvedC depended D explained

Quick...............,.
hadto be takento avoidfurtherdamage.
A charge B action C significanceD intelligence

Underline the correct word.

Themediterranean
sealhasbeen
specres.

Sheofferedto put us
for the night.
justin timefor dinner.
Theyturned
Theyturned
herapplication
forthe
Timalwaysputs ...........
hisdentist's
appoi
Turn ...........
the radio.I wantto listento the
Waterturns
icewhenit freezes.
Look at
pictures A
and B and
answer the
questions
using both
or neither.

a protected
(B marks)
.d

Fill in the gaps with words from the list.

endongered,
test,put, deod-end,do, win, exominotion,develop,
beoLset

1 to ................
outthefire
5
2 t o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .t.h. .e. . . . . 6. .
competition
7
3
......results 8
4 they...............
theirown
9
abilities
10

B2

to .........
a houseon fire
a(n) .....................
street
Hisheart............
wildly
t o . . . . . . . . . . . . . .a. l.l.e. .r.g i e s
a ( n .) . . . . . . . . . . . .s. p
. .e. .c. i e s
to ..........
extreme
sports
(10 marks)

B
Whichof them can talk?fily?lroar?
e.g. Neither af thern cantalk.
Whichof them hasa beak?/ears?/claws?

& (Unils
13-1B)
M*dxx&e
Ss&$.&ss*s$sx*rt&
at the pictures A, B and C and answer the
questions using all or none.

Fill in the questiontags.

II
1
2
3
4
5

Switchon thelight,
Thatfilmwasawful,..........
I'mtallerthanJim,
Let'sgo out,
A n nh a s n 'ct o m ey e t ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

...............?
.......................,.,?
.................?
..........................?
.,.................?
(5marks)

12 Complete the sentencesusingthe words in bold.


Use two to five words.

of themcan run tast?lily?ltalk?


ofthem conrunfast.
beak?Ia lail?
themhasears?/feet?/a

(5 marks)

correct tense.

(be)a bird,I wouldbe ableto fly.


.......
(leave)on time. lf I had, | (not/be)

(not/spend)so muchmoneYwhen
with
Julie.
ino
(have)my car;now I haveto takea taxi
(service)theircar.lf they
they..............
(not/break)down.
(have) more time, I
(know)aboutthe meeting,
shewouldcome.
(not/leave)so latefor the airport.
(catch)herflighthome.
she.........................
) infinitiveor -ing.

(8 marks)

(ask)himfor money.
(pay)for the damage.
(leave)nowif you wish.
(buy)a biggermotorcYcle.
(5 marks)

1 Hewasn'told enoughto drivea car.


. . . .a. c a r .
young He ...............
2 Thedinnerwasso deliciousthattheyreallyenjoyedit.
dinnerthat
such lt was ..........
theyreallyenjoyedit.
dressthatshe couldn'tbuy it.
3 lt wassuchan expensive
for herto buY.
Thedress
too
the accidenton channel10.
4 Theyarereporting
.......on channel10.
reportedTheaccident
5 Thezoo willadopta babygorillanextyear.
the zoo nextyear.
A babygorilla..........
be
enoughfor themto watch.
6 Thefilmwasn'tinteresting
couldn'twatchit.
Thefilm
so
7 Rescueworkershavefoundsix survivorsin the ruins.
in the ruins
been
Sixsurvivors
by rescueworkers.
8 Thefiredestroyedhalfthe forest.
.. by thefire.
Halftheforest...........
was
9 Thematchwascancelledbecauseof the heavyrain.
the hqavyrain.
Thematch
due
havetakenhundredof photosof the
10 The photographers
sceneof the accident.
Hundreds
of photosofthe sceneofthe
been
.. by the PhotograPhers.
accident
well.
11 Althoughhe was short,he playedbasketball
Heplayedbasketballwell.......................shor
spite
walking.
12 Despitebeingtired,he continued
tired.
.........
walking
althoughHe continued
(12marks)

I
rtii:

1 3 Answer the following questions.


and
aboutthe advantages
a) Howdo we starta composition
of a certaintopic?
disadvantages
do we useto presentthe pointsfor
b) Howmanyparagraphs
and against?
c) Howdo we end a for and againstcomposition?
d) Whatlinkingwordsdo we use to link similar/contrasting
ideas?
e) What linkingwords do we use to expresscause?/effect?
/purpose?
0 Whenwe compareand contrastsports,what information
shouldwe talkabout?
(2 marks)
marks
TOTAL:100

B3

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l

IIl
Ilr

t laurn
hnw
1n...
a
a
a
a
o
a
a
a

typesof films
TV programmes
expressi
ng preferences

a
o
a
a
a

makecomparisons
makecomplaints
describelifein the past
makedeductions
describe
carsin thefuture
makerecommendations
expresspreferences
programmes
describe
films/TV
preparations
make
talkaboutinventions

t Pruclise.".
o
o

a
o
a
a

- uncountable
countable
nouns
howmuch/how
many
perlative
comparative/su
oegree
makingdeductions
(mustcan't may/might/could)
present& pastparticiples
preferences
expressing
so/neither
causative
form

* wrih.".
o
o

great
minds
inventors
& inventions

a
a

a letterof complaint
a description
of carsin thefuture
a filmreview
aboutinventions
& inventors

lead-in
cture on page 85.This is
monsten Have you ever

Frankenstein?What
happened in the story?Whatllti you think
scientists are doing with the types of food
shown on p.84?What do you think the
members of Greenpeaceare protesting
against?
E neaa the sentenc+dren listen to
the tape and fill in thg missing words.
1 Every
2 Geneticengineers
put duckgenesinto
chickensto makethe chickens
3 The effectsof geneticengineeringon

UNII
I9

ru
Youare going to read a text about genetically engineered food. Five sentences have been removed from it.
Choosefrom the sentences A-E the one which fits each gap.There is an example at the beginning (0).

didn'taskforit,andyoumightnotknowaboutit.Butyou've Theeffectsof geneticengineering


on the naturalworldmaybe
alreadyeatensomeof it. lt's geneticallyengineered disastrous.
Theengineers
maycreatelifeforms- monstersthatwecannotcontrol.
Thenewlifeformshaveno naturalhabitat
roundtomatoes
allexactlythesamesize,longstraight or home.Theywillhaveto findone,fightforone- or killforone.
and big fat chickensare now a normalpartof our
Moreover,
the effectsof theseexperiments
i:*:j
ffi
- not by canoftenbe cruel.In America,
Theyaremadethatwayby geneticengineering
pigsweregivenhumangenesto
geneshavebeenchanged.
Their
makethembiggerandlessfatty. ilmlTl
ftre pigs
living
thinghasgenes.
i*passed
are
m---lfney
became
very
ill andbeganto losetheireyesight.
ffiffi
generation
to generation.
Theymakesurethathumans Greenpeace
istryingto preventallsuchfoodexperiments.
Some
birthto humansand cowsgive birthto cows.Theyalso - butnotall - foodcompanies
are refusing
to usegenetically
surethata dog cannotgivebirthto a frog,or an elephant engineeredtooos.ffiffil
must
attbe aware
of
-Jw.
horse.
Genetic
engineers
takegenesfromonespecies- for whatis happening.
a scorpion,
andlransferthemto another- forexample, Somepeoplebelieve,
though,thatgeneticengineering
couldbe
Inthiswaya newlifeformiscreated.ffi
problem
thesolution
to the
of famine.Plantswhichgrowfaster,or
i":,:::l
putduckgenesintochickens
engineers
to makethe cowswhichproducemoremilk,can savethe livesof starving
bigger.Theyput hormonesinto cowsto makethem peopre.
moremilk.Theyputgenesfromflowersintosoyabeans Wewouldall likea better,healthier
and longerlife,andgenetic
fromscorpions
intocorn.Thisdoesnotmakethemcheaoer. engineering
mightgiveus this.On the otherhand,it may be a
orhealthier.
lt makesthemeasierandfasterforthefarmer dangerous
experiment
with nature.ln the story,Frankenstein
createdsuch a terribleand dangerousmonsterthat he had to
etfectsof geneticengineering
on ourhealtharenotknown. destroyit. Wemustmakesurethat it remainsa story - and no
ofthegeneswhichareused- suchasthoseof scorpions, morethanthat.
miceand moths - are not partof our dietso we do not
howdangerous
they may be. For example,peoplecan
allergies
to foodwhichhasbeengenetically
engineered.

Theexperiment
Jailed.
Genes
carryinformation.
Some- but notall - supermarkets
aretellingtheircustomers
whichfooos
aregenetically
engineered.
Itmaybeyourlandtheyfightfor - or youthattheykill.
These
newlifeformshavebeendescribed
asa "real-life
Frankenstein".

p
Look at the words in bold in Ex. 3 and try to explain them, then
chooseany three and make sentences.
What are the arguments for and against genetically engineered
food?What do you think about it?

'\'*

r13

Ig
UNIT
in Use
Erammar

lanuua[ellevelupmsnt
4

Look at the list of words below and underline the


types of food/drinks you can see in the picture,
then list the words under these headings:
fruit - seafood - dairy products - meat - poultry vegetables - sweets - drinks
Finally say which of these you often, rarely or
never eat or drink.

Countablenounsarethosewhichcan be
have singularand pluralforms,e.g. a
strawberries.
Uncountable
nounsarethosewhichcannotbe
They haveno pluralforms,e.g. bread,sugar.
usea/anbeforethem.
We use a/an with countablenouns in the
nounsor countable
some with uncountable
plural,e.g. an apple,some apples,someflour.
sentences(e.9.I need some
some in affirmative
(e.9.Do
any in negative
sentences
and questions
any apples?No, we don't need any apples.).
is
insteadof not any (e.9.Thereisn'tanymilk.There

ice-creom,
cobboge,pepper,lettuce,aubergine,strawberries,
uob, coke,pumpkin,
lobster,corrots,prawns,mushrooms,
gropefruitjuice,lomb chops,steo(
chicken,turkey,sousoges,
hom, milKcheese,grapes,solmon,beons,yoghurt,troug
pineopple,
peor, peach,o rtichoke,gorlic,onion, mussels

6
1
2
3
4

Fill in a/an or some.


. . . . .o. r a n g e
. . . . . .b. .r e a d
.....biscuits
. . . . . .t .e m o n

many+ countablenouns

7
1
2
3
4
I

Look at the menu.Which of these foods are:


spicy, sweet, salty, healthy, fattening, creamy, juicy?
Srnnrens:
Chickrr soup
Gneensnl.qd

Fish nrd chips


Srenknlrd kidneypit

DEssERrs:
[\,tninCounses:
lce-cnennt
Srrnk nrd chips
Fnrshlnuir snlnd
Bee[ cunny
ChocolnrrcnkE
SpnqhrrriCnnbonnnn
Ronsrbrrl nnd pornrors

B6

5
6
7
I
much +

Fill in How many or How much.

orangejuice?
watermelons?
. . . . . .e.g g s ?
. . . . .s. u g a r ?

5
6
7
I

E rlll in any,some, much or many.


to the tape and check your answers.

Do we have1)...
Mary: l'll makean omelette.
. We needto
Bill: No,therearen't2)
l'll
Mary:ls there4) ......cheesein thefridge?
Bill: Yes,there'splenty.
ham?
Mary:Good.ls there6) ..............,.
. . .n. l yt w os l i c e s .
B i l l : N o t7 ) . . . . . . . . . . ... O
tomatoes
Mary:That'sOK.I need8) .................
Bill: How9)
do you need?
Mary:Justtwo.
Now, using the words below,act out
dialoguesin pairs.
coke:flour,sugor,
eggs,
butter
apple pie: opples,
butter
flour,sugor,

UNIT
1g
nounscan be madecountableusingpartitives.
water,a glassof milk,a pot of yoghurt
the blanks with words from the list:
loof,cup,slice,bor,can

ham/cheese/cake
.........
of bread
,........
of chocolate
ofcrisos/biscuits

a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .o. .f .s.o. .u. p /


Coke/soda
a ................
of tea/coffee

the following sentences.Which include com-

forms and which superlative forrns? How


formed?How are as ...as,less...than used?
pieis tastierthan the one I bakedyesterday.
restaurant
moreexpensivethanthe otherone?
is lessfatteningthan lamb.
areas juicyas thoseones.
the lightestsouffl6in Paris.
themostdeliciouscakel'veevereaten.
lhe comparatiye and superlative forms of
adjectives: spicn
strong,
fattening,

(letter of complaint)

Lettersof complaintare normallyformal.Theystartwith


a) Dear SirlMadamand end with Yoursfaithfutty+ your
full name or b) Dear MrlMrs + surname and end with
Yours sincerely+ your full name. Start your letter by
statingthe reasonwhy you are complaining,then, in
separateparagraphs,explainyour complaintsin detail
with reasons.Finish by suggestingwhat action you
expectto be taken.Linkyour complaintswith: fi?sfly,to
make matters worse, what is more, etc.
13

E
Reaathe table, then listen to the tape and fill
in the missingwords.Finally,usingthe plan and the
information in the table, write a letter of
complaint to the restaurant manager. The
beginning and ending have been written for you.

o service
was ...................
halfan hour
I we hadto .........
. musicwasvery............
we
couldn't
.........each
other
I
o foodwas ..........
cooked I steakwastoughandchips
weregreasy
o waiterwas.............. didn'tapologise
for spilling
I

delicious,rich, juicy, disgusting, tasty,


bad,little
and contrast the two places using
and superlotive forms, as ...as,or less ...

restaurant

OPENfNG
REMARKS

PLAN
DearSirlMadam.

INTRODUCTION
Para 1: Reasonfor writing:
I am writingto complainaboutyour restaurant,which
lvisitedon May6th.
MAINBODY

Para2:. Complaint1 (detailsand reason)


Para3: Complaint2 (detailsand reason)

Paul'srestaurant
good ***
tastv*** ****
expensive
**
,.Jriendly
***
luxurious

CONCLUSION
Para4z actionexpectedto be taken:
I trustthatyou will give the mafterserious
considerationand that thiswon'tbe repeated.
CLOSINGREMARKS
Yours faithfully,
(signature)

,":Slord$
of Wisdnm
.:i::iril:"'

Readthese sentences.What do they mean?


o

ot Ed! restourontis not as good os ot Paul!.Ihe


Paultis betterthan the serviceat Ed's.

f)on'i
lt all
all your
rrnr rr eggs
onnc in
in one
nna basket.
hoolzai
put
Don'tnt
Toomanycooksspoilthebroth.

B7

2O
UNII
,\

':----_''--'\
-

-'-t
-t j*i-i -f-t

tJ

fi,il

iffx

Lmat|-ln
:l

What do you know about globol worming?


Where is the city in the picture located?
Why is there a glass shield around it?
What do you think has happened?
In what ways is this city different
to the place where you live?

Y
*!

E First read the sentences


below, then listen to
the tape and fill in the
missing information.

&

&

*
:Xf

Hesawthatallthebuildings
aroundhimwere
m a d eo f m i r r o rasn d, . . . . . " . . . . . .
hehad
Shethoughtperhaps
himself,
andaskedhimto cometo heroffice
foranexamination.
H en o t i c etdh a th e r
. . . . . . . . . .a. .n. o
..
hairwerecompletely
different
to his.
Glynisdrovehimto a placewherehe could
v i e wt h eo l d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thesunhadmelted
mostofthe
intheearth's
oolarareas.
Theworldgovernment
hadhelped
...glassshields
around
the
highest
areasof theearth.
Therewasa largecircular
fullof water.
Thewaterwassuckedout,andtheforceof
theairaroundit pulledhim

BB

..h

tttttrtttrrrlrnfmffi$bitr.ftt
*

. . . . .. .

UNII
2O

text and for questions l- 4, choose


answerrA, B, C or D.

s headfelt heavyand his neckhuft.

andsawhewassittingon something
likea whiterubber
floating
inchesabovethecarpetpulledup
onairseveral
sawthat
allthebuildings
aroundhimweremadeof mirrors
and
hethought.
bethefuture,"
a whiteplastic
suitandstrange
shoesgotoutof thecar
ifhewasallright.HernamewasGlynis,
andshewasa doctor.
year
what it was,andwhenheheardit wastheyear3,000,
believe
it.HetoldGlynishewasfromthe21stcentury.
She
hehadhurthimself,
andaskedhimto cometo herofficeforan

Jamesheardit was the year


3,000,
hewas
A thrilled.
B amazed.
C honified.
D sad.
Theinformation
on thecomputer
stated
thatJames
A wasalive.
B hadlefithecountry.
C hadbeenfounddead.
D wasthoughtto havedied.
Theoldworldwasundenrvater
because
A therehadbeenanearthquake.
B thesealevelhadrisen.
C therehadbeena rainstorm.
D theearth's
temperature
had
dropped.
A largeholeinthesurface
ofthenewworld
wasusedto
A takewaterto a nearbyfactory,
B sendwaterto theoldworld.
C refillthepipeswithwater.
D communicate
withtheoldworld.

wrongwithhim.Asshewasexamining
nothing
Jameshenoticed
hairwerecompletely
different
to his.Herswasso shinyand
lookreal.
whathadhappened
to him,andheaskedifanysortoftime
developed
sothathecouldgethome.Glynis
saidthere
theylookup hisnameonthecomputer
suggested
to see
it mighthaveon him.Theyfoundthatthecomputer
onlyhad
uptothedayhehadbeguntravelling
through
time.Nextto
dead".

it.Didthatmeanhenevermadeit backtothepresent?
through
time?HeaskedGlynisif shecouldtake
betravelling
town,
Perhaps
hecouldfindwhereDrApplebaum
usedto live.
passage
a secret
underhishouse,
Glynis
looked
athimsadly,
" shesaid."Theworldasyouknewithasbeendestroyed."
himtoa placewherehecouldviewtheoldworld.During
the
whathadhappened.
Thesunhadmeltedmostol theicein
areas,
causing
worldwide
flooding.Theearth's
temperature
thousands
of peoplehad died.Finally,in 2,300,the world
helped
buildglassshieldsaroundthehighestareasof theearth

fromthesunandthewater.
whyourhairandskinaresodifferent,"
Glynis
said.
natural
sunlight
orair."
totheedgeoftheglassshieldwherehecouldseemilesand
were
videoscreens
setupalonga walkway
whichshowed
BigBenandtheAcropolis,
allunderwater.
,theEiffelTower,
circular
holefullofwaternearby.
Therewerepipestaking
nearby
factory.
Everyfewminutes,
thewaterwassuckedout,
below.
Glynis
explained
thatthiswashowtheygotwaterfrom
it intoclean,
usablewater.
James
wentcloseto theedge
it.
" Glynis
screamed.
Thewater
wassucked
out,andtheforceoftheairaround
. Whenthebottomopened,
hewaspulledfromthefuture
to
the
old
world
where
he
used
to live.
,

1
2
3
4
5

Read the text again and answer


the questions.
What did the professorsee when he
lookedaround?
Whatwas Glyniswearing?
How hadthe old world been
destroyed?
WhywereGlynis'hairand skindifferent
to the professor's?
How did the professorreturnto the old
world?

Bg

UNII
2O
.,,,r,Y[ra[ulary
Prautice
5

Look at the words in bold in Ex.3 and try to explain


them, then choose any five and make sentences.

Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below.


Use the words only once.

First, look at the two pictures and


Then, using adjectives from the list below,
compare life today with life in the past.
dongerous, n oisy,reloxed,
complicoted,quiet, sofe,
stressedsimple

video,home,g/oss,presumed, to look up, time,noturol,the


tempe rature,circulor, secret
1
2
3
4
5

. . .a. c. .h i n e
a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .m
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t. o
. .w
. .n. . . .
a ................p
. .a. .s. s a g e
a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .h. .o. l. e. . . .
a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .s. .h. i.e. .l .d

6
. . . .s u n l i g h t
7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .s. c. .r.e. .e. n s
8
sb'sname
. .d. .r.i s e n
9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .h. a
10
. . . . . . .d. .e a d

,::,.:,i.[iln[ua
gE llEuelupment
.ri:::|..;r::,:i,,,

Listen to the tape and mark the statements


E
about the past true (T) or false (F). Finally, use
the statements to talk about life in the past.

| ,T-l

People
werebusierandmorestressed.

Erammar
in Use

,rl:l,li"

10

use when we are sure about

People
werewealthierthen.
kT_l
| 4T_l Lifewasmuchsafer.
l-T_l

Peopte
neverusedto tocktheirdoors.

l-T_l

Therewerefewercars.

| 8T_l Therewasa totof traffic.


FT_l

People
usedto growtheirownfruitandvegetabtes.

Read sentences | '5 and match them


sentences a - e.Then say which modol
we are not sure about something.
sentences refer to the

1 l'msurehe'slyingto you.
2 lt is possiblethat they
changedtheirminds.
3 l'msurehedidn'tknowit.
4 I'msuretheyaren'ttwins.
5 Perhaos
she'llcomelater.
11

a
b
c
d
e

She
Theycan't

Hemustbe
Hecan't
Theycould
changed

Complete the following sentences


con't or moyl mightl could.

usedto goto thetheatre.


hoT_l People
People
usedto spendtheirtimedoingmoreinteresting
tnrngs.
watched
a lotofW then.
h'zT-l People

Wnrds [ftsll Eonf[$sil

Underline the correct word.

1 Besides/Beside
beingintelligent
sheis alsogoodlooking.
2 The manstandingbesides/besidemy fatheris a famous
writer.
3 Thecost of livingis verytalUhighthesedays.
4 Johnis reallyhighitallforhisage.

90

1
2
3
4
5

She
She
She
She
She

.......b
. .e. .

UNII
2O
forms
infinitive

Note:
!
InthePassve !
voicewehave t
onlYtwoinfinitive
(to)havetried
i
(to)havebeentrying forms:Present:i
to betriedor i
(to)havetried
have I
Perfect:to
(to)havetried
beentried'
go)try
I

- (to)try
-r (to)betrying

-l
+

il,il.,il;;i'1

the sentences and make deductions using


can't or may/might/could, as in the example:
musthcyebeensunbsthingbecauseshe'sgot o
ton.

sunbathing? a
b
the play?
pizzd?
c
lhe
d
to work?
e
f
g

She'snot at home.
Hefailedhisexams.
She'swearinga ring.
She'sgot a greattan.
Thereisn'tanyleft.
Theyleft beforethe end.
He'sveryill.

at the pictures and make deductions using


can't or may/might/could and the notes

pictureA:
burglorstied him
up,he is feeling
he
uncomfortable,
rabbed,
he
was
hos beencalling
{ar help,shefelt
surprised
pictureB:
he stolemaney,
t:heywillput him
rn priso4he is
unernployed,
shapkeeper
called
the palice,he is
frightened
each sentence using the words in bold.
to five words.

hehaslosthisway.
He ................

hiswav.

3 I'm certainhe won'tfailhisexams.


He ................
hisexams.
fail
4 It'spossiblethatsheforgotthe appointment.
.........
She ..............
appointment.
could
5 l'msureshedidn'tcommitthecrime.
thecrime.
committedShe..............
6 l'm surehe stolethe money.
He ................
themonev.
stolen
7 Perhapshe liedto you.
.. to you.
rnight
He ...............
I l'm suresheis stillworkingin heroffice.
...........
in heroffice.
be
She..............
theyweresleepingwhenyou calledthem.
9 Perhaps
whenyoucalledthem.
They............
been
1 0 l'm surehe didn'tpaythe rent.
paid
He ................
therent.

t5
{;r

First explain the words in the list below,


E
then listen to the tape and circle the correct
answerrA,B, or C.

t't
ft

sensors
hydrogen,
roodmap,steer,ulto violet,visibility,
1 Thecarwillrunon
A petrolor water.
B batteriesor hydrogenpower.
C hydrogenbatteries.
2 Thecomputerscreenwill showthe driver
A wherehe is on a roadmap.
B howto drivethe car.
C howfasthe cango.

,t

willalsobe ableto showhim


3 Thecomputer
A howto reachhis destination.
B howmuchtimehisjourneywilltake.
C whatthe weatheris likeat his destination.

4 Thedriverwill be ableto avoid


A seriousaccidents.
B trafficjams.
C beinglatefor work.

5 Parkingwill be easierbecausethe computerwill


A showthe driverhow muchspacethereis.
B letthe car parkitself.
C steerthe carfor the driver.

will
6 Theultravioletheadlights
A improvevisibility
by 75/o.
B be betterthandaylight.
C improvevisibilityby 50%.

-Lr

D
x

t
*i

-.-

WflIlng

(Project)

Write about the cars of the future. Cut


pictures from the Photo File Section at the back
of the book to use with your project.

9l

UNII
?1

,'$'F
'F
rt*
ffi$tpi$

,*'\

teading
3

lead-in
I

. Look at the pictures. Do you


know which lilm they come from?
What kind of film is it?
. Do you recognise any ofthe
characters?Which are the heroes
and which are the villains? Think
of some typical film heroes or
heroines.What are the good
things they do?

E
nead the words below
which describe the StorWors
trilogy. Listen to the tape and
match the words from column A
with the words from column B.
i:i.:.:",
:r:::,:

1
2
3
4
5
5

92

thrilling
fantastic
classic
amazing
gigantic
convincing

a
b
c
d
e
f

tale
alienlandscapes
spaceadventure
fightingrobots
sound
space battles

Read the text and answer the following questions.

yearsof StarWars,director
Tocelebrate
twenty
George
Lucas
has
released
theJilmasheoriginally
intended
itto be.Hehasalways
said
trilogy- whichincludes
StarWars,The
EmpireStrikes
BackandThe
of theJedi- wasnever
asgoodashehadwanted.
Afteryears
of
youcanexperience
these
filmsonvideo,
thisthrilling
space
adventure
inthecinema
andwithfantastic
sound.
goodandevil.
Thetrilogyis a classic
taleof thefightbetween
instead
of happening
onearth,
theactiontakesplace"...alongtimeago
a galaxyfar,faraway."lt involves
notonlyhumans
butallsortsoffrighteni
andsometimes
amusing,
robotsandaliencreatures.
Theheroes
of
trilogy
areLukeSkywalker,
HanSoloandPrincess
Leia,
whowork
fightDarth
Vader,
theevilleaderwhowantstotakeovertheuniverse.
performances
Excellent
aregivenbyslarsHanison
Ford,
Canie
Fisher,
playa bigger
Guinness
andMarkHamill,
butthespecial
effects
rolethan
of theactors.
There
areamazing
spacebattlesandgigantic,
fighting
withlaserweapons.
You'llceftainly
enjoytheincredible
chases
on
motorbikes.
Youwillalsobefascinated
by someof thestrangest
you've
ever
seen
incompletely
convincing
landscapes.
alien
George
Lucassays:"WhenI madetheoriginal
SfarkVars,
I was
interested
in creating
a modern
myth.Greek
mythology,
or mythology
anycountry,
oftentakesplacein anunknown
area...andtheonlyarea
havenowwhichis likethatis outerspace."
Withthisfantastic
trilogy,
hascertainly
succeeded
in creating
a myththatwillnever
beforgotten.
if youhaveseentheoilginalfilms,youshould
definitely
notmissthe
to experience
theStarWarstrilogy
asLucas
really
wanted
ittobe.

1 Whereandwhenis thestorvset?
2 Whois thedirector?
3 Whostarsin thefilms?

4 Whatisthestory
5 Whoaretheheroes?
6 Isthetrilogy

UNII
2I
bularyPractice

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Try to explain the words in bold in


Ex.3,then use any three and
make sentences.
Match the numbers with the letters.

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

includes
amazing
certainly
putintocinemas
for the firsttime
part
very good
threelinked
stories
believable

Phrasaluer[s
Fill in the correct particle.

to takecontrolof sth
after:to looklike
up:tobeginsthnew(ahobby,spoft,etc.)
off:(ofaeroplanes)
to leavethe ground
Johnhas decided to take
planewill b e t a k i n g. . . . . . . . . . . .i.n. . .
minutes.
really t a k e s . . . . . . . . . . . . .h. e. .r
largefirmhas taken ................
our

the text on p.92 again and


notes under the following

titte - tYPeof ftlm film is set - plot Then,usingyour notes,


your class about the trilogy.

llnuelnImBnt
the film titles to the types

films.Whatis your favourite


of film?Why?

HomeAlone
Raidersof the LostArk
LoveStory
TheYoungSherlockHolmes
StarTrek
Fridaythe 13th
The LionKing

a
b
c
d
e
f
g

sciencefictionfilm
cartoon
adventure
film
detectivefilm
romance
horrorfilm
comedy

lE Lirten to the tape and tick the expressionsthe woman


usesto talk about the programmes she likes and doesn't Iike.
Then use the expressionsin the table to tell your partner about
the types ofTV programmes you like or dislike,giving reasons.

SoapOperas

'

QuizShows
TheNews
Honor,Films ::
Documentaries

nllikethem.
E I lovethem.

E I don'tlikethem.
E I can'tstandthem.

tI,t thinkills brilliant. E


fascinatingn
E absolutely
fl I'mreallyinterested E
inthem.

great.
DatingShqws,,',
n They're
SportsProgrammesfl myideeoTfun

I don'tthinkmuchof it.
absolutelydisgusting
I'm not reallyinterested
in them.

E They'reterrible.

E not my ideaof fun

Look at the pictures below and say what types of films they are
taken from. In pairs, talk about them as in the example. Use the
adjectives in the list.
omusingshocking,excitingboring humorous,movingscory,disgusting
e.g. A; Do you like westerns?
B: Yes,/ do.I think they'reexciting./No,/
don't.I find them boring.

UNIT
2I
tlakinqBecnmmenilatinns
10

,,::lffifXppAf
in USe

fE Listen to this conversationabout a film and


underline the correct word.

1
2
3
4
5
6

lt was amusing/thrilling.
The actingwas excellent/horrible.
The plotwas believable/unbelievable.
The characters
wererealistic/dull.
The dialoguewas boring/clever.
The scriptwas well-writteniuninteresting.

13

Look at the words in bold in the following


Which word describes how the person
word describes what someone/something
Read the text on p.92 and underline the
past participles which are used as

Youreallyareverytiring.
II

Which of the following expressionswould you use


to recommend or disapproveof a film?Think of
reasonsto go with each expression.
e.g.Iheactingwasexcellent.You
shoulddefinitely
not missit.
I wouldrecommendit

%ry

* lt was disappointing.,

*+

ffi#

Don'tmissit. lt will change

, I wouldn'trecommendit. -

t'|h

You shoulddefinitely
not missit.

12

14

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
I

Fill in the correct form of the word in

It was sucha ..................fi|m


thatI fell
I was ................by
the clowns'performance.
The new rideat the themepark is
Marywas..............when
she heardthenews,
We were
by the magician'stricks.
It wasthe most ..................
filml'veever
It was an
......play.
He was
...whenhe
the stairsin frontof all his friends.

15

Read the sentences below. In which does


speaker express a specific preference? In
does the speaker express general

a
b
c
d

I would rathergo to the cinemathan watch


I would preferto go to the cinemaratherthan
I preferdancingto singing./lpreferfish to
I prefer to watch plays rather than watch

It's the worstfilm


I'veeverseen.

Read the dialogue below. Does the speaker


recommend the film or not? In pairs, act out
similar dialogues in order to recommend or
disapprove of a film. Use suitable expressions from
Ex. I I and the list of words given below:

Youreallyarevery

16

Fill in the correct form of the verbs in

1 lwould rather

I wouldrather.........

ratherthan
I prefer
to
excellent,
o wosteof time,well-mode,
si/y,disgusting
interestingterrifying,
thrilling
A:
B:
A:
B:

g4

Haveyou seenWhiteFang?
Yes,I have.
Whatdid you thinkof it?
lt was excellent.
Thestorywasveryexciting.Don't
missit!

17

(read)
.........

Look at the highlighted sentences.


expressespositive agreement/negative
a) A: I like comedies. B: So do f.
b) A: I dont like horror films. B:

so + auxiliaryverb+ subject
neitherinor
+ auxiliaryverb+ subject

21
UNII
to these statementsas in the example.
haveI'
lhaven'tseenMars Attacks.e.g' lVelfherlNor
enjoyedlastnight'sfilm. ...........
lreally
l'mgoingto watchBlind Datetonight.
lwillneverwatcha horrorfilm again.
llovequizshows.

(a film review)

ReaAthe table,then listen to the tape and


E
rick(/) the correct boxes.

19

Name of film
Spidermanfl

BatmanReturns
El

2 Stars
MichaelDouglasl-1

MichaelKeatonl-l

3 Type

Readthe following film review and fill in the gaps


with verbs from the list. What tenses do we
normally use when we write a film review? Finally'
answerquestions I to 9.
become,ploys,is filled,findsout,teoch,is set,
decides,

adventurel-l

comedyl-l

4 Director
Tim Burton fl

RichardBurtonl-l

5 Set in
imaginarycity l--l

realcitYfl
6 Theme
herofightsvillainsE

hero escapesdeathl-l

7 Acting
bad t-l

brilliantl-l

comPlicatedf-l

boringl-l

9 Gostumes/SPecial
nothingspecial[I

Effects
out of this worldl-l

8 Plot

lO Recommendation
waste of time l-_l

andmoving
bySimonWincer,is afascinating
, directed
America'
ofNotth
ontheweslcoast
It1) ...........,.....
called
a boyanda whale,
between
relationship
aboutthe

20

Using the plan below, write a review either for


Botmon Returns or any other film you have seen.

Plan

a young
Jesse,
2).......................
Richter
James

ofloveandfriendship'
themeaning
who3).......,...,.......
the
... Willyin theseaparkwhere
4)........
goodfriends
astheyhave
5) ...........
They
As the story6)
fromtheirfamilies.
se0arated
so fond of Willythat he 7)
Jessebecomes

.....totryandfreehim.

not to be missedl-l

INTRODUCTION
Para 1: titleof thelilm,director,typeof film,placeit is set,main
whatthe storyis about
character(s),
i:.

MAINBODY

are
Madsen,
LoriPettyandMichael
especially
andemotion.
withsuspense
film8)...,...................
us how
JesseandWillY9)
involving
canbeto eachother.
beings
andhuman
filmforthewholefamily.Don'tmissit asit will
forever.
youseelifeandrelationships
trrlay

Para2=mainpointsof the Plol


al:.

Para3: commentsaboutthe acting,plot,soundeffects'etc.


CONCLUSION
Para4: recommendation

is the title of the


is the directorof
typeof film is it?
isthefilm set?
are the main

6 What is the plot?


7 Who starsin the film?
8 What comments are
madeaboutthe film?
film
the
ls
recommendedor not?

Wnrrilsuf Wisdnm
Read the sentences.What do they mean?

o Youcan'tjudgea book by its cover'


o Silenceis golden.
o All'swellthatendswell.

I
I
il

''ii')
ii
'
irtl i.] L.'L

\Vhaii cam \yours,.cein"rthe


(;rn pio, 9(l-9:/? Whea,e
i:r,il:eut["ess
,s the l,rrolLessori'YVhaoelo
','r,.r"r
1r:hill[<tLhe n-'lariir
on the
:;',:rrel:ei:uei' isl ri.a;'l l,/oui :gil^less
'w:la1: :i::.1::ilalp,oertteici?
L i ii,ea,-cj1:ire iroI ilrer;yir: g siurr ri.r^iieti'-v
-i,'
irre,'e i r:;s:t)iIl'i,.elilil s;e i n :arnrn artIo :r
i,rui'i:,rrril";ichii:so,vriilt,er'lill ]lolel"
i,\,ror.,r.:;
iliistert to .id'ie::iatiaicanid
:'rvrat i ron "
c o rr-e ret le,he f ailscei,nii<:;

::ti1I

qt

''!,

i,

ffi
'{i
3,'

Tneprofessor
woke:ri rnthestreetnearDrApplebaurn's
house.l-iie;
firebrigacle
wasouisidertandtherewasa fireburning
inside.
Llil,,cclet-:aunr
was beingtakenout on a siretcher.
He was barelyconscioL;s,
bui ai:rtr:
ic i,skti
Jarneshadbroughtanythingbackvirithhimfromthet'ullure.
,iairessirllved1lecharm
to
j;i'nes
ihe dector.Theambulance
tookhirnaway,leaving
,
wrfe
Allcl
Jamesstandinci
ainne
canrei'unningdownthe street.Shesavrlthe charmin her husbaril'a,
ii:u'rr;.
,-k:hadforg"i:
r:::iiiii-n
thertit wasthe day of theirtenthweddinganniversarir.
r.i-riJ
narlr1i-ri
n hispoi.,
"l\"{aryr
hopingthat he wouldfind it duringlhe day. Dr Appie!:aiirr':jicr. ls irr.ruse
anc"
cflassroomhad been destroyedin the fire, so iamss ner.i*'i'lr-lirior-iihour
he':
'lravelled
throughtime.lle thoughtt:ratit hada.!lbeena Llie:,ilir"
,"ir.r
ii-rlirocl
iorhswal
in hiscoaipocket,tlui it wasgone.

UNII
22
iling
Readthe text, then choose from the list,A-G, the sentenceqhich,
bestsummarises each part ( l-6).There is an example,gfthe

(0).
beginning

A A GiftforJames
B Unanswered
Questions
upin London
c Waking
Dream?
D A Fantastic
Anniversary
E Happy
with
F A Reunion
DrApplebaum
MaryFinds
James

Jamesglancedat it andsaidthata lothadhappened


andsmiled.
park
professor
him
that
nearDrApplebaum's
house. to
day.Hethoughtof tellingherthewholestorybutthen
wokeup inthe
The
decidedthatit wouldbe betterto waituntiltheygot home.Mary
stilldidn'tknowwherehewasor whatvearit was.Hehearda
past
kissedhimandsaid,"Happy
him.Thestreetsand putherarmsroundhisshoulders,
alarmandsawa fire enginedrive
reddened;
hehadforgotten
that
darling."
James'face
carslookedfamiliar.Hewasbackin London."Couldlfinallv anniversary,
weddinganniversary.
it wasthedayof theirtwentieth
heaskedhimself.
home?"

ur__:

'tii:rir;,ra:,1:l1l
.......,..-.....,.........-...-..:

As theywalkedhome,Marytold himthatshehadfoundthe
therehadtoldherit
charmin an antiqueshop.Thesaleswoman
wasanauthenticVikingartifact,and,assheknewhowmuchher
husbandlovedthe historyof theVikings,shehadboughtit. She
explained
thatshehadput it in his pockethopingthathe would
findit duringtheday.Jamessmiledandtoldherit wastheperfect
"WhataboutUla?"
present,
anniversary
butquietlyhewondered,
l
X:iillii
r
*.-oinppi.Orur
Oi.O.Hishouseand hislaboratoryhadbeen
inthefire,soJamesneverfoundoutexactly
howhehad
destroyed
travelled
throughtime,or if,in fact,hehad.Hebeganto thinkthat
Ashestoodwatchingthe doctor'shouseburn,James'wife, it hadallbeenjusta dream.Theplaces,hethoughthehadvisited,
Perhaps
it wasallin
camerunningdownthestreet.Shethrewherarmsaround wereallplaceswhosehistoryhehadstudied.
andtoldhimhowworriedshehadbeenabouthimwhenhe hismind.
comehomeafterhislecture.Thenshehadthoughthemight
Buthowhadhegotto thepark?Whyhadthedoctoraskedhim
house,whichwason fire.Shewasafraid
atDrApplebaum's
he remembered
his
if he'dbroughtanythingback?Suddenly,
inghadhappened
to him.
notebook.
Helookedfor it in hiscoatoocket,butit wasqone.

house,buthisexcitement
towardsDrApplebaum's
Hewalked
turned
to fear.Thefire brigadewasoutsidethehouse,and
was
wasa hugeblazingfire burninginside.DrApplebaum
Thedoctorwasbarelyconscious
takenouton a stretcher.
hewasableto askif Jameshadbroughtanythingbackwith
thecharmgiven
remembered
fromthepast.Jamessuddenly
pocket
and showedit to the
himby Ula.Hetook it out of his
The
weakly
then
lost
consciousness.
who
smiled
and
,
tookhimaway,leaving
Jamesstanding
alone,holding
cnarm

hand
AsMarystoodback,shesawthecharmin herhusband's

UNII
22
Unna[ulary
Practire

Wrrds oflsn Gonfu$Gd

7
4

Look at the words in bold in Ex.3 and try to


explain them, then choose any three and make
sentences.
Fill in the correct words from the list below. Use
the words only once.
to IooNantique,to /ose,blazing,wedding,to be,fire,threw,
outhentic

1
2
3
4

5
6
7
I
9

a(n) ..........
anniversary
a ( n ). . . . . . . . . . . . . .s. .h. .o.p. .
a(n)
artifact
. . . . . . . . . . .i n
. .o. .n e ' sm i n d
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .f .a. m
. . .i .l i.a. r

$[ealdn0
Close your books and tell the class the summary
of this episode.
Did you enjoy the story about professor Kearns'
time travels? Would you have given it a different
ending? lf so, what would your ending be?
Which episode was your favourite/least favourite?

Whv?

langualelfeuelo[ment
6

Fill in each gap with only one word.

Underline the correct word.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

"Hold/Catch
my handanddon'tbe afraid,,'
hesaid
Thepoliceheld/caughtthe thieveslatelastnight.
I quicklystared/glanced
at my watchwhilewaiting
Bobwasspeaking
veryloudlyin the library,
makit
everyonestare/glanceat him.
I can'tbelieveJakeatethe alllwholeoizzal
All/wholeof the studentswentto the museum
Everyone
laughed/smiled
loudlywhenltolda
"Laugh/Smile,
please!"
the photographer
said.

Grammar
in Use
Mary Kearns flames' wife) is organisinga
for their wedding anniversary. Look at her
preparations.Which sentences suggest that
herself is going to do something? Which
sentences suggest that someone else is
do something for Mary?

1 Maryis goingto havethe


floorspolished.
2 Maryis goingto
makea special
cake.
Maryis goingto
haveJames'suit
cleaned.
Maryis goingto send
outthe invitations.

AlbertEinstein1) .............
born in
Germanyin 1879.As a boy, he
thoughtschoolwas boring.At the
Study these sentences and say how the
age of fifteen, he left school
is formed.
without any qualifications.
However,
a2) .............
yearslater
Someonewill repairmy car.+ twitthave my car
he continuedwith his studiesin
ilffi
ryK.
Someonecut my hair.+ I had my hair cut.
Swrtzerlandand graduated in
1#*,
Someonehastypedmy report.+ ! havehadmyr
1900.Overthe nextfew years,he
F"
Someoneis makinga cakefor me.. I'm havinga
:
did a 3) .............
of research
in
:
mathematics
and physics.He wrote
9
Mrs Johnson is a rich woman. She has a
articlesfor scientificmagazines4)
things
done for her. Look at the notes
hisdiscoveries,
whichchanged
sentences
as in the example.
man'sview of the universe.In 1921,he
e.g.
She
has
her
clathesmadebv Luciano.
won the Nobel Prizefor Physicsand became
one of 5) .............
most respected
physicists
in the world.In
1 clothes/make
(by Luciano)
1939,he leftGermanyand setiledin America,6) .............
he
2 house/clean
(bythe maids)
did researchat the Institute
for AdvancedStudies.Hisresearch
3 carlwash(bythe chauffeur)
7) .............
theories
werelaterusedto developtheatomicand
4 shopping/deliver
(bythe supermarket)
hydrogenbombs.Einstein
died8)
1955in the United
5 letters/type(bythe secretary)
States.
6 meals/cook
(bythe chef)

gB

Ul'|IT
22
Read the list of preparations
the surprise anniversary party
Kearns is going to have.
to the tape and tick which
are done by Mary and
by somebody else.Then talk
the things Mary asked
else to do as in the

ll[
13

(Project)

E
Listen to the tape and fill in the missing information. First
talk then write your project about these inventors and their
inventions. Use pictures from the Photo File Section at the back
of the book to use with your project.

Morvhad the housecleoned.

telescope

" # # , .r

,&_-.,

Italy

hislargest
telescope
long
was120cm
heusedit to study
t h e. . . . . . . . . . . . . .a. .n. d. . . .
Mars

USA

telephones
firstused
inUScities
more
than
by1887,
pn0nes
inUSA

;,.,
look at these examples, then
the sentences in the
form.

cutting.-

r- -!
_.,--ffis

lightbulb

USA

werecleaned.*
thewindowscleaned.
someoneto mendthe roof. r
havetheroof mended.
askedsomeoneto Paintthe living
willasksomeoneto takea Photo
ofhim.
Marcy'seyes need testing.
Helen'scar is being servicedat the
moment.
Tom'sjeans need shortening.
Fiona'sflat has been decorated.
Look at the list below and saY who
doesthese things: a member of
your family or somebody else?
e.g.Wehave the car servicedby a
mechonic.

thecar
taps
thehouse
thewalls

cut the grass


washthe car
waterthe plants
the dog
examine

Edison
alsoinvented
thp

myhair cut.

ffi

automobile

Germany

firstcarhadonly........
a steelframe
wheels,
kph
andwent...........
had50
by1B8BBenz
the
workers
building
cars
3-wheeled

aeroplane 1903

USA

flew..........
firstplane
seconds
feetin...........
wasthefirst
0rville
person
toflyan
aer0prane

g9

ffiwffi#.&ffiffiffiffi%mwm&
@(Unils
l9 22)
Choose the correct item.

slice,
loof,can,jor, tube,bor,glass,
boftle,pogpacket

The...................
of smokingcan be veryharmful.
A genes
B effects C moths
D views

1
2
3
4
5

He ...................
themoneyintomy bankaccount.
A transferredB created C prevented D destroyed
Therecentbombingcaused
concern.
A convincingB worldwideC presumedD usable
Somepeopleclaimthat he has been kidnappedby a(n)
spaceship.
A nearby
B alien C outer
D circular

ET is a(n)
A empire

D melted

a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .o. .f .c.a. .k. e


6
a ..................,..
of water
T
a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .o. .f .s.o. .d. a
8
a ..............
of chocolate 9
a ............
of toothpaste 10

a
a
a
a
a

Fiff in how muchor how mony.

I
applesdo you needto makean
2
sugardo you likein yourtea?
3 Canyoutellme
milkI needto
4 Heasked
steakshe shouldouton

Hewalkedto the ...................


of thecliffandlookeddown.
A passage B walkwayC edge
D space
Thehotsun...................
thesnow.
A refilled
B sucked C rose

Fill in the correct word from the list:

from outerspace.
B galaxy C universe D creature

1
2
3
4
5

Thousands
of soldiers
diedin the ..........,..
of WorldWarll.
A battles
B weaponsC tales
D actions

Underline the correct item.


Sheilasat besides/ besideme at the

Pricesinthissupermarket
areverytall/high,
Thepolicehavealreadycaught/ heldthe
Theystayedin andwatchedW fortheall/
Shelaughed/ smiledat us and saidhello.

Hisfacelooks...................;
l'm surel'veseenhimbefore.
A conscious B authentic C familiar D blazing
Theclass'yearly................
is goingto takeplacein July.
A lecture
B anniversary C reunion D artifact

Fill in the correct word from the list:

(10marks)

borely,suggeste
d, reddened,
floated,laborotory
1
2
3
4
5

Thescientistcarriedout the experiment


in his
Herface
as the strangerkeptlookingat her.
Thehot-airballoon
acrossthe sky,
| ....................
hadenoughtimeto catchthebus.
goingoutfor dinnerinsteadof watching
She...............
TV.
@ marks)
Fill in the correct word from the list'

home,secret,video,force,fire,blozing,antique,authentic

1
2
3
4

..................fire
..................screen
.......,.........,shop
..................town

5
6
7
8

the
of the air
passages
..................
....................
brigade
...............,..
artifacts
(8marks)

Fill in the correct particle:


ofter,over,up,off

1
2
3
4

The planetook
aftera one-hourdelay.
Hewilltake......,.........
thecompanyafterhisfatherretires.
Shedecidedto take
knittingin herfreetime.
He takes
hisfather;theylookverymuchalikel
(4 marks)

r00

Fifl in: some,ony,no,much,mony.

Jenny: Well,Paul,the fridgeand the

Paul:

empty.We
needto go shopping.
Right.lt'smyturnthisweek,isn'tit?
do we need?

Jenny: Firstof allthere'si) ................


coffee
2) ................
of that.Oh,andwe
flourif we wantto makethatcake.
Paul: Arethere4) ................
eggsleft,
Jenny: I'm afraidnot. Let'sget 5) .,......,
. . . . . . . , . . .m
. . .i l. k. .
Paul: How7) ................
eggs?
Jenny: Four.
Paul: Andhow8) ................
ftourdoyou
Jenny: Abouttwo pounds.

lS1I - ?2)
lil:ir:i'i'A'* (Uni
ii*iui x i* s;**f,,g x*d'r,*;,i
Look at the pictures and the list of adiectives and
compare the three means of transport as in the
example:
sofe
fost,expensive,comfortoble,exciting economicol,
by expresstrain is faster than travellingby car, but
Travelling
by
travelling plane is the fostest (af all)'
r.i

w;.i,i#

Respondto these statements using so, neitherl


nor.
l've neverseenStarWars'
| don't likedatingshowson TV.
my kitchen.
| am goingto redecorate
game
lastnight'
| wentto the football
tomorrow.
I won'tgo shoPPing
(5 marks)

13
1
2
3
4
5
14

Complete the following sentencesusing:


must,con't,mayI mightlcould

(5 marks)
Complete the sentences using the words in bold'
Use two to five words.

shewasill.
Perhaps
iil.
been She ............
tomorrow.
leaving
I'msuretheyare
tomorrow'
must They ...........
book.
the
Johntook
Perhaps
the book'
might John
yet'
letters
the
typed
4 I'msureshe hasn't
yet'
the letters
have She ........,,...
now.
office
the
5 I'msureshe is at
attheofficenow'
......'...
She .............
be
(5 marks)
Fill in the correct participle ofthe verbs in brackets'

(fascinate)'
was
1 Theclown'sperformance
for so many
swimming
(exhaust)after
2 Wefelt
hours.
(amuse).Everybodyenjoyedit'
3 Theplaywas
(bore) that I fell asleep
4 The film was so ....'."..........
throughit.
halfwaY
(depress)when her pet cat
5 Sharonwas very
(5 marks)
ran away.
12 Rewrite the sentencesin the causativeform'
1
2
3
4
5

Susan'shouseneedscleaning.
Tim askedthe mechanicto repairhis bike'
Myflat is beingpaintedat the moment'
SharonhasaskedMrs Brownto makea cake'
Henrywill ask someoneto weedthe garden'

(5 marks)

1
2
3
4
5
6
15
1
2
3
4
5

They
They
They
They
They
They

be on holidaY'
'. be waitingfor hoursfor fishto bite'
be in a citY'
... be in the cquntryside'
...'be feelingmiserable'
havecaughtlotsof fish'
(6 marks)

Fill in the conct tense of the verbs in brackets'


(still/paint)
Tomis in the livingroom.He ........'....'......."'
kitchen'
the
with
(already/finish)
'.
he
it but
for
bus
(travel)
bY
..
Years
She
car'
own
her
buy
to
.......'..'..'............(decide)
she
before
to
(be)
made
of
changes
A lot
2050.
the
bY
lives,
our dailY
Year
(feed)the dog,shewentto bed'
AfterJulie ....................
Jonathan?
....'....(you/meet)
ago
Howlong
(5 marks)

lfUritinU
16

Answer the questions:

a) What informationdo we write in the first and last


paragraphs
in a letterof complaint?
b) Howdo we linkour comPlaints?
c) In a film review,whatdo we writein the firstparagraph?
the film?
do we (not)recommend
d) In whichparagraph
review?
film
of
a
e) Whatdo we includein the mainbody
(10narks)

rorAL:100.-k"
1[J1

Hr*mm*Ftffi
":
l:,r,,'lr,1111"

ini$infsiriii - inrsiif rnnirruou$We usethe PresentSimplefor:


o facts and permanentstates.e.g. Georgialivesin Boston.
o truths or laws of nature.e.g. The temperaturehere fatts
below zero in the winter.
o habitsand routines(with always,usually,etc). e.g. He
usually getsup at 10 o'clock.
o timetables/programmes
(witha futuremeaning).e.g. The
trainfor Manchesterleayesat 11.45 on Sunday.
o feelingsand emotions.e.g./ Iovevanillaice-cream.
Time expressionsused with PresentSimple:every day/
week/month/year,
usually,sometimes,always,never,
often,on Monday,in the evening/morning,
etc

SMELL_ It smellsaMul in here.(=it has


Whyare yousmellingthecheese?
throwit away?(=6psyerl
o TASTE - Thespaghettisaucetastes
a wonderfultaste)
- | am tastingthe riceto seeif it's
testingits flavour)
.

UNIT 2
RItAI|UIPR0lt0uil$
o We usethe relativepronounswho/thatforpe
r We use the relativepronounswhich/thatfor
animals.
o We use the relativepronounwhosefor
possession.

We usethe PresentContinuous(to be + verb -ing) for:


. temporarysituations.
e.g.I am paintingthe housethisweek.
o actionshappeningnow but not necessarily
at the moment
of speaking.e.g.Sueis readinga bookaboutanimats.
o fixedarrangements
in the nearfuture.e.g. I am going to
my doctor thisafternoon.
TimeexpressionsusedwithPresentContinuous:
now,at the
moment,at present,nowadays,today,this month,this
week,tonight,always,still, etc
Verbsthatarenormally
not usedin the continuous
tenses.
verbs of the senses:hear,see,smell,taste,sound,feel,
seem,appear,look(= seem),etc.e.g.Thesouptastessa/rlz.
verbs expressing feelings and emotions: love, like,
desire,prefer,dislike,detest,hate,enjoy,want,etc.
e.g. I want to go to the cinematonight.
otherverbssuchas: agree,believe,
suppose,understand,
forget,know,remember,
think,belong,own,possess,
have,
want,need,etc.e.g.I alwaysforgetyourphonenumber.
Someof the aboveverbscan be usedin the continuous
tenses.Note,however,the difference
in meaninq:

Tom is a doctor
An encyclopaedia
is a book
A dolphinis a
mammal
That'sthe boy

who
which/that
which/that
whose

Adverbsof frequency:

Adverbsof frequencyarenormallyplaced
verb.e.g.I usuallytravelby bus.He hardly
However,adverbsof frequencyare placed
to be and after auxiliaryverbs.e.g.Shers
for work.Haveyou ever visitedDisneytand?

"it"";;;
d"ftj,,,fl
,11
PASI $IilIPlT - PA$I GO]IilIIUOUS

THINK _ I thinkyouworktoo hard.(=believe)


We usePast Simple(verb + ed or irregular
Whatare you thinkingabout?| am thinking
aboutwhetherI shouldgo to university.
an actionwhichstartedandfinishedinthe
(=am considering)
time.
e.g. I watcheda sciencefictionfilm
. SEE
I see hispointbut I don'tagreewithhim.
I met my friendsfor lunch lastMonday.
(=understand)
past actionswhich happenedone
Thepresident
is seeingthecompany's
directors
other.e.g. He got up, had breakfast
and
tomorrowmorning.(=is meeting)
office.
o HAVE
He has two cars.(=owns,possesses)
l'm havingbreakfast.
Time expressionsused with PastSimple:
(=am eating)
l'm havinga shower.(=amtaking)
week/month,(how long) ago,then,

r02

Srrnmlrtnm
(was/were
+ verb-ing)for:
Continuous
actionin progressinterruptedby anotherpast
the
. The longeractionis in the PastContinuous,
actionis in the PastSimple.e.g. I was cooking
whenthe phonerang.
pastactionsof certainduration'
ormoresimultaneous
Iwas ridingmy bicyclewhilemy sisterwasplaying in
sandbox.
descriptionto eventsin a story.e.g.As she
runningin the marathon,the crowds were cheering
To avoid repetition,when there are two past
usejustthe -ing
formsin the samesentence,
. e.g. He was cleaningthe windowsand he was
to the radio. -t He was cleaning the windows,
to the radio.

o For (=overa periodof time)is usedwith PresentPerfect


e.g. l've beenwaitingfor
and PresentPerfectContinuous.
you for threehours.
o Already is used with PresentPerfectin statementsand
questions(to show surprise).e.g. I've alreadydone the
housework.Haveyou alreadypaid thebill?Thatwasquick!
o Yet is used with PresentPerfectin questionsand
negations.e.g. Haveyou seenthe new JamesBond film
yet? He hasn'tfinishedwith his examsyet.

UNIT 4
ARIIG1T
ilIT IITTIIIIIT
The is usedbefore:
.
.

while, when,
usedwith PastContinuous:
that, etc.
thePresentPedect(have + past participle)for:

actionswhen the time is not mentionedor is not


e.g. I've washed the clothes. We have
the sifting-room.
or changes.e.9. Sue has dyedher
experiences
completedactions.e.g. Tom has lusf finished
the letters.

- PRTStIfiPTRITGI
PTRTTGI

ltuIu$
usethe Present Perfect Continuous(have + been +
-ing)for:
whichbeganin the pastand arestillcontinuingup
actions
present.
e.g. I have been writing leftersfor four
to the
workingfor thiscompanysince1987been
hours.Shehas
pastactionsof certaindurationthat havevisibleresultsor
effectsin the present.e.g. lt has been raining for hours,
that'swhy the ground ls wef. The children have been
playingall afternoon,that'swhy theyare tired.
expressions used with PresentPer{ectand Present

yet (negative
just,ever,never,already,
Continuous:
always,how long, so far,
sentences),
etc.
since,today,this week/monthn

wordsareused:
howthefollowing
Ago 1=5361in time from now)is usedwith PastSimple'
e.g.Suearrivedan hour ago.
Since 1=1166a startingpoint in the past) is used with
e.g. l've
PresentPerfectand PresentPerfectContinuous.
you
o'clock'
8
srnce
been waitingfor

a
a

nounswhich are unique(themoon,theTowerof London)


names of cinemas (The Odeon), hotels (The Hilton),
theatres (TheTheatreRoyal),museums (TheMuseumof
Modern Ad), newspapers/magazines(The European)
(but: Time), ships (Ihe QE2), institulions (The Royal
Academyof Art),galleries (The NationalGallery)
names of rivers (the Thames),seas (the North Sea),
groups of islands/states(fhe Orkney/s/ands,the USA),
mountain ranges (the Alps),deserts (the SaharaDesert),
oceans (the Atlantic),canals (theSuezCanal)and names
or nouns with "of" (the Chamberof Horrors,the Valleyof
the Southof
Death)Note:the equator,theArctic/Antarctic,
France,the SouthMest/North/East
musical instruments,dances (theflute,the samba)
namesof families(the Browns),nationalitiesendingin
-sh, -ch or -ese (theWelsh,the Dutch,the Chinese,etc)'
Otherpluralnationalitiesare used with or without"the"
l(the) SouthAfricans,(the)Americans,etcl
titles (fhe President,the Prince of Wales,the Queen).
"The"is omittedbeforetitles with propernames(Queen
ElizabethII)
adjectivesused as plural nouns (theblind,theelderly,the
rich, thepoor, etc.)and the superlativedegree of adiec'
tivesiadverbs.e.g. He's the mostintelligentone here.
Note:"most"used as a determinerfollowedby a noun'
does not take "the".e.g. Most students failedthe exams.
but: The most interesting lecture was the one on
endangeredspecies.
the words: beach, cinema, city, coast, country(side)'
earth, ground, jungle, radio, pub, sea(side), sky'
station,shop, theatre,village,weather,world, etc. but
not before "man" (= people) e.g. Wewentto the cinema
lastnight.Note:"the"is optionalwith seasons.
morning,afternoon,evening,night e.g. l'll comeround
in the morning.(but: at night,at noon, at midnight,by
day/night,at 5 o'clock,etc).
historical reference/events(the French Revolution,the
SecondWorldWar)(but: WorldWarll)
only, last,first (usedas adjectives).e.g-Alexis the first
to comeand the last to leave.

103

Bmmmrrfiffirrn*r
The is omittedbefore:

IIIRTGIAIIII RtPOffiTII$PTTGII

o proper nouns (paolo,ltaly)


We use directspeechto give the exact
o namesof sports,games,activities,days,
months,holi_
said,
and we use quotationmarks[ ,, " ] atthe
days, colours, drinks, meals and languages(not foland end of the actualwords.e.g. ,'tam tired,,
lowed by the word "language")e.g.t lovepolo. Canyou
h
We usereportedspeechto givethe exact
speakSpanish?but: The Chinesetanguageis fascinaing.
someonesaid, but not the exactwords.We
. names of countries (France),(but: the
Nethertands.
the
quotation
marksin reportedspeech.e.g.He
Sudan,theHague,the Vatican).cities (Vancouverl,
streets
was tired.
(Bond Street),@ut: the High Street,the Strand,theMalt,
the A11, the M4 motoMay) squares (George Square)1,
UNIT 6
bridges (TowerBridge)(but: theBridgeof Sr.ghs,theFoih
Bridge, the SevernBridge, the Golden GateBridge) pa*s
PA$IPIR]TGI- PASIPTRTTGI
(CentralPark),stations (Kng,s CrossSfafion),individual
mountains (Mount Everest),islands (Matta),lakes (Lake
We usethe Past perfect (had + past participle)
Ontario), continents (Asra/
o possessiveadjectivese.g. Thatis my car.
. a past actionwhich happenedbefore
o two-word names whose first word is
beforea statedpasttime.e.g. By the endof
the name of a
person or a place (GlasgowAirport,Edinburgh
paintedthe whotehouse.After thevhad
had
Castte)
(but: TheWhiteHouse,becausethe firstword"White,'
homework,
Tomtook the childrento theplav
is not
the nameof a personor a place)
o pubs,restaurants,shops,banksand hotels
Time expressionsused with past
which have
already,after,just, never,yet,before,by,!y
the name of their founder and end in -s or -s,s lom,s
Caf6,Harrods,Baring,sBank)(but: the WhiteHorse(pub)
We usethe PastPerfectContinuous(hadbeen+
because"WhiteHorse,,
is not thenameof thefoundei)
o bed, church, college, court, hospital, prison,
. actionscontinuingovera periodup to
scirool,
a
universitywhen we refer to the purposefor which they
past.e.g. He had been watching TVfor
exist e.g. He goes to churcheverySunday.(but: We haveio
friendsarrived.
be at the church at two o,ctock fo see the Vicar.Work (=
o pastactionsof certaindurationwhich
hadvi
placeof work)nevertakes',the',.
e.gr.I haveto go to workniw.
the past. e.g. Theirshoes urerefuttof mud
o the words home,father/motherwhen
we talk aboutour
had beenptaying footbatt.
own home/parentse.g. Mumis homenow.
. meansof transport:by bus/by carlby
Timeexpressionsusedwith pastperfect
train/by plane,etc.
(but in the carnon the bus/train,etc.e.g. Shecameby bus.
since,howlong
but: Shewason the bus whenthe accidenthappenel.)
o We say: flu/the flu, measles/themeasles,
mumps/the I Blr G[illt il
/pR 0lil Btil 0]t/ABSrilGi
mumps (but: He's got pneumonia.)

suGlt- $0 ... iltnr

0f ilIGl$$til

We usemust (=haveto) to expressobligation.


study
hard or you'll failyour test.
sucha/anareusedbeforecountablenounsin thesingular.
We
use
mustn't (=aren'tallowedto) to express
e.g. lt was such a nice dress that t decided to buy it.
e.g.
You
mustn'ttell ties.
such is used before uncountablenouns or countable
We
use
needn't
(=don'thaveto, it,snot
nounsin the plural.e.g.lt was such bad weatherthatwe
absence
of
necessity.
e.g. you needn'twakeup
stayedin. Theywere such triendly people that we att felt
It's
Sunday.
sorryto seethemgo.
* Seepp. 113,114
so is used beforean adjectivewhich is not followedby a
Unit1gfor formation
of
noun.e.g. Ihe dresswasso beautitulthatt decidedto buy it.

UNIT 5

wru$Y
,?

. PASIPTRTTGT
PASIGOIIil]IUIIU$
-

PR$I$tiltPlt - PRSIG01til1tu0u$

PtRttGIG||]finutu$

seeUnit3 p. 102

SeeUnit3 (PastContinuous)
and Unit6 (past
PerfectContinuous).

r04

Bm:;*IrftrK
8

Expressionswith SAY,TELL

- [I GultEI0 - Pnt$tilr Gltililltuou$


useFutureSimple (will + bare infinitive)for:

SAY

say good morning/evening,


etc, say something,say
one'sprayers,saya fewwords,sayso, sayno more,
sayfor certain,sayfor sure,etc.

decisions
takenat the momentof speaking(onthe-spot
decisions).
e.g.I'm starving.
tthink t'tt makea sandwich.
TELL tell the truth,tell a lie,tell (sb)the time,tell sb one's
hopes,fears, threats, offers, promises, warnings,
name,tella story,tell sb a secret,tell sb the way,tell
predictions,
requests,comments,etc. especiallywith the
one from another,tell sb's fortune,tell sb so, tell the
following
verbs: expect, hope, believe, l'm sure, I'm
difference,
etc.
afraid,etc.e.g. I'm surehe will win the firstprize.
actions
or predictions
whichmayor maynot happenin the
ReportedStatements
future.
e.g.Wewill probablybuy a new car.
usebegoingto for:
planned
actionsor intentions.
e.g.l'm going to repaintthe
kitchennextmonth.
usePresentContinuousfor:
fixedarrangements
in the nearfuture.e.g.I am seeingmy
dentisttomorrow
evening'
Afterconjunctions
of timesuchas after,as, as soon as,
till/until,
when,whenevern
while,by the time,etc.,we
usea futureformor a conditional
tense.e.g. Whenshe
shewill tell us all about the concert.However,we can
when+ willif whenis usedas a questionword.e.g. When
hebeback?

slilrlltcl$ - ilPI r
present
simple,will/may/can+ bare infinitive
use1sttype conditionalsentences,for actionsthat are
tohappenin the presentor thefuture.e.g.If we wakeup
wewill catch the I o'clocktrain.Youmay borrow the car
promiseto be careful.
With1sttypeconditional
sentences,
we can use unless
verb (= if + negative).e.g. Youwill miss the bus
youwakeup early(= if you don't wakeup).

Reportedstatementsare usually introducedwith say


(that) or tell (that). e.g. "l am learningSpanish,"she sald.
+ Shesaid (that)shewaslearningSpanish.
Personalpronounsand possessiveadjectiveschange
accordingto context.e.g. "l met a lot of people at the
parly,"he said.-t He saidthathe had met a lot of people
at theparty.
Tenseschangein Reportedspeechas follows:
PresentSimple+ PastSimplee.g."Shemakesc/ofhes,"
he said. -t He said(that)she made clothes.
PresentContinuous+ Past Continuouse.g. "Sheis
makinga cake,"he said.+ He said(that)shewasmaking
a cake.
Past Simple/PresentPerfect + Past Perfecte.g. "She
madelhasmade a cake,"he sald. + He said (that) she
had madea cake.
FutureSimple+ would + bareinfinitivee.g."She'llmake
a cake,"he said.-t He said(that)shewould makea cake.
PastPerfectand PastPerfectContinuousdo not change
in ReportedSpeech.PastSimplechangesto PastPerfect
or remainsthe same. When the reoortedsentence
containsa time clause,the tensesof the time clausedo
not change.e.g. "l left whenit was gettingdark,"he said.
+ He said (that)he leftlhad left whenit was getting dark.
Tensesdo not changein Reported
Speechwhen:

$PTTGH
- Tell
isusedin directand reportedspeech.In reportedspeech,
followed
by a that- clause.e.g. "l won'tgo to Japan,"she
Shesaid that she wouldn'tgo to Japan.
is usedin reportedspeechand has to be followedby a
directobject(me,you, him,her,etc.)e.g. "l won'tgo to
" she sardto me. She told me (that) she wouldn'tgo to

thereporting
verb(said,told,etc.)is in the Present,
Future
Present
or
Perfect.e.g. "l've always enjoyedgoing for
long walkson the beach,"she says.+ Shesays thatshe's
alwaysenjoyedgoing for long walkson the beach.-generaltruths,permanent
the speakerexpresses
statesor
conditionse.g."February
the 14this Valentine's
Day,"he
said.-t He saidthatFebruarythe 14this Valentine's
Day.
the reported sentence deals with type 2llype 3
conditionals,
wishesor unrealpaste.g."OKboys,it'stime
you went to bed,"Mothersaid fo us. -t Mothertold us that
it wastime we went to bed.

r05

the speakeris reportingsomethingimmediatelyafter it


was said (up to date).e.g. "Thewateris verycold,"he
said.+ He saidthatthe wateris verycold.

Note: lf the speakerexpresses


somethingbelievedto be true,
the tenses may change or remainthe same. e.g.
"Cyclingis good exercise,"
he said.-t He saidcyctingis
good exercise.
o Time words can changeor remainthe samedepending
on thetimereference:

uNlT 10
TUIURTGOlIillIUOUS- IUIUHTPIT$TIII
We useFutureContinuous(will be + verb.ing)
.

actionsin progressat a statedfuturetime.e.g.


sailingoff the south coastnextweek.
o actionswhichwill be a routinein the future.
working at the office on Saturdayas usual.
We use FuturePerfect(will have + past

DirectSpeech
tonight,today,this
week/month/year,
now
yesterday,lastnight/
week/month/year,
tomorrow,nextweek/
month/year
two days/monthsi
years,etc.ago

ReportedSpeech
1
+
)
I

that night,thatday,that
weekimonth/year
then,at the time,at once,
immediately
thedaybefore,the previous
night/week/month/year
the followingday/theday
after,thefollowing/next
week/month/year
two days/monthsiyears,
etc.
before

e.g. "Heis leavingnext week,"she sald -t Shesaid(that)


he was leaving the following week. (out-of-date
reporting)'l visitedPam last week,"she sald. --+She
said (that) she vislted Pam last week (up-to-date
reporting)
ReportedQuestions
ReportedQuestionsare introducedwith ask, wonder,
want to know,etc.We useaffirmative
wordorderandthe
questionmarkbecomesa full stop.Invertedcommasare
omitted.
To reporta questionwe use: a) ask + question word
(who,where,which,when, how, etc.)when the direct
questionbeginswitha questionword.e.g."HowcanI ever
thankyou?" she asked. She asked how she could ever
thank me. and b) ask + iflwhether when the direct
questionbeginswithan auxiliary
verb(can,do, have,etc).
e.g. "Could you tell me how to open the cupboard?"he
asked. He asked if I could tell him how to open the
cupboard.
Tenses,personalpronouns,possessiveadjectives,
time
words,etc. changeas in statements.
e.g. "Whenare you
havingyour parly?"+ She wonderedwhen I washaving
my party."Canyou go to the supermarket
for me?',+ She
askedme if I could go to the supermarket
for her.

r06

actionsthat will havefinishedbeforea certain


future.e.g. Shewill have completedher

Note: by or not ... unti/till are usedwith


untiUtillare normallvusedwith Future
negativesentences.
e.g. He will have
by nert Monday.Jane won't havelearnt
Frenchuntil August.

l|ilKil{G WIRI|S
Wecanusealso,furthermore,
in addition,
well, what is more,etc.to linksimilarideas
more information.e.g. Computersare
tools.Moreover,theysavetimeandmoney.
We can use however,butnon the other
but, etc. to link opposingideas.e.g.
extremelyusefultools.On the other hand,
replacehumans.

f.}rtiil' ':t::
RrP[RIr[ G0ilMffi[$/Rroutsffi/
o To report commands,requestsand
specialintroductoryverb (e.9.warn,order,
suggest,etc.)followedby a to -infinitive,
an
a that - clausedependinq
on the
e.g. "Brushyourteethbeforeyougo to bed,'
-tThe dentistadvisedmeto brush
to bed.
"Keepmedicineoutof children's
reach,"
+ The doctor warned us to keep
children'sreach.
Note: To report direct commandswe
imperative.e.g. "Stoptalking,"the
teachertold us to stop talking."Don'tstep
saidthegardener.Thegardeneraskedus
fhe grass.

Erm:rrf;ffi
o reportnegativecommandsand requests,we usually
not +to-infinitive.
"Don'tgo near the cliff, it's dangerous!"the guide
said. The guide told us not to go near the cliff
becauseit wasdangerous.

Introductory
Verbs

Introductory
Verbs

1 "Yes,I'lltype the
lat'tarq

':

"

liil

I He agreed to type {:,


tha

. apologisefor

lal.tarc

----------'---------a-----'--*-----,------''

', "Shail
I make
coffee?"

1,He offeredto
, makecoffee.

-l.

shoot if I didn't
give him allmy
money.
+ 5b -t ii:' ',

"Youshou/dseea , He advisedme to
: doctor."
: see a doctor.

He apologisedfor i::ll
:iir
forgettinglhaving
forgotten to call it:
uti
::t:1

o complainto sb of : "l have a terrible


':
headache."

:::il

He complained to ,r:
i:t:
me of havinga
:ai/
terribleheadache. :i,
ita
'-i..l

i o suggest

I 'tef's go to the

: Hesuggested

i beach."

I going to the beach,a:

, called the police.

I . a"ny
I
I

. ..

:
i

.^rA6
agree r,r!'.t
+ ',lli:{

..;l:,;;,rr

::ai

.:::
':,:,
cattthe
He denied
t:a,l
1 I alan'1
i cailinglhaving :,::
1 police."
itil
| ,^ ^^.^^n
raotht
ru^r,,
,a,a
"Yes,i+'c
"Vac
it's ao really
it ,,,::,
; He agreed that
I
1,beautifulpainting." : was a beautiful
....
l

,, painting.
li1:l
'i
i "Youalwaysarrive He comptained
thatt atways
; Iate."
a,
I arrivedlate.
lil
I
I

I . compfain
1
I
o deny
"Ceasefire!"

"l'msorryIforgot
to callyou."

if
I

: "Of courseI'll write: He promisdto


I
: homeeveryday." I writehomeevery ;i
:
, )^,,
,,:

infinitivc

: breakinglhaving ill
. brokenthe vase. ,iilt

"l didn't stealthe


money."

He commanded

: He denied that he
: had stotenthe
I money.

::u:
iii

o promise

. suggest

"Of course I'll


come back."

,ta:.
rl,

; "You'dbetterquit I He suggested
, smoking."
, that I (should)quit

iu:
il::

rla:l
t:til

:.{lililiitU:ii:*:::

"Don't touch the


exhibits."

He warnedus not i1
to touchthe
r:l
il
exhibits.

rir*t:]1i:liuutilalli:llai,aut
::1il'ra:i::iL!:!::rt3'!*i:xl:rti,&;tsi*;,na."l:a

In conversationswe use a mixture of statements,


commandsand questions.When we turn them into
Reportedspeech,we use and, as, adding that, and
she/headdedthat, because,but, since,etc.
Wordsor expressions
suchas Oh!, Oh dear!,Well!,etc.
areomittedin Reoorted
soeech.
e.g. "Oh!Ihls is a nice watch,"he said.
"Howmuch does I cost?" + He said (that)it was a
nice watchand he askedhow much it cost. ("Oh" is
omitted,'and"is added.)

107

ftrnmmnr*nfsFGnEH
#iLllilaii;,1:u*i*it:li:leii;.inai::tt:t:*,ii!l-di*;tati.;tri:li:itlt.i:ii:ti::i:.:::titrll:::ail:u:iiiii:t:::::

uNtT 12
PASSIWUOIGT
o The passivevoiceis formedwiththe verb,,tobe,,in the
appropriate
tense+ the pastparticiple
of the mainverb.
Onlytransitive
verbs(verbswhichtakean object)can be
usedin the passive.
Forexample,
arrive anddie do not
havea passive
form.
We usethe oassive:
.

when the personwho performs/does


the action (the
agent) is unknown,unimportantor obviousfrom the
context.e.g. My pursewas stolen yesterday.(unknown
agent)
Theshoppingcentreis cleanedeveryday. (unimportant
agent)Therobberwas arested (by the potice).(obvious
agent)
. when we want to emphasisethe agent.e.g. Our hotiday
housewas built by my greatgrandfatherin 19g7.
. to makestatements
moreformalor morepolite.e.g. Ihe
weddingreceptionwill be held at g o,clockat the Town
Hall.
o whenthe actionis moreimportant
thanthe agent(as,for
example,in news reports,formalnotices,instructions,
headlines,advertisements
etc) e.g. Morethantwenty_five
peoplewere injured becauseof theearthquake.Thisbook
is a best seller;morethan1,000,000
copieshavebeen
sold.

With + instrument/material
is usedto saywhat
used,or afterpastparticiples
suchas coloured,
fifled, packedetc. e.g. Thecake was made
eggsand flour.Thedoor was opened(by the
a knife.
By + agent is omittedwhen the agentis
unlmportant,
obviousfromthe context,
or
words such as someone,peopte,t, you etc,
washingmachineshave been importedfromthe
Verbswhichtaketwo objects(give,offer,etc.)
two passiveforms.e.g. Someonegavehera
roses. + a) She was given a bouquetof roses,
bouquet of roses was given to her.
o ln passivevoice,the prepositionthat follows
(accuseof, speakto etc.)or a phrasal
verb
turnon etc.)is placedimmediatelv
aftertheverb
have pulled the old bridge down. -t The otd
been pulled down.

Let changesto be allowed to in the


Grandmaletus go to thebeach.-t Wewere
to the beach.

Questionsin the passivevoice

SimplePresent
make/makes
Present
Continuousam/is/aremaking
SimplePast
made
PastContinuous was/weremaking
Present
Per.fect
have/hasmade
Note: PresentPerfectContinuous,FutureContinuous PastPerfect
had made
and PastPerJect
Continuous
arenotnormally
used Future
will make
in the passive.ln colloquialEnglish,get is often Conditional
wouldmake
used instead of be to express something Modals
mustmake
happening
by accident.
e.g.He got promotedand
is now the departmentmanager.
Forquestions
in the passive,
we followthe
Changingfrom Activeto passive
for statements,
keepingin mindthattheverbisin
rogativeform.e.g.Havetheypulteddowntheotd
r Theobjectof the activeverbbecomesthe subiectin the
+ Has the old cinema been pulleddown(by
passrve
sentence.
o Theactiveverbchangesintoa passive
Whenthe questionis a "whoquestion,'
form.
we
o Thesubjectof the activeverbbecomesthe agent
"by",becausethe agentis not knownandwe
and is
-. eitherintroduced
the questionin orderto find out whothis
with"bv" or is omitted.
Whopostedthe letters?-tWho weretheletters
(Subject) (Verb) (Object)
Whorepairedmy bicycle?+Who wasmy bicycle
e.g. They
make
cals in thisfactory.
by?

AS - lil(t
Cars
are made (by them)in thisfactory.
(Subject) (Verb) (by + agent)
.

108

By + agentis usedto saywho or whatdid theaction,


e.g. Thelittleboy was sayedby the lifeguard.

We uselike
-ing formto express
withnouns/pronouns/
e.g.He workslikea slave.(He isn'ta slave.)
withfeel, look, smell,tastee.g.tt tookslikea

Enrnrlrfuw
Weuseas
to say what somebodyor somethingreallyis e.g. She
worksas a productionmanagerfor a film company.(Shers
aproductionmanager.)

wt$HI$
Wish + subject + past tense is usedto expresswish/
regretabouta presentsituation.
e.g. lwish I knew hisphonenumber.(l'm sorryI don't
know hisphonenumber.)
I wish I lived near fhe seaslde.(l'm sorry I don't live
nearthe seasrde.)
(Butlam not.)
lwish lwere a millionaire.

{3
passive
formof modalverbs(e.9.can,could,may,might,
etc.)isformedwiththeverbto be whichtakesthetenseof
mainverbin the activevoice,and the past participleof the
verb.e.g.He mustsendthe parcels.The parcelsrnust be
Theycouldn'trepairthe car. Thecar couldnl be repaired.

Note: We can usewere insteadof was in all persons.


Wish + subject + past perfect is usedto expressregret
abouta past situation(something
thathappenedor didn't
happenin the past.)
e.g. lwish I had calledhim sooner.(l'm sorryI didn't call
him sooner.)
I wish I hadn't behaved so rudely. (l'm sorry I
behavedso rudely.)

alsoUnit12

lT 14
$tltftltGt$ - ilpt 2

2 conditional
sentencesreferto the presentor future.The
tensein the if -clauseexpressesunrealthingsor things
to happen.Type2 conditionalsentencescan also be
to giveadvice.
If we had a car, we would drive to Paris.(But we don't
havea car. Here,we referto the present.)
lf someonetried to kidnapme, I would inform thepolice.
(ButI don't expectthatanyonewill try to kidnapme. Here,
wereferto the future.)
If lwere you, I would call the doctorimmediately.
(Here,we are givingadvice.)
Wecan usewere insteadof was in all persons.

til01tA1$IltftltGl$ - IYPI 3

Note: lf only can be usedin exactlythe sameway.lt has


thesamemeaningas wish butis moredramaticor
moreemohatic.
e.g. If only I knew hisphonenumber!
If only Ihad called him sooner!

UNIT 15
iltt lltfNtilu[ Alilt rHI -tltc fltRM
We usethe to - infinitive:
.
o
o
o

3 conditionalsentencesreferto the past and describe


that neverhappened.They are used to talk about
situationcontraryto the facts,in the past.
It I had known that you were coming, I would have met
youat the station.(ButI didn'tknowthatyou werecoming,
so I didn't meetyou at the station).
3 conditional
sentencesare alsousedto expressregrets

criticism.
lf we had woken up earlier,we wouldn't havenrissedfhe
plane.
lf you had followedmy directions,you would havefound
thehouse.

to expresspurposee.g. She went to the bakeryto buy


somebread.
afterwould love,would like,would prefere.g.I'd loveto
go to Paris.
glad, difficult, happy,sorry etc.
aftercertainadjectives:
glad
e.g. Wewere
to meet themagainafterso manyyears.
after certainverbs: advise, agree, appear, decide,
expect, hope, learn, manage,otfer, promise, refuse,
seem,teach,want, etc.e.g. Shemanagedto catch the
trainon time.Wepromisedto write homeeveryday.
in the expressions:
to tell you the truth,to beginwith, to
be honest,to start with, to sum up, etc.e.g. To tell you
the truth, I don't like vanillaice-cream.

We usethe infinitivewithoutto:
o aftermodalverbs:can, couldnmaynmight,will, would,
must etc. e.g. I must see the doctor immediately.Can I
open the window?
o afterfeel, hear, make, let etc. e.g. "l will let you go to the
partyif you promiseto be back by 10.30"Mothersaid.

r0g

Errn:rr f,;hrmcr
We usethe -ing form:

ffi#ffh#ffiW
$ #,'$

o as a noune.g. Playing chessis veryexciting.


o afterfove,like,dislike,hate,enjoy,prefer,eIc.
e.g.I hate OUTSIIII]ITAG$
cooking dinner. I enjoy working in the garden.
r afterprepositionse.g. He teft withouttaking hisumbretta.
r Questiontags areshortquestionsaddedtoan
o aftercertainverbs:avoid, admit, fancy, finish, forgive,
or negativestatement.They are used
imagine,keep 1=sentinue),
confirmation
or agreement.
mind (=e!lsct to), regret,
suggest, etc. e.g. He suggesfedvisiting the modernart
museum. Theykept dancing untitthe ctock strucktwelve.
Intonation
o after the expressions:
I'm busy, it,s no use, it's (not)
isquitesurethatwhathe/she
is
worth,what'sthe use of, can't help,can,tstand,there,s Whenthespeaker
the questiontag is
no point (in),look forwardto, whatabout...?how about is askingfor confirmation,
e.g. He comesfrom portugal,doesn't
...?, etc. e.g. lt's no use trying to repair thatbicycte.We intonation.
speaker
doesn't
needinformation
andjustwaffi
had a greattime and we're tookingforuvardto seeingyou
what he/sheis saying,the questionstag is said
againsoon.
intonation.
e.g.Youdidn'tseenim,!j9!wu'l
Note:certainverbsmay be followedby eitherthe to-infinitive
e Questiontags are formedwith an auxiliarv
or the -ing form. In thiscase,however,
thereis a changein
meaning.
appropnatepersonalpronoun.Thev take
auxiliaryas in the statement,if thereis one,or
o FORGET
do/does(Present
Simpte)or did (pastSimple).
e.g.You
couldn't
understand
her, couldvou?
= not remembere.g.rm sorrytforgot
forget+ to-infinitive
He livesin Oxford,doesn'the?
to turn the lightsoff.
Shewent to the baltet,didn,t she?
forget + -ing form = forgeta past evente.g. I will never
o After affirmative statements we use a
forget winning the firstprize.
interrogative
tag. e.g. They are clever,arent
bought a new car, didn't she?
. REMEMBER
o Afternegativestatements
we usean ordinary
remember+ to-infinitive
tag. e.g. You haven't been to Newyork,
= rememberto do something
isn't coming with us,is he?
e.g. He rememberedto turn oft the gas.
-ing
Note:
=
remember+
Let'shasthetagshallwe?e.g.Let'swatcha
form recalla past evente.g. I don't
remember visiting the zoo.
Let me/himetc hasthetag willyou/won't
e.g.Let himhetpyou,wiil you?
. TRY
I have (=possess)hasthetag haven'tl?
e.g.She hasa pet, hasn'tshe?
= do one,sbest,attempte.g.Theclimbers
try + to-infinitive
I have (usedidiomaticaily)
hasthetag
tried to reachthemountainpeakbut theycoutdn,t.
e.g. He had dinne4didn't he?
try + -ingform = do somethingas an experimente.g.Why
This/Thatis hasthe tag isn't it?
don't you try adding sometomato sauce?lt might taste
e.g. That'syour car, isn,tit?
better.
I am hasthetag aren'tl?
e.g.
I am smart,aren't l?
. STOP
Negativeimperativehasthetagwillyou?
e.g. Don't disturbhim, will you?
= stopfor a whilein orderto do some_
stop + to-infinitive
thing else.e.g. Thesfudentsstopped to havea break.
stop + -ing form = finish,end e.g. Whenthe president Rlfltxtu P[0lt0u]t$
camein everybodystopped talking.
o REGRET
regret+ to-infinitive= be sorrye.g. I regret to inform you
that we cannotacceptyourapptication.
regret + -ing form = have second thoughtsabout
somethingthatone hasalreadydone.e.g.I regrettatking
to her so rudely.

ll0

Err:nrtrfi*m
pronouns
areusedas obiectsof theverbwhenthe
of theverbreturnsto the personwho doesit.
lburned myself while I was ironing. "You'retoo young to
startshavingyourself," saidDad to Tommy.

t7

thepluralof a noun,we usuallyadd -s to thesingular:


-rcats,day + days,chair-r chairs
Nouns
endingin -o, -ch,-sh,-ss,or -x added-es:
tomato-, tomatoes,church + churches, brush +
brushes,
kiss+ kisses,box + boxes
- kilos
BUT: kilo
-+
kimono kimonos
photo -+ photos
piano -+ pianos
nouns
endingin consonant+ -y dropthe-y andadd-ies:
+
baby babies,country-r countries,lady+ 166;sg
endingin vowel+ -y add -s:
-r boys,donkey-r donkeys
endingin -f or -fe dropthef or fe and add -ves:
+ calves life --+lives
shelf+ shelves
+ halves loaf -r loaves
thief + thieves
-r knives self + selves
wife + wives
-r leaves sheaf + sheaves wolf -r wolves
: hoof,scarf,wharf,add either-s or -ves in the olural:
- hoofs/hooves,
scarf+ scarfs/scarves
nounsendingin -f or -fe add -s:
+ clitfs, handkerchief+ handkerchiefs,b elief -r
roof+ roofs
plurals:
-f men
+ women
+ children
+ feet
-, geese
-r lice

Somenounsof Greekor Latinoriginform their plurals


according
to the rulesof Greekor Latin:
+ crises
crisis
datum -+ data
+ bases
basis
terminus+ termini
+ phenomena medium -+ media
phenomenon

mouse --+mice
tooth +teeth
+oxen
ox
deer + deer
sheep + sheep

nounsarealwayspluralandtakea pluralverb:
police,trousers,pyjamas,binoculars,scales,
spectacles,arms (weapons),
damages(comgreens(vegetables),
earnings,
grounds,outsavings,
stairs,surroundings,
valuables,etc.

Compound
nounsnormally
add -s to the lastword:
boyfriend+ boyfriends (noun+ noun)
travelagent--+travelagents (noun+ noun)
fryingpan -r frying pans (adjective+ noun)
BUT they add -s to the firstword,whenthe compound
nounis composed
of noun+ preposition
(+ noun):
+ mothers-in-law
mother-in-law
passer-by+ passers-by

GIAU$T$IIf RTA$IITI
A]III RTSU1I
Clauses of reason are introduced by: ?s, since
(=because),
because,for 1=5aa"rra,.
e.g. Theytravelledby trainbecauseit was cheaper.
Wecampednearthe lakeas it was safer.
Whenthe clauseof reasonprecedes
the mainclause,we
separatethe two clauseswitha comma.
e.g. Srnceshe isnt coming, we'll go to the party without
her.
Reasoncan alsobe expressed
with:
BecauseoflDueto + noun/-ingform
e.g. Due to the fog, all planedepartureshavebeen cancetted.
or with: Due to the fact/Becauseof the fact + that clause
e.g. Due to the fact that there was fog, alt ptane departures
werecancelled.
o Clausesof resultare introducedby: such + adjective+
noun
e.g. lt wassuch a boring lecturethat we almostfett asteep.
I've nevermet such interesting peoptebefore.
OR so + adjective/adverb
e.g. Thelecturewasso boring thatwe almostfett asteep.
Sheurasrunningso quickly that shetrippedand fett.

I00 - fiiltuGtl
too + adjective/adverb
(negative
meaning)

He'stoo tiredto go out.


(He'sso tiredthathe can't go
ou0

adjectiveladverb+ enough
(positive
meaning)

Herstall enoughto reachthe


shelf.
(He'sso tallthathe can reach
theshelf.)

lll

Br*mxrr f,rlirrnffi
1i]]
fi.$rufrT

NOTE:enough can be followedby nouns.e.g. He's got


enoughmoneyto buy a car.

G[UltrABlt-UltG0UltrABl[1t0u1t$

Alt - WHlllI - Blllll - IIIITHIR- lllllll

o
All refersto morethantwo peopleor things.lt hasa positive
meaningand takesa verbin the plural.e.g. Allthe students
took part in the schoolperformance.All of them workedvery
hard. Theywereall very satisfied.
a

We
Whole (=complete)is used with singularcountables.
alwaysuse a, the, this, my etc. + whole + countablesfhe
wholeday : all thedaylallday (But:a//themoneynolthe whole
money)

a
a
a

Both refersto two peopleor things.lt hasa positivemeaning


and takesa verbin the plural.lt is the oppositeof neither/not
either.e.g. Sallyand Lauraare twelve.Both Sallyand Lauraare
tvvelve.Theyare both twelve. Both of them are twelve.

a
a

Nonerefersto morethantwopeopleor things.lt hasa negative


meaningand isn'tfollowedby a noun.Noneof can be used
withnouns,his,them etc.followedby a verbeitherin thesingularor plural.lt is theoppositeof all.e.g.Sally,
LauraandAnn
haven'tbeen to Rome.Noneof them havelhasbeen in Rome.

Countablenouns are thosethat can be


pen,two pens,etc).
Uncountablenouns are thosethat cannotbe
(paper,bread,etc).Uncountable
nounstakea
verband arenotusedwitha/an.Theseare:
mass nouns (e.9.beer,blood,bread,butter,flour,
subjects of study (e.9. physics,economics,
literature.etc.\
languages(e.9.Chinese,French,Spanrsh,
etc,)
sports (e.9.basketball,hockey,darts,football,
diseases (e.9.chickenpox,measles,mumps,elc.)
naturafphenomena(e.9.sunlight,
fog,gravrty,
hail,
(e.9.
certain nouns
accommodation,advice,
assistance,behaviour,buslness,chaos,
courage, dirt, education, evidence,
information, intelligence, luck, music, news,
progress,seasrde,shopping,traffic,trouble,truth,
etc.)
coflective nouns (e.9. baggage,crockery,
niture,jewellery,luggage,machinery,money,
Manyuncountable
nounscanbe made
of advice/cake/information/paper/news;
a
beer/wine/water;
a jar of jam; a rasherof bacon;
beer;a box/sheetof paper;a packetof tea;a
of bread;a kilo of meat;a tube of toothpaste;
soap/chocolate;
a lump of sugar;a pair of
game of soccer;a can of beans/soda,
a tin
bag/cupof flouretc.

Neither(= not one and notthe other)is usedbeforesingular


Theyreferto twopeopleor things.Neitherof takes
countables.
a verbeitherin the singularor plural.e.g.Paulhasn'tgot any
money. Tom hasn'tgot any money either. Neither of them
havelhasgot anymoney.

$ ffi
&#&$&Y

Some.Any-No

- GIAUSISOf PURPO$T
PURPO$T

Aflirmatlve
Purposecan be expressedby:

Adjectives
people

the infinitive
alonee.g.l'll call Maryto inviteher to dinner.
He went to italy to study architecture.They built a
park to protect the animals.
reservation
so that+ will/can/would/could
Will and Can are used when the main verb is in the
Present
Simole.PresentPerfect
or Futuretenseand have
a oresentor futurereference.
Would and Could are usedwhenthe mainverb is in a
pasttenseand havea pastreference.
e.g. I will go to ltalyso that I can studyarchitecture.
I have lit a candleso that we'll find our wayout.
I went to ltalyso fhat I could studyarchitecture.
I lit a candleso that we would find our wavout.

things

someone/ I something
somebody

Pronouns

i,l-gf:lY::
I

people

I things

I any
l
i . -.. --,*, -.. -.,-..--, -". . .- ,.. "." .

112

Pronouns

anyone/ r anything
anybody

*tmHffim
Negative

. $UPTRIIIIUIIIEITI
GOTIPAIAIIUT
We usethe comparativeto compareone personor thingwith
another.e.g.Sheis taller thanme. We usethe superlativeto
compareone personor thingwithmorethanone of the same
group. e.g. She is fhe tallest in the team.We often use than
aftera comparative.
e.g. He'sfasterthanJim.We normallyuse
the beforea superlative.
Aftersuperlatives,
we use in. We can
useof beforeplurals.e.g.He rs fhe fastestrunnerin the team.
He is the fastest of hisfriends.

Some is used beforecountableor uncountable


nouns.
e.g. I boughf sorne apples.He askedfor some advice.
Someandits compounds(someone,
something,
etc)are
normallyused in positivesentences.
They can also be
usedin questionsto makean offer,a requestor wnenwe
expecta positiveanswer.e.g. There'ssomeoneat the
door. (positive)Wouldyou like something to eat? (offer)
Can I have something to drink? (equest) ls there
someone in the kitchen?(l expectthere is.)but: ls there
anyonein the kitchen?(l'm askingin general.)

NOTE:thatclever,common,cruel,friendly,gentle,narrow,
pleasant,polite, shallow,simple, stupid, quiet form their
comparative
and superlative
formswith-erl-estor more/most.
e.g. clever- cleverer- cleverestALSOc/ever- more clever most clever.
Spelling
o One-syllable adjectivesending in a vowel + a
consonant double the consonant.e.g. big - bigger _
brggest

Any is usedbeforecountableor uncountable


nouns.e.g.
o Two-syllableadjectivesending in a consonant + _y,
Are thereany pearsleft?Is thereany juice in the fridge?
replace -y with -ie. e.g. tidy _ tidier_ tidiest(but: grey _
Any and its compounds (anyone,anything,etc) are
greyer- greyest)
normallyused in questions.e.g. ls thereanythingt can
do?Theycanalsobe usedin positivesentences
meaning Formation
"lt doesn'tmatterhow/what/when/where/which/who,'.
e.o.
o one-syllableadjectivesadd -(e)r / '(e)st to form their
you can takeanybodywithyou.Any and its
and superlative
forms.e-g'tall- taller(than)"orpouio"s
canbe usedafterif in a positivesentence.
g "tiyoi
-' -'e'
i"t
r -- '-"
:.Tparative
the
(of
tallest lin), close closer(than)- the closest(oflin)
"
anyone,t,ttbe angry.
o Two-syllable
adjectives
endingin -ly, -y, -w alsoadd
No/not any can be used before countable and
-er / -est e.g. tiny- tinier (than)- the tiniest(oflin)
uncountable
nouns.e.g. Thereare no carson the street.
o Adjectivesof two or moresyllablestake more/moste.g.
There'sno oxygen in space. No/not any and their
creative- more creative(than)- the most creative(oflin)
compounds(no one/notanyone,nothing/not
anything,
r Adverbshavingthe sameformas theiradjectives
add -erl
etc)are used in negations.e.g. There'sno one in the
-est e.g. hard - harder- the hardest
(=
building. Thereisn't anyonein the building.)Any and
its compounds are used with negativewords (hardly,
r two-syllable
or compoundadverbstake more/moste.g.
never,without,seldom,rarely,etc.)e.g.She seldomtatks
efficiently- more efficiently- the most efficienily
toanyone.(not: Sheseldomtalksto no one.)

- IrtfftY

good - better- best


bad - worse- worst
much- more- most

manylalotof - more- most


little- less- least
- farthest/furthest
far - farther/further

much is an adjectiveand is used beforeuncountable


nouns.e.g. Wehaven'tmuch milk in the fridge.
manyis an adjectiveand is usedbeforecountablenouns.
lrregularForms
e-9.Therearen'tmany orangesin the fridge.
Typesof Comparisons
and MANYare usuallyusedwith negativeverbs.With
verbs,many is precededby a good/a great and
or manyby so/as/too.
Ihavewona great manyprizes.Sheeafstoo much bread.
Therewereso many carsthatwe couldn'tmove.

o as... (positivedegree)... as
e.g.He is as fal/as hisbrother.
not so/as ... (positivedegree)... as
e.g. Shersnt as fasfas Sa//y.
o prefer + -ing form / noun + to + -ing form/noun
e.g. He preferswinterto summer.

lr3

*rnmxrr Hffirrxnr
o would prefer + to -inf + ratherthan + inf. withoutto
e.g. l'd preferto watchTVratherthan go out.
o would rather + inf. withoutto + than + inf. withoutto
e.g. I'd rathergo swimmingthan play tennis.
r less ... (positivedegree)...than
e.g. I haveless freetimenow thanI had lastweek.
the least...(positivedegree)... of/in
e.g. He is the least hard workingof all.

up in thisarea!(l'm sureshe hasn'tlosther way.)


We use must + perfectinfinitiveto makea
verypossiblethathappened
to talkaboutsomething
past.e.g. Shemusf have rnissedthe trainas she's
on time.(l'm sureshe has mlssedthe train.)

ffis
wru&Y
P[[IIGIPlTS

gffi
fi,rsfiHT
MAKilG[flrUSIl0ll$
Forms of the infinitive

Presentinfinitive
Present
continuous
infinitive
Perfectinfinitive
Perfect
continuous
infinitive

Active

Passive

to do
to be doing

to be done

to havedone
to havebeen
doing

to havebeendone

o Presentparticiples(the infinitiveof the verb +


is.
describe
whatsomebodyor something
e.g. He is a very amusing person.Thepertormance
fascinating.
o Past participles(the infinitiveof the verb +ed/d or
irregularpast participleform) describehow
feels. e.g. We were amused by his jokes. We
fascinatedby the pertormance.

PRTITRTT{GTS
T'IPRT$$ITIG
would rather = I'd prefer
o whenthe subjectof would ratheris alsothe subject
verb:
followino

+ Presentbare infinitive
We usemay/might/could+ presentinfinitiveto express
(present/future
reference)
possibility
that is trueat the momentof
aboutsomething
e.g.
She'd
rather
stayin thango outfor
speaking,
or willhappenin thefuture.e.g.Tommay pass
dinner.
he will
hisdrivingtesfthis time.(ltis possib/ethatlPerhaps
I'd rather
pass hls drivingtest.)
+ Perfectbare infinitive(pastreference)
+ presentinfinitiveto express
We usemay/might/could
e.g. He'd ratherhave gone to Boston
possibility
thathappenedin the past.
aboutsomething
to Seattle.
e.g. She looks miserable.She may have lost her job.
(Perhaps
she has lostheriob.) WherewasJanetyesterday? o whenthe subjectof would ratheris differentfromthe
I don't know. Shemight have gone shopping.(Perhaps
verb:
of thefollowing
shewentshopping.)
We usecould + perfectinfinitiveto talkaboutsomething
+ PastSimple (present/future
reference)
whichwaspossiblebutdidn'tactuallyhappen.
e.g. I'd ratheryoudid the washing-up
e.g. lt's a miracleyou are alive! You could have been
I'd rather
killed. (Luckily,you weren't.)
+ Past Perfect (pastreference)
We use can't/couldn't+ presentinfinitiveto talkabout
e.g. l'd ratherwe had visitedthem
impossible
to be true.
thatis logically
something
e.g. She can't be a lifeguard.She hafesswimming!(l'm
prefer + gerund/noun+ to + gerund/noun
sureshe rs not a lifeguard.)
preference)e.g. I preferlisteningto the radioto
We usemust + presentinfinitiveto talkaboutsomething
TV.I preferfish to meat.
that is logicallypossibleto be true.e.g. He mustbe very
o prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare
angry.He hasn'tstoppedshoutingsincehe arrived.(l'm
(generalpreference)
e.g.She prefersto stayhome
surehe is angry.)
than go out.
NOTE:can't,in thiscase,is the oppositeof must.e.g./f
o would prefer + full infinitive + rather than +
can't be true! lt must be a lie. (l'm sure ft's not true! l'm
infinitive (specificpreference)
e.g. I would preferto
sure it'sa lie.)
sailingrather than go skiing.
We use can't/couldn't + perfect infinitive to make a
o would rather + bare infinitive + than + bare
in the
negative
thathappened
deduction
aboutsomething
e.g. I wouldrathervisit the museumthan go to the
past.e.g. Shecan't have lost her way!Afterall, shegrew

ll4

SrumHilrm
lIG PII$IIIUTORIITGAIIUT
IIiltilr
Weuseso witha similarmeaningto "also"to agreewitha
positivestatement:
so + auxiliary+ verb + subject
e.g. - I love Chinesefood.
- Sodol.
- I had a greattimeat the party lastnight.
- So dld l.
We use neitherand nor witha similarmeaningto "also
not"to agreewitha negativestatement:
neither/nor+ auxiliary+ subject
e.g. - I don't like vanillaice-cream.
- Neitherdo l.
- I won'tgo to thepafi becauseI'm tired.
- Nor will L

tT 22
T[RilI
Weuse have + object + past participleto say that we
arrange
for someoneto do something
for us.
e.g.Tomhired a builder to build a shed. + Tom had a
shedbuilt. (He didn't do it himself- the builder did it.)
Theorderof words (i.e.have + object+ past participle)
mustnot be changedbecauseif it does,the meaningof
thesentencewill be changed.e.g.He had his car
repaired.= He employedsomeoneto repairhis car.but:
Hehadrepairedhis car = He (himself)repairedhis car.
Thenegativeand intenogativeof the presentand past
tenses
are formedwith do. e.g. I havemy housecleaned
everyweek. -t Do you have your house cleaned every
+ I don't havemy house cleanedeveryweek.
hadmy chimneyswept. -t Did you haveyour chimney
swept?+ I didn't havemy chimney swept.
Simple
hisroom.
Continuous
cleaninghisroom.
hisroom.

He has his room cleaned.

Heis havinghisroomcleaned.

-t He had hisroomcleaned.

cleaninghisroom. -t He washaving hisroom


cleaned.
Simple
cleanhisroom.
He will have hisroom
cleaned.
Perfect
cleanedhisroom. + He has had hisroom
cleaned.
cleanhisroom.

He must have hisroom

cteaned.

I lb

Verbs
lrregulur
Past

brought
built
burnt(burnedl
burst
bought
(beenableto)
caught
chosen
come

Put
readlri:.dl
ride
rlng
rlse
run
say
see
seek

bore
beat
oecame
began
bit
blew
broke
brought
built
burnt (burned)
burst
bought
could
caught
chose
came
COSI

COSI

CUI

cut
dealt

cut
dealt

oug
did
dreamt (dreamed)
drank
orove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flew
forbade
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave
went
grew
hung (hanged)
had
heard
hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
Knew
laid
led
learnt (learned)
left
lent
let

dug
oone
dreamt (dreamed)
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
{lown
forbidden
forgotten
forgiven
troien
got

deal
dig
do
dream
drink
drive
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
flee
fly
forbid
forget
forgive
lreeze
get
gtve
go
grow
nang
nave
hear
hide
hit
hold
hurt
Keep
lay
lead
learn
leaVe
lend
let

il0

lie
light
tose
maKe
mean
meel
pay

WAS

oear
beat
become
begin
bite
blow
break
bring
build
burn
burst
buy
can
catch
choose
come
cost

KNOW

11n

oeen
born(e)
beaten
Decome
oegun
bitten
blown
broken

l'ta

tiuen
gone
tro*n
fiung (hanged)
had
heard
hidden

hit
held
hurt
kept
KNOWN

laid
led
learnt (learned)
left
lent
let

sell
seno
set
":*
shake
snrne
shoot
snow
shut
slng
sit
sleep
smell
sPeak
sPell
sPend
sPlit
sPread
sPrlng
stand
steal
stick
sting
stink
strike
swear
sweeP
swlm

take
teach
tear
tell
think
throw
understand
wake
wear
wtn
write

tay
tit
lost
maoe
meant
met
paid
put
readlredl
rooe
rang
rose
ran
said
SAW

sought
sold
sent
set
sewed
shook
shone
shot
showed
shut
sang
sat
slept
smelt(smelled)
spoke
spelt(spelled)
spent
split
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stung
stank(stunk)
struck

lain
lit
lost
maoe
meant
met
paid
put

read/red/
ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
sewn
shaken
shone
shot
snown
shut
sung
sat
slept
smelt

spoken
spelt
spent
split
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
srung
stunk
struck

SWOTE

SWOTN

swept
swam
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
understood
woke
wore
won

swepr
swum
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown

WTOIE

woken
worn
won
written

tnril til*t
go with
golden
gym
helpful
high-heeled
shoes
hooked
horoscope
horrorfilm
however
I hopeso
imaginative
immature
include
intelligent
jacket
join
kind
lazy
leadingrole
leggings
lipswithdown-turning
corners
loyal
male
match
mean
middle-aged
neatly
on the otherhand
opinion
outgoing
oval
overalls
participate(in)
perfect
permanentstate
personality
physicalappearance
plump
polo-neck
popularity
positive
quicktempered
raider
rather
reception
reserved
responsible
rude
scarf
scene

scheduled
action
sciencefictionstory
secretive
self-centred
self-confident
selfish
sensitive
shape
share
shiny
shoota scene
shoulder-length
shy
silky
similarqualities
slim
stubborn
subject
successful
suit(n)
suit (v)
T-shirt
takea lookat sb/sth
temporary
situation
tend (to)
thought
tidy
tie
timetable
tracksuit
trainers
treasure
trip
trust
try on
unreliable
upper
upturned
V-neckjumper
waistcoat
wavy
wedding
well-built
wide
wordsof wisdom

Unit2
abroad
act
actually

add

adverbsof frequency
Alsatian
appearance
architecture
article
as wellas
auxiliary
verb
\
bark
battle
be willingto
belief
bore
brightstar
carpet
carry
characteristic
closeto
collection
comment
company
complexion
complicated
conclusion
countryside
create
creative
currently
daily
danger
destroy
down-to-earth
environmentally{riendly
everyday
excite
expect
extremely
fall in lovewith sb
famousfor
fashionshow
fattening
feature
figure
findout
form
freetime
gardening
get sb intotrouble
glamour
handsome
hardlyany

111

tmt *f*I
hardlyever
harm
heading
nuge
important
in the publiceye
information
interest
interview
introduction
justification
lawyer
leada (happy,busy,etc)
life
lifestyle
look after
lookfor
to sth/doing
sth
lookforward
lookup
looks
machine
mainbody
mainverb
medal
mermaid
naturalbeauty
nature
occasionally
outstanding
overcome
patient
pay attentionto
pleasure
popular(with)
porter
possession
pottery
private
rarely
relativepronouns
relaxed
remain
reporter
rest
reveal
' romantic
routine
sensible
showoff
snyness
side
sin
sincere
sink

118

sit in the shadows


slender
sort
speakone'smind
star(in)
starta family
straight
strongview
stunning
succeedin
SUCCESS

suitcase
talent
tanned
terror
the crowds
the environment
typical
uncomfortable
underneath
vacuumcleaner
vampire
waitfor
wonoer
wrinkle

Unit3
a bit
accommodation
amazing
ancient
ArchaeologicalMuseum
blow
Dreeze
bullfight
cake
calm
camp-site
Cathedral
cave
chase
cheerful
concert
cool
covered with
crowded
definitetime
delicious
delighted
depressed
dessert
directions
disgusting

enjoyable
especially
excellent
excited
exotic
experience
explore
extract
fabulous
fascinating
ferry
filthy
fishcurry
fold
freezing
go on
gorgeous
greetings
guest-house
havefun
holidayresort
horrible
impression
incredible
interrupt
joyful
light
lightup (lit- lit)
lightning
localpeople
lousy
luckily
magnificent
mango
map
marvellous
mention
miserable
moody
NationalPark
open-air
organise
paella
palace
personalexperience
persuade
pineapple
pourwithrain
put on weight
recent
refreshed
rhino
sandybeach
scared(of sb/sth

scuba-dive
service
shower
sights
sightseeing
slip
slope
snail
snowman
stadium
statement
stickyweather
stormy
sunbathe
sunshine
take pictures
take place
tan
taste
temple
terrible
Thatsoundggreat
the earlyhours
town centre
traditional
twistone'sankle
underline
underwater
uneasy
unfortunately
unfriendly
unpack
visibleresult
wallz
wildanimal

Unit 4
a shortdriveaway
appointment
atmosphere
attraction
be surrounded
by
bridge
by chance
cablecar
car exhaustfumes
car park
carryon
century
certainly
chalet
chemist's
chirping

ilm* tl$
PacificOcean
palmtree
paradise
peace
peaceful
perform
petrol
pickup
picturesque
post office
recently
recommend
referto sb/sth
relaxing
roll
Romanbaths
route
run after
run intosb
runout of
runover
rustling
salty
scenery
SENSE

holiday
of a
lifetime
timeof one'slife

adviseyouto
parlour
of sb/sth

shade
shakehandswithsb
sight
skyscraper
smell
snorkelling
soil
southwestern
souvenir
stale
station
statue
steep
straw
stream
suitablefor
sunset
suntanoil
tale
tasteless
themepark
tiny
turning
watersports
wave
wet
windsurfing
youcan'tmissit

Unit5
admire
aim at (sb/sth)
alien
alongwith
ambulance
annoyed
anxiously
appear
approach
as blackas night
avoid
background
description
basedon
bay
be involvedin
behaviour
bitterlycold
boom
bored
bother
branch
bubble
cage
cliff
cloudless
cover
cry
cut
dentist
desperately
dig
disc
doorbell
duration
edge
embarrassed
event
examroom
faint
fire
fist
flashof lightning
flashinglights
footsteps
fur
furious
gasp
gentle
glad
grab
growwide
havea bath

his facewent red


hiss
holdon to sb/sth
hole
horror
icy
in progress
junglefloor
justify
knee
land
lively
loseone'sbalance
lower
midnight
monster
moonless
narrow
neryous
notice
pale
path
pebbly
pinetree
pleased
pool
pourdown
professor
python
rainheavily
raincoat
raindrop
raise
realise
relatedto
relief
repetition
rocky
rough
row
safe
sail
sails
scar
scent
scream
set the scene
shake
shape
shine
shiver
shocked
sigh

silen

ltg

ilt*r$ tlmt
silver
similar
siren
snowy
soakedto the skin
spaceship
stare (at)
stiff
strangely
stranger
streetlamp
supper
surprised
sweaty
tap
tear
tear (tore- torn)
terrified
thrilled
thunder
title
tree-covered
tremble
turn (a)round
vanous
version
view
weakly
whisper
wideopen
wind (wound- wound)

Unit6
absenceof necessity
alligator
angry-looking
as a result
attack
back
be aboutto do sth
be fastasleep
beak
bend(bent- bent)
block
boring
bracelet
breakthrough
bush
camera
certain
circle
circus
claw

120

climate
companson
confused
continent
oangerous
oegree
dinosaur
disappear
disturb
dive
wrong
do something
dressedin
dustcloud
earth
echo
enormous
entertaining
entrance
ticket
entry
wentblack
everything
except
exhibit
experiment
fadeaway
feature
feed
feel (felt- felt)
finger
foot
for (quite)a longtime
freeze(froze- frozen)
fun
funfair
giant
giraffe
gradually
ground
growling
grunting
guest
guidebook
habitat
harmless
havea headache
height
hide
hitl
hippo
hit (hit- hio
identify
in fear
In groups
jaw

land
light
lighter
lizard
mean(meant- meant)
meat-eating
medium
memory
meteorite
million
missing
movearound
museumguide
neck
notebook
obligation
openarea
out of the way
pick
picksb/sthup
pile
pocket
poisonous
practise
prehistoric
prohibition
pterodactyl
push
reachour destination
riseup (rose- risen)
roar
saveup
seal
shadow
sharp
sign
size
SNAKE

space
spear
spider
starta fire
starve
stripe
summary
surround
swoopdown
sword
synonym
tail
takea biteout of sth
team
theory

timeperiod
touch
type
unclear
university
valley
valuables
vehicle
viciousness
visible
voice
weak
workon
yell

Unit7
afterwards
alone
angrily
asleep
be injured
beggar
blast
board
breakdown
breakinto
breakout
breakup
briefcase
burglar
by force
carengine
cheek
chill
china
chronological
order
cockpitdoor
consequence
cool
countrylane
crack
crackling
crashof thunder
creak
develop
different-coloured
downstairs
drawthe curtains
dry
enter
entitled
exclaim
explain

trril tlrl
sand
sequenceof events
settle(in)
shark
SNOW

sreepy
space
speaker
speedaway
spine
squeeze
staircase
stick
sticky
storm
suggest
suppose
takea break
takea sip
teapot
to one'srelief
towards
rray
turnon
up aheadin the distance
waitress
war
warm
weapon
weep
welcome(adj)
welcome(n)
What'snext?
wrinkled

Unit 8
ability
accent
accept
advice
afford
alternatively
apply for
as soon as
at least
attend
attitude
babysit
be of (some)help
bite
brilliant
busy
cease

chance
charity
child-minding
centre
crossout
cruise
cut out
diary
dietpill
employee
encouragement
examcentre
expeflence
factory
fatty
further
get better
givesb a call
go on a diet
haircut
hardtimes
hope
in thisway
intention
invitation
join
let me know
lie (lay- lain)
make(new)friends
makefun of sb/sth
meeting
MISS

missout on
move
offer
officemanager
officially
on-the-spot
decision
parttimejob
pass
pensioner
phase
pose
position
positive
posr
prediction
preparefor
present
president
price
prtze
promotion
reacha certainage
recommendation

refuse
request
retakean exam
retire
revise
ring
run into
schoolmate
seek
seize
set
situation
solution
suggest
summercamp
sympathy
tease
traffic
turn off
useful
useless
whether
wishsb goodluck
workingmother
workplace
worriedabout

Unit9
accusesb of sth/doing
sth
ambition
among
an armyof men
and so it was done
anxrous
BC
be defeated
bill
blockof stone
blow
bringsb in
brushthe dustoff
casually
chariot
charm
cheer
civilwar
commit(murder,
a crime,
etc)
control
crowd
curly-haired
disaster

121

#nril tf*t
emperor
end in
enemy
friendship
gatheraround(sb/sth)
general
geometrically
guard
hieroglyphics
norn
I happento know
in chargeof
in wonder
incredible
insteadof
intelligence
introductory
verb
kingdom
land(n)
land (v)
let go of sb/sth
lie
looklike(sb/sth)
loseone'smind
madeof
march
militaryuniform
murder
oldJashioned
patient
patiently
place
pointat (sb/sth)
pyramid
questionnaire
quotationmarks
react
relationship
ridein sth (rode- ridden)
robe
royal
rush (off)
sandal
scream
signal
sparesb's life
speakout against
spin(spun- spun)
standbeforesb
step
supernatural
force
take controlof
the SevenWondersof
the AncientWorld

122

throne
throw(threw- thrown)
ton
traitor
travelthrough
time
walkthe dog
weigh
workagainst

Unit 10
a thingof the past
absolutely
accordingto
appropriate
as far as sb/sthis concerned
asthma
author
average
be up to sb
benefit
bright
calculation
cancer
carriage
carryout
citizen
city centre
clearly
comeacross
comeback
comeinto
comerouno
(by/with)
communicate
contact
cream
creative
cure
cut sth down
damage
decrease
demonstrate
discover
disease
dramatically
e-mail
education
electric
enthusiasm
essential
expand
fear
for the better

foresee
form of energy
furthermore
geneticengineering
get rid of
get worse
government
harmful
healthy
housework
housing
human
improve
in addition
in my opinion
in my view
increasingly
invent
isolated
it seemsto be that
level
lifespan
lifetime
link
lonely
magazine
mainland
makecontactwith sb
manage
Mars
mentalarithmetic
moreover
no matterhow
novel
nowaoays
optimistic
partner
per cent
planet
pollution
previous
program
quite
rainforest
ready-made
regularly
replace
rubbish
ruler
runon
scientist
society
solar-powered

state
submit
survey
transport
travel
treat
typewriter
underground
Venus
virtualreality
worry
wound
yacht

Unit 11
accident
battery
be in agony
be over
be poisoned
blanket
bleed(bled- bled)
board
bottom
brakes
chain
check
chemical
chest
choke
collidewith
compass
crash
crashinto
crawl
criticism
desert
drown
eventually
firebrigade
firefighter
firstof all
fisherman
fishingboat
gate
get lost
giveup
go for a drive
iceberg
in flames
in the distance
in time
iron

trrt tlrt

mywayhome

adventure
agent
avoid
backstreet
be shot
beard
behave
canoe
carved
club
colleague
colonise
dateof birth
diamond
diver
equipment
examine
expedition
expert
explorer
fascinate
fighting
fox
free
greenness
haveno choice
helmet
helpout
helpsb to theirfeet
horn
in goodcondition
innocent
island
knocksb to the ground
lightbulb
makean attempt
merchant
moustache
national
necklace
oar
observationcamp
occupy
ocean
omit
part
piece
placeof birth
prevent(from)
prince
protect
radium
raft
raiseobiections

reachintoone'spocket
real
rectangular
remalns
sail
sails
set foot on sth
setsail
set up
shield
simply
slave
soldier
straightahead
surface
take noticeof
tie
tiredof sth/doingsth
tour
true
TV network
warrior
weaver
woooen
wreck

Unit 13
ash
be trapped
beat (beat- beaten)
block
blowdown
blowoff
breaksth into pieces
buried
candle
casualties
cattle
chatty
collapse
copewith
crater
crewmember
cut off
debris
destruction
detailed
drop off
drought
earthquake
electricity
cables
emergency
emotlon

erupt
explode
famine
fine
fireplane
flame
flooding
foodsupplies
force (n)
force (v)
formal
frequently
fury
gas
get over
grow
headline
heat
hit (hit- hit)
homeless
hurricane
in detail
inform
investigation
it shookme awake
journalist
knock
last
lava
lightningstorm
massive
meanwhile
measure
medicalsupplies
medicine
motorist
mount
mountainside
muo
newsreport
owner
planecrash
poor
pour
pourout
prison
put off
put up
RedCross
region
release
rescueworker
resident
runout

r23

tnril ilmt
scene
shelter
SMOKE

stage
starving
state
steam
strike(struck- struck)
style
surrounding
survrvor
takeaction
temporarily
the authorities
the Richterscale
theft
thick
TownHall
tremendous
turn into
vast
victim
violent
volcaniccloud
volcaniceruption
volcano
volunteer
waste(n)
waste (v)
weatherconditions
weatherreporter

Unit 14
a differentstory
a greatdeal
allthingsconsidered
as longas
audience
be awareof
be in betterhealth
becomea hit
besides
bone
briefly
butcher
care
career
combatsoldier
confident
consider
contract
countless
courageous

124

dedicated
definitely
dependon sb/sth
dive
drawback
dream(of)
drivinglicence
dustman
earn
enemyterritory
experienced
fire
flightattendant
followsb'sadvice
for and against
fume
givesb a lift
handle
identify
imaginary
situation
in conclusion
in need
indoors
instrument
keepsth secret
likelyto
meno
metal
mission
mph
net
nevertheless
newsreporter
no ronger
optician
otherwise
parachute
partner
permanent
petroltank
phonebill
physicalstrength
present
profession
proof
publicattention
qualified
for
ratherthan
regret
renew
responsible
for
restate
rewarding
risk

separate
seriously
shoot
skill
sociable
somersault
spy
steady
stressful
summarise
surgeon
takecare
talented
thankfulfor
the prosand cons
thrill
tiring
topic
tough
trafficwarden
training
trapezeaftist
tricky
twistmy knee
typist
uniform
vet
well-paid
whenit comesto
sth/doingsth
worklonghours

Unit 15
adventurer
askfor trouble
bad-tempered
bar
bat
be concerned
about
sb/sth
billiards
binoculars
boots
brain
brush
canvas
cards
club
coach
compare
competition
contrast
darts

derived
element
energy
experience
extreme sport
face to face with
fancy
fishingrod
fit
flippers
glove
goggles
golf course
hook
ideal
in excellent/good/bad,
etc physicalcondition
in fact
it doesn't matter
it's worth
jet
jet-skiing
knee pads
knitting
lay (laid - laid)
leap
lifejacket
light
magician
magnifyingglass
mask
meaning
mountaineer
muscle
needle
organised
oxygentank

P.E.(physical
paddle
palette
panic
paragliding
pattern
pool
prize
professional
proper
quality
race
rafting
rare
reply
require
result

ilrril lfrt

0n
partin sth
risks
sthto itslimits

of the guard

off
sb/sthbefore sb

closein on sb/sth
comefree
conqueror
cursed
dead-endstreet
orag
Duke
escape
fool
gather
goldfish
Gothic
havea cold
historical
impressive
install
intonation
ladder
lock
oroer
plague
poster
race
readsth out
rebuild
residence
RoyalStandard
set sth on fire
significance
silence
soakingwet
sprcy
spreao
suspiciously
the Crownjewels
thud
touristinformation
centre
towel
tower
twins
vegetables
weight
wildly

Unit 17
adult
all-powerful
announce
as for sb/sth
as strongas an ox
as stubbornas a mule
attacker
oan

bleat
brave
buzz
calf
call
carrya disease
cat
characteristic
chimpanzee
cluck
comealong
conservationist
CTOSS

dead
declare
deep
demand
develop
differ(in sth)
domestic
doubt
drink likea fish
eat like a horse
emperorpenguln
endangered
evil
extinction
fairy tale
farm animal
fear for sb/sth
fight against
fight like cat and dog
flock of sheep
frighten away
grass
grey fox
guard
harp seal
have sth in common (with
sb/sth)
havethe rightto do
something
herd of cows
howl
humanbeing
hunter
illegal
in favour of sb/sth
in the wild
increased
industry
insist
instructions

jaguar
jungle
taw
leopard
lethal
likea fishout of water
LittleRedRidingHood
lorry
lovely
mammal
mane
mraow
mirror
misunderstood
moo
name
neigh
nest
over-populate
packof wolves
paw
pet
prideof lions
proud (of sb/sth)
quack
rat
recognise
respect
risk
roar
safely
schoolof whales
seaturtle
snare
simile
skin
snappingjaw
solve
specres
spelling
rule
still
superb
swallow
swamp
swarmof bees
tame
the blackwidowspider
tone
trading
traditionally
tropical
trunk
tusk

r25

tar* lil*f
underthreat
valuable
virtue
whiskers
wing

Unit 18
absorb
act
adapt
adopt
affirmative
allergy
becomeextinct
breathe
breathingproblems
bringabout
carbondioxide
cattlefarm
cause
chimney
cleanup
company
consequently
contaminate
crops
cut down
oamage
develop
domestic
dump
effect
exhaustfumes
face
fault
fightfor
filter
get around
get involvedin
giveoff
giveout
grave
heal
hunger
immediately
in power
industrial
is hometo
issue
lackof sth
litter
livingconditions
IOSS

126

major
makespace
native
oil
oiltanker
oxygen
poem
preparethe way for
product
production
method
publictransport
purpose
put pressure
on sb (todo
sth)
put sth into practice
recycling
scheme
reduce
repair
rundry
sealife
stomach
sufferfrom
survival
technology
therefore
threatenwith extinction
to makemattersworse
wakeup to sth
watery
wildlifepark
yet

Unit 19
apologise
for
applepie
argument
artichoke
aubergine
bake
oar
beans
beefcurry
cabbage
can
chips
complaint
consideration
corn
crab
creamy
crisps
cruel
cucumber

customer
dairyproducts
decor
diet
disastrous
eyesight
frog
fullname
garlic
gene
generation
geneticengineer
givebirthto
juice
grapefruit
grapes
greasy
ham
normone
hot
jam
juicy
lambchops
lettuce
lifeform
loaf
lobster
luxurious
maincourse
makesure
manager
matter
member
moth
mushroom
mussel
normally
nutritious
omelette
onion
passon
peach
pear
pepper
pot
poultry
prawn
produce
protestagainst
pumpkin
quality
quantity
real-life
rich
roastbeef

salmon
salty
sausage
scorpion
seafood
serious
signature
slice
soup
soyabeans
spill
starter
steak
steakand kidneypie
strawberry
strong
surname
sweet
tough
transfer
trout
trust
turkey
waiter
watermelon
whatis more
yoghurt
Yoursfaithfully
Yourssincerely

Unit20
alive
appointment
beside
bubble-car
certain
changeone'smind
circular
cost of living
daylight
deduction
develop
drop
examination
float
glass
globalwarming
grow
hardly
headlights
hydrogen
inch
loseone'sway

trnl llnl

from
separated
ser

celebrate
character
chase
classic
comedy
complicated
convincing
costume
datingshow
detective(film)
direct
disappointing
disapprove
of
documentary
embarrass
escape
essay
evil
fallasleep
firm
fondof
galaxy
gigantic
nero
numorous
I don'tthinkmuchof it
imaginary
intendto
involve
involving
landscape
laserweapon
leader
missthe chanceto do sth
moving
myth
mythology
one'sideaof sth
originally
out of thisworld
outerspace
performance
playa bigger/major
etc.
role
preference
quizshow
realistic
release
respono
review
ride
romance
script
seaparK

shocking
silly
soapopera
soundeffect
spaceadventure
specialeffects
specific
sportsprogramme
streetchild
suspense
tabletennis
takeafter
take off
takeover
takeup
terrifying
theme
thrill
trilogy
universe
villain
well-made
well-written
whale

Unit 22
antiqueshop
aftifact
atomicbomb
authentic
automobile
barely
be gone
blazing
chauffeur
conscious
darling
deliver
discovery
familiar
firealarm
firebrigade
fireengine
gift
graduate
hydrogenbomb
in fact
Institutefor Advancec
Studies
inventor
it wasall in his mind
k.p.h.
laboratory

lecture
loseconsciousness
maid
mechanic
mend
physics
polish
preparations
qualification
redden
report
research
respected
return
reunion
saleswoman
scientific
service
setthetable
shopping
shorten
steelframe
stretcher
rap
telescope
throwone'sarmsaround
sb
turnto
unanswered
wallet
water
weddinganniversary
wheel
whole
wonder

121

Fq"l

-${ufs

ffiruffiif

Iocnl
Dishes
Pre-reading
Artiuities

pieces of deepJriedpotato,
sprinkled with saltand vinegar
syrup made from the sap of
the maple tree
meat, potatoes,onions, carrots
and parsley

1 Look at the pictures and match the dishes (A-D) to


the countries where they are traditionally eaten

( t -4).
A fishand chips
B lrishstew

burgerand fries.....

D pancakesand

1
2
3
4

lreland
USA
Canada
Britain

f,eadinl

maplesyrup
For which of the dishes above (A-D) would you
need these ingredients?
1 100 grams of minced beef,
grilled or fried

Affileesftd*&np*
One of Britain's best-known meals is fish and
chips. It is not only delicious, but also a part of
British culture.
The fish is covered in batter (made from eggs,
milk and flour) then fried in hot oil. When cooked.
the batter is crispy and the piece of fresh fish inside
is soft, This is served with chips, pieces of deepfried potato, which are then sprinlded with salt and
vinegar.
Fish and chip shops have been around since the
l9th cenfury. It was traditional in parts of Britain to
eat fish and chips on Friday evening. Families
would usually buy them from their nearest shop
and senre them at home.It used to be quite a
cheap meal and was often senred wrapped in

a)

Read the texts and answer the


then use your dictionary to look up
in bold.

$tchj
B ,Snm&
fury Irish person will
tell you that the best
Irish stew is the
one their mother
makes. In fact, no
two Irish stews
are the same,
because everyone
who
cooks
il
changes the recipe in
their own way.
Originally, Irish stew was a
dish that poorer people made becauseit
was cheap and tilling. The main
were lamb and potatoes,both of which

to find in Ireland.Otheringredients
were
onions,carrotsandparsley.
Today, Irish stew is still the samebasic
a kind of thick soup or casserole made
potatoes and vegetables. However, the
recipe varies to suit individual tastes
availability of ingredients. For

Irish immigrantsin Americafoundbeef


cheaper and more available than lamb,
they used beef instead.Somerecipes
changed this simple dish into a gourmet

.|30

t*tt&
*F*n*mhs* #4qMs

Canada'smost famousdish is pancakes


with maple synrp. It is traditionally eaten for
brealdast, and can be found on the menu in
practically every diner in the country'
Pancakes are made from eggs, milk and flour,
and they are cooked on a griddle. They are round
and guite thick, and they are senred with maple
symp poured over the toP.
Maple synrp is made from the sap of the
sugarmapletree.The sap is collectedfrom the
trees in early spring, then boiled until it turns
into a golden synrp.The syrup is delicious
when poured on ice-cream, waffles and, of course,pancakes,

fisdW*te*s
ffi*ng$e

Whichtext(s)- A, B, C or D - mention(s)a dish '.


1 that may be friedin oil?
2 that includesmeat?
eatenin the morning?
3 traditionally
maY
4 someof whoseingredients
vary?

trD

A burger and fries is by far the most popular


type of meal bought in the US. In fact, Americans
buy almost 5 bitlion burgers a year! This
popularity has spread around the world with the
growth of international "fast food" restaurant
chains,
Many people say that the first burger was
served at the St Louis World's Fair in 1904'The frst
chain of burger restaurantsstarted with the Wtite
Castleburger in 1921,and it was a $eat success.
The classic burger is made from about 100
grams of minced beef which is fried or grilled.
then served in a bun coveredwith sesarneseeds.
The growing popularity of vegetarianism has
also led to burgers made from soyabean "meat"
instead.Fries, also called French fries, are

trn
n
trD

5 traditionallyeaten on a particular
day of the week?

Ll

b) Read the texts again and find words which are


similar to words in your own language.
c) Match the highlighted words to their
synonyms, then explain them in your own
language.
surely; changes; presented;tasty; simple; typical

$[eaking
What are the most popular traditional dishes in
your country?What do you know about their
history, how they are made, etc?
What food would you recommend to somebody
visiting your country for the first time?

13.|

Crenlures
3 Slrunoe
Pre-reading
Actiuities
Look at the pictures.Which
shows ...
o a Tasmaniandevil
. acassowary. akoala
o akakapo o apenguin

the land,Down Under,,


has manyffispecies
of animals
and birds not found anywhere
else in the world

o akangaroo o aplatypus
o a kiwi . an emu

&Kmx.waap$m&w

o a wombat?
What animals or birds do you
know that are native to
Austrafia or New Zealand?

f,eadinI
a) Read the texts, answer
the questionsand explain
the words in bold.
Whichanimals/birds
mentioned
are nativeto a) Australiaand
b) New Zealand?
Whichanimal/birdmentioned
eats...
a) dead sheep?
b) eucalyptusleaves?
c) frogs,wormsand shellfish?
d) farmers'crops?
Listall of the a) marsupials
and
b) flightlessbirdsmentionedin
the texts.
b)

Read the texts again and


give synonymsfor the
highlightedwords.

c)

Find words which are similar


to words in your own
language.

134

AUSTRALIA

Marsupials are mammals that give birth to tiny


young, which spend the first part of their lives in their
mother's pouch - such as the kangaroo with her

(calleda Joey')in the picture on the right.


ffi
The babykangaroomeasuresonly 2.5 cm at birth,

't
and is carriedin the mother's pouchfor 6-8 months.
Half of the world's speciesof marsupials
.. :* ..
._,
are
found only in Australia or Papua New
ffi
, Guinea. Other Australian marsupials
include wombats and koalas.
Koalas live, eat and sleepin the branches
of eucalyptus trees, only coming down to
move to another tree. Eucalyptus leaves
the koala's main source of both food
water.

WKfrg$n&Kesw
ffi$wffiw
Also native to
Australia are two
Iarge, flightless
birds - the emu,
shown here, and the
cassowary. Both birds have huge
bodies and long legs, and are fast
runners. The cassowary lives in the
tropical rain forest, and is dangerous
because it has very sharp claws. The
emu lives in deserts, plains and
forests, and farmers consider
it eats their
it a ffibecause

Wonrlers
4 Nnlurttl
re-reading
Actiuities
1 Look at the pictures(l to 4). Which shows...
o a waterfall?
. a canyon?
.......
o a mountain?
o a huge rock?
2 Which of the globes(A to D) shows...
o The NorthernTerritory,
Australia...
o The ZambeziRiver,betweenZimbabwe/
Zambia
o Arizona,USA
.,, tn" Himalayas,
betweenNepal/Tibet
...

,[eading
3 a) Read the texts and answer the questions,
then explain the words in bold. Finally give
opposites for the highlighted words.
Which place(s)

1 is thehigheston Earth?
2 werenamedafter
a famousperson?
3 changes
colour?
4 wereformedby a river?
5 belongs
to a mountain
range?

tr
tr tr
tl
tl
f|

b) Make notes under the followingheadingsto


describeeach ofthe natural wonders.
o Name(Engtish/tocat)
o Location
o Type of feature(e.g.mountain)
o Size (height/width/etc)
o Age (if mentioned)
. Datefirstclimbed/discovered/etc
by Europeans(if
mentioned)
o Otherdetails
c) Read the texts again and lind words which are
similar to words in your own language.

Which of these natural wonders do you find most


impressive, and why?

.|36

What impressive/well-known natural wonders are there


in your country? Briefly describe one or two of them.

The S

Victoria
English
mightywa

Zambezi
River
Zambiaand
whichis 1.7
and 108metresdeep.
European
to seethe fallswasScottish
DavidLivingstone,
on 16thNovember
namedthe fallsin honourof Britain,s
eueen
Thefallsproducea hugecloudof spray,whi

seenmorethan100kmaway.Thespr
tremendous
noiseof thewatergivethefails
name,Mosi- oa - tunya- ,Thesmokethat

The Roof of the World


Mount Everestis the highestpoint on the
surface of our planet, rising 8,848 metres
above sea level. lt is part of the Himalayas,
the mountainrange betweenNepaland Tibet.
It was first climbedby New Zealander;
SirEdmund
Hillary,and his Nepaleseguide, TenzingNorgay,on
29th May,1953.

W Grand Canyon
The GrandCanyonin Arizona,USA,was
formed by the ColoradoRivercutting deeply
through layersof rock.
Thisbeganabout 6 millionyearsago, and has
resultedin a canyon446 kilometreslong and as
muchas 1.6 kilometresdeep.Somepartsof the
canyonare only 200 metreswide, while in places
it is 29 kilometresacross.

Uluru
Uluru,in Australia's
NorthernTerritory,
is the largestrockin the world.lt is a
singlepieceof red limestone
formed
about550millionyearsago.Uluruis
335 metres high and has a
circumference
of 9 kilometres.At
sunsetit turns a brilliantorangered.
Uluruis importantin the religionof

the Aborigines,and is a sacredplacefor


manyof them.Therearecavesin the rock,
with carvings
whichtell ancientAboriginal
stories.
Manypeopleusedto callUluruAyersRock
because
in 1873the first white man to
climbthe rocknamedit in honourof Sir
HenryAyers,a politicalleaderof the time.

137

Irunsporl
l5 Iondon

eS

II
ll

l$ll
ffi {&

fr

Pre-readlng
ftnliuitlr

x
s

1 How many means of public transport


can you think ofl What are the
advantages andlor disadvantages of
each one?

teadins
2

a)

Read the texts and say what each


of the dates or figures ( | - I 0) refers
to, then explain the words in bold.

1 '1643
26
334
4 1913
5 275

6
7
8
9
10

22,000
1863
1987
25,000
1947

Like every big city,


London has its traffic
p r o b l e m s ,a n d g e t t i n g
aroundcanbe difficult.At
the same time, though, London's
public transport systemis not only
one of the oldestin the world,but also
one of the best.
Londonis famousfor its red
double-decker
buses,blackcabs
the LondonUnderground.

The Tube
The London Undergroundtrain service
rj':;ij:
'Tube',
or the
as Londonerscall it - is the oldest
,i.tjt'
and largestin the world.
",o'"

The first undergroundrailwayline openedin


January
1863.Thelinewasonly6 km long,butothers
weresoonstarted,
andin 1890a linewasopened
which
ranunderthe RiverThames.
Todaythe Tubehasover406 km of linesand275
stations.Passengers
make a total of 3 million
journeysa day- in otherwords,an amazing
1
billionjourneys
a year.

j'ffi
fla,i.,tl:!.:!i+!.5'

{'$fq!rydqtryw

tr

@s
F#aF{.U

o About 18 millionindividualpassengers
a year
the Tube- the samenumberasthepopulati
. TheTubehasa total of 408escalatorsand
112
WaterlooStationhasthe mostescalators,
with
. DuringWorldWar ll, whenthecitywas
bombedin Germanair raids.Londoners
Tubestationplatformsasa place
to
. The Undergroundlogo (top,l,
whichisstill
today,wasdesigned
in

As well as London's regular bus services, there are


special double-deckerbuses, some with open tops, which
take visitors on sightseeing tours of London's famous
landmarks and tourist attractions.
Another interestingway to see the sights of the city is
to take a cruise along the Thames on a riverboat.

g,tack ca],{s
licensed public cabs haveexistedin
Londonsince 1643. They were horse-drawn
then, of course. In fact, there were still some
horse-drawncabs in London as late as 1947.
By law, each cab had to have enough extra spaceto
carry a bale of hay for the horse. Although nowadays
London'sblack cabs are all motor cars,the old law about

The Docklands Light Railway was


opened in7987.It has 34 stations and
takes passengers between the city
centre and the Docklands area
in east London.

extraspacehas still not changed!


Thereare about 19,000 cabs in Londonand 22,000 drivers.
As well as a specialdriving test, licensedcab drivers have to
passa very difficult test calledthe Knowledgeof London.
To pass,a driver must know all about Londonand its hotels,
theatres,stations,hospitals,public buildings,restaurants,parks
and so on, as well as the shortest way to get to any of

b)

Read the texts again and give


synonyms for the highlighted words,
then find words which are similar to
words in your own language.

them. As if that wasn't enough,the driver


has to know ALLoF rHE25.000 srarss
within 10 km of the centreof the
city!

$peaking
Do you often use public transport?
Why/Why not?
Does the town/city where you live
have a good public transport system?
In what ways is it similar/different to
London's public transport system?
Does your town/city operate any ecofriendly means of transport? What
are they?

r39

ln[lish BritishlnUlishGuide
Amerisan
fnrd

Grrs ilnil llriuing


nmsriGantnUlisll

antenna
circle,rotary
defroster
detour
dividedhighway
fender
flat (tire)
gas,gasoline
gasstation
gearshift
highbeams
hood
intersection
highway,
interstate,
freeway
low beams
minibus
motorcycle
overpass
parkinglot
pass(vehicle,
etc)
pedestrian
crossing
rentalcar
transmission
truck
turnsignals
windshield

Britisn trglistl

aerial
roundabout
windowheater
diversion
dualcarriageway
wing
flattyre,puncture
petrol
petrolstation,garage
gearlever,stick
fulllights
bonnet
crossroads
motorway
lightsdipped
van/minibus
motorbike,
motorcycle
flyover
car park
pass
overtake,
zebracrossing,
pedestrian
crossing
hirecar
gearoox
rorry,van
indicators
windscreen

IrauellinU/Gnmmulinq
airplane
baggageclaim
ous
cab
one-way(ticket)
railroad
roundtrip (ticket)
sidewalk
subway
underpass

140

aeroplane
baggagereclaim
coacn
taxi
single
railway
return(ticket)
pavemenr
tube
underground,
suoway

Briti$nInUlisn

AmeniBan
InUlisn
appetizers
baked potato
broil
canoy
candy store
canneo
cookie
corn
cotton candy
dessert
eggplant
fish sticks
Frenchfries
ground meat
jello
jelly
oatmeal
potatochips
preserves
withoutor with
(milk/creamin coffee)
zucchini

starters
jacketpotato
grill
SWeets
sweet
confectioner,
tinned
biscuit
maize
sweetcorn,
candyfloss
pudding,sweet,
aubergine
fishfingers
chips
mrnce
jelly
jam
porridge
cnsps
conserves
blackor white
courgettes

llthers
accounl
any place,anywhere
apartment
area cooe
attorney,lawyer
backpack
band aid
bathrobe
bathtub
bill (currency)
billion: thousand
million
blind (n)
botanicalgarden
oureau
busy (telephone)
call,phone
cheap (badlymade/
done)
check (restaurant)

bill,account
anywhere
flat
diallingcode (phone)

solicitor
rucksack
stickingplaster
dressinggown
bath
banknote
b i l l i o n= m i l l i o n
hide (n)
botanicgarden
chest of drawers
engaged
ring up, phone,call
shoddy
bitl

Americantnglish- British tn[lish

AmcricanIngli$h

clippings
closet
closet(hangingclothes)
connect(telephone)
counterclockwise
crazy
crib (fora baby)
davenport,sofa,couch
deskclerk
dishtowel
downtown
drapes
oresser
druggist
pharmacy
drugstore,
overalls
duplex
elevator
equip,fit out
eraser
fall
faucet
fire (v) (from
employment)
firstfloor,secondflooretc
flashlight
freshman(at university)
frontdesk
garbage,trash
garbagecan,trashcan
garters
grade
intermission
janitor
Jumprope
laundromat
lay off (v)
layoff
line
lostandfound
mail
mailman
makea reservation
math
movie
moviehouse/theater
newsstand
non-profit-organ
ization,
not-for-profit

f,ritisn tnllisn
cuttings
cupboard
wardrobe
putthrough
anticlockwise
mad
cot
sofa,settee,
couch
receptionist
tea towel
centre(city/business)
curtains
chestof drawers
chemist
chemist's(shop)
jeans,dungarees
semi-detached
tift
fit (v)
rubber,eraser
autumn
tap
sack
groundfloor,firstflooretc
torch
1styearundergraduate
reception
rubbish
dustbin,
bin
suspenders
class,form
interval
caretaker,porter
skippingrope
laundrette
makeredundant
redundancy
queue
lost property
post
postman
book
maths
film
ctnema
newsagent
charity

lmgrigalt tnflisn

nothing,zero
office(doctor's/dentist's)
online
openhouse
overalls
pacifier
pants,trousers
pantyhose,
nylons
parka
pocketbook
poloneck
pool(pocketbilliards)
principal
publicschool
purse
rent(a car)
reservations
restroom
run (forelection)
sacklunch
salesclerk,salesgirl
schedule
Scotchtape
shoppingcart
shorts(underwear)
sick
sleepin
sneakers
soccer
sports
standin line
store,shop
suspenders
telephone
booth
trashbag
tricky
tuition(forschooling)
two weeks
undershirt
vacation
vacuum(n,v),vacuum
cleaner(n)
VeSt

yaro
z (pronounced
"zee")
zero
zip code

0riti$[ Inglish

nil
surgery
on stream
openday
dungarees
dummy
trousers
tights
anorak
purse,wallet
rollneck,poloneck
snooker
headmaster
stateschool
handbag
hire (a car)
bookings
toilet,cloakroom,
public
convenience
stand(forelection)
packedlunch
shop assistant
timetable
Sellotape
shoppingtrolley
pants
itl
l i ei n
trainers
football
sport
queue
shop
braces
telephonebox
bin liner
dodgy
fee
fortnight,two weeks
VeSt
holiday
hoover (n, v)
waistcoat
garden
z (pronounced"zed")
nought,oh
post code

141

Americantnglish- BritishInUlis[

Gnammar
Britisn Ingli$n

fimsnluan[||glish

He just left./ He has


just left.

He has just left.

We saw thatfilm.

We haveseenthatfilm.

Did he handin the


reportyet?

Has he handedin the


reportyet?

Hello,is this David?


Do you havea ticket?/
Haveyou got a ticket?

142

lmeflsar Inulish

Bfitl$h lngfisn

differentfrom/than

differentfromito

liveon X street

livein X street

on a team

in a team

on the weekend

at theweekend

Hello,is that David?

MondaythroughFriday

Mondayto Friday

Haveyou got a ticket?

be in the hospital

be in hospital

in the future

in future

$pellinI
aluminum
anaryze
center
check(n)
color
defense
honor
jewelry
labor
practice(n,v)
program
realize
theater
tire
trave(l)ler

lx[ressinnswithpre[rsitionsand

aluminium
analyse
centre
cheque(n)
colour
defence
nonour
jewellery
labour
practice(n),practise(v)
programme
realise
theatre
ryre
traveller

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