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Syed abrar ahmed

Program Bachelor of Business Administration- BBA
Semester 2
Q1.Briefly describes the different steps involved in a research process. What are the
Characteristics of good research?
Ans : Research is search for knowledge. It can also be defined as an art of scientific
investigation. It is also a systematic design, compilation analysis and the reporting the
findings and solutions for the marketing problems of a company.
Steps in Research process:

Define research problem: one should understand the problem thoroughly &
rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from a point of view.

Review of literature: Once the problem is define, a brief summary of it should be

written down.

Formulate hypotheses: Formulate hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order

to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences. Hypothesis should be very
specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested.

Preparing the research design: The function of research design is to provide for the
collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money.

Data collection:

Primary data can be collected through:


By Observation
Through personal interview
Through telephone interview
By mailing of questionnaires
Through Schedules

Data analysis: The analysis of data requires a number of closely related

operations such as establishment of categories.
o This stage mainly include :

Interpretation and report writing : A Report has to be written for the research of
what has been done

Q2. (A) Explain the different types of research designs.

(B) Differentiate between Probability and Non-probability sampling methods

Ans : (A)Research Design : It is a systematic plan of what is to be done, how it will be done
and how the data will be analyzed. Research design basically shows what the major topics in
the research are and their details. It provides an outline of how the research will be carried out
and the methods that will be used.
Different Types of Research Design:

Exploratory Research Design: The main objective of the exploratory research is to

manage the broad problem into a specific problem statement and generate possible
Descriptive Research Design: The descriptive design could be both quantitative and
qualitative. It describes the given problem/phenomenon to establish the relationship
between the factors.
(B) Difference between Probability Sampling & Non Probability sampling are as
If probability-based sampling is properly carried out, there will be none of the bias
which can arise from subjective judgements in sample selection. There is the
possibility of such bias, however, in non probability samples.
The non probability method demands the formulation of a hypothetical model to fit
the data. On the other hand, a probabilistic survey does not.
The validity of the model underlying non probability sampling may be open to
question, and difficult to verify
With probability sampling, we use the randomisation distribution to draw conclusions
from the sample, and to obtain sampling errors. In a non probability sample, we
cannot get comparable estimates of precision.
In general, non-response in a non probability sample is handled by selection of
another respondent. We can be more flexible in the way we handle non-response in a
probability-based sample
In general, the costs of a non probability sampling will be lower than a probabilitybased sampling of the same size
Q3. The important task ahead of the researcher is to document the entire work done in the
form of a well-structured research report. Explain the report writing steps. What are
the guidelines for writing the research report?
Ans : The last step in the research process is the preparation and presentation of the research
report; the best research efforts will be of little value, unless the result can be summarized and
communicated to the management in a form that is both understandable and useful.

Report Writing Steps

Research and Brainstorm: Whether the topic has been allocated or you have
selected it yourself, the primary step in writing a report is research. Take notes on the
most important facts about your topic. Continuously think about how you want to use
the information to support it. Be creative and do not hesitate to add your own insights.
Forming a Thesis: A thesis is a specific statement about what you will talk about in
the body of your report. The thesis requires to be supported by your research and
should guide you throughout the writing process.
Making an Outline: It should consist of basic sentences that capture the essence of
what each paragraph in the report will discuss. This is more or less an action plan that
will help keep your writing crisp and to the point.
Introduction, Body and Conclusion: The first paragraph will serve as a preface.
This paragraph should introduce your reader to the topic in a creative, thoughtprovoking manner. It sets the stage for the whole paper and culminates with the thesis
statement. After the introduction, you will delve into the body of your report. Each
preface should begin with a main idea, or topic sentence, which supports your thesis,
with every sentence thereafter used to explain the main idea. Use your research to
support your claims. Finally, the last paragraph of the report will serve as a
conclusion. This is a summary of all the information provided in the report or essay
Proofread and Edit: After one is finished writing the paper, one should wait a little
while before going back to proofread. When editing, fix all typographical and
grammatical errors while sharpening the language. Add any new ideas that have come
to mind and let a friend or family member read it over.
Guidelines for Writing Research Reports
Consider the Audience: make the report clear; use only words familiar to the readers
and define all technical terms.
Address the Information Needs: remember the research report is designed to
communicate information to decision makers. Make sure that it clearly relates the
research findings to the objectives of the management.
Be concise, Yet complete: most people will not want to read about the details of a
research report. Knowing what to include and what to leave out is a difficult task. It is
up to you, the researcher, to take into account the information needs of the decision
maker when writing your report.
Be objective: The findings may conflict with the decision makers experience and
judgement or they may reflect unfavourably on the wisdom of previous decisions. In
these circumstances, there is a strong temptation to start the report by making the
result more acceptable to the management.
Style: The style of writing a research report is important because it shows a way of