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Chapter 6: Religion

(Part 1: Universalizing Religions)


The Cultural Landscape:
An Introduction to Human Geography

Terms
branch: a large and fundamental division within
a religion
denomination: is a division of a branch that
unites a number of local congregations in a
single legal and administrative body
sect: a relative small group that has broken
away from an established branch/denomination
heretic: one who disagrees with church doctrine

sectarianism: conflict arising from perceived


differences between subdivisions of a group
adherents: a believer or supporter

Universalizing
In general

vs.

Seeks to appeal to all


proselytic = to attempt
to convert, recruit

Ethnic Religions

Appeals to a single group


living in one place

tied to phys. environment


Holy Places tied to life of founder
Both involve pilgrimages = religious journeys to
sacred places
Celebration of the
Celebration of the
Calendar
founders life
seasons
Cosmogony
Beliefs about God creates
nature/physical
origin of the
environment
universe

Diffusion

God = nature
incorporates events from
phys. environment

precise origins/hearth,
tied to a specific founder

usually widespread

unclear or unknown origins,


not tied to a specific founder,
Ltd. diffusion, usually tied to
geography of a location. Can
diffuse thru relocation

World Religions
Universalizing
Major
Christianity (1)
Islam (2)
Buddhism
Minor
Sikhism
Bah

Ethnic

Hinduism (3)
Chinese folk religions
Confucianism
Daoism
Shinto
Judaism
Ethnic African religions
Animism

Christianity

largest world religion

about 2 billion adherents


Many adherents in Europe, the Americas

Three major branches


Roman Catholicism (51% of all Christians)
Protestant Christianity (24%)
Denominations include Lutheran, Baptist, Methodist,
Anglican, Presbyterian, Episcopal etc.
Eastern Orthodox (11%)
Other (14%)
Coptic (Egypt), Ethiopians, Mormons (Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), Jehovahs
Witnesses

Christianity

largest world religion

about 2 billion adherents


Many adherents in Europe, the Americas

Three major branches


Roman Catholicism (51% of all Christians)
Protestant Christianity (24%)
Denominations include Lutheran, Baptist, Methodist,
Anglican, Presbyterian, Episcopal etc.
Eastern Orthodox (11%)
Other (14%)
Coptic (Egypt), Ethiopians, Mormons (Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), Jehovahs
Witnesses
Distribution of branches matches colonial patterns

World Distribution of Religions

Figure 6-3

Distribution of Christians in the


United States

Figure 6-2

American Religious Concentrations. Why?


Baptist Southeastern U.S.
Largely indigenous religion = American Calvinism
At first, welcomed African-Americans who were rejected
by mainline Protestantism
Later during Civil War Era
Appeals to southern whites as manifestation of regional pride
(supports slavery, white supremacism, etc.)
Blacks leave to form breakaway churches but still self-identify
as baptist

Therefore,
Strong regional clustering of black and white southerners
Lack of in-migration (due to little industrialization) maintains
homogeneity of baptists

Distribution of Christians in the


United States

Figure 6-2

American Religious Concentrations. Why?

Catholics

Northeast, Rust Belt


Germans (some Southern Catholic) & Irish Catholics (mid-1800s)
Pushed by industrialization, stage 2 overpop., lack of econ. opp.
Potato famine, British abuse/eviction from land

Early 1900s immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe


Poles, Italians, other Catholics (+ Russian Jews)
Pushed by industrialization, stage 2 overpop., lack of econ. opp.
Other cultural factors (see migration notes)

Why Northern cities = Industrial jobs

Southwestern US/US-Mexican border


Proximity to Latin American source area of origin since WWII
Latin America in stage 2

Farm laborers, illegal immigration


How does this reflect Gravity model and Ravensteins laws?

Distribution of Christians in the


United States

Figure 6-2

American Religious Concentrations. Why?


Lutherans Upper Midwest/Northern Great Plains
Northern Germans and Scandinavians bring Lutheranism
Cultural preadaptation attracted Northern Europeans to a climate and
farmland similar to their homeland.

RRs and state govts. recruited farmers (mid-to-late 1800s)


Chain migration occurred as relatives continued to arrive.

Remained dominant because of a lack of in-migration


During the next great wave of European immigration (early 1900s),
few new immigrants with different religions came to Northern Great
Plains
lack of industrialization, urbanization and/or economic opportunity.
Physical environment is arid (lack of water) discouraged the in-migration of other
religions (non-Lutherans)

Distribution of Christians in the


United States

Figure 6-2

American Religious Concentrations. Why?


Mormons Great Basin, Desert West, Utah
Internal migration for religious freedom, avoid
persecution
Remained dominant because of a lack of in-migration
Not industrialized/urbanized
Inhospitable climate = very dry/arid desert.

Revised Christianity Map for


North America

Origin of Christianity
Hearth
Holy Land,
Israel/Palestine,
Jerusalem
Founder: Jesus
Jewish sect
Diaspora spreads Jews
Roman Empire

Eventually transforms
into separate religion
St. Paul Gentiles
sect of Ethnic Judaism
Universalizing

To Europe

Diffusion of
Christianity

Roman Empire
relocation
missionaries

contagious to pagans
Hierarchical
Conversion of those in
authority

Global
Secondary hearths
Roman Catholicism =
Rome/Vatican City
Orthodox =
Constantinople/Istanbul
Protestantism = Germany

Relocation
Imperialism/migration

Relate to life of Christ


Jerusalem

Golgotha (Calvary)
Holy Sepulchre
Via Dolorosa
Gethsemane

Bethlehem (birth)
Nazareth (childhood)
Later sites associated
with saints and miracles
Examples
Lourdes, France
Fatima, Portugal

Christian Holy
Places

Christian
Churches
more critical than in other religions
affects landscape
Tall, centrally located
Style reflects
cultural influences
Orthodox = pointed domes

Beliefs
Protestant = simple

Availability of building materials

Christianity
Disposal of the Dead

Calendar
Relate to life of Jesus

Burial

Easter
Christmas

Church yard
Feet toward Jerusalem

Connected to Jewish/pagan Cemeteries reflect religion on


the cultural landscape
seasonal holidays
Serve as green space in
Jesus was a Jew
Syncretic appeal to win pagan newly industrializing cities
converts

Differences between branches


Catholic use Gregorian
Orthodox use Julian

Administration of space

Other effects on landscape


toponyms

2nd largest world religion


about 1.3 billion adherents
Fastest growing

Islam

Two significant branches


Sunnis (83%)
Widely dispersed across the Middle East, North Africa,
South and Southeast Asia

Shias or Shiites (16%)


Primarily clustered in Iran and southern Iraq,
Azerbaijan and others

Split based on who should succeed Muhammad


Later has ethnic dimensions

Core of Islamic belief = the five pillars

Good map for overall spread, read worksheet


post on website to fully understand methods of
diffusion and explain on guided reading

Origin and Diffusion of Islam


Muhammad
b. 570 AD in Mecca/Makkah
ministry 610 AD
hijra 622 AD
to Yathrib/Medina
632 AD Reconquered Mecca (dies shortly afterward)

Muhammad and early successors (caliphs) diffuse


Islam through conquest
Later spread through trade and other cultural
interactions (see reading posted on website)
Example: diffused to Indonesia in 1200s through trade
Physically separated from Islamic core area
Today has the worlds largest Muslim population (know this fact)

Muslim Holy Places


life of Muhammad
Kaaba in Mecca
5th pillar = hajj
Pilgrimage to Mecca
What type of affects does
the hajj have on the
environment?

Medina
Muhammads tomb

Dome of the Rock


Muhammads night journey
on Temple Mount

Islam
Calendar
Strict lunar calendar
30 year cycle
19 years = 354 days
11 years = 355 days
Holidays shift annually

Places of Worship
Mosque
Community centers
Courtyard surrounded
by buildings for
different functions
Pulpit faces Mecca
Minarets
muezzin calls to
prayer
Other distinctive traits
Calligraphy
arabesques

Buddhism
About 400 million adherents
difficult to quantify due to syncretism
the combination of different beliefs

Three branches
Mahayana (56%) (China, Japan, Korea)
Theravada/Hinayana (38%) (Southeast Asia)
Tantrayana/Vajrayana (6%) (Tibet, Mongolia)

The Four Noble Truths


karmic/dharmic religion
Goal is nirvana = release from cycle of rebirth

Origin and Diffusion of Buddhism


Founder:

Siddhartha Gautama
NE India/Nepal
500s BCE
Becomes the Buddha
The awakened one

Emperor Asoka
converts to Buddhism
sends missionaries (mid 200s BCE)
Traveled along silk road to China
Becomes Chinese
Diffuses further (bodhisattvas)

Disappears from India


Absorbed by Hinduism (syncretism)

Holy Places of Buddhism


Buddhas life
b. Lumbini
Bodh Gaya
reaches perfect wisdom
nirvana

Deer Park
1st sermon
d. Kusinagara
4 other miracle sites

Buddhist Places of Worship


pagodas and stupas
stupas
Mark location of relics
collected by Buddhas
followers in South Asia
pagodas
Evolved from concept of
stupa
Mostly found in China
and Japan

Other Universalizing Religions


Adherents

Origin
Distribution
/Diffusion
Calendar
Holy
Places/
Houses of
Worship

Main idea
(incl.
prophet/fou
nder etc.)

Sikhism

Bah

23 million

7 million

Lahore, Pakistan

Shiraz, Iran

Clustered in the Punjab, India

Spread to every continent

Holidays are births and deaths


of the ten gurus (historical)

19 months of 19 days

Golden Temple at Amritsar

On all continents to show


universalizing nature. Open
to adherents of all religions
with scriptural recitals from
various faiths

Guru Nanak (ca. 1500 AD)


Monotheistic, mixes Islamic
egalitarianism with Hindu
karmic traditions

The Bab (1844 AD)


Establish a universal faith
Gods of other faiths =
different manifestations of
one true God