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Distance protection schemes


't2.1

12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6

lntroduction
Zone 1 extension scherne
Transfer trip schemes

Blocking scheme
Directional comparison unblocking scheme
Application to weak infeed terminals
12,7 Operational comparison of transfer trip and
blocking relaying schemes
12.8 Application to three-terminal lines
12.9 Scheme requirements

12.1

INTRODUCTION
One of the main disadvantages bf conventional time-

stepped distance protection, as illustrated in Figure 12.1, is


the fact that the instantaneous Zohe 1 of the protection at
each end of the protected line iannot be set to cover the
whole of the feeder length and is usually set to a6out 80%.
This leaves two 'end zones', each being about 20% of the
protected ieeder lengih; in which faultslre cleared instantaneously (Zone -t tirile) by the protection at one end of the
feeder but in Zone 2 time (0.3 to 0.4 seconds typically) by
the protectioh at the other end of the ferjder.
ln some applications this siituation cannot be tolerated, for

two main reasons:

i;

Faults remaining on the feeder for Zone 2 time may


cause the system to become unstable.

b.

Where high speed auto-reclosing is used, Jhe nonsimultaneous opening of the circuit bredkers at both ends
of the faulted section results in no 'dead time' during the
auto-reclose cyole for the fault to be extinguished and for
ionizid gases tcj clear. This results in the possibility that a
transient fuult will cause permanent lockout of the circuit
breakerS at each end. of thri line section.
Unit schemes of protection which compare the conditions
at the two ends of the protected feeder simultaneously can
positively identify whether the fault is internal'or external to

the protected section, and are capable of providing high

speed,protection f6r the whole feeder length. This advantage is balanCed by the fact that the unit scheme does not
provide the back up protection to adjacent feeders given by
a distance scheme.
The most desirable scheme is obviously one which combines the best features of both arrangements, that is, inslantaneous tripping over the whole feeder length plus

back-up protection

to

adjacent'feeders. This ean be

achieved by interconnecting the distance protections at


each end of the protected feeder by a signalling channel.
The signalling chdnnel may be high fiequency (hf) operating over the overhead line conductors, voice freqrency
(vf) using either pilots or a power line carrier communications channel. a radio link. microwave channel or a fibre
optic link. These communication techniques are described
in detail in Chapter 8.
The purpose of the signalling channel is to transmit information about the s)r6tem conditions from one end of the'
protected line to the other; it can also be arranged to initiate
213

ror prevent trippiog sf the rernotecircui't breaker. The former


' arangernent:isv.gene.rally' r.efened to as a .lransier trip
:.. :scheni:;wtiite the latler is known asa 'blocking scheme'.
Whh cefiiei ol'sibn'alling'''equib*'tent is not dvailable, fast
tripiiing for all lind fadtslsdd be achieved by dxtending the
Zone 1 r6abfi of'dislAnce f6taY3'under':control ot an
'ass'6Ciat'ed' auto -?iclose "sEfrdme" The resu lti n g d istance
scheme is referred to as a 'lone 1 Extensibri'S'Chemd and
.

:''its appti cati os,is;o qrrna lly'l

i m ited'to d istri bu rion systerns o r


: to'.intergbnneg&d power', sy$ernQ'nrhenr-lcarrier,, is'temporarily takenrout of.tsilrviog.r',.i:'! , r:rji '?i, i4i :t ' ...

zoNE
(a} STEPPEO TIME/OISTANCE

.lr-i: '

'-As
(aI OISTANCE/TIME CHARACTERISTICS

.t.

,: 'i : -Cil!flAgTERISTjG$.,-

(bl TRIP CIRCUIT (CONTACT

LOGIC)

Ranqe chanqe relay

(Z,eit reachl

when energised).

TZ3"

T?2

ZONE

ext

it{fiiFf^iiii'} ; Irrli

Figure 12.1 Conventional diitance scH6iid.

12.2

26rue

. . *....--,*.,..--,.,-,",.,*

.,,i::.1*,

,r;

ExrENsroru.scHEME,,

The scheme is intended for use with an auto-reilose

relav.

The-Zone 1-units.of.the.distancerelav-havc-two settinq


controls; one,'as ini'ttre' bbsic"distanc6'schdine, is set

t5

t1.t!i,n r.

"t"+b* F

',"when {the Lliltor:recfos'e''fscility islbut of service.

,'-r

l:J,ig:,UJ:*iJiiTtj#!,f "i$ffi."i1:1t*T::ffi#i

during the lreclaim time iS'adbject to the discrimination


obtained with normal Zone 1 and Zone 2 settings. The
.R9,{I.t"..i"
lhoqn 13f,isu19,,1.}*1' nu ,^
The disadvantage of the Zone 1 extension scheme is that

cover 80% of the protected line length and-the other,


known as 'Extended Zonell, is set to cover l2ogfr of the extErnalrfdults,:tietrrteeri'ttxi far end of the line and the first
'"''protectdd tln'e:TnEZtn6l rbjchis nbtiTstlfebdirbhed by''''2Wo bf the-nexi line;.result"in rlie tripping of the circuit

$g basic value bre-bkers'iternal td"ther{aulted s'bction, increasing the


wfien,a gorqgrand. fr,om the.agto*eblose relqyis .rgceived. : binount cif bleakirmCintenance nebded. This is illustrated
' Oh erctrefice of a fftrltidt ar4rpoint within ttrs exrended in Figure 12.3 (a) forb Sihgie circuit line where three circuit
,Z6ri,'t'^fbdch, the reldy ilpgrat'ei,in'Zone,.1;.time, trips the : '$eafer; opeffe,and,in Figure 12:3 (b) for a double circuit
. Circrjrit"bfeaker and'lnitiatei auto..reslo$Jre.tA cdntact from line,'.whore. fiv.ecircuit
'breakers Operate.
thg.uto:reclos
relay,ig.rised;to'reset-the
Zons.lrlach
ol:'i"'Sirrce
ttr.i
u'sbbfsiiirt-allihg'bquipment
is not necessary. this
"'
ttrb distance rdtby to'the tbasic=vatue'$f,80%:.Th6'auto- scheme is ofteii"useddsia t'einporary replacement for carrierir'relose coittact used for thig purpose:operatesrbefore the' r aided setrennes":whea:
the signalling equipment is out of
the exended.frgne;Niqglting and iqreset to

'

c$osirigpulseisappliedrtoths.breakg4andreseiisor|tiatthe-',r,!elvi@r;
214

J.r:-,:.1 :;,".1v1,..i,

,,'

Z1

Z1

extc

-Z1c'- *-'1..$,1-----n!{t
6 i.3-:..
*
ext

H 3 '

n'rf z1H1 ---'-#

z'tnz

'-'-7't-en n2

Ereakers
auto'reciose'
marked thus

(a} FAULT

extJ

Zlp-. . .

*... . .
--,.ii',1,
r-, r; r. .,:.- ; irr
cr l*:
1 EXTENSION REACH OF
WITHIN
.21

,{hen

ZONE

OISTANCE RELAYS (SINGLE CIRCUIT L|NES)

t.lte."qfrQuit breaker at oqe

qfd

ig

opcn, insranqapeous

clearance cannot be aehieved fer end-zone


'breaker open' terpjnal.

faults-;;ir the

Z1 extJ
I
I
I

J.
I

i
I

P I'
ZlextN r'

{bI FAULT WITHIN ZONE 1 EXTEIISION'.{d.&}+'OF

$srANeE RLJ6nS"{OOUSrFIf,t +r,I,t&Sl

"

Figure 12.3 Performance of distance relays fitted with ZonE l


exrcnsion when used with a4tglgelose telays an
si n g I e

nd

d ou b te

"i,",, tt {!*i:i=

-i 'i""'
; u-.*-"_*'

12.3

:"':r'::'

-li

TRANSFER TRIP.CHEMES
.

'trtr
Gndar- reachl ng ) lch.rne
The simplesi "raay of;S6eding-up fault .dibidnce at tho
terminal which clears anpnd zone fault in Zone 2 tirne is to
12.3.1
D

rect transfar

triil

adopt a direct transf,er,{rip or intertrip technique as shown


in Figure 12.4:. AZnAe.f ionracrjs-aranged$$jisnd a signal
to the remote end arld,,alreceive relay contmt at that end is
connected in the tripping circuit. The schenre in which the
Zone l relay is used tS"siriifi'sbriit i6f$b rcmore end of
the feeder in this rna,nner is termed a 'transfur trip underreaching scheme'.

Considering now.a-fuult F in-fhe end.zone atend H in


Figure '12.1(a), operati{t'r.}. of the.Zonertr Rlay*al.;gnd ,ry

(cr

srMpuFrd

S&ibtft*&LiH& t Stg$-l'

;,i

_i {

Sbteced {kr#fi:{dte&fti al{}iifdnripping sigiilet.to the

' rrir,i:f,-ifJldtl*efidJ*fr
ihh c*q ttoil*ailerr r* ir-mmri* t*at the
"
Ti m e de ayed resetting,o*'ttre-d6"rui"Ji'#"nt
il:
;{1ffii;;i.i:"#Xffi''i"iffi:;ffi;['ii:!*:'
. cpn ept fio rnslaa dta$-ulpotngd,geF.npl,'q.ke,9lase.wrless
i*?l?l
end fed faulted lineof a
.tjrne to. . *,c *arri:is *"itdio;6
ilffi;a;;;ffi [;":lfi,l,|'e:i 2.t.
trip when the fault, i$*loie'p*if. n4gnC,.lrJo

;ffi#g$tffit

#,.,"r0

for

:Tfietnttffialosl$contao6cr{tb
dvi.ryyw*r
*!ry ZqogejfRita$
aranged
9r rveu
4ti.\r
erY' q}.r
-4ry
,-*o,snddrsmbrd;;d er, nacfu*tgtr6su;;rdisoduv
?{zoscS;spaenioq";ilurgu;ia;ulrejp,t-lit6,"iisUirn"

rr

the 66e;ijlaved rnnifinsFntat( baar#ained,


L!"_
i"".o,
byconsideringafault'F'inadoublecircuit'lilw,as.i*rown'.

215

zi

-T.

22HC RRX

i;l2

(al Fault occurs - bus barvollge low so


negligiblb far,r-li cuiierii:vi6. end H.

*.:1RECE!VE.. ..: RELAYCONTACT


(AI TRIP CIRC,UIT {COi\TACT LOGIC)

,lUt.f nO.CreTal ilearB*..fault and current


startileedingtno'ir efid H.

'

f isui'i2:6 Single end, fed

cte-$e.qp fa.ytq-g1 double circuit line.

The need for sush a time delayed qitis, best explained by


the parallel feeder arrangemen+shs#n in Figure 12.8. lf a
fault occurs near circuit breaker( o(treeder JK, the protection at ( will clell ihE fau.tt faster ttrdn,-the protection at J.
As sociri aS ffea lid! tr'.ogn*r s' thedircction'of c u?ie n t f ow
down the healtliflTeeder r:everses. The Zbne 2 units at end
G. whieh operated arrrl sent ttre si{nal to end H when the
fault at started; reset wli&6ker'K.opens.
The Zone, 2. u nits at end" H,,wiich,re6trai ned when the f a u lt
at K starGd; operate when-breaker ,( opens. lf the Zone 2
I

units at' end ll.operate before Zsne 2 at end G resets,


tripping of the breakers at G and H may take place.

9UDSTATELOGTC'',,:;r:

{c}

'sFN*

'11

UI
tEI

IREUIT

--lfTl

si
zl

J
u
G

U
(J

#l

6L

6
SIGNAIUNG

sc

heme

lh en kn own as' a' peml issiVe over. reach'tra nsf er

trip scheme: or'directional comparison seheme'.


S i n ce th e, si g n aUindi.$.dt&.f. ii;keyed, by over-

reachi n g
Tone 2 units, the scherne rcqtfies.duplex signalling channels
one frequency for each'tlliptiorlofsignalling.
lf distance relay,s with mho characler{stics are used the
scheme is better suited thao the permigsive under-reaching,
scherne for protectins shqrt lines, becquse :ll?e'.'resistive
gr.Eter tbaa that af Zone 1.
iovera-Se of that Zone 2 u-nit
-is'
To prevent operation under current reversal conditions. in
a parallel feeder circuit. it is necessary-fo UsdA'tt'l,ie:$elayed
ur,rit ip the permissive tlip c!lggi!. Thjs current reversal

guard is.necessary only".whdii-the .{i.r14 ?,ipaqfr is set


greater than 1507o of the piotected line, irDpd?ince;
216

signal send circuit by the time the current reversal

described above'takes glace. ';'j '":" : '


The time,delayed unit is de-energized if the Zone 2 units
-opsrate-or thr signd r*eived- -etemerlt resets. The reset
time ddlqlr:(td)Ydf theilindldelav itnit is set to cover any
overlap'in time caused by Zbne 2 units operating and the
i:1:r:''sigitdf ?esdt?in g,at and //.. $thenns!r cu rrent in th e h ea lt h y
,'rx{cdg*;&vdges.r Using, a*irne ile.fa*.unit,in'this manner, that
:'elswith 6 tidiedelardn pieh,upatdrcsefting, means that no
-extralfmO.detaf isaddcdin thepermisslve trip circuit for an
, iRternaf fatilt. ,- : r r.-i.. . .
rn tti'6 hiriiurdperntnEliive dvdrlrb#tt' scheme, as with the
'' J'permi$Sivs:imtleri'r@eh so*iemcit i nsta nta n eou s c ea ra n c e
eahFot hreuachieved'for end zba'faults near the 'breaker
:';,"6fpgrf{,1ffiinaf.: tJswevet, to :achioie fast clearance for
lthesb'ifaultel addftisnal circuit?y ;ban'- be included in the
scheme to echother'received signal'to the remote terminal,
as shown in Figure 12.10. An'auxiliary contact of the local
circuit breaker is connected to the distance protection
scheme to show when the circdtbteakOr is open or closed.

':

$$'?

olzz
*o
l-

[OREI@TE
TER,MINAL

{b} srcNALLr NG SiNU

SnqNGE[d{l GdlrrAcT rocrc)

!;-i?f", ,.ii,
:,:j.r.l i:,i.: t;-i r
j : ,,. ;:x;iii"'atih:i it'j,".: :{l. .t:. '1.. :
4r{

;I:4

t/:-Jr;.T:

(bl

l;;.)r,;i{& }t.ii.'r:.

FAULT CUfi REI&T'U|STRIaUI|oN


wlTI{' CIRCUIT BFEAKER X*OPEN

r+ ;l;i6'1.hii", t:rii;
i",{:

1:

lfi.ai|*

:ir )'$

::.

<ga'

i;*tii:

r3,.!

i;;;i;:itsftr *f-d, ti :r,'r:t

:r'.i".a:G,:fr f

r,. ,

F::'"r. Isr;tv, {}.!{r&.:;';l de i. .


(c|

' r*r$
stMpLtFtEDtoli.bidiiiJiije,f
r:o.rr.. f_a'.4,.
:1i:

''r',.b

",

;
.'+:'-

jn;.: j l: r.cEE.=t:T
r.r:af--.

f*r,.:1.

tF

)if.r

t'le ii ii:::j!:r
.
,:r'r. -J' 1r. .g '-. n. ;r.lrtdtl:, :,t l: 1,.:!.:..-.,
" 1".*i.,4 tnlrt

^+{t: |}!.:t-::

[il5i'Y:'l'n::-i I]i ;"


(dl

Sl G

NALLI NG

ARRANGEME!3r,j$:'
",;.1*;...

.,

'. '

;ii':i'

.,.

ii'

/{ii:

EHU'#*:$-'"-.{.y
L,

ti'1": ,r''
,t . ,.,.:

tlrg' t! rrir "f o t19.L l1r.:-:


;JlT.$

Er{\

; lU;]. :':i ::. !I':*: . ",;:;

,.,

:": trHi::*'.it.

fi...the eahA ebg*t it de p{e\rent


t r i p p i n g of t h e rqng.tg{efi d' braakel, rsh e r} ttrg,!g-ca&,F-eak er
is tri pped by the "busbra pro$efition. or bnealcer Jail".pr@c-

ti m e del ay,

/S//. is*eqoi red

ve
C1ftb1i-rdf 6isb|A n eid ciicu ft' 1'..:-'
= Dcrrh issi
ri'
- ii'L 12.9
i' wir-'ibdcf
"-'
schdine FOil "

Fi-a d

ti on associated wittno$er.tueders{sno*ed.:to.tt}ebqpbar.
The time delay ensures that the remote end agfla&sni{will
reset by the time
gJ.lWsend.

Qgec.QqedsignnljXrF$Qivfid
I tra nsmission'-can,tehe.placFevsni aft!, tbq.f ernote
end breaker has trjpped; !o-tal\4gidrgonIi$Jogs Bans.
mission due to lpc,k:U,F o{ both*.gignalgr the:tirne'.delay
S ig n a

it ( T2 ) is used. f ft er !h e ti me.deh#;/ I3' leierp+,sertd:


blOCked.'i,.,r,'.,r.
:jrJp.] :.i!;riC,*ti.::::,;+,::.^.}.ii,.i.:
.. ' :r:-: ;. "r.;. .: i'i j1'l*'sii:i 1:. :riu;..- ::1:' .'';:
12.3.4
.- .rr*;iqri1i,r,,,. : 1g;4;;11y; .;,.Jr ,.:i.
Acceleration sltF.mQ : i,':-e!.+rlraqit.;'. .illii{'.il {,,}: :.i,.-* -.ii
Th s sc hem e s s idt'i ar bo tlie bermis6iG',lha#: riaHti" iia ns'brifrii'6ie'rdf j6F&'l+i;n',''tuFt
fer trip scheme in'itS
is
c i rc u

iS

r:,;.....;1,3*
'. -,

lrnR

.n'

1,;.q1:;

.j,n

:.r': ..1r:r*:j

:"ii
it n t 6c n ii' c, rcii i E nzl.
o" i
'6v'arftaffi#idifi.r
r: c'..r' '
"f$
'

'217

applicab'le only

to zone switched distance relays which

shaie thetamer' measuring uriiti for both Zone 1 andZorie 2.


ln these relays the reach of the measuring units is exterided
from Zone 1 to Zone2 by means of a range change relay; after

Zone2time....

ln this 5cheme; t{reu.nder-reachr,ng Zone l unit is arranged


to sefid d sign_al to ihe'remoie end of the feedEi in additi6n
to tri pBih :ifi 6 loca I ci rc u it bre6ker- The.receive. rel,ay con taci i5,6nsnged io:operate the' range changb.-relay whicti
exterids the reach of the'mea$uri-nS-unit_frpm-Zene"Z 1 to.'
Z.ond:2 immediatirly instead' ot:ai:tii" enJ ot'Z6ne
time
delay. This accelerates the fault.olear5npes'at the remote
end. The schbme is shown in ;iguri!'fZ.it
rin.-o
T h e 9f .lierng ls nqt- q,uite.'bs: f as,t.
peratien as tli.b per missiiie intertiip scheftes, since trme is reciuired for the
distance. m,eaSi.ripg_u1it to operate after the reach has been
chaqied fi'orn Zohe 1 to Zone 2. lt may be argued. though,
that the sligfiff_:fg,ryy;gryraligl'_wiit resuti in inc-reasld
.

.-] A
I

secunry rrom

matopcratton. -, .

Z2c-

12.4,

'

B[oeKtNG' Scit-E tutiThe alternatlve'anangements so far described have usecr-thE signalling,Channel to trdnsmit'a-tripping instruction. lf
the signalling channel _failqr.there is no infeed from one
end, end:of-zofie faults will taRe longer to be cleared.
The,.

bkxking .aeherne,uses.- jnverse logic. Signalling

is

inltiated only foi external faults and signalling transmission


takesplace over healihf linir sectipns. Fast fault clearance
occurs when.no siSn6f is"r6c"lved and the over-reaching
clistsncs-rtfraa$rring units (22) looking into the line

operate. The signallingchannel is keyed by reverse looking


distance units (23). An idedl''bfocking scheme is shown in

Figure'12.12i

Thb signblling'chartrtel usd need only be of the single


frequificy type thst'operates both local and remote receive
relays when a.block signal is initiated at any end of the

profected s"etiqtr
A biockifig in3tfrctfon has to be seniOy the reverse looking
Zonb 3.bnlti to ptoven't' iristantaneous tripping of tne
reniote relay for 2one'2 faults exFi-al to the protected
section. To achierre:this. the reverse looking Zone 3 units
and: ttt6 signalling, channel rnust operate faster than the
forlVard"lci,oking Zone 2 units. ln practice this is seldom th'
ca$e and to ensiJr discrimination a-short time delay is-grer{era$y introduced' i nto{$eb_locklng h od e tri p ci rc u i, a s

illusrratg{'irF figure-,

1!,J3j. -t t - -- l

/ in Figure 12.12 are now


considereel
A fauft at Ai$ seerr bry-the Zone 1,"relays at both ends G and
end H; as a reiult the-'fault is cl,eafg_.d instantaneously at
both ends of'the fotectbdfi#e. Si$rialling is conlrolled by
th Zone 3 units looking away from the protected section,
so'no$ansmissiron takes place thus giving fast back-up
tripping via the foisvard.looking Zone 2 units.
n fauir at S is seen'irry titd fbqrvaid iooking Zone 2 units at
ends G end,#'arTdoy*lhe"&ng1 0nfts at'end H. No signal
$ansmission taks plact;'sitfcsrhe fault is internal and the
fault is cleared in lone f time at end H and after the short
The'fiults'i*rbwn"at:fl S"ana

(tt tRip crncur{coNTACT LoGtc)

;-

time lag{ST!) * el6 G. .'. 1.'-. , '


A fault at lis seen by the reverse looking Zone 3 units at
end H and the forward looking Zone 2 units at end G. The
fault at f would normally be cleared by the Zone 1 units
associateil-with"'iine"secii;A gl.to pievent thd Zone 2
units at end 6 frorn tripping the reverse looking Zone 3,
units at end H send a blocking signal to end G. lf the fau'
is not cleared instanfaneouiTy 67 ttre protections on lin+-ssction HJ,the trip stgtiat vni#be.lineh at end G after the
normal Zorrc 21inr9.[apse. . .,
The 3biiirtg-of tfie i6Verse bokiiig Zone 3 units must be
greater than tharof Zone 2 trnits at the remote end of the
feeder, otherwise there iS the possibility of Zone 2 units
initiating tripping and the reveQg looking Zone 3 units
failing to see an external fauk, Thib would result in instantaneous tripping for 6n externa! fagtt.
When the signalling channLl'is used for a stabilizing signal.

as in the above case, transmission takes place over

healthy line section. The signalling channel should then be


more reliable yrhen used in the blocking mode, especially
if "therffanhel is power line carrier. lt is essential that the
operatfgrg".iiFres

.oi ihc varioui-"relays be skillfully co-

ordinateci for allsy3tern conditions, so that sufficient time


id atways alloiryed;for the receipt of a blocking signal from
the rei-mote-en'd.OJ-ffie feeder. lf this is not done accurately,
the scherhe may*tlip, for an external fault or alternatively,
the end zone.trippiag times may be delayed fuither than is

necessary.

,-.

lf the signalling channel fails. definite action must be tak,


to revert the scheme to conventional basic distance protec*
tion. Normally, the blocking mode trip circuit is supervised
.by

218

-a 'channel-in-service' contact so that the blocking

J:-

4*r;:,

't

,:

;i{i

.i1..j.

.r

H"
rt'l'w t- .-.4:l;
'.\'"AH|/B rS :. r."
-4i.t'*''i:,-:s

-y-.,I-y
llbl

'r+irh
;t.. -, .ir.,!Blr i'*j\^t"
f';:!"tl:t,, *'--.nti,.'il'" +::, IfrP{LA
*.
j. -.g;f 1' ': + -' ' *+:. ':1..

z2

T4r

j1.' . ,i.;;-:. ga: :'1il+ .li


=. "r .{-,.t .i 'r 4i.;de;r')h-.},:'r :
,

i{

i.

t'

--:

,:

1.''

cal

{fi{f ClffFl4l"lcpfrrTAcrm$Ci".:-

'.. :i iil- r' ' l : -,'- '


tl:t. *.i.-11:f.*' {!$1;
.

'BECE?t/FfigtAFli:

.:

,fi'.rl

z3

t,t _r,oi..t tJ"r jri",-{t' E i, .9; l:,..:

(b) TRrP CTRCUJT


r:"

l':: .. :*'&

ii.]"r/: -.;;-i' rh,'r't:

..'.qr-*";'ei}

i.;:' i,.:*it avr-:i".itfu6: :il.+r*tl+;"..:+*,t +:,., \


j :.ril ; Lr.l.3+ td5&ii .'::;lg1d.r!d[..;'I

t# f*f S.*i;io A.}r;o'i : +-,.: P


ti.'i -

trrulc' .
tr !r:1"+ 34 p 1, ,
lrl*; F {,i , ii. nt:,ii

.':.r;.ri;

rf!*.k t'*t-:*ii: li;:l &'


tr} ?:'i ,!,ii rt&;.l"*:'

rN SERV|C

{d SIMPUF|ED SOUOSTATT LOOE

i? .ji;rrqt:l]g riFl:. _li


(dlslMPLlFlED

'*i. G{,:C;ti stiriti; ,.


:,;r ii:11::I4 ?rf, r?:': t: r;t'i;,.;l
t .i: li-ir,r+'.{:-) I F .- j.] ift. -fi.r -s..:j$$.,r .i
SOLTD STATE LOGTC
. 3t:i ij :r 19! .: ''ll i: L .13:l .,' I i;J"' r
.'.,:;iiryl;!-.,Ii
! - ..4
i-"i.-r;-+.r
.ii:_6 j c .it.t5
i ii .' r;
1*.'ill .ri.:.i; ...-:'i tir'-".:.., ':ril:i f;rti:.-.r

3r

UI
GI

-l

(J<

show$ reverse looking Zone {.units,that initirdie tha blocking signal. ln practiCe, the 2onij'3"unifs irie sii with a
f oruvard offFgt
Eh.?facJ6riilic ro provi{ie back - u p prgtectio n
for busbar faultd aftei lhe'Zones:timnUehy. Thisinakes it
nec.essary to.stop.the tjlbtking
9,.StUUing sent ior tnleinai
f a u lts..
a I se nd ci rcu it
.This is achieve{*lv;r,nqhi lC3tt";,b"
'
conditbaat.'.r!pp4_Ire.ti -o'pdffi
canditioas[.upg!-Jtgi
tlfo f orwa rd ook in g
tof
.of 1fu
-o'pdtffi
Zorie 2 units;.as shown'in
Sigure'ii.i4.
I

zl
<t

As for the perrnissi""

EL
SIGNAL"LING .:'

.r i

EOUIPMENT

.ENO

SIGI:rAfLlNGfii3.*;

i':1,- :'r.1

EOUTPMENT ,..!...

G
-

;.'

1.,-t

(el SIGNALLING ARRANGEMENI

Figure 12.12 ldeal blocking scheme,

o*r-i*i"h

ssherxa.:.th*-blocking

scheme also is affected hyfhe current reverbal in.the beal-

END

-j.,

1<

l' . ,'ii.r . ''lllllitf{lj:i. Si' :


, i:!':.'i.3i.l.? 9ii-j .'i.!:i; at:
.': ::-i t:i: 1jt61;i"r;6 .1,;1

thy feedr'il.ueJoafault in atouble circuit |ine.


lf the fauli tondition;slxbriiin- iii'Fr gurd'l 2.8 occurs. the
revels looking Zone 3 unirs qt eAd H.Wil! hav-e+pptjed the
blocking signal.to the prcitecrtiiin aib;rd'6 of ihd neatttry
-.- -.line .GH :..the reverse.Jaoking-Zon 3"-u nits at. end. H*reset
when breaker ( opens. T,he.Qrwatd lookiftS:Zgie ?1u.nits
at end G, which operated when the fault at ( started, also
219

t
c;-

216

':.'i.''

-^T^-^t..::::::::T.\-_--=----:-,\-r
z2u

Zlu

.\-

'

received. This arrangement gives the scheme better security than that of the blocking scheme, since tripping f/
external faults is possible only if the fault occurs within thr_''-laboVe time'interval
of channel failure.
-,'14
tliis viiayJh6"scheme has the dependability of a btocking
.EchHnig and the security of a permissive over-reach
gg"he.op.-The scheme is geneially preferred when power
lirle ca,.friet is.used; elcept when continuous transmission
- of .Signal is not acceptable.

Z3s

12.6

(al DISTANCE/TIME CHARACTERISTTCS

APPLICATION TO WEAK TNFEED

renumuets

i' l2

,]

-,''.1:'i

{b} sTcNALLtNG CHarurfr r-GErrro

tcorulacr

loctct

A weak jqfeed tqrminal cannot contribute sufficient fault


c.yqrqt .Cufing jpteeaat fpij-lt conditions to operate the
protecti.6n.fl pp1 ied at thit tertiii nal. H owever, it is n ecessa ry
to open the circuit breaker at the weak infeed terminal.
sjncr even tJgw F{it infeeO can maintain the fault. Wirh
permissive transfer trip and acceleration schemes, the
protectiqn at the strong infeed terminal will be unable to

dfrnarucenierur

'

''

cleqr end-zone faults instantaneously unless a signal is


received frqm, tharemqte {ias'.end.

-To

md ntEi.l :ste bitl{y.i.o/,alrr ieve h ig h s peed a u to - rec o'


ing, it is essential that both the strong and weak infe.__
',r te{rninal Srea&erF. lre opened instantaneously for fau lt.
anywhere within the line section.
Tlre operatign of each of the schemes described above is
i

(c} SOLID STATE LOGIC OF SENO CIRCUIT

' epnsidered below, fgweak infeed conditions at one termi* lrvla.l.rt, _ f'i..,. ':n:.:.r .t':.,:.:
:'j r,. :
,.,r,,..fifiUry

lf,:ilt

t*l

220

(al OISTANCE/TIME CHARACTERIST1CS

ir,:..;;ii,&' '"

6,b'r',o.

ri'*,i

FROM S?ANDARO
POR SCHEME

.'

id
"*f 4rl
s*('

T
I

Figure 12.15 Weak infeed

in permissive bverg,pch sbheme.

rird,*t{reffitection
gnd se-iiipping of
efldirect intertrip-

atH,a

at6

t'o

the
"$pn fram
Jo have

plospeed

P is

dat*.ls

tild!;i&dbtititf

ti

ulkiosiifSi

ii]i.f
221

r-l
I

.:ile
{ lr'.ij

i' r.i r:i.


.L. '!

,:.1

',,,

"'

Figure 12.1V Typiaal three-er,Eninal line..

r,

f ,,

,rt''tl
6:6, "ZbNFTREACFTOF:REIAYSAT G H-H' ZOIIIE 1 RE;ACT+OFf,EtAYS.AI H
J.J' ZONE l REACH OF REHYS AT J
H'.J'.J'FAULT ZONE IN WHICH HIGH SPEED CLEARANCE
,,.. , .. TBAil!.ALLTERMLNALS IS ACHIEVEDWITHOUT CARRIER

Figure 12.18
Coverage of typicat rhree terminal line with
'*' distanc7
nr refaw. *\l

'

'

the'trip signal isltceived rdith only one guard signal. This


is necessary because thbtripping signal is initlqted and the
guarrd signal retnoved by the operation of the Zone 1 relay
of the distance. schenie ?t^any end. lf a common guard
signal were rlsed, it would be necessary for the Zone 1
'retays at twd ends of,tlfl; feeder to operate before tripping

cguld'ttrke'pltrcg'at:ttg ttt*d\errnind for a fault outside


Zond-1 at th'at enh: Tfii$i6 niit:always possible, because of

-. varying fee.der len.Stf-li aad u.odgf -rqaching by the distance


measurjng relays caused by infeeds.
lf a+'q\$i.L-Eashing*tr-etl^s.b!:trip scheme. that is, one in
'':"" lVhich the tarrieriin$.iating relay is set to over-reach the
section. Wereused, ft would be necessary to use a duplex

carrier

iin[

uetween.each pair of stations.

This is necessary te fflsyre that tripping does not take plae

i! certain that the carrier starting relay-at both the remaihing terminals have operated, haking
at one end until it

' -c6nailithatthe"fault is within the line section.


..fhrsmelho'{.qf-ggA".qlli{tg -is nol only expensive but also

occerpies a relativply large bandwidth;-because of the


shortage of avbjlablecariei ftequencies this is not usually
acceptable.
Flu,qtgJS:y_.c'an.ofrc1 ,r:::Un{t*,e:Sib rraGfehtl.ip:sohrnes,,:a btocking scheme need
[e8-'qiStait'e6-scherfe ohty riie a Simple oiilott sinetc sinier c-hannel. as the
ti!"ti!,tt0nl.Or overlAp. - funCtion of .the.:sighal ir ts btock fiipping rather than to
t*ffi;:A;nL+ mus(.bs taken to ensure that the
- qi ttreiiiStst"ade o*i6tiiffig'insilhanbdrr:5'irftipir{(i is usuattv' '
bcfity:d6rived
Signa{Uoes nqt.under any circumstances
lfltliilcn"smaifBtttlai\rmtmsf
9tt'[e'.two'tqdtih.dline.This'.';
r' i3.tlly..stititeattnhgrtte t.?.iE;'Ueo=irladiof,dhilrfre.use of:a l;a-ffi;l'fr'l;E;ii"'J.iGo.trriithe
far end. tn the case of

'

,d;;l;i:

,f,
:i'

..caiiiBFflht<tilil'drtrBsmbt6.ikiFiinbfl|'.:-'-'..1.'..;.'.
mined' sigir'dl b daote-d,bi'reflection at.the 'tee' junction
influenced L''; rnitted.
infjuenced
iiiditvpeffbcfieihe'is
6fsiftntE'ir'opriration.of
if{fd-tiffi
.;".,.,'"iiiliBld.r<j-i"lltniYiri6ltd"tf,{f,i-ti,p;
,:'arrd,
ifr oiderio ebtap"fiaxlrlur.n.reliable operation, tlelg
rigt-i6iil,?h$;ifude'of
ls
,1'an adriHritage"in,using a"slocking:scheme where transbre
disadvdriiages
tr,EtvstiriijtridVjiioriiSlvantasiesairU
tad
Sv-ste-r$'flie:-t
'''mission'fsalrarays,ovsa',hpsHhylineandattenuationdue
.:.r
':
aidC.uss'dd'int,iiei'it's.tibh$iitlfits-elrhptel..
in'.l.d.tq
'' aisc.sgsed
considered.
,",e.tb;.ii*li,i$liXi*ifr*;ii"qltilaq'r'dulibinenrs of thb ": io dn'internalifsutt dss'not'have to be
thSe;
;;dti;s s;;;;es itlii';;fif;";".iltii"Jdlilirrrirtte.Lcrii", , t'1" .oroolUrnlitc b'e'bverco'me"'ilitn" pro,tection.or protect
lines'btenumerous; it isfar'more diff icult to
r"riti 6itn" iionajfino cnar,*t. lf a frjquencv Sf,it carrir r,'.terminal
is used. .witn'i..pbrnfi9givgrrr1416qy.ieh'trlnSii'ttansfer tiip :,"S"!itr of'this ratuepatisfactotiiy forall configuralions:
scheheit is necd3sjrv%'us"aalOlft6ffrit'OuaibtreEuencfai 'i sittern conditioirs thm it is-tb'do.the same for the sin, -each of the three t"rihi}iJfil ld tfibtih'd]:sidnats from iWo tiv6-tlrhitneliiim.'Tha.riarior.is fettures of transfer trip and
in relation to these
tetrinlfs can be identified definitely at th; third. A cpm; i 'b}bcking'scffemiit rrvill$s.cansidered
r1,::-'::/"
mon trip frequency iS employed, triiping being allOwid ii: I prob{eCrs::r'nI'irrirl'r'"r,':.1

'

'"

222

tlte Zone 2

witn ilre
at all

Tn
6.G'
H.H'
J.J'
bi

ZONE

OF RETAYS AT

1 REACFI

,'

ZONEI REACHOFRELAYSAT H
ZONE 1 REACH OFRELAYSAT-J
r'-.r' ZouE ruoi c-ovEneo:avo+i5-'1 Reuavs ATANY TEfiMINALS.

of the
t?lpping

,(

'4;:Li)$

t&fu$ l +Y":,ti.i
.s,jrrg;x{,t i:i,.; J:..ir?gr: ;
:i ar &zuo.'nr*> | qi..tl 4Fg.t'f

c*i-.:ilii-,
',fJrr,.iitfiEdssrliffir
'
:{,i.

lXLl r'}I44

ti: Fiitr:,,

xrgi.:|!e

t'if; ',"
4:f

:.

Figure 12,2OThtgp,
clos&.tqA,
\

tit':ir. ;*

2f.i.;t1.

;i.t?.l

'ihi
tta!'F

the SigFl to

less

more

offeeder,
ln the
rs unLfita worst

noigl$l*

to be
not

From the'relaying
blocking and the
Fioure 12.21

exbkai df nt
ramii'fra$foi dt

6itir0Fli,'"tF
*.i,{,;l{."i" *
" it

S,:,.:r.r.fi;S;

thero arf'advantages in the

ince the
hiUh

'lhfeeds.
infeed.
livith the

Whert one of ttre tixminals hae no intesd

.ii.r.r.

frisdeu*mflilolthc fiFf" '


is shown in'Figre"t*.l& lc$blors* f,cca*ga of @ :;

There are twocaeegfupflit-bf

et

if

ative f eder :iortg{J$'.ir


of the reaches.d tlt$fthf$
a section,bf tfie{sr#it
Zone 2 tiime
tia I Zo ne 2 cl earan*-{K'q.$S s#i itsg
inf eeds. 16s-s66i1d*iissfi,*qrilh$pg *t
rel

is assu med

in

rs

'intemal
other

eitherthlUdpSn#Srn*

thtbr$lsS. :sllt
ntertri p, signal 6fi.rW{SSSq

would

is no infeed at

no

the

titre-fauit

because it can not,opeflte*S


in second zoneitimerhy tt*g rehf*F
Where the more,u$gal
is used, a

bim&orEat"trther line

^.r'.rtr.d ji:.;1r,a"'

..,.,.r":.,

the protected,'scctiwl,s
back in at anotharr il

this happens ther, fallB*dtFatffi#,ro."lffiter,


received tripping signal may not operatehifti&;ieJhe

uJ

223