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OSHA 1910.

179
Overhead and Gantry Cranes
(13) Storage bridge crane means a gantry type
crane of long span usually used for bulk storage of
material; the bridge girders or trusses are rigidly or
nonrigidly supported on one or more legs. It may have
one or more fixed or hinged cantilever ends.
(14) Wall crane means a crane having a jib
with or without trolley and supported from a side wall
or line of columns of a building. It is a traveling type
and operates on a runway attached to the side wall or
columns.
(15) Appointed means assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employers representative.
(16) ANSI means the American National Standards Institute.
(17) An auxiliary hoist is a supplemental hoisting unit of lighter capacity and usually higher speed
than provided for the main hoist.
(18) A brake is a device used for retarding or
stopping motion by friction or power means.
(19) A drag brake is a brake which provides
retarding force without external control.
(20) A holding brake is a brake that automatically prevents motion when power is off.
(21) Bridge means that part of a crane consisting of girders, trucks, end ties, footwalks, and drive
mechanism which carries the trolley or trolleys.
(22) Bridge travel means the crane movement
in a direction parallel to the crane runway.
(23) A bumper [buffer] is an energy absorbing device for reducing impact when a moving crane
or trolley reaches the end of its permitted travel; or
when two moving cranes or trolleys come in contact.
(24) The cab is the operators compartment on
a crane.
(25) Clearance means the distance from any
part of the crane to a point of the nearest obstruction.
(26) Collectors current are contacting devices
for collecting current from runway or bridge conductors.
(27) Conductors, bridge are the electrical conductors located along the bridge structure of a crane
to provide power to the trolley.
(28) Conductors, runway [main] are the electrical conductors located along a crane runway to provide power to the crane.

1910.179(a) Definitions applicable to


this section
(1) A crane is a machine for lifting and lowering a
load and moving it horizontally, with the hoisting mechanism an integral part of the machine. Cranes whether
fixed or mobile are driven manually or by power.
(2) An automatic crane is a crane which when
activated operates through a preset cycle or cycles.
(3) A cab-operated crane is a crane controlled
by an operator in a cab located on the bridge or trolley.
(4) Cantilever gantry crane means a gantry
or semi-gantry crane in which the bridge girders or
trusses extend transversely beyond the crane runway
on one or both sides.
(5) Floor-operated crane means a crane which
is pendant or nonconductive rope controlled by an operator on the floor or an independent platform.
(6) Gantry crane means a crane similar to an
overhead crane except that the bridge for carrying the
trolley or trolleys is rigidly supported on two or more
legs running on fixed rails or other runway.
(7) Hot metal handling crane means an overhead crane used for transporting or pouring molten
material.
(8) Overhead crane means a crane with a
movable bridge carrying a movable or fixed hoisting
mechanism and traveling on an overhead fixed runway structure.
(9) Power-operated crane means a crane
whose mechanism is driven by electric, air, hydraulic,
or internal combustion means.
(10) A pulpit-operated crane is a crane operated from a fixed operator station not attached to the
crane.
(11) A remote-operated crane is a crane controlled by an operator not in a pulpit or in the cab attached to the crane, by any method other than pendant
or rope control.
(12) A semigantry crane is a gantry crane with
one end of the bridge rigidly supported on one or more
legs that run on a fixed rail or runway, the other end of
the bridge being supported by a truck running on an
elevated rail or runway.

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(46) The load block is the assembly of hook


or shackle, swivel, bearing, sheaves, pins, and frame
suspended by the hoisting rope.
(47) Magnet means an electromagnetic device
carried on a crane hook to pick up loads magnetically.
(48) Main hoist means the hoist mechanism
provided for lifting the maximum rated load.
(49) A man trolley is a trolley having an operators cab attached thereto.
(50) Rated load means the maximum load for
which a crane or individual hoist is designed and built
by the manufacturer and shown on the equipment
nameplate(s).
(51) Rope refers to wire rope, unless otherwise
specified.
(52) Running sheave means a sheave which
rotates as the load block is raised or lowered.
(53) Runway means an assembly of rails,
beams, girders, brackets, and framework on which the
crane or trolley travels.
(54) Side pull means that portion of the hoist
pull acting horizontally when the hoist lines are not
operated vertically.
(55) Span means the horizontal distance center
to center of runway rails.
(56) Standby crane means a crane which is not
in regular service but which is used occasionally or
intermittently as required.
(57) A stop is a device to limit travel of a trolley
or crane bridge. This device normally is attached to
a fixed structure and normally does not have energy
absorbing ability.
(58) A switch is a device for making, breaking,
or for changing the connections in an electric circuit.
(59) An emergency stop switch is a manually
or automatically operated electric switch to cut off
electric power independently of the regular operating
controls.
(60) A limit switch is a switch which is operated by some part or motion of a power-driven machine
or equipment to alter the electric circuit associated
with the machine or equipment.
(61) A main switch is a switch controlling the
entire power supply to the crane.
(62) A master switch is a switch which dominates the operation of contactors, relays, or other remotely operated devices.
(63) The trolley is the unit which travels on the
bridge rails and carries the hoisting mechanism.

1910.179(a) Definitions... (contd)


(29) The control braking means is a method of
controlling crane motor speed when in an overhauling
condition.
(30) Countertorque means a method of control by which the power to the motor is reversed to
develop torque in the opposite direction.
(31) Dynamic means a method of controlling
crane motor speeds when in the overhauling condition to provide a retarding force.
(32) Regenerative means a form of dynamic
braking in which the electrical energy generated is fed
back into the power system.
(33) Mechanical means a method of control by
friction.
(34) Controller, spring return means a controller which when released will return automatically
to a neutral position.
(35) Designated means selected or assigned by
the employer or the employers representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.
(36) A drift point means a point on a travel motion controller which releases the brake while the motor is not energized. This allows for coasting before
the brake is set.
(37) The drum is the cylindrical member around
which the ropes are wound for raising or lowering the
load.
(38) An equalizer is a device which compensates for unequal length or stretch of a rope.
(39) Exposed means capable of being contacted inadvertently. Applied to hazardous objects not adequately guarded or isolated.
(40) Fail-safe means a provision designed to
automatically stop or safely control any motion in
which a malfunction occurs.
(41) Footwalk means the walkway with handrail,
attached to the bridge or trolley for access purposes.
(42) A hoist is an apparatus which may be a
part of a crane, exerting a force for lifting or lowering.
(43) Hoist chain means the load bearing chain
in a hoist. NOTE: Chain properties do not conform to
those shown in ANSI B30.9-1971, Safety Code for
Slings.
(44) Hoist motion means that motion of a crane
which raises and lowers a load.
(45) Load means the total superimposed weight
on the load block or hook.

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(6) Clearance from obstruction.


(i) Minimum clearance of 3 inches overhead
and 2 inches laterally shall be provided and maintained between crane and obstructions in conformity
with Crane Manufacturers Association of America,
Inc, Specification No. 61, which is incorporated by
reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6, (formerly Electric Overhead Crane Institute, Inc).
(ii) Where passageways or walkways are provided obstructions shall not be placed so that safety
of personnel will be jeopardized by movements of the
crane.
(7) Clearance between parallel cranes. If the
runways of two cranes are parallel, and there are no
intervening walls or structure, there shall be adequate
clearance provided and maintained between the two
bridges.
(8) Designated personnel. Only designated personnel shall be permitted to operate a crane covered
by this section.

1910.179(a) Definitions... (contd)


(64) Trolley travel means the trolley movement at right angles to the crane runway.
(65) Truck means the unit consisting of a frame,
wheels, bearings, and axles which supports the bridge
girders or trolleys.

1910.179(b) General requirements


(1) Application. This section applies to overhead
and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever
gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others
having the same fundamental characteristics. These
cranes are grouped because they all have trolleys and
similar travel characteristics.
(2) New and existing equipment. All new overhead and gantry cranes constructed and installed
on or after August 31, 1971, shall meet the design
specifications of the American National Standard
Safety Code for Overhead and Gantry Cranes, ANSI
B30.2.0-1967, which is incorporated by reference as
specified in Sec. 1910.6.
(3) Modifications. Cranes may be modified and
rerated provided such modifications and the supporting structure are checked thoroughly for the new
rated load by a qualified engineer or the equipment
manufacturer. The crane shall be tested in accordance
with paragraph (k) (2) of this section. New rated load
shall be displayed in accordance with subparagraph
(5) of this paragraph.
(4) Wind indicators and rail clamps. Outdoor
storage bridges shall be provided with automatic
rail clamps. A wind-indicating device shall be provided which will give a visible or audible alarm to
the bridge operator at a predetermined wind velocity.
If the clamps act on the rail heads, any beads or weld
flash on the rail heads shall be ground off.
(5) Rated load marking. The rated load of the
crane shall be plainly marked on each side of the
crane, and if the crane has more than one hoisting
unit, each hoist shall have its rated load marked on
it or its load block and this marking shall be clearly
legible from the ground or floor.

1910.179(c) Cabs
(1) Cab location.
(i) The general arrangement of the cab and
the location of control and protective equipment shall
be such that all operating handles are within convenient reach of the operator when facing the area to be
served by the load hook, or while facing the direction
of travel of the cab. The arrangement shall allow the
operator a full view of the load hook in all positions.
(ii) The cab shall be located to afford a minimum of 3 inches clearance from all fixed structures
within its area of possible movement.
(2) Access to crane. Access to the cab and/or
bridge walkway shall be by a conveniently placed
fixed ladder, stairs, or platform requiring no step over
any gap exceeding 12 inches. Fixed ladders shall be
in conformance with the American National Standard
Safety Code for Fixed Ladders, ANSI A14.3-1956,
which is incorporated by reference as specified in
Sec. 1910.6.
(3) Fire extinguisher. Carbon tetrachloride extinguishers shall not be used.
(4) Lighting. Light in the cab shall be sufficient to
enable the operator to see clearly enough to perform
his work.

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(2) Bridge bumpers.


(i) A crane shall be provided with bumpers or
other automatic means providing equivalent effect,
unless the crane travels at a slow rate of speed and has
a faster deceleration rate due to the use of sleeve bearings, or is not operated near the ends of bridge and
trolley travel, or is restricted to a limited distance by
the nature of the crane operation and there is no hazard of striking any object in this limited distance, or
is used in similar operating conditions. The bumpers
shall be capable of stopping the crane (not including
the lifted load) at an average rate of deceleration not
to exceed 3 ft/s/s when traveling in either direction at
20 percent of the rated load speed.
(a) The bumpers shall have sufficient energy absorbing capacity to stop the crane when traveling at a speed of at least 40 percent of rated load speed.
(b) The bumper shall be so mounted that
there is no direct shear on bolts.
(ii) Bumpers shall be so designed and installed
as to minimize parts falling from the crane in case of
breakage.
(3) Trolley bumpers.
(i) A trolley shall be provided with bumpers
or other automatic means of equivalent effect, unless
the trolley travels at a slow rate of speed, or is not
operated near the ends of bridge and trolley travel, or
is restricted to a limited distance of the runway and
there is no hazard of striking any object in this limited
distance, or is used in similar operating conditions.
The bumpers shall be capable of stopping the trolley
(not including the lifted load) at an average rate of
deceleration not to exceed 4.7 ft/s/s when traveling in
either direction at one-third of the rated load speed.
(ii) When more than one trolley is operated on
the same bridge, each shall be equipped with bumpers
or equivalent on their adjacent ends.
(iii) Bumpers or equivalent shall be designed
and installed to minimize parts falling from the trolley
in case of age.
(4) Rail sweeps. Bridge trucks shall be equipped
with sweeps which extend below the top of the rail
and project in front of the truck wheels.
(5) Guards for hoisting ropes.
(i) If hoisting ropes run near enough to other
parts to make fouling or chafing possible, guards shall
be installed to prevent this condition.
(ii) A guard shall be provided to prevent contact between bridge conductors and hoisting ropes if
they could come into contact.

1910.179(d) Footwalks and ladders


(1) Location of footwalks.
(i) If sufficient headroom is available on caboperated cranes, a footwalk shall be provided on the
drive side along the entire length of the bridge of all
cranes having the trolley running on the top of the
girders.
(ii) Where footwalks are located in no case
shall less than 48 inches of headroom be provided.
(2) Construction of footwalks.
(i) Footwalks shall be of rigid construction
and designed to sustain a distributed load of at least
50 pounds per square foot.
(ii) Footwalks shall have a walking surface of
antislip type.
NOTE: Wood will meet this requirement.
(iii) [Reserved]
(iv) The inner edge shall extend at least to the
line of the outside edge of the lower cover plate or
flange of the girder.
(3) Toeboards and handrails for footwalks. Toeboards and handrails shall be in compliance with section 1910.23 of this part.
(4) Ladders and stairways.
(i) Gantry cranes shall be provided with ladders or stairways extending from the ground to the
footwalk or cab platform.
(ii) Stairways shall be equipped with rigid and
substantial metal handrails. Walking surfaces shall be
of an antislip type.
(iii) Ladders shall be permanently and securely fastened in place and shall be constructed in compliance with 1910.27.

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1910.179(e) Stops, bumpers, rail


sweeps, and guards
(1) Trolley stops.
(i) Stops shall be provided at the limits of travel of the trolley.
(ii) Stops shall be fastened to resist forces applied when contacted.
(iii) A stop engaging the tread of the wheel
shall be of a height at least equal to the radius of the
wheel.

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(vi) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane


handling hot metal and having power control braking means shall be equipped with at least two holding
brakes.
(3) Control braking means.
(i) A power control braking means such as regenerative, dynamic or countertorque braking, or a
mechanically controlled braking means shall be capable of maintaining safe lowering speeds of rated
loads.
(ii) The control braking means shall have ample thermal capacity for the frequency of operation
required by service.
(4) Brakes for trolleys and bridges.
(i) Foot-operated brakes shall not require an
applied force of more than 70 pounds to develop manufacturers rated brake torque.
(ii) Brakes may be applied by mechanical,
electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, or gravity means.
(iii) Where necessary brakes shall be provided
with adjustment means to compensate for wear.
(iv) The wearing surface of all brake drums or
discs shall be smooth.
(v) All foot-brake pedals shall be constructed
so that the operators foot will not easily slip off the
pedal.
(vi) Foot-operated brakes shall be equipped
with automatic means for positive release when pressure is released from the pedal.
(vii) Brakes for stopping the motion of the
trolley or bridge shall be of sufficient size to stop the
trolley or bridge within a distance in feet equal to 10
percent of full load speed in feet per minute when
traveling at full speed with full load.
(viii) If holding brakes are provided on the
bridge or trolleys, they shall not prohibit the use of a
drift point in the control circuit.
(ix) Brakes on trolleys and bridges shall have
ample thermal capacity for the frequency of operation
required by the service to prevent impairment of functions from overheating.
(5) Application of trolley brakes.
(i) On cab-operated cranes with cab on trolley, a trolley brake shall be required as specified under
paragraph (f)(4) of this section.
(ii) A drag brake may be applied to hold the
trolley in a desired position on the bridge and to eliminate creep with the power off.

1910.179(e) Stops, bumpers...(contd)


(6) Guards for moving parts.
(i) Exposed moving parts such as gears, set
screws, projecting keys, chains, chain sprockets, and
reciprocating components which might constitute a
hazard under normal operating conditions shall be
guarded.
(ii) Guards shall be securely fastened.
(iii) Each guard shall be capable of supporting without permanent distortion the weight of a 200pound person unless the guard is located where it is
impossible for a person to step on it.
1910.179(f) Brakes
(1) Brakes for hoists.
(i) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane
shall be equipped with at least one self-setting brake,
hereafter referred to as a holding brake, applied directly to the motor shaft or some part of the gear train.
(ii) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane,
except worm-geared hoists, the angle of whose worm
is such as to prevent the load from accelerating in
the lowering direction shall, in addition to a holding
brake, be equipped with control braking means to
prevent overspeeding.
(2) Holding brakes.
(i) Holding brakes for hoist motors shall have
not less than the following percentage of the full load
hoisting torque at the point where the brake is applied.
(a) 125 percent when used with a control
braking means other than mechanical.
(b) 100 percent when used in conjunction
with a mechanical control braking means.
(c) 100 percent each if two holding brakes
are provided.
(ii) Holding brakes on hoists shall have ample
thermal capacity for the frequency of operation required by the service.
(iii) Holding brakes on hoists shall be applied
automatically when power is removed.
(iv) Where necessary holding brakes shall be
provided with adjustment means to compensate for
wear.
(v) The wearing surface of all holding-brake
drums or discs shall be smooth.

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(ii) Lever operated controllers shall be provided with a notch or latch which in the off position
prevents the handle from being inadvertently moved
to the on position. An off detent or spring return
arrangement is acceptable.
(iii) The controller operating handle shall be
located within convenient reach of the operator.
(iv) As far as practicable, the movement of
each controller handle shall be in the same general
directions as the resultant movements of the load.
(v) The control for the bridge and trolley travel shall be so located that the operator can readily face
the direction of travel.
(vi) For floor-operated cranes, the controller or
controllers if rope operated, shall automatically return
to the off position when released by the operator.
(vii) Pushbuttons in pendant stations shall return to the off position when pressure is released by
the crane operator.
(viii) Automatic cranes shall be so designed
that all motions shall fail-safe if any malfunction of
operation occurs.
(ix) Remote-operated cranes shall function
so that if the control signal for any crane motion becomes ineffective the crane motion shall stop.
(4) Resistors.
(i) Enclosures for resistors shall have openings to provide adequate ventilation, and shall be installed to prevent the accumulation of combustible
matter too near to hot parts.
(ii) Resistor units shall be supported so as to
be as free as possible from vibration.
(iii) Provision shall be made to prevent broken parts or molten metal falling upon the operator or
from the crane.
(5) Switches.
(i) The power supply to the runway conductors shall be controlled by a switch or circuit breaker
located on a fixed structure, accessible from the floor,
and arranged to be locked in the open position.
(ii) On cab-operated cranes a switch or circuit
breaker of the enclosed type, with provision for locking in the open position, shall be provided in the leads
from the runway conductors. A means of opening this
switch or circuit breaker shall be located within easy
reach of the operator.

1910.179(f) Brakes (contd)


(6) Application of bridge brakes.
(i) On cab-operated cranes with cab on bridge,
a bridge brake is required as specified under paragraph
(f)(4) of this section.
(ii) On cab-operated cranes with cab on trolley,
a bridge brake of the holding type shall be required.
(iii) On all floor, remote and pulpit-operated
crane bridge drives, a brake of noncoasting mechanical drive shall be provided.
1910.179(g) Electric equipment
(1) General.
(i) Wiring and equipment shall comply with
subpart S of this part.
(ii) The control circuit voltage shall not exceed 600 volts for a.c. or d.c. current.
(iii) The voltage at pendant push-buttons shall
not exceed 150 volts for a.c. and 300 volts for d.c.
(iv) Where multiple conductor cable is used
with a suspended pushbutton station, the station must
be supported in some satisfactory manner that will
protect the electrical conductors against strain.
(v) Pendant control boxes shall be constructed
to prevent electrical shock and shall be clearly marked
for identification of functions.
(2) Equipment.
(i) Electrical equipment shall be so located or
enclosed that live parts will not be exposed to accidental contact under normal operating conditions.
(ii) Electric equipment shall be protected from
dirt, grease, oil, and moisture.
(iii) Guards for live parts shall be substantial
and so located that they cannot be accidently deformed
so as to make contact with the live parts.
(3) Controllers.
(i) Cranes not equipped with spring-return
controllers or momentary contact pushbuttons shall
be provided with a device which will disconnect all
motors from the line on failure of power and will not
permit any motor to be restarted until the controller handle is brought to the off position, or a reset
switch or button is operated.

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1910.179(g)
(contd)

Electric

(iv) Pockets and flanges of sheaves used with


hoist chains shall be of such dimensions that the chain
does not catch or bind during operation.
(v) All running sheaves shall be equipped with
means for lubrication. Permanently lubricated, sealed
and/or shielded bearings meet this requirement.
(2) Ropes.
(i) In using hoisting ropes, the crane manufacturers recommendation shall be followed. The
rated load divided by the number of parts of rope
shall not exceed 20 percent of the nominal breaking
strength of the rope.
(ii) Socketing shall be done in the manner
specified by the manufacturer of the assembly.
(iii) Rope shall be secured to the drum as follows:
(a) No less than two wraps of rope shall
remain on the drum when the hook is in its extreme
low position.
(b) Rope end shall be anchored by a clamp
securely attached to the drum, or by a socket arrangement approved by the crane or rope manufacturer.
(iv) Eye splices. [Reserved]
(v) Rope clips attached with U-bolts shall
have the U-bolts on the dead or short end of the rope.
Spacing and number of all types of clips shall be in
accordance with the clip manufacturers recommendation. Clips shall be drop-forged steel in all sizes
manufactured commercially. When a newly installed
rope has been in operation for an hour, all nuts on the
clip bolts shall be retightened.
(vi) Swaged or compressed fittings shall be
applied as recommended by the rope or crane manufacturer.
(vii) Wherever exposed to temperatures, at
which fiber cores would be damaged, rope having an
independent wire rope or wire-strand core, or other
temperature-damage resistant core shall be used.
(viii) Replacement rope shall be the same size,
grade, and construction as the original rope furnished
by the crane manufacturer, unless otherwise recommended by a wire rope manufacturer due to actual
working condition requirements.
(3) Equalizers. If a load is supported by more
than one part of rope, the tension in the parts shall be
equalized.
(4) Hooks. Hooks shall meet the manufacturers
recommendations and shall not be overloaded.

Equipment

(iii) On floor-operated cranes, a switch or


circuit breaker of the enclosed type, with provision
for locking in the open position, shall be provided in
the leads from the runway conductors. This disconnect shall be mounted on the bridge or footwalk near
the runway collectors. One of the following types of
floor-operated disconnects shall be provided:
(a) Nonconductive rope attached to the
main disconnect switch.
(b) An undervoltage trip for the main circuit breaker operated by an emergency stop button
in the pendant pushbutton in the pendant pushbutton
station.
(c) A main line contactor operated by a
switch or pushbutton in the pendant pushbutton station.
(iv) The hoisting motion of all electric traveling cranes shall be provided with an overtravel limit
switch in the hoisting direction.
(v) All cranes using a lifting magnet shall have
a magnet circuit switch of the enclosed type with provision for locking in the open position. Means for
discharging the inductive load of the magnet shall be
provided.
(6) Runway conductors. Conductors of the
open type mounted on the crane runway beams or
overhead shall be so located or so guarded that persons entering or leaving the cab or crane footwalk
normally could not come into contact with them.
(7) Extension lamps. If a service receptacle is
provided in the cab or on the bridge of cab-operated
cranes, it shall be a grounded three-prong type permanent receptacle, not exceeding 300 volts.

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1910.179(h) Hoisting equipment

(1) Sheaves.
(i) Sheave grooves shall be smooth and free
from surface defects which could cause rope damage.
(ii) Sheaves carrying ropes which can be momentarily unloaded shall be provided with close-fitting guards or other suitable devices to guide the rope
back into the groove when the load is applied again.
(iii) The sheaves in the bottom block shall be
equipped with close-fitting guards that will prevent
ropes from becoming fouled when the block is lying
on the ground with ropes loose.

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(iv) Hoist chains, including end connections,


for excessive wear, twist, distorted links interfering
with proper function, or stretch beyond manufacturers recommendations. Visual inspection daily;
monthly inspection with a certification record which
includes the date of inspection, the signature of the
person who performed the inspection and an identifier
of the chain which was inspected.
(v) [Reserved]
(vi) All functional operating mechanisms for
excessive wear of components.
(vii) Rope reeving for noncompliance with
manufacturers recommendations.
(3) Periodic inspection. Complete inspections
of the crane shall be performed at intervals as generally defined in paragraph (j)(1)(ii)(b) of this section, depending upon its activity, severity of service,
and environment, or as specifically indicated below.
These inspections shall include the requirements of
paragraph (j)(2) of this section and in addition, the
following items. Any deficiencies such as listed shall
be carefully examined and determination made as to
whether they constitute a safety hazard:
(i) Deformed, cracked, or corroded members.
(ii) Loose bolts or rivets.
(iii) Cracked or worn sheaves and drums.
(iv) Worn, cracked or distorted parts such
as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, locking and
clamping devices.
(v) Excessive wear on brake system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets.
(vi) Load, wind, and other indicators over
their full range, for any significant inaccuracies.
(vii) Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other powerplants for improper performance or noncompliance
with applicable safety requirements.
(viii) Excessive wear of chain drive sprockets
and excessive chain stretch.
(ix) [Reserved]
(x) Electrical apparatus, for signs of pitting
or any deterioration of controller contactors, limit
switches and pushbutton stations.
(4) Cranes not in regular use.
(i) A crane which has been idle for a period
of 1 month or more, but less than 6 months, shall be
given an inspection conforming with requirements of
paragraph (j)(2) of this section and paragraph (m)(2)
of this section before placing in service.

1910.179(i) Warning device


Except for floor-operated cranes a gong or other effective warning signal shall be provided for each crane
equipped with a power traveling mechanism.
1910.179(j) Inspection
(1) Inspection classification.
(i) Initial inspection. Prior to initial use all
new and altered cranes shall be inspected to insure
compliance with the provisions of this section.
(ii) Inspection procedure for cranes in regular service is divided into two general classifications
based upon the intervals at which inspection should be
performed. The intervals in turn are dependent upon
the nature of the critical components of the crane and
the degree of their exposure to wear, deterioration, or
malfunction. The two general classifications are herein
designated as frequent and periodic with respective intervals between inspections as defined below:
(a) Frequent inspection Daily to monthly
intervals.
(b) Periodic inspection 1 to 12-month
intervals.
(2) Frequent inspection. The following items
shall be inspected for defects at intervals as defined in
paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section or as specifically
indicated, including observation during operation for
any defects which might appear between regular inspections. All deficiencies such as listed shall be carefully examined and determination made as to whether
they constitute a safety hazard:
(i) All functional operating mechanisms for
maladjustment interfering with proper operation.
Daily.
(ii) Deterioration or leakage in lines, tanks,
valves, drain pumps, and other parts of air or hydraulic systems. Daily.
(iii) Hooks with deformation or cracks. Visual
inspection daily; monthly inspection with a certification record which includes the date of inspection, the
signature of the person who performed the inspection
and the serial number, or other identifier, of the hook
inspected. For hooks with cracks or having more than
15 percent in excess of normal throat opening or more
than 10 degrees twist from the plane of the unbent
hook refer to paragraph (l)(3)(iii)(a) of this section.

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(b)All controllers shall be at the off position.


(c) The main or emergency switch shall be
open and locked in the open position.
(d) Warning or out of order signs shall
be placed on the crane, also on the floor beneath or on
the hook where visible from the floor.
(e) Where other cranes are in operation on
the same runway, rail stops or other suitable means shall
be provided to prevent interference with the idle crane.
(ii) After adjustments and repairs have been
made the crane shall not be operated until all guards
have been reinstalled, safety devices reactivated and
maintenance equipment removed.
(3) Adjustments and repairs.
(i) Any unsafe conditions disclosed by the inspection requirements of paragraph (j) of this section
shall be corrected before operation of the crane is resumed. Adjustments and repairs shall be done only by
designated personnel.
(ii) Adjustments shall be maintained to assure
correct functioning of components. The following are
examples:
(a) All functional operating mechanisms.
(b)
Limit switches.
(c)
Control systems.
(d)
Brakes.
(e)
Power plants.
(iii) Repairs or replacements shall be provided
promptly as needed for safe operation. The following
are examples:
(a) Crane hooks showing defects described in paragraph (j)(2)(iii) of this section shall be
discarded. Repairs by welding or reshaping are not
generally recommended. If such repairs are attempted
they shall only be done under competent supervision
and the hook shall be tested to the load requirements
of paragraph (k)(2) of this section before further use.
(b) Load attachment chains and rope slings
showing defects described in paragraph (j)(2) (iv) and
(v) of this section respectively.
(c) All critical parts which are cracked,
broken, bent, or excessively worn.
(d) Pendant control stations shall be kept
clean and function labels kept legible.

1910.179(j) Inspection (contd)


(ii) A crane which has been idle for a period of over 6 months shall be given a complete inspection conforming with requirements of paragraphs (j)
(2) and (3) of this section and paragraph (m)(2) of
this section before placing in service.
(iii) Standby cranes shall be inspected at
least semi-annually in accordance with requirements
of paragraph (j)(2) of this section and paragraph (m)
(2) of this section.
1910.179(k) Testing
(1) Operational tests.
(i) Prior to initial use all new and altered
cranes shall be tested to insure compliance with this
section including the following functions:
(a) Hoisting and lowering.
(b) Trolley travel.
(c) Bridge travel.
(d) Limit switches, locking and safety
devices.
(ii) The trip setting of hoist limit switches
shall be determined by tests with an empty hook traveling in increasing speeds up to the maximum speed.
The actuating mechanism of the limit switch shall be
located so that it will trip the switch, under all conditions, in sufficient time to prevent contact of the hook
or hook block with any part of the trolley.
(2) Rated load test. Test loads shall not be more
than 125 percent of the rated load unless otherwise
recommended by the manufacturer. The test reports
shall be placed on file where readily available to appointed personnel.

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1910.179 (l) Maintenance

(1) Preventive maintenance. A preventive maintenance program based on the crane manufacturers
recommendations shall be established.
(2) Maintenance procedure.
(i) Before adjustments and repairs are started
on a crane the following precautions shall be taken:
(a) The crane to be repaired shall be run
to a location where it will cause the least interference
with other cranes and operations in the area.

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(ii) The load shall be attached to the load block


hook by means of slings or other approved devices.
(iii) Care shall be taken to make certain that
the sling clears all obstacles.
(3) Moving the load.
(i) The load shall be well secured and properly
balanced in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted
more than a few inches.
(ii) Before starting to hoist the following conditions shall be noted:
(a) Hoist rope shall not be kinked.
(b) Multiple part lines shall not be twisted
around each other.
(c) The hook shall be brought over the
load in such a manner as to prevent swinging.
(iii) During hoisting care shall be taken that:
(a) There is no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving load.
(b) The load does not contact any obstructions.
(iv) Cranes shall not be used for side pulls
except when specifically authorized by a responsible
person who has determined that the stability of the
crane is not thereby endangered and that various parts
of the crane will not be overstressed.
(v) While any employee is on the load or hook,
there shall be no hoisting, lowering, or traveling.
(vi) The employer shall require that the operator avoid carrying loads over people.
(vii) The operator shall test the brakes each
time a load approaching the rated load is handled. The
brakes shall be tested by raising the load a few inches
and applying the brakes.
(viii) The load shall not be lowered below the
point where less than two full wraps of rope remain
on the hoisting drum.
(ix) When two or more cranes are used to lift
a load one qualified responsible person shall be in
charge of the operation. He shall analyze the operation and instruct all personnel involved in the proper
positioning, rigging of the load, and the movements to
be made.
(x) The employer shall ensure that the operator does not leave his position at the controls while
the load is suspended.
(xi) When starting the bridge and when the
load or hook approaches near or over personnel, the
warning signal shall be sounded.

1910.179(m) Rope inspection


(1) Running ropes. A thorough inspection of all
ropes shall be made at least once a month and a certification record which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the
inspection and an identifier for the ropes which were
inspected shall be kept on file where readily available
to appointed personnel. Any deterioration, resulting
in appreciable loss of original strength, shall be carefully observed and determination made as to whether
further use of the rope would constitute a safety hazard. Some of the conditions that could result in an appreciable loss of strength are the following:
(i) Reduction of rope diameter below nominal
diameter due to loss of core support, internal or external corrosion, or wear of outside wires.
(ii) A number of broken outside wires and the
degree of distribution or concentration of such broken
wires.
(iii) Worn outside wires.
(iv) Corroded or broken wires at end
connections.
(v) Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, or improperly applied end connections.
(vi) Severe kinking, crushing, cutting, or unstranding.
(2) Other ropes. All rope which has been idle for
a period of a month or more due to shutdown or storage of a crane on which it is installed shall be given
a thorough inspection before it is used. This inspection shall be for all types of deterioration and shall
be performed by an appointed person whose approval
shall be required for further use of the rope. A certification record shall be available for inspection which
includes the date of inspection, the signature of the
person who performed the inspection and an identifier
for the rope which was inspected.

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1910.179(n) Handling the load

(1) Size of load. The crane shall not be loaded beyond its rated load except for test purposes as provided in paragraph (k) of this section.
(2) Attaching the load.
(i) The hoist chain or hoist rope shall be free
from kinks or twists and shall not be wrapped around
the load.
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1910.179(n) Handling the Load (contd)

1910.179(o) Other requirements,


general

(1) Ladders.
(i) The employer shall ensure that hands are
free from encumbrances while personnel are using
ladders.
(ii) Articles which are too large to be carried
in pockets or belts shall be lifted and lowered by hand
line.
(2) Cabs.
(i) Necessary clothing and personal belongings shall be stored in such a manner as not to interfere with access or operation.
(ii) Tools, oil cans, waste, extra fuses, and other necessary articles shall be stored in the tool box,
and shall not be permitted to lie loose in or about the
cab.
(3) Fire extinguishers. The employer shall ensure
that operators are familiar with the operation and care
of fire extinguishers provided.

(4) Hoist limit switch.


(i) At the beginning of each operators shift,
the upper limit switch of each hoist shall be tried out
under no load. Extreme care shall be exercised; the
block shall be inched into the limit or run in at slow
speed. If the switch does not operate properly, the appointed person shall be immediately notified.
(ii) The hoist limit switch which controls the
upper limit of travel of the load block shall never be
used as an operating control.

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OSHA 1926 Subpart CC


Cranes and Derricks
(4) Digger derricks when used for augering holes
for poles carrying electric and telecommunication lines,
placing and removing the poles, and for handling associated materials to be installed on or removed from
the poles. Digger derricks used in work subject to 29
CFR part 1926, subpart V, must comply with 29 CFR
1910.269. Digger derricks used in construction work
for telecommunication service (as defined at 29 CFR
1910.268(s)(40)) must comply with 29 CFR 1910.268.
(5) Machinery originally designed as vehiclemounted aerial devices (for lifting personnel) and
self-propelled elevating work platforms.
(6) Telescopic/hydraulic gantry systems.
(7) Stacker cranes.
(8) Powered industrial trucks (forklifts), except
when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a
winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended
load.
(9) Mechanics truck with a hoisting device when
used in activities related to equipment maintenance and
repair.
(10) Machinery that hoists by using a come-a-long
or chainfall.
(11) Dedicated drilling rigs.
(12) Gin poles when used for the erection of
communication towers.
(13) Tree trimming and tree removal work.
(14) Anchor handling or dredge-related operations
with a vessel or barge using an affixed A-frame.
(15) Roustabouts.
(16) Helicopter cranes.
(17) Material Delivery
(i) Articulating/knuckle-boom truck cranes that
deliver material to a construction site when used to
transfer materials from the truck crane to the ground,
without arranging the materials in a particular sequence
for hoisting.

1926.1400 Scope

(a) This standard applies to power-operated equipment, when used in construction, that can hoist,
lower and horizontally move a suspended load. Such
equipment includes, but is not limited to: articulating
cranes (such as knuckle-boom cranes); crawler cranes;
floating cranes; cranes on barges; locomotive cranes;
mobile cranes (such as wheelmounted, rough-terrain,
all-terrain, commercial truck-mounted, and boom truck
cranes); multi-purpose machines when configured to
hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and
horizontally move a suspended load; industrial cranes
(such as carry-deck cranes); dedicated pile drivers;
service/ mechanic trucks with a hoisting device; a crane
on a monorail; tower cranes (such as a fixed jib, i.e.,
hammerhead boom), luffing boom and self-erecting);
pedestal cranes; portal cranes; overhead and gantry
cranes; straddle cranes; sideboom cranes; derricks; and
variations of such equipment. However, items listed
in paragraph (c) of this section are excluded from the
scope of this standard.
(b) Attachments. This standard applies to equipment
included in paragraph (a) of this section when used
with attachments. Such attachments, whether craneattached or suspended include, but are not limited to:
hooks, magnets, grapples, clamshell buckets, orange
peel buckets, concrete buckets, drag lines, personnel
platforms, augers or drills and pile driving equipment.
(c) Exclusions. This subpart does not cover:
(1) Machinery included in paragraph (a) of this
section while it has been converted or adapted for a
non-hoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations
include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps.
(2) Power shovels, excavators, wheel loaders,
backhoes, loader backhoes, track loaders. This machinery is also excluded when used with chains, slings or
other rigging to lift suspended loads.
(3) Automotive wreckers and tow trucks when
used to clear wrecks and haul vehicles.

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1926.1400 Scope (contd)

1926.1400 Scope (contd)

(ii) Articulating/knuckle-boom truck cranes that


deliver material to a construction site when the crane is
used to transfer building supply sheet goods or building supply packaged materials from the truck crane
onto a structure, using a fork/cradle at the end of the
boom, but only when the truck crane is equipped with
a properly functioning automatic overload prevention
device. Such sheet goods or packaged materials include,
but are not limited to: sheets of sheet rock, sheets of
plywood, bags of cement, sheets or packages of roofing
shingles, and rolls of roofing felt.
(iii) This exclusion does not apply when:

(A) The articulating/knuckle-boom
crane is used to hold, support or stabilize the material
to facilitate a construction activity, such as holding
material in place while it is attached to the structure;

(B) The material being handled by the
articulating/knuckle-boom crane is a prefabricated
component. Such prefabricated components include,
but are not limited to: precast concrete members or
panels, roof trusses (wooden, cold-formed metal, steel,
or other material), prefabricated building sections such
as, but not limited to: floor panels, wall panels, roof
panels, roof structures, or similar items;

(C) The material being handled by the
crane is a structural steel member (for example, steel
joists, beams, columns, steel decking (bundled or
unbundled) or a component of a systems-engineered
metal building (as defined in 29 CFR 1926 subpart R).

(D) The activity is not specifically excluded under 1400(c)(17)(i) and (ii).
(d) All sections of this subpart CC apply to the
equipment covered by this standard unless specified
otherwise.
(e) The duties of controlling entities under this subpart include, but are not limited to, the duties specified
in 1926.1402(c), 1926.1402(e) and 1926.1424(b).
(f) Where provisions of this standard direct an operator, crewmember, or other employee to take certain
actions, the employer must establish, effectively communicate to the relevant persons, and enforce, work
rules to ensure compliance with such provisions.
(g) For work covered by subpart V of this part,
compliance with 29 CFR 1910.269(p) is deemed
compliance with 1926.1407 through 1926.1411.

(h) Section 1926.1402 does not apply to cranes designed for use on railroad tracks, when used on railroad
tracks that are part of the general railroad system of
transportation that is regulated pursuant to the Federal
Railroad Administration under 49 CFR part 213, and
that comply with applicable Federal Railroad Administration requirements. See 1926.1402(f).

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OSHA 1926.1431
Hoisting Personnel
(d) Equipment criteria.
(1) Capacity: use of suspended personnel platforms. The total load (with the platform loaded, including the hook, load line and rigging) must not exceed
50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and
configuration of the equipment, except during proof
testing.
(2) Capacity: use of boom-attached personnel
platforms. The total weight of the loaded personnel
platform must not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment
(except during proof testing).
(3) Capacity: hoisting personnel without a personnel platform. When hoisting personnel without a
personnel platform pursuant to paragraph (b)(2) of this
section, the total load (including the hook, load line,
rigging and any other equipment that imposes a load)
must not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for
the radius and configuration of the equipment, except
during proof testing.
(4) When the occupied personnel platform is in a
stationary working position, the load and boom hoist
brakes, swing brakes, and operator actuated secondary
braking and locking features (such as pawls or dogs)
or automatic secondary brakes must be engaged.
(5) Devices.
(i) Equipment (except for derricks and articulating
cranes) with a variable angle boom must be equipped
with all of the following:
(A) A boom angle indicator, readily visible to
the operator, and
(B) A boom hoist limiting device.
(ii) Articulating cranes must be equipped with
a properly functioning automatic overload protection
device.
(iii) Equipment with a luffing jib must be equipped
with:
(A) A jib angle indicator, readily visible to the
operator, and.
(B) A jib hoist limiting device.
(iv) Equipment with telescoping booms must be
equipped with a device to indicate the booms extended
length clearly to the operator, or must have measuring
marks on the boom.

1926.1431 Hoisting personnel


The requirements of this section are supplemental to
the other requirements in this subpart and apply when
one or more employees are hoisted.
(a) The use of equipment to hoist employees is prohibited except where the employer demonstrates that
the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional
means of reaching the work area, such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work
platform, or scaffold, would be more hazardous, or is
not possible because of the projects structural design
or worksite conditions. This paragraph does not apply
to work covered by subpart R (Steel Erection) of this
part.
(b) Use of personnel platform.
(1) When using equipment to hoist employees,
the employees must be in a personnel platform that
meets the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section.
(2) Exceptions: A personnel platform is not required for hoisting employees:
(i) Into and out of drill shafts that are up to and
including 8 feet in diameter (see paragraph (o) of this
section for requirements for hoisting these employees).
(ii) In pile driving operations (see paragraph
(p) of this section for requirements for hoisting these
employees).
(iii) Solely for transfer to or from a marine
worksite in a marine-hoisted personnel transfer device
(see paragraph (r) of this section for requirements for
hoisting these employees).
(iv) In storage-tank (steel or concrete), shaft and
chimney operations (see paragraph (s) of this section for requirements for hoisting these employees).
(c) Equipment set-up.
(1) The equipment must be uniformly level, within
one percent of level grade, and located on footing that a
qualified person has determined to be sufficiently firm
and stable.
(2) Equipment with outriggers or stabilizers must
have them all extended and locked. The amount of
extension must be the same for all outriggers and stabilizers and in accordance with manufacturer procedures
and load charts.

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1926.1431 Hoisting Personnel (contd)

1926.1431 Hoisting Personnel (contd)

(v) Anti two-block. A device which automatically


prevents damage and load failure from contact between
the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and
the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component)
must be used. The device(s) must prevent such damage/
failure at all points where two-blocking could occur.
Exception: this device is not required when hoisting
personnel in pile driving operations. Instead, paragraph
(p)(2) of this section specifies how to prevent twoblocking during such operations.
(vi) Controlled load lowering. The load line hoist
drum must have a system, other than the load line hoist
brake, which regulates the lowering rate of speed of
the hoist mechanism. This system or device must be
used when hoisting personnel.
(NOTE: Free fall of the load line hoist is prohibited
(see 1926.1426(d); the use of equipment in which the
boom hoist mechanism can free fall is also prohibited
(see 1926.1426(a)(1).)
(vii) Proper operation required. Personnel
hoisting operations must not begin unless the devices
listed in this section are in proper working order. If a
device stops working properly during such operations,
the operator must safely stop operations. Personnel
hoisting operations must not resume until the device is
again working properly. Alternative measures are not
permitted. (See 1926.1417 for tag-out and related
requirements.)
(6) Direct attachment of a personnel platform to a
luffing jib is prohibited.
(e) Personnel platform criteria.
(1) A qualified person familiar with structural
design must design the personnel platform and attachment/suspension system used for hoisting personnel.
(2) The system used to connect the personnel
platform to the equipment must allow the platform to
remain within 10 degrees of level, regardless of boom
angle.
(3) The suspension system must be designed to
minimize tipping of the platform due to movement of
employees occupying the platform.
(4) The personnel platform itself (excluding the
guardrail system and personal fall arrest system anchorages), must be capable of supporting, without
failure, its own weight and at least five times the
maximum intended load.

(5) All welding of the personnel platform and its


components must be performed by a certified welder
familiar with the weld grades, types and material specified in the platform design.
(6) The personnel platform must be equipped with a
guardrail system which meets the requirements of subpart M of this part, and must be enclosed at least from
the toeboard to mid-rail with either solid construction
material or expanded metal having openings no greater
than inch (1.27cm). Points to which personal fall
arrest systems are attached must meet the anchorage
requirements in subpart M of this part.
(7) A grab rail must be installed inside the entire
perimeter of the personnel platform except for access
gates/doors.
(8) Access gates/doors. If installed, access gates/
doors of all types (including swinging, sliding, folding,
or other types) must:
(i) Not swing outward. If due to the size of the
personnel platform, such as a 1-person platform, it is
infeasible for the door to swing inward and allow safe
entry for the platform occupant, then the access gate/
door may swing outward.
(ii) Be equipped with a device that prevents accidental opening.
(9) Headroom must be sufficient to allow employees to stand upright in the platform.
(10) In addition to the use of hard hats, employees must be protected by overhead protection on the
personnel platform when employees are exposed to
falling objects. The platform overhead protection
must not obscure the view of the operator or platform occupants (such as wire mesh that has up to
inch openings), unless full protection is necessary.
(11) All edges exposed to employee contact must
be smooth enough to prevent injury.
(12) The weight of the platform and its rated capacity must be conspicuously posted on the platform with
a plate or other permanent marking.
(f) Personnel platform loading.
(1) The personnel platform must not be loaded in
excess of its rated capacity.
(2) Use.
(i) Personnel platforms must be used only
for employees, their tools, and the materials necessary to do their work. Platforms must not be used to
hoist materials or tools when not hoisting personnel.

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1926.1431 Hoisting Personnel (contd)

1926.1431 Hoisting Personnel (contd)

(ii) Exception: materials and tools to be used


during the lift, if secured and distributed in accordance
with paragraph (f)(3) of this section may be in the
platform for trial lifts.
(3) Materials and tools must be:
(i) Secured to prevent displacement.
(ii) Evenly distributed within the confines of the
platform while it is suspended.
(4) The number of employees occupying the
personnel platform must not exceed the maximum
number the platform was designed to hold or the number required to perform the work, whichever is less.
(g) Attachment and rigging.
(1) Hooks and other detachable devices.
(i) Hooks used in the connection between the
hoist line and the personnel platform (including hooks
on overhaul ball assemblies, lower load blocks, bridle
legs, or other attachment assemblies or components)
must be:
(A) Of a type that can be closed and locked,
eliminating the throat opening.
(B) Closed and locked when attached.
(ii) Shackles used in place of hooks must be of
the alloy anchor type, with either:
(A) A bolt, nut and retaining pin, in place; or
(B) Of the screw type, with the screw pin secured from accidental removal.
(iii) Where other detachable devices are used,
they must be of the type that can be closed and locked to
the same extent as the devices addressed in paragraphs
(g)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section. Such devices must be
closed and locked when attached.
(2) Rope bridle. When a rope bridle is used to suspend the personnel platform, each bridle leg must be
connected to a master link or shackle (see paragraph
(g)(1) of this section) in a manner that ensures that the
load is evenly divided among the bridle legs.
(3) Rigging hardware (including wire rope,
shackles, rings, master links, and other rigging
hardware) and hooks must be capable of supporting, without failure, at least five times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that
component. Where rotation resistant rope is used,
the slings must be capable of supporting without
failure at least ten times the maximum intended load.
(4) Eyes in wire rope slings must be fabricated with
thimbles.

(5) Bridles and associated rigging for suspending the personnel platform must be used only for the
platform and the necessary employees, their tools and
materials necessary to do their work. The bridles and
associated rigging must not have been used for any
purpose other than hoisting personnel.
(h) Trial lift and inspection.
(1) A trial lift with the unoccupied personnel platform loaded at least to the anticipated lift weight must
be made from ground level, or any other location where
employees will enter the platform, to each location at
which the platform is to be hoisted and positioned.
Where there is more than one location to be reached
from a single set-up position, either individual trial
lifts for each location, or a single trial lift, in which the
platform is moved sequentially to each location, must
be performed; the method selected must be the same
as the method that will be used to hoist the personnel.
(2) The trial lift must be performed immediately
prior to each shift in which personnel will be hoisted. In
addition, the trial lift must be repeated prior to hoisting
employees in each of the following circumstances:
(i) The equipment is moved and set up in a new
location or returned to a previously used location.
(ii) The lift route is changed, unless the competent
person determines that the new route presents no new
factors affecting safety.
(3) The competent person must determine that:
(i) Safety devices and operational aids required
by this section are activated and functioning properly.
Other safety devices and operational aids must meet
the requirements of 1926.1415 and 1926.1416.
(ii) Nothing interferes with the equipment or
the personnel platform in the course of the trial lift.
(iii) The lift will not exceed 50 percent of the
equipments rated capacity at any time during the lift.
(iv) The load radius to be used during the lift has
been accurately determined.
(4) Immediately after the trial lift, the competent
person must:
(i) Conduct a visual inspection of the equipment,
base support or ground, and personnel platform, to
determine whether the trial lift has exposed any defect
to produce any adverse effect.
(ii) Confirm that, upon the completion of the
trial lift process, the test weight has been removed.
(5) Immediately prior to each lift:

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1926.1431 Hoisting Personnel (contd)

1926.1431 Hoisting Personnel (contd)

(i) The platform must be hoisted a few inches


with the personnel and materials/tools on board and
inspected by a competent person to ensure that it is
secure and properly balanced.
(ii) The following conditions must be determined
by a competent person to exist before the lift of personnel proceeds:
(A) Hoist ropes must be free of deficiencies in
accordance with 1926.1413(a).
(B) Multiple part lines must not be twisted
around each other.
(C) The primary attachment must be centered
over the platform.
(D) If the load rope is slack, the hoisting system
must be inspected to ensure that all ropes are properly
seated on drums and in sheaves.
(6) Any condition found during the trial lift and
subsequent inspection(s) that fails to meet a requirement of this standard or otherwise creates a safety
hazard must be corrected before hoisting personnel.
(See 1926.1417 for tag-out and related requirements.)
(i) [Reserved.]
(j) Proof testing.
(1) At each jobsite, prior to hoisting employees on
the personnel platform, and after any repair or modification, the platform and rigging must be proof tested
to 125 percent of the platforms rated capacity. The
proof test may be done concurrently with the trial lift.
(2) The platform must be lowered by controlled load lowering, braked, and held in a suspended position for a minimum of five minutes with
the test load evenly distributed on the platform.
(3) After proof testing, a competent person must
inspect the platform and rigging to determine if the
test has been passed. If any deficiencies are found that
pose a safety hazard, the platform and rigging must
not be used to hoist personnel unless the deficiencies
are corrected, the test is repeated, and a competent
person determines that the test has been passed. (See
1926.1417 for tag-out and related requirements.)
(4) Personnel hoisting must not be conducted until
the competent person determines that the platform and
rigging have successfully passed the proof test.
(k) Work practices.
(1) Hoisting of the personnel platform must be performed in a slow, controlled, cautious manner, with no
sudden movements of the equipment or the platform.

(2) Platform occupants must:


(i) Keep all parts of the body inside the platform
during raising, lowering, and horizontal movement.
This provision does not apply to an occupant of the
platform when necessary to position the platform or
while performing the duties of a signal person.
(ii) Not stand, sit on, or work from the top or
intermediate rail or toeboard, or use any other means/
device to raise their working height.
(iii) Not pull the platform out of plumb in relation
to the hoisting equipment.
(3) Before employees exit or enter a hoisted personnel platform that is not landed, the platform must
be secured to the structure where the work is to be
performed, unless the employer can demonstrate that
securing to the structure would create a greater hazard.
(4) If the platform is tied to the structure, the operator must not move the platform until the operator
receives confirmation that it is freely suspended.
(5) Tag lines must be used when necessary to control the platform.
(6) Platforms without controls. Where the platform
is not equipped with controls, the equipment operator
must remain at the equipment controls, on site, and in
view of the equipment, at all times while the platform
is occupied.
(7) Platforms with controls. Where the platform
is equipped with controls, all of the following must
be met at all times while the platform is occupied:
(i) The occupant using the controls in the
platform must be a qualified person with respect to
their use, including the safe limitations of the equipment and hazards associated with its operation.
(ii) The equipment operator must be at a set of
equipment controls that include boom and swing functions of the equipment, and must be on site and in view
of the equipment.
(iii) The platform operating manual must be in
the platform or on the equipment.
(8) Environmental conditions.
(i) Wind. When wind speed (sustained or gusts)
exceeds 20 mph at the personnel platform, a qualified
person must determine if, in light of the wind conditions, it is not safe to lift personnel. If it is not, the lifting
operation must not begin (or, if already in progress,
must be terminated).

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1926.1431 Hoisting Personnel (contd)

1926.1431 Hoisting Personnel (contd)

(ii) Other weather and environmental conditions. A qualified person must determine if, in light of
indications of dangerous weather conditions, or other
impending or existing danger, it is not safe to lift personnel. If it is not, the lifting operation must not begin
(or, if already in progress, must be terminated).
(9) Employees being hoisted must remain in direct
communication with the signal person (where used),
or the operator.
(10) Fall protection.
(i) Except over water, employees occupying the
personnel platform must be provided and use a personal fall arrest system. The system must be attached
to a structural member within the personnel platform.
When working over or near water, the requirements of
1926.106 apply.
(ii) The fall arrest system, including the attachment point (anchorage) used to comply with paragraph
(i) of this section, must meet the requirements in
1926.502.
(11) Other load lines.
(i) No lifts must be made on any other of the
equipments load lines while personnel are being
hoisted, except in pile driving operations.
(ii) Factory-produced boom-mounted personnel platforms that incorporate a winch as original
equipment. Loads are permitted to be hoisted by
such a winch while employees occupy the personnel platform only where the load on the winch
line does not exceed 500 pounds and does not exceed the rated capacity of the winch and platform.
(12) Traveling equipment other than derricks.
(i) Hoisting of employees while the equipment
is traveling is prohibited, except for:
(A) Equipment that travels on fixed rails; or
(B) Where the employer demonstrates that
there is no less hazardous way to perform the work.
(C) This exception does not apply to rubbertired equipment.
(ii) Where employees are hoisted while the equipment is traveling, all of the following criteria must be
met:
(A) Equipment travel must be restricted to a
fixed track or runway.

(B) Where a runway is used, it must be a


firm, level surface designed, prepared and designated as a path of travel for the weight and configuration of the equipment being used to lift and
travel with the personnel platform. An existing surface may be used as long as it meets these criteria.
(C) Equipment travel must be limited to boom
length.
(D) The boom must be parallel to the direction
of travel, except where it is safer to do otherwise.
(E) A complete trial run must be performed to
test the route of travel before employees are allowed
to occupy the platform. This trial run can be performed
at the same time as the trial lift required by paragraph
(h) of this section which tests the lift route.
(13) Traveling derricks. Derricks are prohibited
from traveling while personnel are hoisted.
(l) [Reserved.]
(m) Pre-lift meeting. A pre-lift meeting must be:
(1) Held to review the applicable requirements of
this section and the procedures that will be followed.
(2) Attended by the equipment operator, signal
person (if used for the lift), employees to be hoisted,
and the person responsible for the task to be performed.
(3) Held prior to the trial lift at each new work location, and must be repeated for any employees newly
assigned to the operation.
(n) Hoisting personnel near power lines. Hoisting
personnel within 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350
kV, and hoisting personnel within 50 feet of a power
line that is over 350 kV, is prohibited, except for work
covered by subpart V of this part (Power Transmission
and Distribution).
(o) Hoisting personnel in drill shafts. When hoisting employees into and out of drill shafts that are up
to and including 8 feet in diameter, all of the following
requirements must be met:
(1) The employee must be in either a personnel
platform or on a boatswains chair.
(2) If using a personnel platform, paragraphs (a)
through (n) of this section apply.
(3) If using a boatswains chair:
(i) The following paragraphs of this section apply:
(a), (c), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3), (f)(1),
(f)(2)(i), (f)(3)(i), (g), (h), (k)(1), (k)(6), (k)(8), (k)(9), (k)
(11)(i), (m), (n). Where the terms personnel platform or
platform are used in these paragraphs, substitute them
with boatswains chair.

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42

1926.1431 Hoisting Personnel (contd)

1926.1431 Hoisting Personnel (contd)

(ii) A signal person must be stationed at the shaft


opening.
(iii) The employee must be hoisted in a slow,
controlled descent and ascent.
(iv) The employee must use personal fall protection equipment, including a full body harness, attached
independent of the crane/derrick.
(v) The fall protection equipment must meet the
applicable requirements in 1926.502.
(vi) The boatswains chair itself (excluding the
personal fall arrest system anchorages), must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight
and at least five times the maximum intended load.
(vii) No more than one person must be hoisted
at a time.
(p) Hoisting personnel for pile driving operations. When hoisting an employee in pile driving
operations, the following requirements must be met:
(1) The employee must be in a personnel platform
or boatswains chair.
(2) For lattice boom cranes: Clearly mark the cable
(so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point
that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist
to prevent two-blocking, or use a spotter who is in direct
communication with the operator to inform the operator
when this point is reached. For telescopic boom cranes:
Clearly mark the cable (so that it can be easily seen by the
operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient
time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, and use a
spotter who is in direct communication with the operator
to inform the operator when this point is reached.
(3) If using a personnel platform, paragraphs (b)
through (n) of this section apply.
(4) If using a boatswains chair:
(i) The following paragraphs of this section apply:
(a), (c), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3), (f)(1),
(f)(2)(i), (f)(3)(i), (g), (h), (j), (k)(1), (k)(6), (k)(8), (k)
(9), (k)(11)(i), (m), and (n). Where the terms personnel
platform or platform are used in these paragraphs,
substitute them with boatswains chair.
(ii) The employee must be hoisted in a slow,
controlled descent and ascent.
(iii) The employee must use personal fall protection equipment, including a full body harness, independently attached to the lower load block or overhaul
ball.
(iv) The fall protection equipment must meet the
applicable requirements in 1926.502.

(v) The boatswains chair itself (excluding the


personal fall arrest system anchorages), must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight
and at least five times the maximum intended load.
(vi) No more than one person must be hoisted at
a time.
(q) [Reserved.]
(r) Hoisting personnel for marine transfer. When
hoisting employees solely for transfer to or from a
marine worksite, the following requirements must be
met:
(1) The employee must be in either a personnel
platform or a marine-hoisted personnel transfer device.
(2) If using a personnel platform, paragraphs (a)
through (n) of this section apply.
(3) If using a marine-hoisted personnel transfer
device:
(i) The following paragraphs of this section apply: (a), (c)(2), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1) through
(5), (e)(12), (f)(1), (g), (h), (j), (k)(1), (k)(8), (k)(9),
(k)(10)(ii), (k)(11)(i), (k)(12), (m), and (n). Where the
terms personnel platform or platform are used in
these paragraphs, substitute them with marine-hoisted
personnel transfer device.
(ii) The transfer device must be used only for
transferring workers.
(iii) The number of workers occupying the transfer device must not exceed the maximum number it
was designed to hold.
(iv) Each employee must wear a U.S. Coast Guard
personal flotation device approved for industrial use.
(s) Hoisting personnel for storage-tank (steel or
concrete), shaft and chimney operations. When
hoisting an employee in storage tank (steel or concrete),
shaft and chimney operations, the following requirements must be met:
(1) The employee must be in a personnel platform
except when the employer can demonstrate that use
of a personnel platform is infeasible; in such a case, a
boatswains chair must be used.
(2) If using a personnel platform, paragraphs (a)
through (n) of this section apply.
(3) If using a boatswains chair:

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1926.1431 Hoisting Personnel (contd)


(i) The following paragraphs of this section apply: (a), (c), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3),
(f)(1), (f)(2)(i), (f)(3)(i), (g), (h), (k)(1), (k)(6), (k)(8),
(k)(9), (k)(11)(i), (m), (n). Where the terms personnel
platform or platform are used in these paragraphs,
substitute them with boatswains chair.
(ii) The employee must be hoisted in a slow,
controlled descent and ascent.
(iii) The employee must use personal fall protection equipment, including a full body harness, attached
independent of the crane/derrick. When there is no
adequate structure for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment as required in 1926.502(d)(15), the
attachment must be to the lower load block or overhaul
ball.
(iv) The fall protection equipment must meet the
applicable requirements in 1926.502.
(v) The boatswains chair itself (excluding the
personal fall arrest system anchorages), must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight
and at least five times the maximum intended load.
(vi) No more than one person must be hoisted at
a time.

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44

OSHA 1926.1438
Overhead & Gantry Cranes
(i) Sections 1926.1400 through 1926. 1414;
1926.1417 through 1926.1425; 1926.1426(d),
1926.1427 through 1926.1434; 1926.1437,
1926.1439, and 1926.1441.
(ii) The following portions of 1910.179:

(A) Paragraphs (b)(5),(6),(7); (e)(1),
(3),(5),(6); (f)(1),(4); (g); (h)(1),(3); (k); and (n) of
1910.179.

(B) The definitions in 1910.179(a)
except for hoist and load. For those words, the
definitions in 1926.1401 apply.

(C) Section 1910.179(b)(2), but only
where the equipment identified in paragraph (b)(1) of
this section ( 1926.1438) was manufactured before
September 19, 2001.
(iii) For equipmentmanufactured on or after
September 19, 2001, the following sections of ASME
B30.2-2005 (incorporated by reference, see 1926.6)
apply: 2-1.3.1; 2-1.4.1; 2-1.7.2; 2-1.8.2; 2-1.9.1; 2-1.9.2;
2-1.11; 2-1.12.2; 2-1.13.7; 2-1.14.2, 2-1.14.3; 2-1.14.5;
2-1.15; 2-2.2.2; 2-3.2.1.1. In addition, 2-3.5 applies,
except in 2-3.5.1(b), 29 CFR 1910.147 is substituted
for ANSI Z244.1.

1926.1438 Overhead & gantry cranes



(a) Permanently installed overhead and gantry
cranes. The requirements of 1910.179, except for
1910.179(b)(1), and not the requirements of this subpart CC, apply to the following equipment when used
in construction and permanently installed in a facility:
overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry,
cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes,
and other having the same fundamental characteristics.
(b) Overhead and gantry cranes that are not permanently installed in a facility.
(1) This paragraph applies to the following equipment when used in construction and not permanently
installed in a facility: overhead and gantry cranes,
including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes,
storage bridge cranes, launching gantry cranes, and
similar equipment having the same fundamental characteristics, irrespective of whether it travels on tracks,
wheels or other means.
(2) The following requirements apply to equipment identified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section:

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OSHA 1910.184
Slings
Cross rod is a wire used to join spirals of metal
mesh to form a complete fabric.
Designated means selected or assigned by the
employer or the employers representative as being
qualified to perform specific duties.
Equivalent entity is a person or organization
(including an employer) which, by possession of
equipment, technical knowledge and skills, can perform
with equal competence the same repairs and tests as the
person or organization with which it is equated.
Fabric (metal mesh) is the flexible portion of
a metal mesh sling consisting of a series of transverse
coils and cross rods.
Female handle (choker) is a handle with a
handle eye and a slot of such dimension as to permit
passage of a male handle thereby allowing the use of
a metal mesh sling in a choker hitch.
Handle is a terminal fitting to which metal mesh
fabric is attached.
Handle eye is an opening in a handle of a metal
mesh sling shaped to accept a hook, shackle or other
lifting device.
Hitch is a sling configuration whereby the sling
is fastened to an object or load, either directly to it or
around it.
Link is a single ring of a chain.
Male Handle (triangle) is a handle with a handle
eye.
Master coupling link is an alloy steel welded
coupling link used as an intermediate link to join alloy
steel chain to master links.
Master link or gathering ring is a forged or
welded steel link used to support all members (legs) of
an alloy steel chain sling or wire rope sling.
Mechanical coupling link is a nonwelded,
mechanical closed steel link used to attach master links,
hooks, etc., to alloy steel chain.
Proof load is the load applied in performance
of a proof test.
Proof test is a nondestructive tension test
performed by the sling manufacturer or an equivalent
entity to verify construction and workmanship of a sling.
Rated capacity or working load limit is the
maximum working load permitted by the provisions
of this section.

1910.184(a) Scope
This section applies to slings used in conjunction with
other material handling equipment for the movement
of material by hoisting, in employments covered by
this part. The types of slings covered are those made
from alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural
or synthetic fiber rope (conventional three strand
construction), and synthetic web (nylon, polyester, and
polypropylene).
1910.184(b) Definitions
Angle of loading is the inclination of a leg or
branch of a sling measured from the horizontal or
vertical plane; provided that an angle of loading of five
degrees or less from the vertical may be considered a
vertical angle of loading.
Basket hitch is a sling configuration whereby the
sling is passed under the load and has both ends, end
attachments, eyes or handles on the hook or a single
master link.
Braided wire rope in a wire rope formed by
plaiting component wire ropes.
Bridle wire rope sling is a sling composed of
multiple wire rope legs with the top ends gathered in
a fitting that goes over the lifting hook.
Cable laid endless sling-mechanical joint is
an endless wire rope sling made from one length of
rope wrapped six times around a core formed by hand
tucking the ends of the rope inside the six wraps.
Cable laid rope is a wire rope composed of six
wire ropes wrapped around a fiber or wire rope core.
Cable laid rope sling-mechanical joint is a
wire rope sling made from a cable laid rope with eyes
fabricated by pressing or swaging one ore more metal
sleeves over the rope junction.
Choker hitch is a sling configuration with one
end of the sling passing under the load and through
an end attachment handle or eve on the other end of
the sling.
Coating is an elastomer or other suitable
material applied to a sling or to a sling component to
impart desirable properties.
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46

1910.184(b) Definitions (contd)

1910.184(c) Safe operating practices


(contd)

Reach is the effective length of an alloy steel


chain sling measured from the top bearing surface of
the upper terminal component to the bottom bearing
surface of the lower terminal component.
Selvage edge is the finished edge of synthetic
webbing designed to prevent unraveling.
Sling is an assembly which connects the load to
the material handling equipment.
Sling manufacturer is a person or organization
that assembles sling components into their final form
for sale to users.
Spiral is a single transverse coil that is the basic
element from which metal mesh is fabricated.
Strand laid endless sling-mechanical joint is a
wire rope sling made endless from one length of rope
with the ends joined by one or more metallic fittings.
Strand laid grommet-hand tucked is an endless
wire rope sling made from one length of strand wrapped
six times around a core formed by hand tucking the
ends of the strand inside the six wraps.
Strand laid rope is a wire rope made with stands
(usually six or eight) wrapped around fiber core, wire
strand core, or independent wire rope core (IWRC).
Vertical hitch is a method of supporting a load
by a single, vertical part of leg of the sling.

(10) Hands or fingers shall not be placed between


the sling and its load while the sling is being tightened
around the load.
(11) Shock loading is prohibited.
(12) A sling shall not be pulled from under a load
when the load is resting on the sling.
1910.184(d) Inspections
Each day before being used, the sling and all fastenings and attachments shall be inspected for damage
or defects by a competent person designated by the
employer. Additional inspections shall be performed
during sling use, where service conditions warrant.
Damaged or defective slings shall be immediately removed from service.

1910.184(e) Alloy steel chain slings



(1) Sling identification. Alloy steel chain slings
shall have permanently affixed durable identification
stating size, grade, rated capacity, and reach.
(2) Attachments.
(i) Hooks, rings, oblong links, pear shaped
links, welded or mechanical coupling links or other
attachments shall have a rated capacity at least equal
to that of the alloy steel chain with which they are
used or the sling shall not be used in excess of the
rated capacity of the weakest component.
(ii) Makeshift links or fasteners formed from
bolts or rods, or other such attachments, shall not be
used.
(3) Inspections.
(i) In addition to the inspection required by
paragraph (d) of this section, a thorough periodic
inspection of alloy steel chain slings in use shall be
made on a regular basis, to be determined on the basis
of (A) frequency of sling use; (B) severity of service
conditions; (C) nature of lifts being made; and (D)
experience gained on the service life of slings used
in similar circumstances. Such inspections shall in
no event be at intervals greater than once every 12
months.

1910.184(c) Safe operating practices


Whenever any sling is used, the following practices
shall be observed:
(1) Slings that are damaged or defective shall not
be used.
(2) Slings shall not be shortened with knots or
bolts or other makeshift devices.
(3) Sling legs shall not be kinked.
(4) Slings shall not be loaded in excess of their
rated capacities.
(5) Slings used in a basket hitch shall have the
loads balanced to prevent slippage.
(6) Slings shall be securely attached to their loads.
(7) Slings shall be padded or protected from the
sharp edges of their loads.
(8) Suspended loads shall be kept clear of all
obstructions.
(9) All employees shall be kept clear of loads
about to be lifted and of suspended loads.

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1910.184(e) Alloy steel chain slings


(contd)

1910.184(e) Alloy steel chain slings


(contd)

(ii) The employer shall make and maintain a


record of the most recent month in which each alloy
steel chain sling was thoroughly inspected, and shall
make such record available for examination.
(iii) The thorough inspection of alloy steel
chain slings shall be performed by a competent person designated by the employer, and shall include a
thorough inspection for wear, defective welds, deformation and increase in length. Where such defects or
deterioration are present, the sling shall be immediately removed from service.
(4) Proof testing. The employer shall ensure that
before use, each new, repaired, or reconditioned alloy
steel chain sling, including all welded components in
the sling assembly, shall be proof tested by he sling
manufacturer or equivalent entity, in accordance with
paragraph 5.2 of the American Society of Testing and
Materials Specification A391-65, which is incorporated by reference in Sec. 1910.6 (ANSI G61.1 1968).
The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test
and shall make it available for examination.
(5) Sling use. Alloy steel chain slings shall not be
used with loads in excess of the [manufacturers rated
capacities]. Slings ... shall be used only in accordance
with the manufacturers recommendations.
(6) Safe operating temperatures. Alloy steel
chain slings shall be permanently removed from service if they are heated above 1000 deg. F. When exposed to service temperatures in excess of 600 deg.
F, maximum working load limits ... shall be reduced
in accordance with the chain or sling manufacturers
recommendations.
(7) Repairing and reconditioning alloy steel
chain slings.
(i) Worn or damaged alloy steel chain slings
or attachments shall not be used until repaired. When
welding or heat testing is performed, slings shall not
be used unless repaired, reconditioned and proof tested by the sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity.
(ii) Mechanical coupling links or low carbon
steel repair links shall not be used to repair broken
lengths of chain.
(8) Effects of wear. If the chain size at any point
of any link is less than that stated in [table below], the
sling shall be removed from service.

Minimum allowable chain size and maximum


allowable wear at any point of link.
Chain size,
inches

min allowable
chain size, inches

max allowable
chain wear, inches

1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 3/4

13/64
19/64
25/64
31/64
19/32
45/64
13/16
29/32
1
1 3/32
1 3/16
1 13/32

3/64
5/64
7/64
9/64
5/32
11/64
3/16
7/32
1/4
9/32
5/16
1 1/32

(9) Deformed attachments.


(i) Alloy steel chain slings with cracked or deformed master links, coupling links or other components shall be removed from service.
(ii) Slings shall be removed from service if
hooks are cracked, have been opened more than 15
percent of the normal throat opening measured at the
narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from
the plane of the unbent hook.

1910.184(f) Wire rope slings


(1) Sling use. Wire rope slings shall not be used
with loads in excess of the [manufacturers rated capacities]. Slings ... shall be used only in accordance
with the manufacturers recommendations.
(2) Minimum sling lengths.
(i) Cable laid and 6 x 19 and 6 x 37 slings
shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope 10
times the component rope diameter between splices,
sleeves or end fittings.
(ii) Braided slings shall have a minimum clear
length of wire rope 40 times the component rope diameter between the loops or end fittings.
(iii) Cable laid grommets, strand laid grommets and endless slings shall have a minimum circumferential length of 96 times their body diameter.

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1910.184(f) Wire rope slings (contd)

1910.184(g)
(contd)

(3) Safe operating temperatures. Fiber core wire


rope slings of all grades shall be permanently removed
from service if they are exposed to temperatures in
excess of 200 deg. F. When nonfiber core wire rope
slings of any grade are used at temperatures above
400 deg. F or below minus 60 deg. F, recommendations of the sling manufacturer regarding use at that
temperature shall be followed.
(4) End attachments.
(i) Welding of end attachments, except covers
to thimbles, shall be performed prior to the assembly
of the sling.
(ii) All welded end attachments shall not
be used unless proof tested by the manufacturer or
equivalent entity at twice their rated capacity prior to
initial use. The employer shall retain a certificate of
the proof test, and make it available for examination.
(5) Removal from service. Wire rope slings shall
be immediately removed from service if any of the
following conditions are present:
(i) Ten randomly distributed broken wires in one
rope lay, or five broken wires in one strand in one rope lay.
(ii) Wear or scraping of one-third the original
diameter of outside individual wires.
(iii) Kinking, crushing, bird caging or any other
damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope structure.
(iv) Evidence of heat damage.
(v) End attachments that are cracked, deformed or worn.
(vi) Hooks that have been opened more than
15 percent of the normal throat opening measured at
the narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees
from the plane of the unbent hook.
(vii) Corrosion of the rope or end attachments.

Metal

mesh

slings

(i) The rated capacity of the sling is not reduced.


(ii) The load is evenly distributed across the
width of the fabric.
(iii) Sharp edges will not damage the fabric.
(4) Sling coatings. Coatings which diminish the
rated capacity of a sling shall not be applied.
(5) Sling testing. All new and repaired metal mesh
slings, including handles, shall not be used unless proof
tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity at a
minimum of 1 1/2 times their rated capacity. Elastomer
impregnated slings shall be proof tested before coating.
(6) Proper use of metal mesh slings. Metal mesh
slings shall not be used to lift loads in excess of their
rated capacities as prescribed [by the manufacturer].
Slings not included in this table shall be used only in
accordance with the manufacturers recommendations.
(7) Safe operating temperatures. Metal mesh
slings which are not impregnated with elastomers may
be used in a temperature range from minus 20 deg. F to
plus 550 deg. F without decreasing the working load
limit. Metal mesh slings impregnated with polyvinyl
chloride or neoprene may be used only in a temperature range from zero degrees to plus 200 deg. F. For operations outside these temperature ranges or for metal
mesh slings impregnated with other materials, the sling
manufacturers recommendations shall be followed.
(8) Repairs.
(i) Metal mesh slings which are repaired shall
not be used unless repaired by a metal mesh sling
manufacturer or an equivalent entity.
(ii) Once repaired, each sling shall be permanently marked or tagged, or a written record maintained, to indicate the date and nature of the repairs
and the person or organization that performed the repairs. Records of repairs shall be made available for
examination.
(9) Removal from service. Metal mesh slings
shall be immediately removed from service if any of
the following conditions are present:
(i) A broken weld or broken brazed joint along
the sling edge.
(ii) Reduction in wire diameter of 25 percent
due to abrasion or 15 percent due to corrosion.
(iii) Lack of flexibility due to distortion of the
fabric.
(iv) Distortion of the female handle so that the
depth of the slot is increased more than 10 percent.

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1910.184(g) Metal mesh slings

(1) Sling marking. Each metal mesh sling shall


have permanently affixed to it a durable marking that
states the rated capacity for vertical basket hitch and
choker hitch loadings.
(2) Handles. Handles shall have a rated capacity
at least equal to the metal fabric and exhibit no deformation after proof testing.
(3) Attachments of handles to fabric. The fabric
and handles shall be joined so that:

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2014 CIA, Inc. Illegal to reproduce without written permission.

1910.184(g)
(contd)

Metal

mesh

slings

1910.184(h) Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings (contd)

(v) Distortion of either handle so that the width


of the eye is decreased more than 10 per cent.
(vi) A 15 percent reduction of the original
cross sectional area of metal at any point around the
handle eye.
(vii) Distortion of either handle out of its
plane.

(iii) Strand end tails shall not be trimmed flush


with the surface of the rope immediately adjacent to
the full tucks. This applies to all types of fiber rope
and both eye and short splices. For fiber rope under
one inch in diameter, the tail shall project at least six
rope diameters beyond the last full tuck. For fiber rope
one inch in diameter and larger, the tail shall project
at least six inches beyond the last full tuck. Where a
projecting tail interferes with the use of the sling, the
tail shall be tapered and spliced into the body of the
rope using at least two additional tucks (which will
require a tail length of approximately six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck).
(iv) Fiber rope slings shall have a minimum
clear length of rope between eye splices equal to 10
times the rope diameter.
(v) Knots shall not be used in lieu of splices.
(vi) Clamps not designed specifically for fiber
ropes shall not be used for splicing.
(vii) For all eye splices, the eye shall be of
such size to provide an included angle of not greater
than 60 degrees at the splice when the eye is placed
over the load or support.
(4) End attachments. Fiber rope slings shall not
be used if end attachments in contact with the rope
have sharp edges or projections.
(5) Removal from service. Natural and synthetic
fiber rope slings shall be immediately removed from
service if any of the following conditions are present:
(i) Abnormal wear.
(ii) Powdered fiber between strands.
(iii) Broken or cut fibers.
(iv) Variations in the size or roundness of
strands.
(v) Discoloration or rotting.
(vi) Distortion of hardware in the sling.
(6) Repairs. Only fiber rope slings made from new
rope shall be used. Use of repaired or reconditioned
fiber rope slings is prohibited.

1910.184(h) Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings


(1) Sling use.
(i) Fiber rope slings made from conventional
three strand construction fiber rope shall not be used with
loads in excess of the [manufacturers rated capacities].
(ii) Fiber rope slings shall have a diameter of
curvature meeting at least the minimums specified in
Figures N-184-4 and N-185-5 [not shown; see Contact Surface Requirements for Slings at right].
(iii) Slings ... shall be used only in accordance
with the manufacturers recommendations.
(2) Safe operating temperatures. Natural and
synthetic fiber rope slings, except for wet frozen
slings, may be used in a temperature range from minus 20 deg. F to plus 180 deg. F without decreasing
the working load limit. For operations outside this
temperature range and for wet frozen slings, the sling
manufacturers recommendations shall be followed.
(3) Splicing. Spliced fiber rope slings shall not
be used unless they have been spliced in accordance
with the following minimum requirements and in accordance with any additional recommendations of the
manufacturer:
(i) In manila rope, eye splices shall consist of
at least three full tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least six full tucks, three on each side of the
splice center line.
(ii) In synthetic fiber rope, eye splices shall
consist of at least four full tucks, and short splices
shall consist of at least eight full tucks, four on each
side of the center line.

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50

1910.184(i) Synthetic web slings


(contd)

1910.184(i) Synthetic web slings


(1) Sling identification. Each sling shall be marked
or coded to show the rated capacities for each type of
hitch and type of synthetic web material.
(2) Webbing. Synthetic webbing shall be of uniform thickness and width and selvage edges shall not
be split from the webbings width.
(3) Fittings. Fittings shall be:
(i) Of a minimum breaking strength equal to
that of the sling; and
(ii) Free of all sharp edges that could in any
way damage the webbing.
(4) Attachment of end fittings to webbing and
formation of eyes. Stitching shall be the only method
used to attach end fittings to webbing and to form
eyes. The thread shall be in an even pattern and contain a sufficient number of stitches to develop the full
breaking strength of the sling.
(5) Sling use. Synthetic web slings ... shall not be
used with loads in excess of the [manufacturers rated
capacities]. Slings ... shall be used only in accordance
with the manufacturers recommendations.
(6) Environmental conditions. When synthetic
web slings are used, the following precautions shall
be taken:
(i) Nylon web slings shall not be used where
fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of acids or
phenolics are present.
(ii) Polyester and polypropylene web slings
shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists
or liquids of caustics are present.
(iii) Web slings with aluminum fittings shall
not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.
(7) Safe operating temperatures. Synthetic web
slings of polyester and nylon shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 180 deg. F. Polypropylene web
slings shall not be used at temperatures in excess of
200 deg. F.
(8) Repairs.
(i) Synthetic web slings which are repaired
shall not be used unless repaired by a sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity.
(ii) Each repaired sling shall be proof tested
by the manufacturer or equivalent entity to twice the
rated capacity prior to its return to service. The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test and
make it available for examination.

(iii) Slings, including webbing and fittings,


which have been repaired in a temporary manner shall
not be used.
(9) Removal from service. Synthetic web slings
shall be immediately removed from service if any of
the following conditions are present:
(i) Acid or caustic burns;
(ii) Melting or charring of any part of the sling
surface;
(iii) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;
(iv) Broken or worn stitches; or
(v) Distortion of fittings.

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2014 CIA, Inc. Illegal to reproduce without written permission.

Applicable Standards From


ASME B30.11
(2010)
Monorails and Underhung Cranes

ASME B30.16
(2012)
Overhead Hoists (Underhung)

NOTE: In general, the standards located in B30.11 apply to all types of overhead cranes.
Copied by permission. Rev. 12.05.13
To order complete ASME standards, call Crane Institute of America at (800) 832-2726 or visit craneinstitute.com

ASME B30.11 (2010) - Monorails and Underhung Cranes

Where applicable the following ASME Standards apply to other types of overhead cranes and monorails

Wall Supported
Jib Crane
Floor-Operated Crane
(Hand-Held Push Button)

Overhead
Floor-Operated
Crane

Chapter 11-0
Scope, Definitions, and References

Chapter 11-1
Construction and Installation
SECTION 11-1.1 MARKINGS

SECTION 11-0.1: SCOPE OF B30.11

11-1.1.1 Cranes
The rated load of the crane shall be marked on the
crane, and if the crane has more than one hoisting unit,
each hoist shall have its rated load marked on the hoist or
its load block so that the rated load marking shall be legible from the ground or floor. The combined load on all
hoists on the crane shall not exceed the rated load of the
crane.

Volume B30.11 includes provisions that apply to the


construction, installation, operation, inspection, testing, and
maintenance of underhung cranes and monorail systems,
track sections, and load-carrying members, such as end trucks
or carriers (commonly called trolleys) that travel either on
the external or internal lower flange of a track section. The
track sections include single monorail track, crane bridge
girders and jib booms, all curves, switches, transfer devices,
and lift and drop sections. Provisions apply to both powerdriven and hand operated equipment in which the carriers
are independently controlled. Items within this scope may
be referred to as equipment.
Provisions for similar equipment used for a special purpose, such as, but not limited to, nonvertical lifting service,
lifting a guided load, conveyor systems, including power
and free conveyors, and lifting or transporting personnel
are not included in this Volume.

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11-1.1.2 Monorails
The rated load of the monorail should be marked on
the monorail. If the rated load is marked, it shall be legible from the ground or floor. The combined load on all
hoists on the monorail shall not exceed the rated load of
the monorail.
11-1.1.3 Hoists
The rated load of each hoist on a monorail shall be
marked in accordance with ASME B30.16.
11-1.1.4 Trolleys
The rated load, the equipment manufacturers name,
and the model number or serial number shall be marked on
each trolley.

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2011 CIA, Inc. Illegal to reproduce without written permission. R122311

ASME B30.11 (2010) - Monorails and Underhung Cranes

Where applicable the following ASME Standards apply to other types of overhead cranes and monorails
11-1.1.6 Controls
(a) Each control actuator shall be legible marked to
indicate the function and direction of movement.
(b) In locations or areas where multiple systems are
used by nondedicated operators, the arrangement of control markings for function and directions should be the
same for all crane and monorail systems in that location or
area.

Chapter 11-3
Operator Training and Operation
SECTION 11-3.1 OPERATOR TRAINING
11-3.1.2 Operator Training - General
(a) Training shall include those items that apply to the
equipment and the particular application of the crane or
monorail system. Refer to para. 11-3.1.3 as a guide for
sources of training material.
(b) Training programs and their contents shall be based
upon, but not limited to
(1) physical characteristics of the workplace.
(2) performance characteristics and complexity of
the equipment.
(3) types of load to be handled.
(4) responsibilities of the crane or monorail system operator and other persons involved in the movement
of the load. Refer to paras. 11-3.3.2 and 11-3.3.4.
(c) Trainees shall operate equipment under the direct
supervision of a designated person.

Chapter 11-2
Inspection and Testing
SECTION 11-2.1 INSPECTION
112.1.3 Functional Test Inspection
(a) A functional test inspection is a visual and audible operational examination of the equipment, and shall
be conducted at the beginning of each shift, or before the
equipment is first used during each shift, by the operator
or a designated person. In special applications, when the
handling of a suspended load is transferred from operator
to operator at shift change, the functional test inspection
shall be performed when that lift is completed.
(b) As a minimum, the following items shall be inspected during performance of the functional test inspection:
(1) operational controls
(2) upper limit device(s) in accordance with ASME
B30.16
(3) chain or wire rope in accordance with ASME
B30.16
(c) Adjustments, repairs, or replacements necessary
to satisfy requirements shall be made in accordance with
para. 11-4.2.4 prior to initial use if the functional test inspection reveals that there are items and conditions that do
not comply with the provisions.
(d) Deficiencies discovered during this inspection shall
be reported immediately to the supervisor or a designated
person.

SECTION 11-3.2 TRAINING FOR PERSONS


OTHER THAN CRANE AND MONORAIL SYSTEM
OPERATORS
Other persons, such as, but not limited to, maintenance
personnel, test personnel, and inspectors, when it is necessary to operate a crane or monorail system in the performance of their duties, shall be trained in accordance with
the training requirements of this Volume for their duties.
SECTION 11-3.3 OPERATION
11-3.3.2 General Requirements to Be Followed
During Equipment Operation
All personnel involved with the crane or monorail system
operation shall comply with the following:
(a) equipment lockout / tagout procedures, see Section
11-3.7.
(b) warning or safety signs, labels, plates, or tags.
(c) The crane or monorail system shall not be used to
lift, lower, or travel while anyone is on the load or hook.
(d) The hoist chain or rope shall be free from kinks or
twists and shall not be wrapped around the load.
(e) A hook latch shall be used when provided.
(f) The hook latch (when provided) shall be closed and
shall not be used to support any part of the load.
(g) The load, sling, or lifting device shall be seated in
the bowl of the hook.
(h) The hoist chain(s) or rope(s) shall be seated in its
chain sprockets or drum and sheave grooves.
(i) Persons shall stay clear of a suspended load.

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54

ASME B30.11 (2010) - Monorails and Underhung Cranes

Where applicable the following ASME Standards apply to other types of overhead cranes and monorails
(j) Caution shall be exercised when using a crane
having a lifting magnet, due to hazards of falling metal.
(k) Cranes and monorail systems shall be used to lift
loads vertically without side pull except when specifically
authorized by the manufacturer(s) or a qualified person for
the equipment and a qualified person for the supporting
structure who have determined that
(1) the various parts of the equipment, support
system, and supporting structure will not be overstressed
(2) the stability of the equipment is not thereby
endangered
(3) such side pulls will not cause the hoist rope to
be pulled out of the sheave or across drum grooves
(4) such side pulls will not cause damage to the
chain hoists
(1) The crane or monorail system shall not be used to
lift loads in excess of the rated load of the system except
during properly authorized tests or planned engineered
lifts in accordance with Section 11-3.4.

(w) No one, other than the operator, shall enter a crane


cab or pulpit, with the exception of persons such as oilers
and supervisors whose duties require them to do so, and
then only in the performance of their duties and with the
knowledge of the operator or other appointed person.

11-3.3.3 Responsibilities of Management
(Owners/Users)
Management (owners/users) shall
(a) identify, document, and assign responsibilities of
the equipment operator and other persons involved in the
movement of the load(s) (see paras. 11-3.3.2 and 11-3.3. 4).
(b) provide or verify that persons who will operate the
equipment have been trained.
(c) provide a written and practical examination that
verifies that the person has acquired the knowledge and
skill to operate the specific type of equipment that will be
operated. The examinations shall be defined by the owner/
user and in accordance with any local, state, and federal
provisions that may apply.
(d) issue a certificate, or formal record, that verifies
that the person has been trained and has passed the examination required in para. 11-3.3.3(c).

NOTE: When multiple hoists, trolleys, bridges, or other devices are


installed, the total load shall not exceed the capacity of the system.

(m) A load-limiting device shall not be used to measure


the weight of the load.
(n) The hoist rope or chain shall be protected from
damaging weld spatter or contaminants.
(o) The harness or belt, when provided, shall be used
with the transmitter or the transmitter shall be placed in
the location intended for its support.
(p) The safety devices on the transmitter shall not be
overridden.
(q) Gloves that interfere with the operation of the
controls shall not be worn.
(r) The transmitter shall be stored in a designated and
protected location.
(s) The transmitter shall be shut off when a power
failure occurs.
(t) When two or more pieces of equipment are used to
lift a single load, one designated person shall be in charge of
the operation. This person shall analyze the operation and
instruct all personnel involved in the proper positioning
and rigging of the load and the movements to be made.
(u) The operator shall check the hoist brake(s) at least
once each shift if a load approaching the rated load is to be
handled. This shall be done by lifting the load a few inches
(em) and applying the brake(s).
(v) The load shall not be lowered below the point
where less than two wraps of rope shall remain on each
anchorage of the hoisting drum, unless a lower limit
device is provided, in which case, no less than one wrap
shall remain.

113.3.4 Responsibilities of Operators


(a) Lifting and moving the load
(1) three phases of lifting and moving the load
shall be addressed
(a) before the lift
(b) during the lift
(c) after the lift
(2) Rigging the load, attaching the load to the
hook and other tasks related to moving the load may be
performed by persons other than the equipment operator.
(3) Equipment operation may require the use of a
signal person or other personnel who have responsibility
for directing the lift and move functions and shall be assigned prior to the lift.
(b) Before the lift, operators shall
(1) be familiar with the applicable provisions of
the equipment safety standards and the instructions listed
in manual(s) provided with the equipment
(2) be familiar with controls, instructions, and
warnings located on the lifting equipment
(3) operate the equipment only when physically
and otherwise fit
(4) not energize the main switch (equipment disconnect) if a warning sign, lock, or tag is on the device
until the sign, lock, or tag is removed by the person who
placed it on the device, or by an authorized person

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2014 CIA, Inc. Illegal to reproduce without written permission.

ASME B30.11 (2010) - Monorails and Underhung Cranes

Where applicable the following ASME Standards apply to other types of overhead cranes and monorails
(5) not remove a warning sign, lock, or tag that is
on any switch that controls power to the equipment, such
as, but not limited to the equipment disconnect, motion
disconnect, or runway disconnect, if the sign, lock, or tag
was placed on the device by another person
(6) place all controllers in the off position before
closing the main line disconnect device
(7) verify that no worker is on or adjacent to the
equipment before closing the equipments main disconnect
switch
(8) perform a functional test inspection and test in
accordance with para. 11-2.1.3
(9) not remove or obscure the warning or safety
labels, plates, or tags furnished on the lifting equipment
(10) be familiar with and understand hand signals
(see Section 11-3.5 and Fig. 11-3.3.4-1)
(11) verify that the hook, bridge, and carrier travel
in the same direction as shown on the controls
(12) verify that chains or wire ropes are not kinked
or twisted or that multiple part chain or wire ropes are not
twisted about each other
(13) verify that the hoist chain or wire rope is not
wrapped around the load
(14) attach the load to the hook or have the load
attached to the hook by means of slings or other lifting
devices
(15) verify that the load, sling, or lifting device is
seated in the bowl of the hook
(16) use a hook latch when provided
(17) verify that the hook latch (when provided) is
closed and not supporting any part of the load
(18) verify that the hoist load chain or rope is seated in the sprockets or drum grooves and in the sheave(s)
sprockets or grooves if there is or has been a slack rope
condition
(19) board or leave the crane (cab) only at authorized locations and designated boarding entrances
(20) verify that the transmitter selected is the correct transmitter for the crane to be operated
(21) verify that the hoist unit is centered over the
loads center of gravity, except when authorized by a qualified person [see para. 11-3.3.2(k)]
(22) verify that the weight of the total load to be
lifted does not exceed the rated load of the crane or monorail system, or the rigging [see para. 11-3.3.2(1)]
(23) activate the warning device, when a device is
furnished, before starting the bridge or carrier motion of
the crane
(e) During the lift, operators shall
(1) respond to signals from the person directing
the lift or a designated signal person.

(2) be responsible for the lift when a signal person


is not used.
(3) obey any stop signal regardless of who gives it.
(4) verify multiple part chains or lines are not
twisting around each other when the lift is made.
(5) take up slack load chain or rope carefully, lift
the load a few inches (cm) to check the hoist operation and
verify that the load is secured, balanced, and positioned on
the hook and in the sling or lifting device.
(6) minimize swinging the load or load hook.
(7) maintain firm footing when operating lifting
equipment.
(8) avoid sudden acceleration and deceleration of
the load.
(9) use the crane or monorail system to lift vertically, without side pull, except when specifically authorized by a qualified person [see para. 11-3 .3.2(k)].
(10) verify that the load and rigging are free to
move and will clear all obstructions.
(11) check the hoist brake(s), if a load approaching the rated load is to be handled, by lifting the load a few
inches (cm) and applying the brake(s).
(12) stop the lifting of the load before the upper
limit device is engaged. The hoist limit device that controls
the upper limit of travel of the load block shall not be used
as an operating control in normal operation unless additional means are provided to prevent damage from overtravel.
(13) avoid carrying loads over people.
(14) concentrate on operating the crane and not allow attention to be diverted while operating the equipment.
(15) activate the warning device, when a device is
furnished, intermittently during travel of the crane when
approaching persons in the path of the load.
(16) avoid exposure of the load chain or rope from
damaging elements such as weld spatter or contaminants.
(17) promptly report, to the person responsible for
the equipment, any malfunction, unusual performance or
sound, or damage of equipment.
(18) contact stops, other cranes, or carriers with
caution for the safety of persons on or below the equipment.
(19) place all controllers or master switches in the
off position when power is interrupted during operation.
(20) check the controllers for correct direction of
motion when power is restored after a power outage.
(21) follow the directions of the designated person in charge of the operation when two or more pieces of
equipment are used to lift a single load.

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56

ASME B30.11 (2010) - Monorails and Underhung Cranes

Where applicable the following ASME Standards apply to other types of overhead cranes and monorails
(22) not leave a suspended load unattended unless
provisions have been made to provide auxiliary supporting means under the suspended load, or guards or barriers
are utilized on the floor to prevent people from entering
the area affected by the suspended load.
(23) not lower the load below the point where two
wraps of rope remain on each anchorage of the hoisting
drum unless a lower-limit device is provided, in which
case, no less than one wrap shall remain.
(24) stop the lowering of the load before the lower
limit device is engaged, when furnished, and not use it as
an operating control in normal operation.
(25) properly secure an outdoor underhung crane
when the wind indicating alarm is activated.
(26) use the harness or belt, if provided, for use
with the transmitter or place the transmitter in the location
intended for its support.
(27) not override safety devices on the transmitter.
(28) not wear gloves that interfere with the operation of the controls.
(29) shut off the transmitter when a power failure
occurs.
(30) stop the crane or monorail system functions
in a controlled manner when the operator has doubt as to
the safety of the crane and monorail systems operations.
Lift operations shall resume only after safety concerns
have been addressed.
(f) After the lift, operators shall
(1) lift the load block above the highest moveable
obstruction under the equipment when the equipment is
not in use
(2) notify the next operator of adjustment, repair,
or replacement that needs to be made
(3) properly secure an outdoor underhung crane
when the crane is shut down
(4) open the equipment main line disconnect device before leaving the crane cab
(5) place the controllers in the off position before
leaving the controls of the equipment
(6) shut off the power to pendant-operated cranes
before leaving area
(7) shut off and store transmitter in a designated
and protected location
(8) do not use the crane or monorail system to remove slings from under a landed load.

SECTION 11-3.4 PLANNED ENGINEERED LIFTS


Lifts in excess of the rated load may be required from time
to time on a limited basis for specific purposes such as new
construction or major repairs. Every planned engineered
lift exceeding the rated load shall be treated as a special
and separate event.
Limitations and planned requirements shall be applicable
as follows:
(a) Planned engineered lifts shall be limited to powered cranes.
(b) When planned engineered lifts are made, the load
shall not exceed 125% of the equipment load rating, except as provided in para. 11-3.4(d).
(c) Planned engineered lifts shall be limited to two
occurrences on any crane equipment within any continuous 12-mo period, except as provided in para. 11-3.4(d).
If greater lift frequency is desired, consideration shall be
given to rerating or replacing the equipment.
(d) The equipment manufacturer or a qualified person
shall be consulted if the planned engineered lift exceeds
125% of rated load or if the frequency of planned engineered lifts exceeds two during a continuous 12-month period.
(e) Each planned engineered lift shall comply with the
following requirements:
(1) A written review of the equipment service history shall be prepared, including reference to previous
planned engineered lifts, structural repairs, and modifications of original design.
(2) The design of the structural, mechanical, electrical, pneumatic, and hydraulic components of the equipment shall be reviewed by means of applicable calculations
for the load to be lifted and approved by the equipment
manufacturer or a qualified person according to accepted
crane and monorail system design standards.
(3) The design of the equipments supporting
structure shall be reviewed and approved by a qualified
person for conformance to applicable design criteria. The
supporting structure shall be inspected, and any deterioration or damage shall be taken into consideration in design
calculations for the load to be lifted.
(4) The equipment shall be inspected in accordance with para. 11-2.1.5 just prior to making the lift.
(5) The lift shall be made under controlled conditions under the direction of a designated person in accordance with a previously prepared lift plan. All persons in
the area of the equipment shall be alerted that the lift is
being made.

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2014 CIA, Inc. Illegal to reproduce without written permission.

ASME B30.11 (2010) - Monorails and Underhung Cranes

Where applicable the following ASME Standards apply to other types of overhead cranes and monorails
(6) The operator shall test the equipment at the
planned engineered load by lifting the load a few inches
(em) and setting the brakes. The lift shall only be continued if the brake stops and holds the load. Any failure to
hold the load shall be corrected before proceeding with the
lift.
(7) The equipment shall be inspected in accordance with para. 11-2.1.5 after the lift is completed and
prior to being used for the lifting of any other load.
(8) A record of the planned engineered lift, including calculations, inspections, and all distances moved, shall
be placed on file for availability to appointed personnel.
(f) The load test specified in para. 11-2.2.2 is not applicable to planned engineered lift provisions.

SECTION 11-3.6 MISCELLANEOUS


11-3.6.1 Cabs
(n) Necessary clothing and personal belongings shall
be stored in such a manner as to not interfere with access
or operation.
(b) Tools, oil cans, and other necessary articles shall be
stored in a toolbox and shall not lie loose in or about the
cab.
(c) Materials stored in cabs shall be limited to necessary items.
11-3.6.2 Fire Extinguishers
Operators shall be familiar with the operation and care of
fire extinguisher(s) provided.

SECTION 11-3.5 SIGNALS


11-3.5.1 Standard Signals
Signals to the operator should be in accordance with the
standards prescribed in Fig. 11-3.3.4-1, unless voice communication equipment (telephone, radio, or equivalent)
is utilized. Signals should be discernible or audible at all
times. Some special operations may require additions to,
or modifications of, the basic signals.

1-800-832-2726
2014 CIA, Inc. Illegal to reproduce without written permission.

58

ASME B30.16 (2012) - Overhead Hoists (Underhung)

Where applicable the following ASME Standards apply to other types of overhead cranes and monorails

Hand Chain Operated


Chain Hoist

Electric Powered
Wire Rope Hoist

Chapter 16-0

Chapter 16-1

Scope, Definitions, and References

Marking, Construction, and Installation


SECTION 16-1.1: MARKING

Section 16-0.1: Scope of B30.16

16-1.1.1 Rated Load


The rated load of the hoist shall be marked on the hoist
or its load block and shall be legible from the ground or
floor.

Volume B30.16 includes provisions that apply to the


construction, installation, operation, inspection, and maintenance of hand chain operated chain hoists and electric
and air powered chain and wire rope hoists used for, but not
limited to, vertical lifting and lowering of freely suspended,
unguided, loads which consist of equipment and materials.
Requirements for a hoist that is used for a special purpose,
such as, but not limited to, tensioning a load, non-vertical
lifting service, lifting a guided load, lifting personnel, or
drawing both the load and the hoist up or down the load
chain or rope when the hoist is attached to the load, are not
included in this Volume.

1-800-832-2726

16-1.1.2 Controls
(a) Each control actuator of an electric-powered or airpowered hoist shall be marked to indicate the direction of
resultant motion.
(b) In locations or areas where multiple electric-powered or air-powered hoists are used, the arrangement of
control actuator markings for directions of motion on pendant push-button stations and radio-controlled transmitters
should be the same for all hoists in that location or area.

59

2011 CIA, Inc. Illegal to reproduce without written permission. R122311

ASME B30.16 (2012) - Overhead Hoists (Underhung)

Where applicable the following ASME Standards apply to other types of overhead cranes and monorails
(a) distortion of the rope such as kinking,
crushing, unstranding, birdcaging, main strand displacement, or core protrusion.
(b) general corrosion
(c) broken or cut strands
(d) number, distribution, and type of visible
broken wires
(8) load chain for gross damage, which may be an
immediate hazard, such as the following:
(a) Examine visually for gouges, nicks, weld spatter, corrosion, and distorted links
(b) Test the hoist under load in lifting and lowering directions and observe the operation of the chain and
sprockets. The chain should be feed smoothly into and
away from the sprockets.

Chapter 16-2
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
SECTION 16-2.1: INSPECTION
16-2.1.2 Preoperation Inspection
(a) The preoperation inspection shall be performed
before the first use of the hoist each shift by a designated
person.
(b) A qualified person shall determine whether conditions found during the inspection constitute a hazard and
whether a more detailed inspection is required.
(c) The following items shall be inspected:
(1) operating mechanisms for proper operation,
proper adjustment, and unusual sounds.
(2) hoist limit device(s) of electric- or air-powered
hoists without a load on the hook. The load block shall be
inched into its limit device or run in at a slow speed on
multispeed or variable-speed hoists. When travel-limiting
clutches are used as limiting devices, follow the methods
for inspecting the travel-limiting clutch in the manual provided with the hoist.
(3) hoist braking system for proper operation.
(4) lines, valves, and other parts of air systems for
leakage.
(5) hooks, in accordance with ASME B30.10.
(6) hook latches, if used, for proper operation.
(7) hoist rope for gross damage, which may be an
immediate hazard, such as the following:

Chapter 16-3
Operator Training and Operation
SECTION 16-3.3: OPERATION

16-3.3.2 General Requirements to be Followed


During Equipment Operation
All personnel involved with the crane or monorail system operation shall comply with the following:
(a) equipment lockout/tagout procedures, see Section
11-3.7.
(b) warning or safety signs, labels, plates, or tags.
(c) The crane or monorail system shall not be used to
lift, lower, or travel while anyone is on the load or hook.
(d) The hoist chain or rope shall be free from kinks or
twists and shall not be wrapped around the load.
(e) A hook latch shall be used when provided
(f) The hook latch (when provided) shall be closed and
shall not be used to support any part of the load.
(g) The load, sling, or lifting device shall be seated in
the bowl of the hook.
(h) The hoist chain(s) or rope(s) shall be seated in its
chain sprockets or drum and sheave grooves.
(i) Persons shall stay clear of a suspended load.
(j) Caution shall be exercised when using a crane having a lifting magnet, due to hazards of falling metal.
(k) Cranes and monorail systems shall be used to lift
loads vertically without side pull expect when specifically
authorized by the manufacturer(s) or a qualified person for
the equipment and a qualified person for the supporting
structure who have determined that
(1) the various parts of the equipment, support
system, and supporting structure will not be overstressed

1-800-832-2726

B30.10-1.10.5 (2009) Removal Criteria (of Hooks)



Hooks shall be removed from service if damage such as
the following is visible and shall only be returned to service
when approved by a qualified person:
(d) crack, nicks, or gouges
(e) wear - any wear exceeding 10% (or as recommended
by the manufacturer) of the original section dimension of the
hook or its load pin.
(f) deformation - any visibly apparent bend or twist from
the plane of the unbent hook
(g) throat opening - any distortion causing an increase in
throat opening exceeding 5%, not to exceed inch (6 mm)
(or as recommended by the manufacturer).
(h) inability to lock - any self-locking hook that does not
lock.
(i) inoperative latch (if required) - any damaged latch or
malfunctioning latch that does not close the hooks throat.

2014 CIA, Inc. Illegal to reproduce without written permission.

60

ASME B30.16 (2012) - Overhead Hoists (Underhung)

Where applicable the following ASME Standards apply to other types of overhead cranes and monorails
(2) the stability of the equipment is not thereby
endanagered
(3) such side pulls will not cause the hoist rope to
be pulled out of the sheave or across drum grooves
(4) such side pulls will not cause damage to the
chain hoists
(l) The crane or monorail system shall not be used to
lift loads in excess of the rated load of the system except
during properly authorized tests or planned engineered
lifts in accordance with Section 11-3.4.

16-3.3.4 Responsibilities of Operators


(a) Lifting and moving the load.
(1) three phases of lifting and moving the load
shall be addressed
(a) before the lift
(b) during the lift
(c) after the lift
(2) Rigging the load, attaching the load to the
hook and other tasks related to moving the load may be
performed by persons other than the equipment operator.
(3) Equipment operation may require the use of a
signal person or other personnel who have responsibility
for directing the lift and move functions and shall be assigned prior to the lift.
(b) Before the lift, operators shall
(1) be familiar with the applicable provisions of
the equipment safety standards and the instructions listed
in manual(s) provided with the equipment.
(2) be familiar with controls, instructions and
warnings located on the lifting equipment.
(3) operate the equipment only when physically
and otherwise fit
(4) not energize the main switch (equipment disconnect) if a warning sign,lock, or tag is on the device until
the sign, lock or tad is removed by the person who placed
it on the device, or by an authorized person.
(5) not remove a warning sign, lock or tag that is
on any switch that control power to the equipment, such
as, but not limited to the equipment disconnect, motion
disconnect, or runway disconnect, if the sign, lock or tag
was placed on the device by another person
(6) place all controllers in the off position before
closing the main line disconnect device
(7) verify that no worker is on or adjacent to the
equipment before closing the equipments main disconnect
switch
(8) perform a functional test inspection and test in
accordance with para. 11-2.1.3
(9) not remove or obscure the warning or safety
labels, plates, or tags furnished on the lifting equipment
(10) be familiar with and understand hand signals
(see Section 11-3.5)
(11) verify that the hook, bridge, and carrier travel
in the same direction as shown on the controls.
(12)verify that chains or wire ropes are not kinked
or twisted or that multiple part chain or wire ropes are not
twisted about each other
(13) verify that the hoist chain or wire rope is not
wrapped around the load

NOTE: When multiple hoists, trolleys, bridges, or other devices


are installed, the total load shall not exceed the capacity of the
system.

(m) A load-limiting device shall not be used to measure the weight of the load.
(n) The hoist rope or chain shall be protected from
damaging weld spatter or contaminants.
(o) The harness or belt, when provided, shall be used
with the transmitter or the transmitter shall be placed in the
location intended for its support.
(p) The safety devices on the transmitter shall not be
overridden.
(q) Gloves that interfere with the operation of the controls shall not be worn.
(r) The transmitter shall be stored in a designated and
protected location.
(s) The transmitter shall be shut off when a power failure occurs.
(t) When two or more pieces of equipment are used to
lift a single load, one designated person shall be in charge
of the operation. This person shall analyze the operation
and instruct all personnel involved in the proper positioning and rigging of the load and the movements to be made.
(u) The operator shall check the hoist brake(s) at least
once each shift if a load approaching the rated load is to be
handled. This shall be done by lifting the load a few inches
(cm) and applying the brake(s).
(v) The load shall not be lowered below the point
where less than two wraps of rope shall remain on each
anchorage of the hoisting drum, unless a lower limit device is provided, in which case, no less than one wrap shall
remain.
(w) No one, other than the operator, shall enter a crane
cab or pulpit, with the exception of persons such as oilers
and supervisors whose duties require them to do so, and
then only in the performance of their duties and with the
knowledge of the operator or other appointed person.

1-800-832-2726
61

2014 CIA, Inc. Illegal to reproduce without written permission.

ASME B30.16 (2012) - Overhead Hoists (Underhung)

Where applicable the following ASME Standards apply to other types of overhead cranes and monorails
(14) attach the load to the hook or have the load
attached to the hook by means of slings or other lifting
devices
(15) verify that the load, sling, or lifting device is
seated in the bowl of the hook
(16) use a hook latch when provided
(17) verify that the hook latch (when provided) is
closed and not supporting any part of the load
(18) verify that the hoist load chain or rope is seated in the sprockets or drum grooves and in the sheave(s)
sprockets or grooves if there is or has been a slack rope
condition
(19) board or leave the crane (cab) only at authorized locations and designated boarding entrances
(20) verify that the transmitter selected is the correct transmitter for the crane to be operated
(21) verify that the hoist unit is centered over the
loads center of gravity, except when authorized by a qualified person [see para. 11-3.3.2(k)]
(22) verify that the weight of the total load to be
lifted does not exceed the rated load of the crane or monorail system, or the rigging [see para. 11-3.3.2(l)]
(23) activate the warning device, when a device is
furnished, before starting the bridge or carrier motion of
the crane
(e) During the lift, operators shall
(1) respond to signals from the person directing
the lift or a designated signal person.
(2) be responsible for the lift when a signal person
is not used.
(3) obey any stop signal regardless of who gives it.
(4) verify multiple part chains or lines are not
twisting around each other when the lift is made.
(5) take up slack load chain or rope carefully, lift
the load a few inches (cm) to check the hoist operation and
verify that the load is secured, balanced, and positioned on
the hook and in the sling or lifting device.
(6) minimise swinging the load or load block.
(7) maintain firm footing when operating lifting
equipment.
(8) avoid sudden acceleration and deceleration of
the load.
(9) use the crane or monorail system to lift vertically, without side pull, except when specifically authorized by a qualified person [see para. 11-3.3.2(k)]
(10) verify that the load and rigging are free to
move and will clear all obstructions

(11) check the hoist brake(s), if a load approaching the rated load is to be handled, by lifting the load a few
inches (cm) and applying the brake(s).
(12) stop the lifting of the load before the upper
limit device is engaged. The hoist limit device that controls
the upper limit travel of the load block shall not be used as
an operating control in normal operation unless additional
means are provided to prevent damage from overtravel.
(13) avoid carrying loads over people.
(14) concentrate on operating the crane and not allow attention to be diverted while operating the equipment.
(15) activate the warning device, when a device is
furnished, intermittently during travel of the crane when
approaching persons in the path of the load.
(16) avoid exposure of the load chain or rope from
damaging elements such as weld spatter or contaminants.
(17) promptly report, to the person responsible for
the equipment, any malfunction, unusual performance or
sound, or damage of equipment.
(18) contact stops, other cranes, or carriers with
caution for the safety of persons on or below the equipment.
(19) place all controllers or mater switches in the
off position when power is interrupted during operation.
(20) check the controllers for correct direction of
motion when power is restored after a power outage.
(21) follow the directions of the designated person in charge of the operation when two or more pieces of
equipment are used to lift a single load.
(22) not leave a suspended load unattended unless
provisions have been made to provide auxiliary supporting
means under the suspended load, or guards or barriers are
utilized on the floor to prevent people from entering the
area affected by the suspended load.
(23) not lower the load below the point where two
wraps of rope remain on each anchorage of the hoisting
drum unless a lower-limit device is provide, in which case,
no less than one wrap shall remain.
(24) stop the lowering of the load before the lower
limit device is engaged, when furnished, and not use it as
an operating control in normal operation.
(25) properly secure an outdoor underhung crane
when the wind indicating alarm is activated.
(26) use the harness belt, if provided, for use with
the transmitter or place the transmitter in the location intended for its support.
(27) not override safety devices on the transmitter.
(28) not wear gloves that interfere with the operation of the controls.

1-800-832-2726

2014 CIA, Inc. Illegal to reproduce without written permission.

62

ASME B30.16 (2012) - Overhead Hoists (Underhung)

Where applicable the following ASME Standards apply to other types of overhead cranes and monorails
(29) shut off the transmitter when a power failure
occurs.
(30) stop the crane or monorail system functions
in a controlled manner when the operator has doubt as to
the safety of the crane and monorail systems operation.
Lift operations shall resume only after safety concerns
have been addressed.
(f) After the lift, operators shall
(1) lift the load block above the highest moveable
obstruction under the equipment when the equipment is
not in use
(2) notify the next operator of adjustment, repair,
or replacement that needs to be made
(3) properly secure an outdoor underhung crane
when the crane is shut down
(4) open the equipment main line disconnect device before leaving the crane cab
(5) place the controllers in the off position before
leaving the control of the equipment
(6) shut off the power to pendant-operated cranes
before leaving area
(7) shut off and store transmitter in a designated
and protected location
(8) do not use the crane or monorail system to remove slings from under a landed load.

SECTION 16-3.5: SIGNALS


16-3.5.1 Standard Signals
Signals to the operator should be in accordance with
the standards prescribed in Fig. 11-3.3.4-1, unless voice
communication equipment (telephone, radio, or equivalent) is utilized. Signals should be discernible or audible at
all times. Some special operations may require additions
to, or modifications of, the basic signals.

1-800-832-2726
63

2014 CIA, Inc. Illegal to reproduce without written permission.

Riggers Capacity Card

9.29.11

CIA, Inc.

Crane Institute of America, Inc.

www.craneinstitute.com. 3880 St. Johns Parkway, Sanford, Florida 32771 . 800-832-2726

Shackles Screw Pin/Bolt Type

Forged Eye Bolts Shouldered Type

Nominal Working Nominal Working


Nominal
Shackle Load Shackle Load
Size 90 deg. 60 deg. 30 deg. 0 deg.
Limit
Size
Size
Limit
(inches) (pounds) (inches) (pounds) (inches) (pounds) (pounds) (pounds) (pounds)

3/16
1/4
5/16
3/8
7/16
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8

660
1,000
1,500
2,000
3,000
4,000
6,500
9,500
13,000

17,000
1
1/8 19,000
1/4 24,000
3/8 27,000
1/2 34,000
3/4 50,000
70,000
2
2 1/4 80,000
2 1/2 110,000
1
1
1
1
1

400
680
1000
1840
2940
4340
6000
7880
12600
18260

1/4
5/16
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
1 1/4
1 1/2

Wire Rope Slings 6 X 19 or 6 X 37 EIPS


Rope
Diameter
(Inches)

3/8
7/16
1/2
9/16
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 5/8
1 3/4

1 LEG
Vertical Basket
Vertical
Choker
or 2-Leg

2800
3800
5000
6400
7800
11200
15200
19600
24000
30000
36000
42000
48000
56000

2200
2800
3800
4800
5800
8200
11200
14400
18200
22000
26000
32000
36000
42000

5800
7800
10200
12800
15600
22000
30000
40000
48000
60000
72000
84000
98000
114000

75
210
400
850
1410
2230
2960
3850
6200
9010

NR
NR
220
520
890
1310
1910
2630
4125
6040

NR
NR
180
440
740
1140
1630
2320
3690
5460

IWRC MS Rated Capacity in Pounds


BASKET AND 2 LEG BRIDLE
45
30
60
degree
degree
degree

5000
6800
8800
11000
13600
19400
26000
34000
42000
52000
62000
74000
84000
98000

4000
5400
7200
9000
11000
15800
22000
28000
34000
42000
50000
60000
70000
80000

2800
3800
5000
6400
7800
11200
15200
19600
24000
30000
36000
42000
48000
56000

Rated capacities basket hitch based on D/d ratio of 25.


Rated capacities based on pin diameter no larger than natural eye width or less than the nominal sling diameter.
Horizontal sling angles less than 30 degrees shall not be used.

Alloy Steel Chain Slings Grade 80

Rated Capacity in Pounds

2 LEG
45 deg

30 deg

3 LEG AND 4 LEG


60 deg 45 deg 30 deg

3000
3600
4900
6100
6400
7800
12300 10000
20800 17000
31300 25600
49000 40000
59200 48400
82600 67400
125200 102200

2100
3500
4500
7100
12000
18100
28300
34200
47700
72300

5500
9100
11700
18400
31200
47000
73500
88900
123900
187800

SINGLE
LEG
60 deg
90 deg
Chain
Size

(Inches) mm

7/32 5.5
9/32 7
5/16
8
3/8
10
1/2
13
5/8
16
3/4
20
7/8
22
1
26
1 1/4 32

2100
3500
4500
7100
12000
18100
28300
34200
47700
72300

4400
7400
9500
15100
25500
38400
60000
72500
101200
153400

3200
5200
6800
10600
18000
27100
42400
51300
71500
108400

Chain slings made with grades of steel other than Grades 80 and 100 alloy steel are not recommended for overhead lifting.
Rating of multileg slings adjusted for angle of loading between the inclined leg and the horizontal plane of the load.
4 leg sling rating is same as 3 leg sling rating because normal lifting practice may not distribute load uniformly on all four legs.

riggers capacity card - 2011.p65

Horizontal sling angles less than 30 degrees shall not be used.


For choker hitch, the angle of choke shall be 120 degrees or greater (see ASME B30.9)

Calculating Sling Loading


Example (2 Legs):
Steps:
1. Determine sling angles. (45)
2. Select corresponding Load Angle Factor.
(1.414)

Sling
Angle
(degrees)

Load
Angle
Factor

65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30

1.104
1.155
1.221
1.305
1.414
1.555
1.742
2.000

3. Multiply load weight by Load Angle


Factor to get total load on sling legs.
( 2000 lbs x 1.414 = 2828 lbs )
4. Divide total load by the number
of sling legs.
( 2828 lbs 2 = 1414 lbs per sling
leg )

2,000 lbs.

5. Select slings from the single vertical leg column within the
sling capacity table.

When sling angles are between those listed in chart, use the next lower sling angle and corresponding load angle factor.
When using 3 or 4 sling legs equal in length, divide the total load by 3.
When the load is not distributed uniformly (equally) on sling legs, the tension on each leg must be calculated individually.

Calculating Load Weight Weights of Materials & Liquids - lb per cubic ft


Aluminum
Asbestos
Asphalt
Brass
Brick (Soft)
Brick (Common)
Brick (Pressed)
Bronze
Coal
Concrete (Slag)
Concrete (Reinforced)
Copper
Crushed Rock
Diesel Fuel
Earth, Dry (Loose)
Earth, Dry (Packed)
Earth, Wet
Glass
Granite
Ice
Iron
Lead
Lime: Gypsum (Loose)

165
153
81
524
110
125
140
534
56
130
150
556
95
52
75
95
100
160
168
56
485
710
64

Limestone (solid)
Lumber:Douglas-fir
Lumber:Oak
Lumber:Pine
Lumber:Poplar
Lumber:Spruce
Lumber:Railroad Ties
Marble
Motor Oil
Paper
Petroleum: Crude
Petroleum: Gasoline
Portland Cement (Loose)
Portland Cement (Set)
River Sand
Rubber
Sand & Gravel (Wet)
Sand & Gravel (Dry)
Steel
Tar
Tin
Water
Zinc

163
34
62
30
30
28
50
95
60
58
55
45
94
183
120
94
120
105
490
75
460
63
437

Weights of
Steel and Aluminum
Plates lb per square ft
plate size
(inches)
1/8
1/4
1/2
3/4
1

steel
5
10
20
30
40

aluminum
1.75
3.50
7.00
10.50
14.00