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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

KURIKULUM STANDARD SEKOLAH RENDAH

MATHEMATICS
YEAR ONE

STANDARD DOCUMENT

KURIKULUM STANDARD SEKOLAH RENDAH


(PRIMARY SCHOOL STANDARD CURRICULUM)

(KSSR)
BASIC CORE MODULE

MATHEMATICS
YEAR ONE

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIVISION


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Copyright 2008 Curriculum Development Centre


First published 2009
Second published 2010
Third published 2011
Fourth published 2012
Fifth published 2013
Ministry of Education Malaysia

Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilisation of this work in any form or by any electronic,
mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, and recording is forbidden without the
prior written permission from the Director of the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia, Level 4-8,
Block E9, Parcel E, Kompleks Kerajaan Parcel E,Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62604 Putrajaya

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CONTENTS

CONTENTS

iii

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

RUKUN NEGARA

WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100

15

NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

vii

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

18

INTRODUCTION

FRACTION

19

THE RATIONALE OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

MONEY UP TO RM10

20

AIMS

FOCUS

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

NATIONAL CURRICULUMS FRAMEWORK

TIME

21

STRUCTURE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL


MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

LENGTH

22

MASS

23

OBJECTIVES

VOLUME OF LIQUID

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MATHEMATICS CURRICULUMS FRAMEWORK

SPACE

25

CONTENT STANDARD AND LEARNING STANDARD 10


STRATEGIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING

10

ELEMENTS OF ADDED VALUES

11

ASSESSMENT

13

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RUKUN NEGARA
BAHAWASANYA negara kita Malaysia mendukung citacita untuk mencapai perpaduan yang lebih erat
dalam kalangan seluruh masyarakatnya; memelihara
satu cara hidup demokratik; mencipta masyarakat
yang adil bagi kemakmuran negara yang akan
dapat dinikmati bersama secara adil dan saksama;
menjamin satu cara yang liberal terhadap tradisitradisi kebudayaannya yang kaya dan berbagaibagai corak; membina satu masyarakat progresif
yang akan menggunakan sains dan teknologi
moden;
MAKA KAMI, rakyat Malaysia, berikrar akan
menumpukan seluruh tenaga dan usaha kami untuk
mencapai cita-cita tersebut berdasarkan atas prinsipprinsip yang berikut:

KEPERCAYAAN KEPADA TUHAN


KESETIAAN KEPADA RAJA DAN NEGARA
KELUHURAN PERLEMBAGAAN
KEDAULATAN UNDANG-UNDANG
KESOPANAN DAN KESUSILAAN

RUKUNEGARA
DECLARATION

OUR NATION, MALAYSIA, being dedicated


to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples;
to maintaining a democratic way of life;
to creating a just society in which the wealth of
the nation shall be equitably shared;
to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and
diverse cultural traditions;
to building a progressive society which shall be
orientated to modern science and technology;
WE, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain
these ends guided by these principles:
Belief in God
Loyalty to King and Country
Upholding the Constitution
Rule of Law
Good Behaviour and Morality

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Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha


berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi
potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan
bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang
seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek,
rohani, emosi dan jasmani berdasarkan
kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan.
Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat
Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan,
berketerampilan, berakhlak mulia,
bertanggungjawab dan berkeupayaan
mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta
memberikan sumbangan terhadap
keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga,
masyarakat dan negara.

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INTRODUCTION

THE RATIONALE OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

Sekolah Unggul Penjana Generasi Terbilang (Ideal Schools


Generating an Illustrious Generation) is the vision of the Malaysian
Ministry of Education. The education purpose in Malaysia is to
develop individual potential through quality education by preparing
committed citizens and a generation that has the ability to think.
Ministry Of Education continuously reviews the curriculum to ensure
that the implementation of the curriculum in schools equips pupils
with knowledge, skills and values to face current and future
challenges.

Mathematics is the best platform to develop individual intellectual


proficiency in making logical reasoning, space visualization,
abstract thinking skills and analyzing. Pupils develop numeracy
skills, reasoning, thinking and problem solving ways of thinking
through learning and application of mathematics.
Mathematics provides opportunities for students to perform creative
tasks and experience the fun and excitement of learning something
new. Such experiences increase interest and are the driving forces
for students to learn mathematics outside the classroom and at the
higher level of education.

Mathematics is a discipline that trains the mind to think logically and


systematically in problem solving and decision making. Inherently,
mathematical nature promotes meaningful learning and challenges
the mind. Due to this, mathematics is one of the most important
disciplines in any endeavor for human development. Based on the
National Philosophy of Education and to ensure the relevancy of the
curriculum, the Primary School Standard Curriculum for
Mathematics is adapted and restructured. This restructuring takes
into account the ongoing continuity to the next level. Measures
taken are consistent with the need to provide the knowledge and
mathematical skills to pupils from various backgrounds and abilities.
With the knowledge and skills, they are able to explore the
knowledge, make adaptations, modifications and innovations in
managing changes and dealing with future challenges.

AIMS
The Aim of the Primary School Standard Curriculum for
Mathematics is to develop pupils understanding on the concept of
numbers, basic calculation skills, understanding simple
mathematical ideas and are competent in applying mathematical
knowledge and skills effectively and responsibly in everyday life.

FOCUS
.
Mathematical teaching and learning process gives priority to mastering knowledge and understanding to enable pupils to apply concepts,
principles and the mathematical processes they have learned. Emphasis on the development of mathematical thinking is built and
developed through the teaching and learning in the classroom based on the following principles, which are, problem solving,
communication, reasoning, making connections, making representations and the application of technology in mathematics.
.

NATIONAL CURRICULUM
FRAMEWORK
The
Standard curriculum is
based
on
six pillars, namely Communication; Spiritual, Attitudes
and Values; Humanity; Physical Development and
Aesthetic; Personal Experience; and Science and
Technology. The six pillars are the main domain that
supports each other and are integrated with critical
thinking, creative and innovative thinking. This
integration aims to develop balanced, knowledgeable
and competent human capital as shown in the
adjacent figure.

PRIMARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS EDUCATION


STRUCTURE

Each pupil in Malaysia has the opportunity to go through at least six


years of basic education in schools. This includes three years in
level I studies and three years in level II. After which, pupils
can pursue education at a higher level.
LEVEL

AIMS

Primary School Mathematics Curriculum Level


I aims to build understanding, mathematics
and basic application skills.
Primary Mathematics Curriculum Level II aims to
build understanding, mathematical skills and more
complex application skills that can be used in
effectively overcoming the challenges in the pupils
daily life.

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MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK


The Mathematics curriculum framework shows a mathematical
programme that could be utilized at the primary level. Mathematical
Learning is planned with the aim of moulding pupils mathematical
thoughtful learning.

OBJECTIVES

MATHEMATICAL THOUGHTFUL LEARNING

The Primary School Mathematics Curriculum will enable pupils to:

Communicate using mathematical ideas clearly and use correct


symbols and terminologies.
Use mathematical knowledge and skills to be applied and
adapted to various strategies to solve problems.
Think, reason, and explore mathematically in daily life.
Use various representations to deliver mathematical ideas and
associations.
Appreciate and internalise the beauty of mathematics.
Use various mathematical instruments effectively including ICT
to build conceptual understanding and apply mathematical
knowledge.

The definition of fikrah (thoughtful learning) according to the fourth


edition of the Kamus Dewan (2005) has the same
meaning with thinking and reasoning. In the context of mathematics
education, thoughtful learning refers to the desired quality of pupils
to be delivered through the national mathematics education system.
Pupils who are mathematically inclined are those capable of
doing mathematics and understanding mathematical ideas, and
responsibly applying the mathematical knowledge and skills in their
daily lives based on attitudes and values of mathematics.

Understand and apply the concepts and mathematical skills in


various contexts.
Expand the use of addition, subtraction, multiplication and
division basic skills related to Numbers and Operations,
Measurement and Geometry, Relationship and Algebra, and
Statistics and Probability.
Identify and use the relationship in mathematical ideas, between
mathematical fields with other fields and with daily life.
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MATHEMATHICS CURRICULUM DESIGN

CONTENT ORGANISATION

Numbers and Operations


Measurement and Geometry
Relationship and Algebra
Statistics and Probability

The Mathematics Curriculum encompasses four learning areas:


Numbers and Operations
Measurement and Geometry
Relationship and Algebra
Statistics and Probability
The contents of the KSSR Mathematics are as follows:
NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Communicating
Reasoning
Relating
Problem Solving
Representing

Perception, interest,
appreciation,
confidently resilient
and perseverance.
Personality,
interaction, procedure,
intrinsic.

Mathematical skills
Analytical skills
Problems solving skills
Research skills
Communication skills
Information Communication Technology skills

Whole Numbers
Addition
Subtraction
Multiplication
Division
Mixed Operations
Fractions
Decimals
Percentage
Money

RELATIONSHIP AND ALGEBRA

Coordinate
Ratio and Proportion

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

Time
Length
Mass
Volume of Liquid
Three Dimensional Shapes
Two Dimensional Shapes

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

Data Management
Likelihood

Pupils should develop and explore mathematical ideas in depth


through various learning opportunities and experiences. Awareness
should be fostered and developed among pupils that mathematical
ideas are intertwined, and mathematics is comprehensive; not
isolated bits of knowledge. With such awareness and
understanding, comprehending of mathematical ideas become
more meaningful, and thus can enhance the capability of pupils to
apply mathematics.

Opportunities and a variety of learning experiences provided should


actively engage the pupils in learning mathematics, help them to
form a deep understanding of mathematical concepts, and establish
a more meaningful understanding of various mathematical ideas.
Based on the understanding and comprehension developed, pupils
are able to relate and apply mathematical ideas, and subsequently,
make pupils more confident in exploring and applying mathematics.
The use of teaching aids, technological equipment and the
implementation of assignments / practical / project work should be
encompassed in the learning experiences provided for pupils.

Analysing Skills

Using correct standard mathematical language and applying


logical reasoning.
Stating mathematical ideas concisely.
Creating, testing, and proving conjecture.
Extracting meaning from a mathematical writing.
Using mathematics to explain physical world.

Analysing skills refer to the following abilities:


Thinking clearly.
Giving attention and concentration to each aspect.
Manipulating precised, concised and detailed ideas.
Understanding complex reasoning.
Constructing and persevering logical arguments.
Debating illogical arguments.
Problem Solving Skills

SKILLS
Problem solving skills refer to following abilities:
Construct problems precisely and identify the main issues.
Present solutions clearly and explicate assumptions.
Solving difficult problems by analysing simple and specific
problems.
Open-minded and using different approaches in solving the
same problem.
Solving problems confidently even though the solutions are not
envisioned
Asking for assistance if required.

Skills in mathematics that should be developed and instilled in


pupils including numeracy, measuring and constructing, data
handling and interpretation, arithmetic manipulation, algebra
manipulation, using alogarithm, and using mathematical
instruments and ICT.

Mathematics Skills
Mathematical skills refer to the following abilities:
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Research Skills

PROCESS

Research skills refer to the following abilities:


Refering notes, textbooks and other sources.
Accessing books in the library.
Using database.
Gaining information from various individuals.
Thinking.

Communication
Communication about mathematical ideas can help pupils clarify
and strengthen the understanding of mathematics. By sharing the
understanding of mathematics in writing and orally with classmates,
teachers and parents, pupils will be able to increase their
confidence and facilitate their teachers in monitoring the progress of
their mathematics skills.

Communication Skills
Communication plays a vital role in ensuring the meaningful
learning of mathematics. Through communication, mathematical
ideas can be expressed and understood better. Mathematical
communication, whether oral, written, in symbols and visual
representations (using charts, graphs, diagrams etc), can help
pupils understand and apply mathematics more effectively.

Communication skills referring to the following abilities:


Listening effectively.
Writing mathematical ideas clearly and precisely.
Writing essays and reports.
Doing presentations.

Communication among themselves or with peers, parents, adults


and teachers can help pupils to reflect, clarify and strengthen their
ideas and understanding on mathematics. To ensure the process of
generating, sharing and increasing understanding, pupils should be
given the opportunity to debate their mathematical ideas analytically
and systematically. Communication involves a variety of
perspectives and these points of view can help pupils to increase
their understanding of mathematics.

Information Communication Technology Skills


Information communication technology skills refer to the ability in
using and handling mathematical instruments such as abacus,
calculators, computers, educational software, websites on the
internet and educational packages for:
Developing and understanding mathematical concepts in-depth.
Doing, testing and proving conjecture.
Exploring mathematical ideas.
Solving problems.

An important aspect of effective communication in mathematics is


the ability to provide information effectively, understand and apply
the correct mathematical notation. Pupils need to use mathematical
language and symbols correctly to ensure that mathematical ideas
can be explained accurately. Mathematical communication also
involves the use of the various media like charts, graphs
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manipulatives, calculators, computers and others. Pupils should be


able to use the various different media to explain mathematical
ideas and solve mathematical problems.

conjecture, give a logical explanation, analyse, consider, evaluate,


and justify all mathematic activities. In addition, teachers need to
provide space and opportunities for the discussion of mathematics
which is not only engaging but also allows each pupil to be involved
well.

Effective communication requires a sensitive environment towards


the pupils needs to feel comfortable in a conversation, ask
questions, answer questions and explain the statements to
classmates and teachers. Pupils should be given the opportunity to
communicate actively in various situations, for example
communicating during activities in pairs, groups or providing
explanations to the entire class.

Reasoning can be done inductively through mathematical activities


that involve the identification of mathematical patterns and making
conclusions based on the patterns.
Reasoning elements in teaching and learning prevents pupils from
assuming mathematics as only one set of procedures or algorithms
that need to be followed to obtain a solution, without actually
understanding the true concepts of mathematics. Reasoning does
not only change the paradigm of pupils from just learning to
thinking, but also gives an intellectual empowerment when pupils
are guided and trained to make a conjecture, prove the conjecture,
provide a logical explanation, analyse, evaluate and justifiy all
mathematic activities. This training will produce pupils who are selfconfident and resilient in line with the aspiration to mould
mathematics thinkers with high capabilities.

Assessment of the ability of pupils to communicate in mathematics


effectively should show evidence that they are able to generate,
explain and share their mathematical ideas through various forms of
communication in various environments. Pupils, who are always
given opportunities and encouragement to speak, read, write and
listen during the teaching and learning of mathematics will be able
to communicate in learning mathematics and learn to communicate
mathematically.

Reasoning
Relating
Reasoning is fundamental in understanding mathematics more
effectively and making the delineation of mathematics more
meaningful. The development of mathematical reasoning is closely
related to intellectual development and communication of the pupils.
Reasoning has the ability to expand not only the capacity of logical
thinking but also increase the capacity of critical thinking, which is
also the basis for a deeper and meaningful and in-depth
understanding of mathematics. To achieve this objective, pupils
should be trained and guided to make a conjecture, prove the

In implementing the mathematics curriculum, the opportunities for


making connections need to be established so that pupils can link
conceptual and procedural knowledge and also able to relate topics
in mathematics particularly and mathematics in other areas in
general. This will enhance pupils understanding of mathematics
and make mathematics clearer, more meaningful and interesting to
them.
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Mathematics curriculum generally consists of several discrete areas


such as calculation, geometry, algebra, measurement and problem
solving. Without relating these areas, pupils will have to learn and
remember too many concepts and skills separately. Instead,
recognizing how the concepts or skills in different fields relate
to each other, mathematics will be seen and studied as a
disciplined and comprehensive knowledge and can be easily
understood.

The various uses of general strategies in problem solving including


steps in solving need to be expanded more in the use of this
subject. In carrying out learning activities to build problem solving
skills, problems based on human activities should be introdued.
Through these activities, pupils can use mathematics when facing
new situations and reinforce themselves in dealing with various
challenges every day. Some of the problems solving strategies that
can be considered are:

When
these mathematical
ideas are related
with everyday
experience inside and outside the school, pupils will be more aware
of the use, importance, strength and beauty of mathematics. In
addition, pupils have the opportunity to use mathematics
contextually in other fields and in their daily lives. Mathematical
models are used to describe real life situations mathematically.
Pupils will find this method can be used to find solutions to
problems or to predict the likelihood of a situation based on the
mathematical model.

1.
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3.
4.
5.
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7.
8.
9.
10.

Problem Solving
Problem solving is the main focus in the teaching and learning of
mathematics. Thus, teaching and learning need to involve problem
solving skills comprehensively and across the whole curriculum.
The development of problem solving skills needs to be given proper
emphasis so that pupils are able to solve various problems
effectively. These skills involve the following steps :
Understanding and interpreting problems;
Planning the strategy;
Carrying out the strategy; and
Checking the solutions.

Try an easier problem;


Try and error;
Draw a diagram;
Identifying patterns
Create a table, chart or a systematic list;
Simulation;
Using analogy;
Work backwards;
Logically reasoning; and
Using algebra

Representing
Mathematics is often used to represent the world that we live in.
Therefore, there must be similarities between aspects of the
represented world and aspects that are represented by the world.
The abstract relationship between these two worlds can be depicted
as follows:

Representation is necessary for pupils understanding in


mathematical
conceptual
relationship.
It
allows pupils to
communicate
approaches, debates and understanding of
mathematics
to
themselves
and
others. It
also allows
pupils to recognize the relationships between related concepts and
apply mathematics to realistic problems.
Representation is an important component in the development of
mathematical understanding and quantitative thinking. As a whole,
without representation, mathematics is an abstract, mostly
philosophic, and unapproachable by most of the population. With
the representation, ideas can be formed into a mathematical
model, important relationship can be elaborated, understanding can
be stimulated through a construction and sequencing of suitable
experiences and observations.

Representation can be regarded as a facilitator that allows the


relationship between the real world and the world of mathematics.
Formula, table, graph, equation etc. are mathematical objects used
to represent various conglomerates and real world relationships.

ATTITUDES AND VALUES


The aim of the nurturing of values and attitudes in Mathematics
curriculum is to produce competent individuals with virtuous moral
standards. In addition, the appreciation of attitudes and values can
shape a well mannered and noble younger generation.
Understanding and awareness of the attitudes and values in the
Malaysian society should be directly or indirectly fostered in line
with universal values.

Representation can be defined as any configuration of letters,


images or concrete objects that can reflect or represent other
delegates. The representation system is naturally divided into
internal and external. The internal representation of the system
exists in
the
mind
of individual,
whereas
the external
representation is
easily shared and viewed
by
others.
Internal representation consists of ideas that help in describing the
human
process
of learning and
solving
problems
in
mathematics, and external representation consists of items such
as diagrams, the formal language, and notational symbols. Using
multiple representations in order to show a concept helps to
develop better understanding and also to strengthen one's ability in
solving problems.

Values and attitudes are instilled through learning experiences


provided by teachers. It involves an element of trust, interest,
appreciation, confidence, efficiency and endurance. Instilling of
values and attitudes also include personal aspects, interaction,
procedural and intrinsic.
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In mathematics, attitudes and values need to be moulded through


appropriate context. Attitudes in mathematics refer to the affective
aspects of mathematical learning that covers:
positive response towards mathematics and the usefulness of
mathematics.
Interest and joy in learning mathematics.
Appreciation of the beauty and mathematical ability.
Confidence in using and applying mathematics.
Steadfast and perseverance in solving problems related to
mathematics.

CONTENT STANDARD AND LEARNING STANDARD


Primary School Mathematics Standard Curriculum is formulated
with emphasis on Content Standard and Learning Standard should
be known and can be done by pupils. This standard is presented
in a modular form divided into topics based on areas of learning.
Content Standard
General statements of the cognitive domain (knowledge) and
affective (attitudes and values) can be achieved by pupils through a
subtopic.

Personal values refer to the values that are related with the
formation of individual traits and personality such as
honesty, systematic, perserverence, hardworking and steadfast,
creative, confidence, conscientious, good time managers,
independent, trustworthy, efficient, responsible, patience and
dedication.

Learning Standard
Specific statement of what pupils should know and do in terms of
knowledge or concepts and the ability to show their proficiency in
measureable knowledge acquisition, skills and values.

Interaction values are related with the instillation of good behavior in


the classroom context. The value refers to the emphasized values
in the interaction during mathematical activities such as
appreciation for mathematics, teamwork, discussion and sharing of
ideas, tolerance, fair, open-minded, and respectful.

Learning Standard does not show the steps of teaching and


learning. It gives teachers space and opportunity to prepare a
conducive learning environment creatively. Thus, pupils are able to
form concepts and develop skills, attitudes and values in
mathematics.

Procedural values associated with specific activities in mathematics


such as reasoning, making representations, solving problems,
communication, making connection, and using technology.

STRATEGIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING


Mathematical thoughtful learning is transferred into teaching and
learning practices. Teaching and learning is guided by the principle
of mastery learning and the learning occurs in access and selfdirected and in accordance with its own pace.

Intrinsic values associated with the formation of mathematical


content and its discipline such as the epistemology, cultural
and historical values.
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Teaching and learning strategies should be pupil-centred to enable


them to interact and master the learning skills through their own
experience. Pupils-centered inquiry or discovery approach with the
aid
of appropriate
technology
is comprehensively and
effectively used
to make the
experience
of
learning
mathematics fun, meaningful, useful and challenging.

ELEMENTS OF ADDED VALUES


CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION
There are many definitions of creativity. According to the Kamus
Dewan, 1997 creativity means the capability or the ability to create.
Whereas according to PPK, 1999 creativity means the ability to
digest and produce new and original ideas. The idea is developed
through inspiration or combination of existing ideas.

Teaching and learning of primary school mathematics encourage


the use of diverse methods. Teachers can choose appropriate
teaching and learning approach and methods depending on pupils
abilities. The effectiveness of teaching and learning depends on the
processing techniques and the use of teaching aids and technology
that can stimulate and encourage pupils to think criticaly and
creatively, innovatively, and interact.

Creativity should be embedded effectively in teaching and learning


in which teachers need to be creative and innovative in their role as
triggers of ideas and produce pupils who are knowledgeable, able
to master and practise the good attitudes and values as well as to
expand pupils creativity and innovation.

The inculcation of attitudes and values should be considered when


planning the teaching and learning of a distinctive skill. Moral
values could be instilled appropriately according to the well planned
lesson.

This is important as creativity and innovations need to be developed


among pupils at an early stage of schooling. This is to enable them
to know their potential and personal preferences as well as to
trigger the hidden potential in themselves.

Elements of history, patriotism, environment and science can be


applied accordingly to the appropriate topics to enable pupils to
appreciate mathematics and stimulate their interest on a particular
topic. Elements of history can be a specific event about a
mathematician or a brief history of a concept or symbol.

Creative and innovative teaching and learning can be applied


through problem solving, logical reasoning, communication, making
connections and the use of technology, where pupils:
Build a mathematical model through patterns and relationships.
Apply mathematical skills in estimation, measurement and
visualization of data in everyday situations.
Make interconnections between mathematical skills with other
disciplines of knowledge.
Apply mathematical knowledge to find solutions for routine and
non-routine problems.
Make a conjecture (extrapolation, projections, cause and effect).

Problem solving is an important aspect that must be embedded


in teaching and learning of mathematics to enhance pupils
analytical thinking and creativity. Solutions presented for problems
should be appropriate accordance to the pupils level. In
addition, pupils are also encouraged to communicate and
courageously make decisions.
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INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

The process of building a creative and innovative skills can be


initiated from the preparation phase, imagination, development and
action in planning a preparation of teaching and learning in the
classroom. Through this process, pupil-centered teaching and
learning is formed to instigate the creative skills among pupils.

Explosion of progress in various technology now and in future make


this element important in teaching and learning in classroom.
Exposure of ICT application in teaching and learning Mathematics
can be applied successfully in:
Learning about ICT
Pupils are taught about ICT knowledge and skills in handling
hardware and software.
Learning through ICT
Use ICT to access information and knowledge through media
such as CD, DVD, Internet and etc.
Learning with ICT
Teachers and pupils use ICT as their teaching and learning aids
ICT teaching and learning
This can be as an access to make learning more interesting and
fun. Pupils are exposed to various kind of latest communication
information and its effective usage will produce a quality
teaching and learning.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MATHEMATICS
An effort to build the entrepreneurship characteristics and practice it
to make it as a culture among pupils. The entrepreneurship
characteristics and practices can be formed by:

Practicing the entrepreneurs attitude.


Applying the entrepreneurs thinking.
Applying the knowledge and skills of business management.
Formulating either entrepreneurship concept, process or
product.
Practice moral values and good ethics in entrepreneurship.

Therefore, this element can be applied in the appropriate learning


areas of mathematics such as in numbers and operations,
measurement and geometry, statistics and probability in primary
schools.

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ASSESSMENT
Assessment is an integral part of the teaching and learning process.
It has to be well-planned and carried out continuously as part of
classroom activities. By focusing on a broad range of mathematical
activities, the strengths and weaknesses of pupils can be assessed.
Different methods of assessment can be conducted using various
assessment techniques including oral and written work as well as
demonstrations. These may be carried out in the form of interviews,
open-ended questions, observations and research. Based on the
results, teachers can rectify the pupils misconceptions and
weaknesses and at the same time improve their teaching skills. As
such, teachers can take subsequent effective measures in
conducting remedial and enrichment activities to upgrade pupils
performance.

Problem solving
Making decisions.

Career and Life Skills: Needs more than thinking skills and
knowledge. Students develop life and career skills to face complex
and working environment in a world that is becoming more
challenging. These are:
Communication Skills
Information and Communication Technology
Cooperation
Entrepreneurship
Leadership
Lifelong learning
Flexibility
Ability to Adapt
Initiative and Self-direction.

SKILLS FOR THE 21st CENTURY

Values: Is the guideline for students to become noble individuals


who are capable of make decisions and take actions like carrying
out responsibilities to family, society and country. The values are:
Spirituality
Humanity
Patriotism
Integrity
Responsibility
Oneness.

A student must be equipped with skills, knowledge and values that


need to be mastered to survive in life and career of in 21st century.
The Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) has identified the skills
and values that each student needs to have to face the 21st
century. Skills and values are split into 3 aspects:
Thinking skills: Prepares students to face life challenging as well
as the current working environment. The skills are:
Creativity
Critical thinking
Reasoning
Innovative
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STUDENTS PROFILE

Teamwork: They can work together effectively and harmoniously


with others. They take on responsibility while respecting and
appreciating the contributions given by all team members. They
obtain interpersonal skills through collaborative activities, and make
them better leaders and team mates.

The critical factor that contributes to social growth, culture and


economy of a country is the development of model individuals who
are innovative and highly skilled. With that, each student would be
well balanced physically, emotionally, spiritually and intellectually as
stated in the National Education Philosophy.

Curious: They develop natural curiosity to explore strategies and


new ideas. They learn skills that are needed to carry out inquiry
and research, as well as behave independently in learning. They
enjoy continuous lifelong learning experiences.

MOE has outlined 10 Pupil Profiles that each student needs to have
in order to compete globally. Student Profiles are characterised as:
Balanced: They are balanced physically, emotionally, spiritually
and intellectually to achieve personal satisfaction, as well as show
empathy, compassion, and respect for others. Able to contribute
towards the harmony of family, community and country.

Principled: They are honest and have integrity, equality, fair and
respect individual, group and community dignity. They are
responsible for their actions, consequences and decisions.
Informative:
They gain knowledge and form wide and
balanced understanding across various knowledge disciplines.
They explore knowledge effectively and efficiently in the context of
local and global issues. They understand ethical issues/laws related
to the information that was gained.

Thinker: They think critically, creatively and innovatively; able to


handle complex problems and make ethical decisions. They think
about learning and themselves as students. They come up with
questions and are open to perspective, values and individual
traditions and societal traditions. They are confident and creative in
handling new learning fields.

Caring: They show empathy, compassion and respect towards


needs and feelings of others.

Resistant: They are able to face and overcome difficulties,


challenges with wisdom, confidence, tolerance and empathy.

Attentive: They are committed to the country and ensure the


sustainability of nature.

Communicator: They can confidently voice and express their


thoughts, ideas and information. The thoughs and ideas can be
conveyed verbally, in written form or using various media and
technology in a creative manner.

Patriotism: They portray love, support and respect towards the


country.

14

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

Year 1

1. WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100


CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ...

Pupils will be able to ...

1.1 State the quantity


intuitively.

(i)

1.2 Name and determine the value.

(i)

1.3 Write numbers.

(i)

State the quantity by comparing many or few, equal or unequal and


more or less by:
(a) groups of more and less objects,
(b) comparing two groups of objects by matching,
(c) using two groups of objects with different pattern.

Name numbers up to 100:


(a) counting objects in groups,
(b) name the number to represent the quantity of objects in a group,
(c) determine more or less group by comparing two groups of objects
within one to nine,
(d) name the numerals.
(ii) Determine the value of numbers up to 100:
(a) show the quantity of numbers mentioned by using real objects,
pictures, number lines and abacus 4:1,
(b) match groups of object with the numbers,
(c) compare the value of two numbers and state the relation using more
than and less than,
(d) arrange group of objects, picture cards and number cards in ascending
and descending order,
(e) compare two numbers and say any number in between.
Write numbers up to 100 in:
(a) numerals,
(b) words.

15

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

1. WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100

Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ...

Pupils will be able to ...

1.4 Complete any number


sequence.

(i)

Count numbers within 100 by:


(a) ones,
(b) twos,
(c) fives,
(d) tens,
in ascending and descending order by using various objects and number
line.
(ii) Complete any number sequence within 100 by:
(a) ones,
(b) twos,
(c) fives,
(d) tens,
in ascending and descending order.

1.5 Determine the place value of


any number.

(i) State the place value for numbers up to 100.


(ii) State the digit value for numbers up to 100.
(iii) State the place value and digit value for numbers by using abacus 4:1.

1.6 Estimate.

(i)

Give reasonable estimation for the number of objects by:


(a) stating the quantity,
(b) using more than and less than.

16

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

1. WHOLE NUMBERS UP TO 100

Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ...

Pupils will be able to ...

1.7 Round off whole numbers.

(i)

Round off whole numbers to the nearest tens by using number lines.

1.8 Complete the number pattern.

(i) Identify pattern for a given number series.


(ii) Complete various simple number patterns.

17

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ...

Pupils will be able to ...

2.1

Identify pair of numbers to


form a related number.

(i) State possible pairs of numbers for the given total.


(ii) State the total of two numbers.
(iii) List combinations of two numbers for the given total.

2.2

Identify symbols.

(i) Use and vary the relevant vocabulary in context of addition and subtraction.
(ii) Introduce the symbols of addition, subtraction and equal sign.
(iii) Use the symbols of addition, subtraction and equal sign to write number
sentence based on situation given.

2.3

Add and subtract within 100.

(i)

2.4

Create story and solve


problems involving addition
and subtraction in real life
situations.

Add and subtract in the range of basic facts:


(a) state spontaneously basic facts of addition.
(b) state spontaneously basic facts of subtraction.
(c) state the inverse relationship between addition facts dan subtraction
facts.
(d) use certain strategies to construct and state basic facts of addition and
subtraction.
(e) use abacus 4:1 to represent calculation in addition and subtraction.
(ii) Add and subtract within 100:
(a) perform the calculation of addition and subtraction.
(b) use abacus 4:1 to represent calculation in addition and subtraction.
(c) use mental calculation strategies in addition and subtraction.
(i) Create story involving addition and subtraction within 100.
(ii) Solve problems involving addition or subtraction using simulation model.
(iii) Solve problems involving addition or subtraction in real life situations.

18

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

3. FRACTIONS
3.1

Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ...

Pupils will be able to ...

Identify concept of one half


and one quarter.

(i)

Identify one over two and one over four as half and quarter using
concrete materials, pictures and folded papers.

19

NUMBERS AND OPERATIONS

4. MONEY UP TO RM10

Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ...

Pupils will be able to ...

4.1

Identify ringgit and sen.

(i) Identify coins and notes of Malaysian currency.


(ii) Represent the value of money in:
(a) sen up to RM1,
(b) ringgit up to RM10.
(iii) Represent value of money using abacus 4:1.
(iv) Convert money in:
(a) coins up to RM1,
(b) notes up to RM10.

4.2

Add and subtract money.

(i)

Add and subtract:


(a) sen up to RM1,
(b) ringgit up to RM10.
(ii) Add and subtract involving money using abacus 4:1.

20

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

5. TIME

Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to

Pupils will be able to

5.1

Name days and months and


explain the activities according
to schooling days.

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

State time in a day.


State the sequence of events in a day (schooling days only).
Name days of a week in sequence.
Name months of a year.

5.2

Say and write time.

(i) Identify and state half and quarter based on the clock face.
(ii) Say and write time in hour and half an hour using analogue clock.

21

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

6. LENGTH
6.1

Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ...

Pupils will be able to ...

Use relative units for measuring


length.

(i) Measure length of objects using non-standard units.


(ii) Compare the length of two or more objects using non-standard units.
(iii) Use and vary the vocabulary in the context of length.

22

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

Year 1

7. MASS
7.1

CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ...

Pupils will be able to ...

Use relative units of mass.

(i) Measure mass of objects using non-standard units.


(ii) Compare the mass of two or more objects using non-standard units.
(iii) Use and vary the vocabulary in the context of mass.

23

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

8. VOLUME OF LIQUID
8.1

Year 1

CONTENT STANDARD

LEARNING STANDARD

Pupils are guided to ...

Pupils will be able to ...

Use relative units of volume of


liquid.

(i)

Carry out activities related to the volume of liquid using non-standard


units.
(ii) Compare two or more liquid containers using non-standard units.
(iii) Use and vary the vocabulary in the context of volume of liquid.

24

MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY

Year 1

9. SPACE
STANDARD CONTENT

STANDARD LEARNING

Pupils are guided to ...

Pupils will be able to ...

9.1

Identify three-dimensional
shapes.

(i)

Name the shapes: cuboid, cube, cone, square based pyramid, cylinder and
sphere.
(ii) Describe face, edge and vertex of three-dimensional shapes.
(iii) Arrange objects according to the pattern.
(iv) Build three-dimensional models and describe them.

9.2

Identify two-dimensional
shapes.

(i) Name the shapes: square, rectangle, triangle and circle.


(ii) Describe straight line, edge, corner and curved line of two-dimensional
shapes.
(iii) Arrange two-dimensional shapes according to the pattern.
(iv) Create design based on two-dimensional shapes.

25

26

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIVISION


MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA
Level 4-8, Block E9
Precinct 1
Federal Government Administrative Centre
62604 PUTRAJAYA
Tel: 03-8884 2000 Faks: 03-8888 9917
http://www.moe.gov.my/bpk