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COOLING TOWER

Principles :The process of cooling water as among the oldest known.Usually water is cooled
by exposing its surface to air. Some of the processes are slow, such as the
cooling of water on the surface of a pond; others are comparatively fast, such as
the spraying of water with air. These processes all involve the exposure of water
surface to air in varying degrees.

The heat-transfer process involves (1) latent heat transfer owing to vaporization
of a small portion of the water and (2) sensible heat transfer owing to the
difference in temperature of water and air.Approximately 80 percent of this heat
transfer is due to latent heat and 20 percent to sensible heat.

Theoretical possible heat removal per pond of air circulated in a cooling tower
depends on the temperature and moisture content of air.An indication of the
moisture content of the air is its wet-bulb temperature.Ideally,then the wet-bulb
temperature, is the lowest theoretical temperature to which the water can be
cooled. Practically, the cold water temperature approaches but does not equal
the air wet-bulb temperature in a cooling tower; this is so because it is impossible
to contact all the water with fresh air as the water drops through the wetted
fill surface to the basin. The magnitude of approach to the wet-bulb temperature
is dependent on tower design. Important factors are

(1)

Air-to-water contact time.

(2)

Amount of fill surface. and

(3)

Backup of water into droplets.

In actual practice, cooling towers are seldom designed for approaches closer
than 2.8 centigrade.

Cooling Tower Theory:The most generally accepted theory of the cooling tower heat-transfer process is
that developed by Merkel. This analysis is based upon enthalpy potential
difference as the driving force.

Each particle of water is assumed to be surrounded by a film of air and the


enthalpy difference between the film and surrounding air provide driving force for
the cooling process. In the integrated from the Merkel equation is :T1
Kav / L

dT/h1-h
T2

Cooling Tower Process:A cooling tower is a semi-enclosed device for evaporative cooling of water by
contact with air. It is a FRP, Wooden, Steel or Concrete structure and corregated
surface or trough or baffles or perforated trays or honeycomb type construction
are provided inside the tower for uniform distribution and better automization
of water in the tower. The hot water coming from the application place is fed
to the tower on the top are allowed to tickle in form of the sheets or drops or
spray. The air flow from bottom of the tower or perpendicular to the direction
of water flow and then exhausts to the atmosphere after effective cooling.

To prevent the escape of water particles with air, drift eliminators are provided at
the top of the tower.

The cooling tower are mainly divided into two groups as


(1)

Natural draft Cooling Tower

(2)

Mechanical draft Cooling Tower

Natural draft cooling towers, the air flows naturally without fan through tower and
provides the required cooling.

The Natural draft cooling are totally replacing by mechanical draft tower as they
provide closer approach to WBT, give higher efficiency, reduce spray and
windage losses and reduced ground area.

Mechanical draft tower require less space and less piping then natural draft
towers. Lower water temperatures supplied by Mechanical Draft Towers usually
boost overall plant economy enough to cover the added operating charges and
higher initial cost of installation.

The Mechanical draft towers use fans to move the air through the tower instead
of depending on natural air and wind velocity. This speeds cooling and increases
the efficiency of tower by increasing the air velocity over wet surfaces and
through the tower. The correct amount of air at required velocity can be readily
selected to meet job cooling requirements. With the use of mechanical tower,
much smaller equipment can be used to handle air-flow under fairly well
controlled operational conditions.

The mechanical draft cooling towers are subdivided as follows:(1)

Forced Draft

(2) Induced Draft

The major disadvantages of forced draft tower are given below:1).There is a possibility of recirculation of hot humid echaust coming out from
the topof the tower through the low pressure air intake region.The
recirculation can cut the efficiency as much as 20%.
2). During cold weather, ice is formedon nearby equipments and buildings or in
the fan house itself. The frost in the fan outlet can brake the fan blades.
3). Fan size limited to very small.
4).The power requirement of Forced Draft fan system is approximetly double that
of Induced Fan system for the same capacity.

Major advantages of of induced draft cooling tower over forced


draft are given below :1).The coldest water comes in contact with the driest air and warmest water
comes in contact with the most humid air.
2).The recirculation problem is completely avoided,hence The efficiency of
the tower is higher than forced draft tower.
3). Size of the fan can be used upto 20 M.
4). The power consumption per Kg of water cooled is less compared with forced
draft fan system.
5). Less initial cost, requires less space,is capable of cooling through wide range.

The induced draft is further divided as follows:1) Counter flow type---------- Air and hot water mix at 180 degrees with air
moving vertically through the package.
2) Cross-flow type------------ Air and hot water mix at 90 degrees with air
moving horizontally through the package
Due to more advantages by using counter flower cooling tower when compared
with the cross-flow cooling tower. Nowadays, most of the cooling towers are
mechanical induced draft counter flow type only.
The cooling tower sizes varies from very small to considerable big size are also
available. Cooling tower can be design any size as per customer requirements.

Round cooling towers:A new profile, round mechanical cooling tower designed by Marleys Co. offers a
unique design alternative for multiple-cooling tower installations on limited site
areas.The round configuration permis greater siting flexibility using less plan
area than comparable rectangular cooling towers.

Raw Material:Raw material for manufacturing of FRP package mechanical induced draft
counter flow type are resin,fibre glass matt and ingredients, PVC pipes &fittings,
fill pack (PVC fills),Nozzles, Drift Eliminator (with PVC), motor and fan and
MSHDG Pipes, Ladder & structurals and hardware.

Moulds:To fabricate the require size of cooling tower, we need Moulds of different
sizes.
Different sizes of moulds will be prepared as per Design calculations to require
size of cooling tower.Main body of cooling tower will be fabricted by using moulds

Main parts of cooling tower as follows:1).Body ( Shell,Cone,Basin)


2).Water distrbution system,
3).Drift eliminator,
4).Fan assembly,
5).Motor,
6).Fill Packing,
7).Louvers,
8).Ladder,
9).MSHDG supports for body,fill packing ,WDS,D.E. and Motor &Fan assembly

Our ranges of FRP package cooling towers covers industrial applications


large and small . These towers are designed for smaller water flow capacities
only. This includes
(a)

DG sets

(b)

Air Compressors

(c)

Process Cooling

(d)

Automobile Industries

(e)

Plastic moulding Machines

(f)

Induction furnaces

(g)

Air conditioning & Refrigeration etc.

We are also manufacturing of medium custom - built cooling towers with


MSFRP / MSHDG in addition to FRP package cooling tower ( mechanical
induced draft counter flow type).These towers are designed for medium water
flow capacities only.

The Cooling Towers are desired when positive control on the temperature of
water is required, the space occupied by the cooling system in considerable
factor and the plant is situated near load centre and far away from the adequate
natural resources of cooling water.
Applications:

Cooling tower is required in almost all industries like

(a)

Power plants

(b)

Refineries

(c)

Chemical & Petrochemical industries

(d)

Metallurgical Industries

(e)

Fertilizer industries

(f)

Cement plants

(g)

Air Handling products

(h)

Plastic industries

(i)

Paper mills

(j)

Sugar Mills

(k)

Textile Industries

(l)

Food Industries

(m)

Drugs & Pharmaceutical Industries

(n)

Steel plants

The special features these towers includes

Corrosion resistance

Power saving

High efficiency

No contamination due to dust

Larger cooling surface

Compactness : low weight and volume

Long life with low maintenance and


Elegant look

CUSTOM- BUILT COOLING TOWERS:

Process and system is same as explained above, but more civil structure is
involved in this. These towers are usually designed for very larger water flow
capacities only.

To Design suitable Cooling Tower for 100% efficiency , we


required following parameters ,
Water circulation rate
Require cold water temperature
Wet bulb temperature
Hot water inlet temperature
Application
Water quality

CONCLUSION:

Due to rapid growing in industrial sector, simultaneously demand of cooling tower


requirement also

increasing day by day. Hence, business of manufacturing,

supply, erection and commissioning of cooling tower with quality, durability with
commitment is having very bright future and more profitable also.

ANALYSIS OF COOLING TOWER

The Hot Water coming out from the Condenser is sprayed into Cooling Tower
through the Nozzles , the air form the Atmosphere is drawn into cooling tower in
opposite direction of water with the help of induced Fan. The water is cooled by
losing the heat to the water Evaporated and Carried with the air.
The following assumption are made for the analysis of Cooling Tower :
1) The system is considered an adiabatic system, therefore total heat lost by the
water in equal to the total heat gained by the air.
2). No water particles(unevaporated) are carried with air.

As per assumption
Heat lose by water = Heat gainer
Mw1 hw1 Mw2 = V / Vs1 (Ha1 Ha1)
Mw1
Mw2
V
Vs1
hw1
hw1
w
Ha1
Ha2
Cp

=
=
=
=
-

Mass of water entins the cooling tower per minute


Mass of water leaning the cooling tower per minute
Volume of air in M3 enter into the CT. per minute
Specify volume of air entering in to the CT.
Sensible heat per Kg o water entry 5 to the CT.
Sensible heat per Kg o water leaving 5 to the CT
Specify Humid its saw ( Kg of water vamps per kg of air)
Enthalpy per kg of air enters in to the CT.
Enthalpy per kg of air leaving the CT.
Specify heat of water which is units is Mks

The heat transfer between water and air in the Cooling Tower is given by the
following equalion.
Mw1 (T1- T2 ) = V/Vs1 [ (Ha2 Ha1) (W2 W1) T2 ]
Mw1 Hw1 [ M w1 V/Vs1 (102-W2) ] Hw2 = V/Vs1 (Ha2 Ha1)
M w1 (T1 T2) = V/Vs1 [(Ha2 Ha1) (W5 W1) T2 ] , When

T1>T2

The above volume can calculate with the help of psychrometric chart

For example
Water Flow Rate 1000 Kg/Min, HWT 35 (DBT)
CWT 30oC, WBT 25oC, air lean to at 30oC, average
90% RH, Find1) Air flow per Fan.

No. of Fan 10

From psychrometric chart


1) Ha1 at 25oC
Ha2 at 90% Q V

---

18.2 Kcal /Kg,


22.6 Kcal /Kg of air

16 gm/kg
W1
=
W2
=
24.4 gm /kg
Vs1
=
0.895 M3/kg
After substituting of above values in the following equation
Mw1(T1-T2) =V /v1 (Ha2-Ha1)- (w2-w1)T2, we will get
V

955 M3 / Min.

Capacity of each Fan

955/10 = 96.5M3/Ms

The Quantity of make-up water


=V/Vs2 (W2-W1/100) X60 = 965/0.895 (24.-16/100)X60 =537 Kg/hr
water flow rate ____ 5000 M3/Hr
Cooling Range ____ 12oC
Allowable Concentration Ratio - 3
Assume
Ev. Loss ____ 1% RWQ. for every 6oC
Drift Loss _____ 0.2%
Blow down is given
B = E/C-1 W,
When C is permissible Concentration Ratio.
Total Dissolved solids in the Circulated Water
C Rate = Total Dissolved Solids in Make up water

The Make-up water (M) is given by


E = 2/100 X 5000 = 100 M3/Ar,
W = 0.2/100 x 5000 = 10M3/Hr
B = E/C-1 W
= 100/3-1-10
= 40 M3/Hr

M = E +W+ B

E = Evaperation Loss
W= Drift & Wind Loss
B = Blow Down
M = 100 + 10 +40
= 150 M3/Hr

4.

G/L = (T1- T2) + Ev T2


H

When

L
T1
T2
Ev
G
H

=
=
=
=
=
=

Water Flow Rate in Kg/h


Water Inlet temperature to the Tower in oC (HWT)
Water Outlet temperature from Tower in oC (CWT)
Evaperation loss in Kg/h , at design Condition
Air flow Rate in Kg/h
Change in enthalpy of air in Kcal/kg

Vibration level in Cooling Tower


As per IS : 11724 1985 OR VDI - 2056
ISO: 2372 1974
A = Excellent

- 1.8 MM/Sec x 9

- 16.2 U

B = Good

- 9.5 MM/sec x 9

- 38.5 U

C = Acceptable

- 11.2 MM/Sec x 9 - 100.8 U

D = Not-Acceptable - 71 MM/Sec x 9

- 639 U

U = 0.225 Vs
F
= 0.225 x 1000 = 9 Multiplicated Factor dia to convert RMS Velocity MM/s
25
to Microns of amplitude.