Sie sind auf Seite 1von 93

Color Science

1st Class lecture

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Importance of Color in Textiles


When you walk into a store, which thing you see first ?

It doesnt matter, whether you are looking for upholstry fabrics,


carpets, sweaters, towels, socks or a new winter coat.

If you dont like the color, chances are you will walk out of the store.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Importance of Color in Textiles


Your choices are felt throughout the supply chain.
So, it is up to the retailer, designer, converter and spinner to select
and match the right shades for the right products each season.
Thats why compines have color experts on staff to advise customers.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

What is light ?
Form of energy
Visually evaluated radiant energy spanning the wavelength range of
380 to 770 nm.
Light of different wavelengths is perceived as different colors.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

What is light ?
A photon is characterized by either a wavelength, donated by or
energy, denoted by E

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

What is Color ?
Color is a sensation which occurs when light enters the eye.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

How do we see Color ?


1. Light waves enter the eye.
2. Waves are focused on the retina by lens
3. Retina contains cones and rods, which are sensetive to different
colors of light.
4. Impulses, due to photochemical reaction, transmitted to brain
through optical nerves.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

How do we see Color ?

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Geometric Properties
Light, that reaches the eye from an Object is either reflected or
transmitted.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Geometric Properties
Reflection can be diffused or undiffused
Similarly, transmittance can be diffused or undiffused

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Refractive Index
In optics the refractive index or index of refraction n of an optical
medium is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any
other radiation, propagates through that medium. It is defined as

where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the phase velocity of


light in the medium.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Perception

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

What is Color Science ?


Color science is a fundamental field of science dedicated to
understanding the creation of colored stimuli, source of illumination,
and ultimately the human perception of color.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Importance of color science in Textiles


Raw wool, cotton, and silk are graded and priced according to color.
Grey cloth is being stitched together on basis of their shades.
Bleaching recipies are adjusted to obtin required whitness for
subsequent processes.
Color and shade matching in printing and dyeing.
The upholstry of your automobile, bedsheets and pillow covers are
not one piece. Pieces cut from different rolls of cloth have to be
sewed together.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Perception

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

How do we see Color ?

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

The theory of color vision


Not universally accepted
Most accepted theory is Young-Helmholzs theory
According to this theory many cones in ratina are of three different types
Cones that respond largely to red color wavelengths
Cones that respond largely to green color wavelengths
Cones that respond largely to blue color wavelengths

These three types of cones are thought to analyze the light entering the
eye
Photochemical reaction is initiated, depending on the composition of
incident light
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

The theory of color vision


Photochemical reactions alter the electrical field within the cones and
send new electrical impulses via optic nerve to the brain.
In brain these impulses perceive as colors.
The more intense the light is, more intense and longer the
photochemical reaction will be.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Perception

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Major types and characteristics of textile


Objects
A textile material can reflect, absorb or transmit the light falling on it.
The hue of a textile material depend on reflectance, absorbance and
transmittance.
The optical properties of textile materials are influenced by

Type of fibre used


Type of yarn
Fabric construction
Other factors

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Optical properties of fibres


Lustrous and translucent fibres
Bright lustred man made fibres and silk
Lustre is due to high proportion of light, reflected by smooth and regular
surface of fibre.
Greater the lustre and translucency, lighter will be the hue.
The hue is also affected by the background against which it is examined.

Delustred fibres
Fibres are delustred with titanium dioxide (TiO2), white finely powdered
pigment.
Fine particles scatter the light being reflected, which decrease lustre
The colors of dyed and printed delustred fibres are brighter than lustred ones.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Optical properties of fibres

White light is reflected, absorbed, and transmitted by a dyed fabric


Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Optical properties of fibres


Opaque and dull fibres

Cotton and wool fibres


They absorb most of the light, which falls on them
Cotton is bleached before color is applied, which makes them appear lighter and
brighter.

Effect of fibre fineness

Dyeing equal masses of fine and coarse fibres, each with the same quantity of dye,
will result in the coarse fibres dyeing darker than the fine fibres.
There are fewer coarse fibres and more fine fibres per unit mass.

Mercerized cotton

Improves dye uptake. This results in deeper colors (more chroma).


Colors of streched mercerized appear lighter and brighter than colors of
ummercerized b/c of more reflection at the surface.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Optical properties of yarns


Filament and staple spun yarns
Filament yarns are much smoother than staple spun yarns, therefore reflect
more light, which makes them more lustrous.
If lustre is significant, the yarn can be perceived as having a color of high value
and less chroma than is actually present.
Staple fibres unable to reflect light b/c of irregular surface and appear darker
than colored filament yarn.

High twist and low twist yarns


High twist yarns have smooth, more regular surface than low twist yarn,
which give them some lustre.
Low twist yarn have a more hairy, less regular surface.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Optical properties of yarns


Thick and thin yarns
Thick yarns tend to appear duller and darker comapred with equivalently
colored thin yarns. As thick yarn absorbs more light and results in a darker
color (lower value and lower chroma).

Textured yarns
Irregular surface of textured yarns absorbs much light and scatters most of
the reflected light (lower value).

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Optical properties of fabrics


Smooth and irregular fabric surface structures
Smooth fabrics reflect some light from their regular and even surface. Though
such surfaces may not be lustrous, they will lighten the color of dyed and
printed textile material.
Fabrics with irregular surfaces absorb more light, result in duller appearence
(e.g raised, brushed).

Opaque and translucent fabrics


Have duller/darker color (less value less chroma) b/c of absorbance of
incident light.
Color of garment made from translucent fabric will be influenced by the color
and optical properties of the fabric as well as by the color of skin against
which the fabric is worn.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Questions

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Perception

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Standard illuminants
What are illuminants ?
To understand an illuminat it is necessary to first understand how we describe
light.
Light is describe for our purpose by what is called a spectral power
distribution curve.
Spectral power distribution curve
A specific type of light will emit different amounts of energy at each part of the visual
spectrum. The graph of this power emittance over the visual spectrum is called relative
power distribution curve for that specific illuminant or source.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Standard illuminants
Spectral power distribution curve for natural light.
Horizontal axis represents visible spectrum which is approximately between 380
and 750 nm.
Highest peak in graph occurs around
460nm which represents the blue portion
of the spectrum.
This tells us that day light, while appearing
to be pure white, is largly composed of
blue light.
So every type of light has a unique, relative spectral power distribution curve that
describe what it looks like, or more importanytly, what other things look like
when illuminated by it.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Standard illuminants
Difference between illuminant and source
A source is actual physical light, something that can be turned on to
illuminate something. e.g light in your bedroom that can be turned on
and off.
An illuminant however is a light that has been defined by a spectral
power distribution, but may not actually exist. e.g if we take a blank
spectral power distribution graph and draw a squiggly line across it,
we have defined an illuminant. This light we have defined may not
exist, but we can use its curve to test numerically how a certain color
would look when viewed under it.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Standard illuminants
Color rendering index (CRI)
Through CRI, sources are described. A CRI is a scale from 1 to 100 which rates a
source by comparing color apparence viewed under the source to color appearence
viewd under a standard illuminant such as D65.

A CRI value of 100 means source is identical to the standard illuminant.


Using CRI value as a guide one can choose a light source based on that light
sources ability to accurately display color as compared to a standard
illuminant.
e.g a common light source for office space may have CRI in the 60s, but in
areas where color appearence is very critical, a light source with a CRI in
90s would be more appropriate.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Standard illuminants
D65 below is an illuminant representing daylight.

There is no actual light source that exactly matches the theoretical


illuminant (though many sources come close)
So an illuminant is basically a defination used to determine how the
appearence of a color will be changed under a specific type of lighting
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Standard illuminants
How illuminants effect color
Many colors undergo a common color phenomenon called
metamerism when viewd under different light sources.
Two colors may appear to match under one source but appear
completely different under another source.
For example, if your product was to be used in red light dark room
environment and the box was printed in blue, green and black, the
box would appear solid black in the dark room.
If your illuminant only emits light in the red portion of the spectrum,
all the light will be absorbed and the whole box will appear black.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Standard illuminants
How illuminants effect color
Sample 1 appear very
blue in daylight as
compared to
incandescent

Two colors appear


identical when
viewed under
incandescent
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Standard illuminants
Relative power distribution curve for standard illuminant A, Incandescent

An electric bulb emits incandescent light. This contains an excess of yellow


and red light energy.Thus incandescent light is yellowish with color
temperature 2856K.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Standard illuminants
Relative power distribution curve for standard illuminant B and C, daylight

They are derived from illuminant A by using a liquid filters. B served as


representative of noon sunlight, with color temp. 4874 K, and C average
daylight with color temp. 6774 K.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Standard illuminants
Relative power distribution curve for standard illuminant D65,
daylight

D-Series of illuminants are constructed to represent natural daylight.


They are difficult to produce artificially, color temperature 6500 K.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Standard illuminants
Relative power distribution curve for standard illuminant F2, cool white

F2 represents the typical cool white fluorescent source, contains excess of


blue and green light energy and a deficiency of red, therefore have a distict
blue color
F series range from F1-F12 and represent various types of fluorescent
lighting.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Questions

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
Many names are given to colors, e.g blue can be called sky blue, navy blue,
aquamarine etc.
So, it is very difficult for designers, dyers, printers and the consumers to
name a color, so that it can be identified, reproduced consistently.
For a color to identified and reproduced consistently, it must be possible to
specify it accurately.
The Munsell and CIE systems are the ones most frequently used to specify
color.
The ostwald system, which was developed by german physical chemist
Wilhelm Ostwald in 1920s, was successful at start but it was superseded by
Munsell system.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The deficiency of the Ostwald system was ist inability to add new or
different colors to those on which it was based.
Today most of the subjective color order systems, such as color
atlases of the dye and paint manufacturers, are based essentially on
the munsell system.
The CIE system describes color in numerical proportions. These
numerical proportions refer to the amounts of the primary colors,
blue, green and red, which are required to produce a particular color.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The Munsell System
Munsell system is a subjective color ordering system which was developed
by an American called Albert Munsell.
This system describes color using charts which display a large range of
hues, ordered according to value and Chroma.
Munsell used a three dimentional color solid to plan his color system.
The solid is pure black at the bottom and pure white at the top, with pure
red, blue and green at equal intervals around the circumference.
Going around the solid horizontally left to right, blue tends to purple and
then red, red tends to yellow which becomes green, and the green tends to
blue-green which becomes blue.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The Munsell System
As the colors approches the top of the solid, they become lighter and
finally white.
As they move out from the axis of the solid they become more pure and
intense.
Each color in munsell system has three parameters, hue, chroma and value,
which are represented by the three dimenstions of the solid.
Munsell color chart is made up of hundreds of small colored rectangles,
called color chips, which are arranged according to their hue, value and
Chroma. Each chip represent a specific color.
Any color can be specified easily and quickly according to the three Munsell
parameters of hue, Chroma and value.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The Munsell System
The advantage of Munsell system over any other subjective ordering
system is that it can accommodate and specify every color in
existance and any new colors which may be developed in the future.
Its advantage over the objective CIE system is that the Munsell charts
allow visual examination of the numerous colors.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The Munsell System
Munsell Hue
The quality by which we distinguish one color from another.
Munsell selected five principle colors: red, yellow, green, blue and purple; and
five intermediate colors: yellow-red, green-yellow, blue-green, purple-blue,
and red-purple.
Each of the ten areas is sub-divided into ten equal parts, each representing a
color.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The Munsell System
Munsell Hue
For example, primary red would be identified
as 5R, since it stands at the mid-point of the
red segment. 2.5R would be a red tending
towards red-purple, while 7.5R is red tending
more towards yellow-red.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The Munsell System
Munsell Value
Value refers to the lightness or darkness of a color and it is represented by the
vertical axis of the Munsell solid or the quality by which we distinguish a light
color from a dark color.
Value scale ranges from black to white in eleven equal intervals with black
being zero, white being 10 and various shades of grey in between.
Notation N is used to donate the grey value at any point, 2N a dark grey and
7N a light grey.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The Munsell System
The value of a particular hue would be noted with the value after the
hue designation, e.g 5R 6/ indicates a primary red at the level of 6.
Munsells scale is visual, or perceptual.
It is based on how we see differences
in relative light, not on a strict set of
mathematical values from a light source

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The Munsell System
Chroma
The third parameter of the Munsell system is Chroma which refers to the
purity, intensity, vividness, saturation or brightness of a particular color.
The closer a color is to neutral axis, or the value scale, duller it becomes.
The Chroma axis extends from the value axis at a right angle and the amount
of Chroma is noted after the value designation.
7.5YR 7/12 indicates a yellow-red hue tending towards yellow with a value of
7 and a Chroma of 12.
7.5YR 7/12
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The Munsell System
Chroma
Chroma is not uniform for every hue at every value.
Munsell saw that full Chroma for individual hues
might be achieved at very different places in the
color sphere.
For example fullest Chroma for hue
5RP (red-purple) is achieved at 5/26.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The Munsell System
Chroma
Another color such as 10YR (yellowish yellow-red) has a much shorter chroma
axis and reaches fullest chroma at 7/10 and 6/10.

10 YR 7/10;6/10

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
The Munsell System

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Subjective)
Limitations of Munsell Color System
Based on subjective color comparison
Standard samples can fade and degrade

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Questions

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective)
Development of the CIE System
Named after the International Commission of Illumination which
developed it.

The commission was set up by a number of countries in order to


arrive at an objective means of specifying color.
The CIE system specifies color in term of the proportion of the
primary additive colors (blue, green and red) required to produce a
particular color.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective)
In 1931, the international commission of illumination developed the
CIE system of color specification which was based on the tristimulus
theory of color reception (Young-Helmholtz theory of color vision).

The development of computers has enabled the CIE system to be


utilized and applied more effectively for the color matching.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE xyY
The basic principles of the CIE System
Three primary additive colors add together to give white
Blue + Green + Red = White
0,33 blue + 0,33 green + 0,33 red = 1,0 white
Since any hue depends on the amounts of red, green and blue it contains,
the above equation can be rewritten in general terms as follow
xX + yY + zZ = C
x= amount of red, X= Red
y= amount of green, Y= Green
C= Desired Hue
z= amount of blue, Z= Blue
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE xyY
xX + yY + zZ = C
This is the basic equation used by color physicists to specify hue or to
define the chromaticity of a dyed or printed textile, using CIE system.
The chromaticity of a colored textile refers to how much of X, Y and Z
are required to produce its particular hue.
Equal amounts of red, green and blue produce white and equation is
written as
1/3 X + 1/3 Y + 1/3 Z = White
This means, the sum of the coefficients of X, Y and Z are always equal
to unity in the CIE System.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE xyY
A red hue may be expressed mathematically as
0,66X + 0,25Y + 0,083Z = 1
0,66 + 0,25 + 0,083 = 1
A green hue may be expressed as follows
0,19X + 0,68Y + 0,13Z = 1
0,19 + 0,68 + 0,13 =1
x, y and z are related mathematically (x+y+z=1), the color physicist
can depict this graphically.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE xyY
x, y and z of equation xX + yY + zZ =C known as chromaticity
coordinates and a graph of these points is called the chromaticity
diagram.
Chromaticity diagram needs only show two of the three coordinates
as the third coordinate can always be deduced by subtracting the sum
of the other two from 1.
x is horizontal and y is vertical axis, chromaticity diagram is of
triangular form. The graduated scale along perimeter of the
chromaticity graph represents the wavelengths in nm.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE xyY
For example, reflectance
spectrophotometer measures
the dominant wavelength of
reflected light from a colored
textile material as 594nm. This
wavelength is for orange light
and on chromaticity diagram
the x and y coordinates for
orange are about 0,6 and 0,4
respectively, therefore z will
equal to zero.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE xyY
The chromaticity coordinates
specify the hue of a colored
material, they dont indicate, how
light or dark a color is.
This is done by adding a third
dimension to the chromaticity
diagram, luminosity axis Y.
No light (black) equals to zero, and
white which has a 100 percent
luminosity is at the top of the scale.
So to specify color, one requires x
value, which cannot be greater
than 0,73 and y value, which
cannot exceed about 0,83 and
luminosity value between 0 and
100.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE xyY
Using the xyY values, any two colors can be compared to determine
whether they match, which is the whole purpose of CIE-System.
CIE did not create their system as a means for describing colors or
producing a line of swatches for use in color production.
The diagram is flat representation of what is really a curved surface,
so it failed to give a uniformly spaced visual representation of what is
actually a three- dimensional color space.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE xyY
Each line in the diagram
represents a color difference of
equal proportion.
As you can see, the lines vary in
length, sometimes greatly,
depending on what part of
diagram they are in.
The distance between the end
points of each line segment are
perceptually the same according
to the 1931 CIE 2 standard
observer.
This indicates the amount of
distortion between parts of the
diagram
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE LUV and CIE u, v

The lines in theu',v' diagram represent the same as in


the x,y illustration on previous slide, only here we can see the
lines are more nearly uniform throughout the diagram.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Questions

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Opponent-Process Theory of color vision


Trichromatic theory makes clear some of the processes involved in
how we see color, but doesn't explain all aspects of color vision
The opponent-process theory of color vision was developed by Ewald
Hering.
He noted that there are some color combinations that we never see,
such as reddish-green or yellowish-blue. This means opposite
opponents are never perceived together.
Opponent-process theory suggest that color perception is controlled
by the activity of two opponent systems; a blue-yellow mechanism
and red-green mechanism.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Opponent-Process Theory of color vision

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Opponent-Process Theory of color vision

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Opponent Colors

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE Lab Color Space
CIE LAB
CIELAB is the second of two systems adopted by CIE in 1976 as
models that better showed uniform color spacing.
CIELAB is an opponent color system based on earlier system of
Richard Hunter L, a, b.
CIELAB is based on three parameter; light and dark, red and green,
blue and yellow.
The vertical axis represents lightness (L), whose values run from 0
(black) to 100 (white).
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE Lab Color Space
CIE LAB
The color axes are based on the fact that a color can't be both red and
green, or both blue and yellow, because these colors oppose each
other.
On each axis the values run from positive to negative.
On the a-a' axis, positive values indicate amounts of red while
negative values indicate amounts of green.
On the b-b' axis, yellow is positive and blue is negative. For both axes,
zero is neutral gray.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE Lab Color Space

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE Lab Color Space
CIE Lab Color Specification

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE Lab and Delta CIE Lab

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE Lch Color Space
CIE Lch
Lch is cylindrical version of Lab, which means that two opponent color
dimensions (a and b) are represented by a hue, h, and chroma, c (if a and b are
Cartesian coordinates, h and c are polar coordinates)
The L* axis represents Lightness. This is vertical; from 0, which has no lightness
(i.e. absolute black), at the bottom; through 50 in the middle, to 100 which is
maximum lightness (i.e. absolute white) at the top.
The c* axis represents Chroma or 'saturation'. This ranges from 0 at the center of
the circle, which is completely unsaturated (i.e. a neutral grey, black or white) to
100 or more at the edge of the circle for very high Chroma (saturation) or 'color
purity.
The h* axis represents Hue. This circular axis is known as h for Hue. The units are
in the form of degrees (or angles), ranging from 0 (red) through 90 (yellow),
180 (green), 270 (blue) and back to 0.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE Lch Color Space

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Specification and Color Specifying


System (Objective), CIE Lch Color Space

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Questions

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Perception

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

CIE-Standard Observer
In visual observing situation, the observer is the human eye, that
receives the transmitted or reflected light.
Since different humans perceive color differently, therefore attempts
have been made to standardize the human observer as a numerical
representation, what an average person sees. This standard observer
helps us to assess the color instrumentally.
Wright and Guild performed experiments using volunteers to assess
their color vision and develop an average or standard observer.
In 1931, they published the 20 CIE standard observer function based
on their research.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

CIE-Standard Observer
This function is called 20 because their experiments involved having
the subjects judge colors while looking through a hole that allowed
them a 20 field view.
In 1931, it was believed that all color sensing cones of the eye were
located within a 20 arc of the fovea.
But in 1960s, it was realized cones were present in a larger area of the
eye than previously believed, so in 1964, 100 observer was developed.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

CIE-Standard Observer

Tristimulus values r, g, and b of spectral


stimuli
of
different
wavelengths,
measured by an average observer using
primaries (R) at 700, (G) at 546.1, and (B)
at 435.8 nm

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Tristimulus values x, y, z derived by a linear


transformation from the tristimulus values r, g
and b. x, y and z refer imaginary primaries X, Y,
and Z and defined as color matching
properties.

CIE-Standard Observer

The real and unreal primaries


Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

CIE-Standard Observer

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Measuring Instruments


The human eye is the oldest means of measuring color, but it has
certain drawbacks in connection with the analytic specification of
color. Drawbacks include individuality of spectral response and poor
color memory.
Therefore instrumental methods of measuring color are required.
Such instruments must evaluate the color by illuminating the material
with light of a standard spectral composition and have sensors with
standard spectral responses, just like of human observer with normal
color vision.
This underlines the importance of the CIEs definition of both
illuminants and standard observer.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Measuring Instruments


Color measuring instruments are grouped into two main classes
Colorimeters, and
Spectrophotometers

The principle of a spectrophotometer and a colorimeter is absolutely the


same. Both use a light/monochromatic light to pass through a substance
and measure its absorbance and transmittance.
Colorimeter can only use one wavelength at a time and have a fixed
number of wavelengths that can be used and they have to be in the visible
range only.
A spectrophotometer on the other hand can not only function like a
colorimeter but also take a spectrum across the entire wave spectrum, e.g
UV-Visible-IR.
Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Measuring Instruments, The tristimulus


colorimeter
It is the simplest form of instrument for the measurement of color.
Similar to the eye, it has red, green, and blue photodetectors, which
measure tristimulus values.
A light source, illuminates the object at 450 to the normal, reflected
light along the normal is then collected and passed to the
photodetectors.
Photodetector consists of three filters each in front of its own light
sensitive diode.

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Measuring Instruments, The tristimulus


colorimeter

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Measuring Instruments, The tristimulus


colorimeter

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU

Color Measuring Instruments, The tristimulus


colorimeter, Limitations
For matching prediction work
Measurement of color under different illuminants, detection of
metamerism
Evaluating color difference against numeric standards and absolute
color measurement

Muhammad Saif Maqsood, TP-NTU