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SPM Form 4 Syllabus

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You are on page 1of 6

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

CHAPTER 4: HEAT

4.1

Thermal Equilibrium

Heat

Object 1

Object 2

Heat

The net transfer of heat is zero

The two objects have the same temperature

To calibrate a thermometer, two fixed points must be chosen to mark its scale. These points must be able to

be reproduced accurately. The two fixed points are:

ice point (0C) temperature of pure ice melting under standard atmospheric pressure

steam point (100C) temperature of pure water boiling under standard atmospheric pressure

To calculate the temperature using an uncalibrated thermometer:

where

l0

l100

l

l l 0

100C

l100 l 0

= temperature to be calculated

= length on scale at 0 C

= length on scale at 100 C

= length on scale of temperature to be measured

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Page 1 of 6

Physics

4.2

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

material by 1C

The amount of heat energy needed to change the temperature of an object by 1C

Heat capacity:

Q = mc

where Q = heat energy [J]

m = mass [kg]

c = specific heat capacity of the material [J kg-1 C-1]

= change in temperature [C]

4.2.1 Applications

Water is used as a coolant in car engines because

Specific heat capacity is large,

Easily obtained and cheap,

Does not chemically react with the materials in the

engine.

Cooking utensils (woks, pots) are usually made of material with low specific heat capacity to ensure

temperature increases quickly when heated.

Handles are made of material with high specific heat capacity and are poor conductors.

Clay pots are made of clay with high specific heat capacity and are poor conductors. When removed

from heat, the soup inside the pot will continue to boil as heat is still being received from the pot.

4.3

Latent heat:

Heat that is absorbed during the change of state of the material

Q = mL

where Q = heat energy [J]

m = mass [kg]

L = specific latent heat [J kg-1]

Latent heat of

vapourization

Latent heat of

fusion

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Page 2 of 6

Physics

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

Q = mc

LIQUID

Q = mL

SOLID +

LIQUID

SOLID

Q = mc

Q = mL

Q = mc

Temperature

LIQUID

+ GAS

GAS

Boiling point

Melting point

Time

GAS

LIQUID

+ GAS

LIQUID

SOLID +

LIQUID

Q = mc

Q = mL

Q = mc

Q = mL

Q = mc

Temperature

SOLID

Condensation point

Freezing point

Time

(Note: If the temperature becomes constant before the condensation or

melting point of the material, it is because that is the room temperature.)

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Page 3 of 6

Physics

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

When calculating the amount of heat needed to change the state and temperature of an object, remember to

take into account the different stages of heating as shown in the graph above.

Example:

To calculate the amount of heat needed to heat ice at 0 C to water at 25 C:

Amount of heat needed =

mL

Heat needed to

change ice at 0 C to

water at 0 C

mc

Heat needed to

change water at 0 C

to water at 25 C

When calculating the exchange of heat, remember to take into account the different stages of heating for

each side of the equation.

Example:

Ice 0 C is added to hot water 90 C. To calculate the final temperature, x C:

Amount of heat absorbed by ice = Amount of heat released by hot water

mL

+

mc

=

mc

Heat needed to

change ice at 0 C

to water at 0 C

Heat needed to

change water at 0 C

to water at x C

hot water at 90 C to

water at x C

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Page 4 of 6

Physics

4.4

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

Gas Laws

Fixed number of molecules

Constant mass

The gas behaviour is dependant on three variables:

Pressure

Volume

Temperature

Note: For all gas law equations, the temperature involved must be absolute, i.e. in Kelvin

T = + 273

where T = temperature [Kelvin]

= temperature [C]

Capillary tube with a mercury column trapping some air in it. Given that the atmospheric pressure is 76 cm

Hg, to calculate the pressure of the air in the tube:

(76+h) cm Hg

(76-h) cm Hg

P

proportional to its volume if the temperature is constant.

P1V1 = P2V2

P

PV

V = volume of the gas [m3]

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Page 5 of 6

Physics

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

For a gas of fixed mass, the volume is directly proportional to its absolute

temperature if the pressure is constant.

VT

T (K)

V

V1 V2

T1 T2

where V = volume of the gas [m3]

T = temperature of the gas [K]

(C)

For a gas of fixed mass, the pressure is directly proportional to its absolute

temperature if the volume is constant.

PT

T (K)

P1 P2

T1 T2

T = temperature of the gas [K]

(C)

Combining all three gas laws:

PV

k

T

P1V1 P2V2

T1

T2

END OF CHAPTER

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Page 6 of 6

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