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# Physics

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

CHAPTER 4: HEAT
4.1

Thermal Equilibrium
Heat
Object 1

Object 2
Heat

## Thermal equilibrium is reached between two objects in thermal contact when:

The net transfer of heat is zero
The two objects have the same temperature

## 4.1.1 Calibration of a thermometer

To calibrate a thermometer, two fixed points must be chosen to mark its scale. These points must be able to
be reproduced accurately. The two fixed points are:
ice point (0C) temperature of pure ice melting under standard atmospheric pressure
steam point (100C) temperature of pure water boiling under standard atmospheric pressure
To calculate the temperature using an uncalibrated thermometer:

where
l0
l100
l

l l 0
100C
l100 l 0

= temperature to be calculated
= length on scale at 0 C
= length on scale at 100 C
= length on scale of temperature to be measured

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Physics

4.2

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

## The amount of heat energy needed to change the temperature of 1 kg of a

material by 1C
The amount of heat energy needed to change the temperature of an object by 1C

Heat capacity:

Q = mc
where Q = heat energy [J]
m = mass [kg]
c = specific heat capacity of the material [J kg-1 C-1]
= change in temperature [C]

4.2.1 Applications
Water is used as a coolant in car engines because
Specific heat capacity is large,
Easily obtained and cheap,
Does not chemically react with the materials in the
engine.
Cooking utensils (woks, pots) are usually made of material with low specific heat capacity to ensure
temperature increases quickly when heated.
Handles are made of material with high specific heat capacity and are poor conductors.
Clay pots are made of clay with high specific heat capacity and are poor conductors. When removed
from heat, the soup inside the pot will continue to boil as heat is still being received from the pot.

4.3

Latent heat:

## The amount of heat needed to change the state of 1 kg of a material

Heat that is absorbed during the change of state of the material

Q = mL
where Q = heat energy [J]
m = mass [kg]
L = specific latent heat [J kg-1]
Latent heat of
vapourization

Latent heat of
fusion

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Physics

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

Q = mc

LIQUID

Q = mL

SOLID +
LIQUID

SOLID

Q = mc

Q = mL

Q = mc

Temperature

LIQUID
+ GAS

GAS

Boiling point
Melting point

Time

## Heating graph of a material from solid to gas

GAS

LIQUID
+ GAS

LIQUID

SOLID +
LIQUID

Q = mc

Q = mL

Q = mc

Q = mL

Q = mc

Temperature

SOLID

Condensation point
Freezing point

Time

## Cooling graph of a material from gas to solid

(Note: If the temperature becomes constant before the condensation or
melting point of the material, it is because that is the room temperature.)

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Physics

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

When calculating the amount of heat needed to change the state and temperature of an object, remember to
take into account the different stages of heating as shown in the graph above.
Example:
To calculate the amount of heat needed to heat ice at 0 C to water at 25 C:
Amount of heat needed =

mL

Heat needed to
change ice at 0 C to
water at 0 C

mc
Heat needed to
change water at 0 C
to water at 25 C

When calculating the exchange of heat, remember to take into account the different stages of heating for
each side of the equation.
Example:
Ice 0 C is added to hot water 90 C. To calculate the final temperature, x C:
Amount of heat absorbed by ice = Amount of heat released by hot water
mL
+
mc
=
mc
Heat needed to
change ice at 0 C
to water at 0 C

Heat needed to
change water at 0 C
to water at x C

## Heat needed to change

hot water at 90 C to
water at x C

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Physics

4.4

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

Gas Laws

## A closed container containing gas has:

Fixed number of molecules
Constant mass
The gas behaviour is dependant on three variables:
Pressure
Volume
Temperature

Note: For all gas law equations, the temperature involved must be absolute, i.e. in Kelvin
T = + 273
where T = temperature [Kelvin]
= temperature [C]
Capillary tube with a mercury column trapping some air in it. Given that the atmospheric pressure is 76 cm
Hg, to calculate the pressure of the air in the tube:

(76+h) cm Hg

(76-h) cm Hg

P

## For a gas of fixed mass, the pressure is inversely

proportional to its volume if the temperature is constant.

P1V1 = P2V2
P

PV

## where P = pressure of the gas [Pa]

V = volume of the gas [m3]

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Physics

Chapter 4: Heat

SPM 2015

## 4.4.2 Charles Law

For a gas of fixed mass, the volume is directly proportional to its absolute
temperature if the pressure is constant.
VT

T (K)
V

V1 V2

T1 T2
where V = volume of the gas [m3]
T = temperature of the gas [K]

(C)

## 4.4.3 Pressure Law

For a gas of fixed mass, the pressure is directly proportional to its absolute
temperature if the volume is constant.
PT

T (K)

P1 P2

T1 T2

## where V = volume of the gas [m3]

T = temperature of the gas [K]
(C)

## 4.4.4 Universal Gas Law

Combining all three gas laws:

PV
k
T
P1V1 P2V2

T1
T2

END OF CHAPTER

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