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Ap Government Chapter 12

I. American media has much greater freedom and you only need a license from the
government.In England politicians can sue people who make fun of them and in France
broadcasting is regulated by a national agency.Yellow journalism
II. Yellow journalism- reporting which has no real thought out arguments or research.
Muckrakers-people who wanted to expose the dirt and evil in society
III. The characteristics allowed for a high degree of contact between candidate and the people
and there was no longer a need for proxies or people to campaign and speak on your behalf.
IV. Although there are over 1000 TV channels, there are only five major stations, each one
catering to a different set of beliefs
V. The national press displays what it want the american population to see, and thus affects how
they react. For example stories on the front page of the New York Times will be very
influential on the main story that a local new channel will air. Gatekeeper- the role the press
plays by influencing what subjects become national political issues and for how long.
Scorekeeper -The role the press plays by keeping track of and helping make political
reputations, note who is being mentioned as a presidential candidate, and help decide who is
winning and losing in Washington politics. Watchdog- The role played by the national media
in investigating political personalities and exposing scandals.
VI. Prior Restraint- judicial suppression of material that would be published or broadcast, on the
grounds that it is libelous or harmful. In US law, the First Amendment severely limits the
ability of the government to do this. Libel- a published false statement that is damaging to a
person's reputation; a written defamation. Confidentiality of sources-The protection of
sources and is a right accorded to journalists under the laws of many countries, as well as
under international law. FCC regulations- regulate interstate communications by radio,
television, wire, satellite, and cable in all 50 states. Telecommunication Act (1996) - The
law's main purpose was to stimulate competition in telecommunication services. Equal time
rule-the equal-time rule specifies that U.S. radio and television broadcast stations must
provide an equivalent opportunity to any opposing political candidates who request it.
VII. Media is very influential to politics, news both in paper and on television show influence
viewers with their bias views. Once citizens see these stories, they start to follow their
views.Horse race journalism is political journalism of elections that resembles coverage of
horse races because of the focus on polling data, public perception instead of candidate
policy, and almost exclusive reporting on candidate differences rather than similarities.
VIII. These days, politicians often complain of bias in the media, usually a liberal bias against
the views of conservative politicians. They complain that the medias ability to decide which
stories to report often reflects its partisanship. Although this is true to some extent, most
major newspapers and television news stations report the same stories more or less
objectively. Bias is often restricted to the media outlets commentary and opinion pages.
IX. Trial Ballon- Information leaked to the media to test public reaction to a possible policy.
Loaded language-Words that imply a value judgement, used to persuade a reader without
having made a serious argument.
X. Some people will be influenced by what they read or hear, but others will not be. Its all due
to selective attention, which means that people remember or believe only what they want to.

If they see or hear statements that are inconsistent with their existing beliefs, they will tune
out theses messages.
XI. Due to the fact that there are so many members of the House of Representatives it is very
difficult to have individual press attention, and until 1978 press cameras were prohibited to
be on the House floor. On the other hand, members of the senate have made better use of the
press and media by allowing their hearings to be broadcasted and because there is only 50
senators individual attention can be obtained. The president allows the press to be in close
proximity with him and the white house. Everything the president does is recorded and is
covered by the press, there is even areas in the white house reserved for the press.
XII. The reason the American government has so many leaks is spelled out in the
Constitution, because we have separate institutions that must share power, each branch of
government competes with the others to get power. one way to compete is to try to use the
press to advance your pet projects and to make the other side look bad.
XIII. Media has become more sensationalist because more networks had risen, and less and
less people are watching the nightly news. Now they networks have to compete with each
other for ratings, and the best way to get higher ratings is the show stories that will capture
viewers, stories full of sex, violence and intrigue. As a result reporters are more easily
manipulated by sources than once was the case, people start to view reporters as muckrakers
and have a negative connotation towards them.
XIV. The four ways politicians can get their message out is on the record: the reporter can
quote the official by name, off the record: what the officials says cannot be used. oOn
background: what the official says can be used but may not be attributed to him or her by
name, and will be presented as an anonymous source or on deep background: what the
official says can be used but not attributed to anybody even an anonymous sources