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Kerala State Profile

1. Brief Demographic, Economic and Infrastructure Overview of the State


Geographic and Demographic Overview:
Kerala is situated in the south west region of India. Spread over 38,863
sq km, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and north east,
Tamilnadu to the east and south and Arabian sea to the west. Kerala is
the twelfth largest state by population and is divided into 14 districts.
The state capital is Thiruvananthapuram.
The state has the highest Human Development Index (HDI) in the
country as per the Human Development Report, 2011. It also has the
highest literacy rate, highest life expectancy and highest sex ratio
among all the Indian states.
The table below indicates some geographic and demographic statistics
of the state.
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Indicators
Geographical Area
Population
Decadal Growth Rate
Density of Population
Urban to Total Population
Sex Ratio
Literacy Rate (LR)

Year
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011

Unit
Lakh Sq. Km
Crore
Percentage
Population/Sq.Km
Percentage
Females/1000 Males
Percentage

Kerala
0.38
3.34
4.91
819
47.7
1084
93.91

India
32.87
121.02
17.64
382
31.16
940
74.04

Economic Overview:
As per the Economic Review of Kerala, 2012, the GSDP of Kerala grew at 9.5% in 2011-12,
compared to just 6.5% for the country as a whole. The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors
contributed to 9.5%, 20.2% and 70.2% respectively to the GSDP at constant prices (2004-05). The
services/tertiary sector recorded the highest rate of growth of 11.8% in 2011-12.
Particular
Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP)
Constant (2004-05) Prices
Current Prices
Economic Growth Rate as per GSDP
Constant Prices
Current Prices
Per Capita Income
Constant Prices
Current Prices
(P- Provisional Estimates, Q Quick Estimates)

Unit
Rs. Lakhs

2009-10
17757135
23199867

2010-11(P)

2011-12(Q)

19186676
26947379

21010717
31520567

8.05
16.15

9.50
16.97

55667
78183

60536
90816

Percent

Rs.

51897
67804

Infrastructure Overview:
Roads: Kerala has the highest road density in the country and the total road length in the state is 1.51
lakh kms.
Railways: The railway route length in the state is 1257 km.
Airports: Kerala has three airports at Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode handling both
international and domestic flights.
Power: The installed power generation capacity in the state is 2657.24 MW which includes installed
capacity of 2087.23 MW of Kerala State Electricity Board and 570.016 MW of NTPC and private
sector.
2. Production Base/Resource Mapping
Agriculture
Nearly half of the states population has agriculture as its primary source of livelihood. Major food
grains produced in the state are rice and tapioca apart from pulse crops that are produced in smaller
pockets of the state. The table below gives the production data of major agricultural crops in the state :
Crop/Group
Rice
Pulses
Tapioca

Unit
Lakh MT
MT
Lakh MT

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

5.98
3390
25.25

5.22
2908
23.60

5.68
3128
25.67

Horticulture
Horticulture sector has been a promising sector in the state with good production of an array of cash
crops. Kerala is a major producer of cash crops such as coconut, rubber, pepper, cardamom, ginger,
banana, cocoa, cashew, arecanut, coffee and tea. Major crops along with their production for the last
three years are indicated hereunder.
Crop/Group
Pepper
Ginger
Cardamom
Arecanut
Banana
Cashew nut
Coconut
Coffee
Tea
Rubber

Unit

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

MT
MT
MT
MT
MT
MT
Million Nuts
MT
MT
MT

28497
28603
7800
116763
406242
35818
5667
59250
57810
745510

45267
33197
7935
99909
483667
34752
5287
65650
57107
770580

37989
37130
10222
121623
514054
36743
5941
68175
57903
788940

Dairy and Livestock:


Cattle population in Kerala, which was 33.96 lakh in 1996, declined to 17.20 lakh by 2007. The milk,
egg and meat production of the last four years are given in the table below:

Livestock Produce
Milk
Egg
Poultry Meat
Meat Other than
Poultry

Unit
Lakh MT
Million Nos
MT
MT

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

24.51
1510
-

25.87
1633
-

26.43
1686
16153
108398

27.16
1705
184000
242000

Kerala also produces significant amount of fish (both marine and inland). The table below indicates
fish production in Kerala from 2006-07 to 2010-11.
Year
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11

Production (Lakh MT)


Marine
Inland
Total
5.98
0.80
6.78
5.86
0.91
6.77
5.83
1.03
6.86
5.70
1.17
6.87
5.60
1.21
6.81

3. Agri Marketing Infrastructure in the State


The APMC Act has not been operationalized in Kerala and hence there are no statutory regulations.
There are 6 Agriculture Wholesale Markets in Kerala that are government owned, constituted under
the Department of Agriculture. According to the Department of Economics and Statistics,
Government of Kerala, there are 1290 locally controlled markets in Kerala. Out of these, 85 markets
are functioning in the municipal corporation area, 129 are in the municipal area and 1076 markets are
in gram panchayat areas.
Status of Logistics and Warehousing Facilities in the State: Kerala State Warehousing Corporation
(KSWC) came into existence in the year 1959. The storage capacity of the warehouses, both owned
and rented by KSWC is around 2 lakh MT.
Cold Storages: The state has 177 cold storages with an installed capacity of 47,298MT according to
APEDA Agri Exchange. Most of the cold storages in the state are meant for marine products and the
rest cater to meat products and milk products such as ice creams.
Abattoirs/Slaughter Houses: According to the Department of Economics and Statistics, Government
of Kerala, there are 4904 slaughter houses in the state of which only 30.38% (1490) are registered
with local authorities.
4. Status of Kerala Food Processing Industry
Food Processing Units: Kerala has been a major exporter of spices, cashew, marine products, tea and
coffee etc. The state accounts for nearly 20%
of countrys food exports. As in 2011, there were
1274 food processing units in the State.
Agri Export Zones: With an objective to boost agriculture exports in the State, two agri export zones
have been promoted by APEDA. The zones and the products are enlisted below
Focus Products
Horticultural products

Geographical Areas
Thrissur, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Alappuzha, Panthaumthitta, Kollam,

Medicinal Plants

Trivandrum, Idukki and Pallakod


Wayanad, Mallapuram, Palakkad, Thrishur, Ernakulam, Idukki, Kollam,
Panthamuthitta and Trivandrum

Food Parks: Kerala Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation (KINFRA) is developing four
food parks in the state which are located at Malappuram, Ernakulam, Pathanamthitta and Alleppey
districts. In total there are 107 food processing units in various KINFRA parks.
Cold Chain Projects: Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI) has so far sanctioned 3 Cold
Chain projects in the state under the Scheme for Cold Chain, Value Addition and Preservation
Infrastructure.
5. Taxation Policy- State Govt.
VAT: The levy and collection of VAT is governed by the Kerala VAT Act, 2003. All dealers whose
taxable turnover is not less than ten lakh per annum or every importer or casual trader or agent of a
non resident dealer (except some other categories of dealers as specified in the Act) is liable to pay tax
on sales or purchases of goods as provided in this Act.
6. Policy Framework Governing the Sector
Industrial and Commercial Policy: Industrial and Commercial Policy 2011, Government of Kerala
lays emphasis on food processing and has notified the sector as new and emerging. Under the policy,
following support has been provided to the food processing industry:

Promotion of processing and marketing of cardamom, pepper, coffee, tea, coconut, marine
products, fresh water fish, etc.
Development of adequate infrastructure and specialized storage facilities for food based
products, provide world class technology and market support for promotion of organic food
products
Encouragement of Cluster Development programme in food processing sector

Entrepreneurship Development Scheme: This scheme covers micro, small and medium enterprises
engaged in food processing related manufacturing and marketing activities. Entitlement under the
scheme is limited to Rs. 30 lakhs per applicant unit and can be availed only once.
7. Sector Specific Bodies/Agencies
State Bodies/Agencies
Directorate of Industries and Commerce: It is implementing various industrial activities and is
responsible for promoting / sponsoring, registering, financing and advising MSME (Micro Small or
Medium Enterprise) industries in the state.
Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation: Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation
(KSIDC) is the state government agency for industrial and investment promotion in Kerala. KSIDC
acts as a promotional agency involved in catalyzing the development of physical and social
infrastructure required for constant growth of industry in the state.

Kerala Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation (KINFRA): KINFRA aims at bringing


together all the suitable resources available in the state and developing infrastructure to woo the
industrial growth of the state.
Potential Areas of Investment
Emerging Kerala 2012 has identified food and agro processing as one of the potential investment
opportunities which includes the following initiatives:

Coconut Park
Rice park
Activated carbon plant
Modern Cold Storage
Coconut based food processing plant
Modern rice mill
Individual Quick Freezing (IQF) facility
Meat processing unit
Soft drinks unit
Medicinal plants preservation and processing centre
Agri Trade Complex
Coconut oil mill and refinery
Mango processing
Marine food park
Ready to Eat (RTE) products
Bioethanol from Cashew Apple

8. Key Links and References

http://www.kerala.gov.in/ (For overall state related information)


http://www.kerafed.com (For all agriculture marketing related information)
http://www.ecostat.kerala.gov.in/ (For all economy related information)
http://keralataxes.gov.in/ (For all state taxes related information)
http://www.emergingkerala2012.org/ (For all infrastructure related information)
http://www.ksidc.org/(For all policy information)
http://www.keralaagriculture.gov.in(For all agriculture related information)
http://censusindia.gov.in/ (For all demographics related information)
http://www.kerwacor.com and http://www.cewacor.nic.in for all the warehousing related
information
http://www.mofpi.org (For all the existing projects related information)
http://www.agriexchange.apeda.gov.in
Emerging Kerala 2012/Advantage Kerala