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1a.

XY

X2

45

55

2 475

2 025

46

54

2 484

2 116

48

57

2 736

2 304

50

65

3 250

2 500

45

57

2 565

2 025

49

58

2 842

2 401

48

60

2 880

2 304

55

67

3 685

3 025

57

57

3 249

3 249

52

62

3 224

2 704

58

70

4 060

3 364

53

64

3 392

2 809

47

59

2 773

2 209

46

46

2 116

2 116

50

65

3 250

2 500

X = 749

Y = 896

XY = 44 981

X2 = 37 651

n XY X Y
2

n X ( X )
15(44981) (749)(896)
15(37651) 749 2

Y b X
n
896 0.96(749)

11.80( 2d . p.)
15
a

0.96( 2d . p.)

Y = b X + a
Y = 0.96 X + 11.80
b) When X = 43, Y = 0.96(43) + 11.80
= 53.08
c)
1

Y = 0.96 X + 11.80

Y Y

(Y Y)2

45

55

55.00

0.00

0.00

46

54

55.96

-1.96

3.84

48

57

57.88

-0.88

0.77

50

65

59.80

5.20

27.04

45

57

55.00

2.00

4.00

49

58

58.84

-0.84

0.71

48

60

57.88

2.12

4.49

55

67

64.60

2.40

5.76

57

57

66.52

-9.52

90.63

52

62

61.72

0.28

0.08

58

70

67.48

2.52

6.35

53

64

62.68

1.32

1.74

47

59

56.92

2.08

4.33

46

46

55.96

-9.96

99.20

50

65

59.80

5.20

27.04

(Y Y)2= 275.98

se

(Y - Y' ) 2
n2

275.98
15 2
4.61(2d . p.)

d(i)

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d(ii)

d(iii)
Coefficients(a)

Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
1

(Constant)
Additional
Mathematics
score, X
a Dependent Variable: Physics score, Y

Standardized
Coefficients

B
11.830

Std. Error
14.573

.959

.291

Beta

.675

.812

Sig.
.432

3.298

.006

Y = b X + a
Y = 0.959 X + 11.830
d(iv)
Model Summary
Adjusted R
Std. Error of
R
R Square
Square
the Estimate
.675(a)
.456
.414
4.608
a Predictors: (Constant), Additional Mathematics score, X
Model
1

se = 4.608
e)
Step 1: State the null and alternative hypotheses
Ho :

= 0 (The regression coefficient in the population equals zero)

H1 :

0 (The regression coefficient in the population is not equal to zero)

Or
Ho : Additional Mathematics score is not a statistically significant predictor of Physics score.
H1 : Additional Mathematics score is a statistically significant predictor of Physics score.

Step 2: Set the criterion for rejecting the null hypothesis


Reject Ho if p < 0.05

Step 3: Carry out the analysis using SPSS


Model Summary

Adjusted R
Std. Error of
R
R Square
Square
the Estimate
.675(a)
.456
.414
4.608
a Predictors: (Constant), Additional Mathematics score, X
Model
1

Coefficients(a)
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
1

(Constant)
Additional
Mathematics
score, X
a Dependent Variable: Physics score, Y

Standardized
Coefficients

B
11.830

Std. Error
14.573

.959

.291

Beta

.675

.812

Sig.
.432

3.298

.006

Step 4: Make a decision by applying the criterion for rejecting the null hypothesis
From the SPSS output, p = 0.006
(The probability of committing a Type I error that is, the likelihood of rejecting the null
hypothesis when it is true is 0.006)
Therefore, reject Ho because p < 0.05

Step 5: Make a conclusion in the context of the problem


Additional Mathematics score is a statistically significant predictor of Physics score,
t (14) = 3.298, p < .05
(That is, knowledge of Additional Mathematics scores enhances the prediction of Physics
scores)
The regression equation is as follows:
Y = 0.959 X + 11.830
Predicted Physics score = 0.959 (Additional Mathematics score) + 11.830
r 2 = 0.456
45.6% of the variance in Physics scores can be associated with (explained by) the variance in
Additional Mathematics scores.
2a.
5

XY

X2

2.2

2.6

5.72

4.84

1.0

1.5

1.50

1.00

2.3

2.7

6.21

5.29

3.6

4.0

14.40

12.96

0.9

1.0

0.90

0.81

1.6

2.0

3.20

2.56

3.3

3.5

11.55

10.89

3.4

3.0

10.20

11.56

4.0

2.5

10.00

16.00

2.6

2.8

7.28

6.76

X = 24.9

Y = 25.6

XY = 70.96

X2 = 72.67

n XY X Y

n X 2 ( X )2
10(70.96) ( 24.9)(25.6)
10(72.67) 24.9 2

Y b X
n
25.6 0.68( 24.9)

0.87( 2d . p.)
10
a

0.68( 2d . p.)

Y = b X + a
Y = 0.68 X + 0.87
b) When X = 3.5, Y = 0.68 (3.5) + 0.87
= 3.25

c.
X

2.2

2.6

1.0

1.5

Y Y

(Y Y)2

2.37

0.23

0.05

1.55

-0.05

0.00

Y = 0.68X + 0.87

2.3

2.7

2.43

0.27

0.07

3.6

4.0

3.32

0.68

0.46

0.9

1.0

1.48

-0.48

0.23

1.6

2.0

1.96

0.04

0.00

3.3

3.5

3.11

0.39

0.15

3.4

3.0

3.18

-0.18

0.03

4.0

2.5

3.59

-1.09

1.19

2.6

2.8

2.64

0.16

0.03

(Y Y)2= 2.21

se

(Y - Y' )2
n2

2.21
10 2
0.53 (2 d . p.)

d(i)

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d(ii)

d(iii)
8

Coefficients(a)
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
1

(Constant)
Number of
hours spent
studying daily,
X
a Dependent Variable: CGPA, Y

Standardized
Coefficients

.876

Std. Error
.435

.676

.161

Beta

.829

t
2.013

Sig.
.079

4.191

.003

Y = b X + a
Y = 0.676 X + 0.876

d(iv)
Model Summary
Adjusted R
Std. Error of
R
R Square
Square
the Estimate
.829(a)
.687
.648
.5272
a Predictors: (Constant), Number of hours spent studying daily, X
Model
1

se = 0.5272
e)
Step 1: State the null and alternative hypotheses
Ho :

= 0 (The regression coefficient in the population equals zero)

H1 :

0 (The regression coefficient in the population is not equal to zero)

Or
Ho : Number of hours spent studying daily is not a statistically significant predictor of CGPA.
H1 : Number of hours spent studying daily is a statistically significant predictor of CGPA.

Step 2: Set the criterion for rejecting the null hypothesis


Reject Ho if p < 0.01
Step 3: Carry out the analysis using SPSS
Model Summary

Adjusted R
Std. Error of
R
R Square
Square
the Estimate
.829(a)
.687
.648
.5272
a Predictors: (Constant), Number of hours spent studying daily, X
Model
1

Coefficients(a)
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
1

(Constant)
Number of
hours spent
studying daily,
X
a Dependent Variable: CGPA, Y

Standardized
Coefficients

.876

Std. Error
.435

.676

.161

Beta

.829

t
2.013

Sig.
.079

4.191

.003

Step 4: Make a decision by applying the criterion for rejecting the null hypothesis
From the SPSS output, p = 0.003
(The probability of committing a Type I error that is, the likelihood of rejecting the null
hypothesis when it is true is 0.003)
Therefore, reject Ho because p < 0.01

Step 5: Make a conclusion in the context of the problem


Number of hours spent studying daily is a statistically significant predictor of CGPA,
t (9) = 4.191, p < .01
(That is, knowledge of number of hours spent studying daily enhances the prediction of
CGPA.)
The regression equation is as follows:
Y = 0.676 X + 0.876
Predicted CGPA = 0.676 (Number of hours spent studying daily) + 0.876
r 2 = 0.687
68.7% of the variance in CGPA can be associated with (explained by) the variance in number
of hours spent studying daily.

3a)
10

Coefficients(a)
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
1

(Constant)

B
27.831

Standardized
Coefficients

Std. Error
.724

Age of a car
-2.292
(year), X
a Dependent Variable: Price of a car, Y

Beta

.138

-.986

t
38.429

Sig.
.000

-16.659

.000

Y = b X + a
Y = -2.292 X + 27.831
When X = 3, Y = -2.292 (3) + 27.831
= 20.955 thousand Ringgit Malaysia

b)
Step 1: State the null and alternative hypotheses
Ho :

= 0 (The regression coefficient in the population equals zero)

H1 :

0 (The regression coefficient in the population is not equal to zero)

Or
Ho : Age of a car is not a statistically significant predictor of the price of a car.
H1 : Age of a car is a statistically significant predictor of the price of a car.

Step 2: Set the criterion for rejecting the null hypothesis


Reject Ho if p < 0.05

Step 3: Carry out the analysis using SPSS


Model Summary

Model
1

R
.986(a)

R Square
.972

Adjusted R
Square
.968

Std. Error of
the Estimate
.5657

11

a Predictors: (Constant), Age of a car (year), X

Coefficients(a)
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Model
1

B
(Constant)
27.831
Age of a car
-2.292
(year), X
a Dependent Variable: Price of a car, Y

Standardized
Coefficients

Std. Error
.724

Beta

.138

-.986

t
38.429

Sig.
.000

-16.659

.000

Step 4: Make a decision by applying the criterion for rejecting the null hypothesis
From the SPSS output, p = 0.000
(The probability of committing a Type I error that is, the likelihood of rejecting the null
hypothesis when it is true is 0.000)
Therefore, reject Ho because p < 0.05

Step 5: Make a conclusion in the context of the problem


Age of a car is a statistically significant predictor of the price of a car,
t (9) = -16.659, p < .05
(That is, knowledge of the age of a car enhances the prediction of the price of a car.)
The regression equation is as follows:
Y = -2.292 X + 27.831
Predicted price of a car = -2.292 (Age of a car) + 27.831
r 2 = 0.972
97.2% of the variance in the price of a car can be associated with (explained by) the variance
in the age of a car.

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