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Introduction

The development of classroom tests can be challenging. A good test is classified as being
one that is valid, reliable, usable and economical. It is important for all teachers to ensure that
tests are reliable and valid; with validity being the most important (Cizek, 2009).
In developing an effective classroom test, the process begins by determining the content
to be measured as well as the types of assessment to be used. This should be carefully
considered. The next stage is the item development stage, where the test items are written. Once
this is done the test can then be administered and scored. After the scoring is complete it is
important for the teacher to evaluate the test. The data received from this test should be used to
inform one on the appropriateness of the test and give insight on how the test can be improved.
Special efforts must be made to ensure that tests are valid and reliable. One way to ensure
that classroom tests are valid is by use of a Table of Specifications (TOS). A TOS is useful in
improving content validity as it specifically identifies learning outcomes and helps to keep tests
in line with instructional objectives (Source). A TOS also ensures that tests cover the content area
taught and assess at the corresponding cognitive level. (Source)
Classroom tests can be made to be reliable. A test is considered to be reliable when the
test consistently measures what it is supposed to measure. (Source). Each time the same test is
taken by the same person, under the same circumstances the score is expected to be the same.
[THERE IS A DISCONNECTION BETWEEN THESE TWO POINTS] Objective test items
generally have problems of low reliability and can usually be solved in simple ways, such as
making the test longer. A longer test will reduce unreliability as whatever random fluctuations in
performance occur over the course of the test will tend to cancel itself out as the test progresses

(Source). [THERE IS A DISCONNECTION BETWEEN THESE TWO POINTS] Reliability of


subjective test items can be improved with the use of rubrics (sources), in order to make the
scoring objective and therefore [IS SOMETHING MISSING RIGHT HERE?] as reliable as
possible.
Developing classroom tests can be made significantly more effective by proper planning
and test construction, clear instructions during administration and a continued evaluation of test
data.

Topic: The Individual and the Family


The family is the first and the most basic unit of society. The concept of family life is
dependent on culture and location. Consequentially, it is important for students to understand the
concept of family as it relates to the Caribbean region. The aim of this unit is to have students
understand the terms and concepts relating to family, paying close attention to the types, and
functions of each family and their associated problems. At the end of the unit students should
have a comprehensive knowledge of the family and family related issues as well as be able to
make suggestions on how different families can deal with issues of modern family life.
Description of Students
The unit will be taught to a class of thirty-five (35) fourth form students preparing to sit
CSEC examinations in June 2017, at a traditional high school. The average age of the class is 16.
The class is held two times a week for one hour each.

Learning Outcomes
At the end of the unit, the student should be able to:
1. Explain and use correctly at least half the concepts and terms associated with the
family as listed: kinship, status, extended family, nuclear family, monogamy,
polygyny, patriarchal, matriarchal, patrifocal, matrifocal, matrilineal, patrilineal,
bigamy, incest, marriage, legal separation, divorce, annulment, alimony, sibling,
inheritance.
2. Describe the four major functions of the family.
3. Compare and contrast the major family types and unions in the Caribbean namely,
Types: nuclear, extended, sibling household, and single parent family
Unions: visiting relationship, consensual or common law, monogamy and legal
marriage.
4. Examine the roles, relationships and responsibilities of adult and sibling members
of a Caribbean family.
5. Explain at least two major causes and effects of the changes in the roles of family
members in the Caribbean society.
6. Examine and describe at least five characteristics of effective parenting.
7. Formulate strategies for dealing with contemporary social issues that influence
Caribbean family life.

Table of Specifications
Learning
Outcomes
1

Weight

15

15

15

15

10

15

15

Recall

Interpretation

Problem
Solving

Date

November 16, 2015

Subject Name

SOCIAL STUDIES

Grade\Class

11

Examination Time

9 am

Student ID Number : __________________________________________

Instructions
1)

In this test you are required to answer ALL questions. All questions are based on the unit

2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

on the Family and the individual.


This test will last for two (2) hours.
Section A of this test has 28 multiple-choice questions.
Section B of this test has 15 true and false questions and a crossword puzzle.
Section C of this test has 8 short answer questions.
Section D of this test has 1 essay question.
REMEMBER: This is a test to see how much you remember. Do not worry about
failing!!!

Section A

Instructions: Circle the BEST answer for each question.

1. Your teacher has asked you how many siblings you have; you reply by telling her you have
six _______________.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Cousins
Friends
Stepbrothers/sisters
Brothers and sisters

2. Another name for marriage is


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Matrimony
Matrilineal
Maternal
Monogamy

3. The term pre-marital means


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

During marriage
After marriage
Before marriage
Not married

Questions 4 6 are based on the family tree below.

FAMILY TREE
Key = Marriage
Louis Garcia = Lily Davis
George = Rita Taylor

James

Jim Warren Merle Susan Lily

Mary = David Small Ivy


Sita

James

Sam

John = Elizabeth Chin


Giselle

4. What is the relationship of Louis Garcia to Sita Small?


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Step-father
Uncle
Grandfather
Brother-in-law

5. What is the relationship of Merle to Ivy?


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Niece
Aunt
Cousin
Step-sister

6. How many sisters does James Garcia have?


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

One
Two
Three
Four

7. The family is best described as the corner-stone of society. This is so because:


(a) Only the family is responsible for reproduction and perpetuation of the species;
(b) No other institution can perform as efficiently the various functions of the family
(c) The family is responsible for maintaining stability in society through the socialization
function;
(d) The family functions as a reservoir for culture, passing it on from generation to
generation.
8. Which of the following is not a process of Socialization?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Education
Reproduction
Religious teaching
Recreational activity

9. Which of the following factors may limit a parents role as economic provider for the
family?
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Unemployment
Low level of education
Poor parenting skills
Low wages

i and ii only
iii and iv only
i, ii and iv only
i, ii, iii and iv

10. The main functions of the Caribbean family may best be


described as:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Socialization
Providing for emotional needs
Procreation
Providing for financial needs

I & III only


I, II&III only
I, III & IV only
All of the above

Questions 1112 relate to the following information:


Karen was born into a family made up of her mother and father, but from age 6 she grew up
with her grandmother, aunt, uncle and cousins. Her parents migrated but thought she was
better off doing her schooling in the Caribbean. She joined her parents when it was time to
go to college, although by then they had divorced. When she migrated, her grandmother
came to live with her and her father one year later.

11. Which of the following family types did Karen live in?
I.
II.
III.
IV.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Extended
Single parent
Nuclear
Sibling

I & III only


I, II & IV only
I, II, and III only
I, III & IV only

12. Karens parents divorced before she migrated to meet them. Which of the following BEST
describes divorce?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

The declaration that a marriage is null and void


The legal separation of a married couple
The division of property between a married couples
The legal end to a marriage

Questions 13 - 14 relate to the drawing below.


13. What type of family is shown in the picture above?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Extended
Nuclear
Common-law
Joint

14. The relationship between the couple shown in the picture above could be all of the
following EXCEPT:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Marriage
Common-law union
Consanguine
Visiting relationship

15. If only brothers and sisters lived on their own at the same residence, this would
be called a:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Nuclear family
Joint family household
Sibling family
Extended family

16. In the Caribbean context, the concept matrifocality emphasises the importance of
(a) The mother and maternal relatives who play dominant roles in contrast to the peripheral
role of fathers and paternal relatives
(b) Men who are breadwinners while the women are financially dependent
(c) Men who play dominant roles as husbands and fathers
(d) Line of descent being traced through the male line
In the Igbo family a definite division of labour and authority structure prevails. A wife,
especially one, who has not yet borne a male child, should bow her head before her husband.
She must perform her wifely duties promptly and without complaint and never contradict or
oppose her husbands wishes. Unmarried sisters must practice their future role performance
by cheerfully carrying through domestic chores for their fathers and brothers. Unmarried
sisters have a special responsibility to watch over a young wife, to guard her fidelity, and to
upbraid wives for any failing in the service provided to brothers. (Taken from The African
Background to the Jamaican Family, 1982, pg. 8).
(Questions 17 - 21 are based on the above quotation)
17. From this statement it would seem that among the Igbo
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Women dominated men in the household


Both men and women are treated equally in the family
Women are firmly subordinated to men, especially wives to husbands
Sisters co-operate with their brothers wives in all respect

18. A lineage consisting of all descendants through males of a single ancestor is called a
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Matrilineage
Clan
Patrilineage
Class

19. The unit into which Igbo children are born, in which they reside and are socialised is called a

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Nuclear family
Joint family
Single-parent family
Patrilineal extended family

20. African family life occurs within and is almost completely absorbed by the lineage. The
lineage consists of all
(a) The people in a country at a given moment
(b) Descendants in one line of a particular person through a determined number of
generations
(c) Living and dead members of an entire society
(d) The common ritual of the aborigines
21. In the Igbo family, men would have two wives simultaneously. The first wife is elevated to
the status of a senior wife upon the establishment of such an arrangement. The two wives
then become
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Sisters
Co-wives
Juniors
Cousins

Study the following statement describing an Igbo family and then answer the question
below.
It is usually headed by a father, who lives with his wives, his sons and their wives and
children, plus the fathers unmarried daughters.
22. What is the type of marriage in this family?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Monogamous
Polyandrous
Polygynous
Autonomous.

23. Which of the following is NOT responsible for the changes in the traditional roles in the
family?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Mothers are having more children


More mothers work outside the home
The extended family has declined in importance
Schools have assumed a greater role in socializing children

More and more, marriage is seen as an equal partnership in which husbands and wives
share the responsibility for making decision.
24. The statement above suggests that
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

The roles of the husbands and wives are complimentary


The husband has the final say in decision making
The wife plays a submissive role
There are specific roles for the husband and wife.

25. From early infancy, children begin to learn how to operate in society. They learn
simple norms and mores which are expected in daily behavior. This statement suggests
that:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

The media is the first agent of socialization.


Church plays a key role in socialization.
Socialization of children begins in the home.
School takes priority in socialization.

26. Caribbean family life has changed in all of the following


ways EXCEPT:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Families are smaller


Families are having more children
There are fewer extended families
More women are going out to work

27. Deciding how many children to have and when to have


them is called:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Family planning
Debating
Monogamy
Procreation

28. All of the following are forms of child


abuse EXCEPT:
(a)
(a)
(b)
(c)

Children being left alone for days


Disciplining children
Showing children pornographic material
Causing physical harm to children

Section B
Choose the best word from the word bank to complete the following statements. Note that
you do not have to use all the words/ Note that you can use a word more than once

Irresponsible behavior

Social problems

Status

Gender

Roles
Legal Separation
Neglect

Divorce

Latch-key

Polygyny

Socialization

1. Those circumstances within a society which causes dysfunction, creates difficulties or stops
members of the society from enjoying full happiness can be called
_____________________.
2. The term ________________________ refers to the belief that some activities are for males
and some are for females.
3. Many children are ____________________ children. They let themselves into the house in
the evenings and often left unsupervised.
4. When members of the family display ___________________________ and refuse to take
responsibility for their commitments, they greatly disappoint the family members.
5. Members of the society are treated based on their __________________________ in the
society
6. When a couple is facing challenges and are unsure of the way forward, their first action can
be to seek __________________________ from the courts before any final declaration is
made.

Section C

TRUE/FALSE
Circle T if the statement is true or F if the statement is false.

1. T/F AIDS is no longer considered a death sentence.


2. T/F Social issues and problems can only be eliminated by the passing of laws and rules.
3. T/F Social problems only affect the society.
4. T/F Substance abuse can be both legal and illegal.
5. T/F HIV can be passed on from a mother to her unborn child
6. T/F When mothers and fathers work outside of the home the children always suffer
7. T/F Women cannot be breadwinners.
8. T/F Traditionally, the roles of boys and girls in the family are the same.
9. T/F An increase in the standard of living is one cause of changing roles in the family
10. T/F A double burden can only affect women in the family
11. T/F Neglect is a form of abuse
12. T/F Every parent should possess problem solving skills
13. T/F Parents must show love to their children
14. T/F Tubal ligation is a form of family planning
15. T/F Abuse can only be physical

Solve the clues below in order to complete puzzle. All answers are from the unit studied on the
family.

Across

Down

4. When a man and woman form a new


family with children from their
respective previous relationships

1. This function of the family means to


reproduce

6. The factor that improves


employability; one should have this when
planning for a family
8. This is the main way to legally form a
family

2. A device used to prevent f e r t i l i z a t i o n


3. It is an important skill for parents to
have. It will come in handy when
children do not exhibit desired
behaviour.
5. A situation in which a husband and wife
are formally separated
7. This is considered to be the
building block of society

Section D
Carefully answer the following questions.

1. List the four functions of the family.


________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2. Which function is most important? Justify
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3. Describe TWO types of families existing in the Caribbean.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4. Give TWO strengths and TWO weaknesses of each family type
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

5. Describe THREE possible outcomes for a family where both parents have poor parenting
skills.

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
6. Which family type makes the job of parenting easier? Give ONE reason for your answer.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

7. Name TWO internal factors and TWO external factors that affect family relationships.
Give ONE way to improve ONE external and ONE internal factor.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
8. What are the TWO MAIN ways in which you think the changing of roles in the
Caribbean family could negatively impact the children? Justify giving TWO reasons
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

Section E

ESSAY
What are social issues?
Name and BRIEFLY describe one of the main social issues discussed in class. Describe how it
affects the Individual, the Family and the Society. Suggest TWO ways to the individual, the
family and the society can help to fix the problem. Can this problem be eliminated? Give
THREE reasons for your answer.

The End!

Test Validity

A test is considered valid if it measures what it is supposed to measure (Hathcoat, 2013). It is the
degree to which evidence, common sense, or theory supports any interpretations or conclusions
about a student about based on his or her test performance (Frey et al., 2010). Simply put it is
how one knows that a math test is testing ones mathematical ability and not their reading ability.
There are different types of validity, namely: Face, Content, Criterion-related and Construct
validity as discussed earlier.
Upon analysis I would deem this test to have been valid on most accounts. Firstly we could see
where the test was clearly valid from a face validity perspective. One could tell from first glance
that this test is meant to be a social studies test. The construct was also valid as the test was so
constructed to test attributes relating to social studies. The test was age appropriate and
adequately tested students at the corresponding cognitive levels. The test items were reviewed by
another individual familiar with the test content to review questions for error and adherence to
accepted test development guidelines. The test also covered the content directly related to the
learning objectives and class activities. This test was able to provide data required in order to
adequately analyze what the students learned.
Additionally, there were other sources of validity evidence for this test namely the testing
environment and the scoring of the test. The testing environment was one that met the usual
standard for examination conditions. It was quiet, the temperature was moderate and there were
no disruptions during the test. Special efforts were made to reduce the possibility of students
cheating and they were constantly monitored and never left unattended.
The scoring of the test was done appropriately as special care was taken to develop the answer
key for the objective items and a rubric was developed to score the subjective sections of the test.

The scoring was in line with test directions and it was applied consistently and double checked
by another marker familiar with the test content. Special care was taken in order to eliminate any
other possible sources of bias or unintended scoring errors.

Test Administration
The testing environment is one of the factors that can affect the reliability of classroom test
scores (Kinyua and Okunya, 2014). Therefore special care has to be taken during test
administration to control the testing environment.
Students were informed two weeks in advance of the time, date, duration, location, topic, format
and expectations of the test. Special request was made for an area with the possibility of minimal
distractions. The area was quiet, with bright lighting and air condition. All examinees were
asked to be present in the room ten minutes before the test were the test rules were explained in
details. Directions were read aloud and slowly for all to hear and understand. Examinees were
made to feel at ease in order to ease any tension as anxiety can often cause misunderstandings in
the testing environment. They were reassured that would not be tested on any unfamiliar material
and they would do well on the examination.
The examination started promptly at 9 am and all examinees were present and on time. Students
were given an additional five minutes (8:55AM) to peruse the test to ensure that they had all
pages and familiarize themselves with the test and its requirements. Writing was not allowed
during this time.
Special care was taken to properly supervise students as the invigilators stayed alert during the
administration to test to minimize the possibility of cheating. Students were carefully informed to
avoid any appearance of an attempt to cheat and that under no circumstances they were
communicate in any way to each other.

At half hour intervals students were made aware of the time remaining and could also keep
abreast of the time by the large clock on the wall. After the time elapsed the students were
instructed to stop writing and the papers collected by the invigilators.
One special arrangement was made for the administration as students were randomly assigned
numbers from 1 30 as a special identification in order to improve reliability and subjectivity
during scoring. There were no usual situations or problems during the administration of this end
of unit test.

Test Results
Student #

Raw Score
2
7
8
16
1
17
30
25
21
3
15
19
9
24
28
10
4
27
11
14
20
6
13
23
18
5
26
29
22
12

Percentage (%)
97.00
93.50
87.00
86.00
84.50
79.00
78.00
78.00
72.00
70.00
69.00
67.00
66.50
62.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.00
55.00
53.00
51.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
47.00
45.00
36.00
25.00
16.00

Standard Deviation
Standard deviation is a measure of how a set of values are dispersed around the mean those
values. The standard deviation is related to the range, which is the difference between the highest
and lowest values of the set. Generally, a low value of standard deviation means that the scores
in the set are close in value to that of the mean, while a high value of standard deviation indicates
that the scores in the set are more widely dispersed around the mean.
It turns out that, in a normal distribution, about 68% of the students can be expected to fall in the
range of scores between minus one standard deviation below the mean and plus one standard
deviation above the mean and that about 95% of the students can be expected to fall in the range
of scores between minus two standard deviations below the mean and plus two standard
deviations above the mean.

Test Score (%)


97.00
Item
QUESTION
#
93.50
87.00
1 86.00
2 84.50
3 79.00
4 78.00
5 78.00
6 72.00
7 70.00
8 69.00
9 67.00
10 66.50
62.00
Analysis
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.00
55.00
53.00
51.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
47.00
45.00
36.00
25.00
16.00

For
1, 11
chose the

A
2
2
1
3
17
5
5
3
13
6

Test Score-Mean
(Test Score-Mean)2
35.12
1233.18
POSSIBLE
OPTIONS
31.62
999.62
25.12
B
C 630.85
D
24.12
11
10 581.62
4
22.629
511.52
6
13
17.12
14
9 292.98
6
16.127
13 259.75
7
16.126
2 259.75
5
10.125
7 102.35
13
8.1216
5 65.88
4
7.127
15 50.65
5
5.125
26.18
5
7
4.625
15 21.31
4
0.12
0.01
(1.88)
3.55
(1.88)
3.55
(1.88)
3.55
(2.88)
8.31
(6.88)
47.38
(8.88)
78.91
(10.88)
118.45
(11.88)
141.21
(11.88)
141.21
(11.88)
141.21
(11.88)
141.21
(14.88)
221.51
(16.88)
285.05
(25.88)
669.95
(36.88)
1360.38
(45.88)
2105.28

Table of Values
Mean
Sum of (Test ScoreMean)2
Standard Deviation

61.88
10506.34
19.03

question
students
correct

answer B, 10 students chose the incorrect answer C while amount of responses for options A and
D were 2 and 4 respectively. This indicates that option C was an appropriate distractor as
displayed by the responses of 1/3 of the test group, also options A and D did not appear to be

attractive to the test group. Of the 11 students who chose the correct response 7 of them were of
the upper class. This proved to be the most difficult question.
For question 2, 13 students chose the correct response D, 6 chose C, 9 chose B and 2 chose A.
The range of the distribution for these answers suggests that options C and D were good
distractors or were similar to the correct answer. Of the 13 students who chose correctly 10 of
them were from the upper division displaying a positive discrimination index.
For question 3, 1 person chose response A, 14 chose B, 9 chose C and 6 chose D. of the 14
persons who answered correctly 9 of them were from the upper division maintaining a positive a
discrimination index. The responses show that option A was unappealing to the general test
group but that options C and D distracted exactly half of the test group.
In question 4, 3 persons chose option A, 7 option B, 13 chose the correct response C and 7
responded D. The analysis for this question is similar to that of question 3. Question 4 also
maintained a positive discriminatory index.
For question 5, 17 persons chose the correct answer A, while 6 responded B, 2 responded C and
5 persons responded D. This question showed to be easiest of the 10 questions and maintained a
positive discrimination index, as 11 of the correct responses came from the upper class. It could
be recommended that options C and D are replaced with more appropriate distractors.
For question 6, 5 persons chose options A and B, 7 persons chose option C and 13 persons chose
the correct option D. This question proved to one of the more difficult ones. Options A, B and C
are appropriate distractors as less than half of the responses given were correct. A positive
discrimination index was achieved.

The responses for question 7 are similar to those of question 5. 5 persons chose options A and C,
16 persons option B and 4 persons option D. Option D was the least appealing option to the
respondents. The same recommendation can be made for options A, C and D as in question 5. 10
of the correct responses were from the upper class, showing a positive discrimination index.
Question 8 was also similar to questions 5 and 7. 3 persons chose option A, 7 persons chose
option B, 15 persons chose correctly option C and 5 persons chose option D. Option A was least
appealing to the respondents and it is recommended that it be replaced with a more appropriate
distractor. Options B and C were fairly appropriate distractors. This question also achieved a
positive discrimination index as 10 of the correct respondents were from the upper class.
Question 9 received identical responses to question 6 with 13 persons choosing the correct
answer A, 5 persons choosing options B and C, and 7 persons option D. Consequentially a
positive discrimination index was obtained and the analysis is the same.
For question 10, of the respondents chose correctly option C and options A, B and C received
responses of 6, 5 and 4 respectively. Option C was the least appealing to the test group. It could
be suggested that options B and C be replaced with more appropriate distractors. Over all this
was a fairly easy question. Of the 15 persons who responded correctly 9 of them were from the
upper division obtaining a positive discrimination index.
Summary of item analysis data.

Item
1
2
3

# correct
(upper)
7
10
9

# correct
(lower)
4
3
5

Difficulty
(p)
0.367
0.433
0.467

Discrimination
(D)
0.200
0.467
0.267

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

12
11
8
10
10
8
9

1
6
5
6
5
5
6

0.433
0.567
0.433
0. 533
0.500
0.433
0.500

0.733
0.333
0.200
0.267
0.333
0.200
0.200

Test Reliability
Test reliability is a measure of how stable, dependable, trustworthy and consistent a test is in
measuring the same thing each time (Worthen et al., 1993). In making a test more reliable it is
not expected that a student will get the same scores each time, however, there should be
similarities in the scores. Therefore, the more similar the scores the more reliable the test is said
to have been. The reliability of a test can be affected by three factors: the test, the test taker and
the testing environment (Cizek, 2009).
In improving the reliability of this test is to reduce the chances of guessing (Cizek, 2009)
(Francine fix this!!!!!!). I found that the True/False questions would be susceptible to guessing
and even if a student got the answer right it didnt mean that they fully understood the content
and if they took the test again they would probably choose another answer. The use of multiple
choice questions also had this risk but the possibility of randomly choosing the right answer is
lowered as this format of assessment presented more wrong than right answers in comparison to
the true/false format where there was equal chance to choose the wrong or right answer.
Another way of improving the reliability of this test is by being more detailed in the instructions.
It was found that a few students misunderstood certain sections and that possibly impacted them
in finding the correct answer.
Additionally the quality of questions could also be improved. Even though I believe that the
number of test items is adequate the level of questioning could be improved with more training
in asking questions at a higher level to adequately question at the required cognitive level. It has
been found that carefully written tests with an adequate number of items usually produces high
reliability (Justin and John, 1996). It has been found that as teachers become more familiar with

their content and with more experience their ability to develop more reliable tests improve
(Kinyua and Okunya, 2014)

Conclusion
The development of reliable and valid classroom tests can be quite challenging for pre-service
teachers (Kinyua and Okunya, 2014). Likewise, development of this classroom test was
challenging me. The use of the table of specification was helpful in ensuring that the content was
covered even though determining how many questions would be considered adequate proved to
be difficult task.
In order to increase validity the table of specification was used as a guideline to ensure that
questions were prepared at varying cognitive levels. This was also difficult as I didnt have much
practice in writing questions at a higher cognitive level. There was special care in ensuring there
were enough questions for each objective but it was a challenge to figure out how many
questions would adequately to do this.
In making the test reliable the main challenge was to decide how long the test would be in order
to reduce the inconsistencies in students misunderstanding what is expected in each particular
question.
Developing classroom tests has been much more difficult than anticipated. However with more
practice and understanding of what is expected the challenged should be lessened.

Frey, B. B., & Allen, P. D. J. P. (2010). Assessing Universal Design for Classroom Testing. In Annual
Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO.