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IPT's

PIPETRADES
TRAINING MANUAL
by
ROBERT A. LEE
Published by

IPT PUBLISHING ANO TRAINING LTD.


BOX 9590, EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA T6E 5X2
www.iptbooks.com
Email: iptpub@compusmart.ab.ca
Phone (780) 962-4548 Fax (780) 962-4819
Toll Free 1-888-808-6763
Printed by
Quebecor Jasper Printing, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

The material presented in this publication has been prepared from recognized
trade practices and is for general information only. In areas of critica! importance
the user should secure competent engineering advice with respect to the
suitability of the information contained herein and comply with the various codes,
standards, regulations or any other pertinent legal obligation. Anyone utilizing
this information assumes all responsibility and liability arising from such use. The
author and publishers disclaim all responsibility of any incident arising from use
of material contained herein.
FIRST PRINTING, December 1991
SECOND PRINTING, March 1995
THIRD PRINTING, September 1997
FOURTH PRINTING, October 2000
ISBN 0-920855-20-2
COPYRIGHT 1991
All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used
in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
taping, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of the publisher.

Acknowledgements
The authors and publisher express their sincere appreciation to
the following for their assistance in developing this publication:
- The Jasper Printing Group
- lllustrations:
- lan Holmes
-Ted Leach
- Shawn Morgan Computer Graphics
- Proofreading:
- Donald Miller, P. Eng. - Mechanical Engineering Technology,
Northern Alberta lnstitute of Technology
- Brian Filax - Journeyman Pipefitter, Member of
United Association Local 488
- Technical Advice:
- David Cimesa (Hammond Indiana), President and Founder of
Industrial Trades ln-House Training
Member of ANSI, AWS, and United:Association Local 597

Other Books Published By IPT


IPT's METAL TRACES HANDBOOK
Revised Edition (1993)
Garby and Ashton
(1985)

The METAL TRACES TR. MAN.


Revised Edition
(1993)
Garby and Ashton
(1989)

IPT's INDUSTRIAL TRACES HANDBOOK


Power Transmission Systems
Bruce Basaraa (1989)

IPT's INDUSTRIAL TRACES TR.


MAN.
Power Transmission Systems
Bruce Basaraa (1989)

IPT's ELECTRICAL HANDBOOK


Herb Putz (1994)

IPT's ELECTRICAL TR. MAN


Herb Putz (1994)

IPT's INDUSTRIAL FASTENERS HANDBOOK


Bolting and Securing Systems
Bruce Basaraba (1989)

IPT's INDUSTRIAL FASTENERS TR. MAN.


Bolting and Securing Systems
Bruce Basaraba (1989)

IPT's CRANEANO RIGGING HANDBOOK


Mobile-EOT-Tower Cranes
Ronald Garby (1991)

IPT's CRANEANO RIGGING TR. MAN.


Mobile-EOT-Tower Cranes
Ronald Garby (1991)

IPT's ROTATING EQUIPMENT HANDBOOK


Basaraba and Archer (1995)

IPT's ROTATING EQUIPMENT TR. MAN.


Basaraba and Archer (1995)

INDEX
SECTION ONE - PIPE DATA

Pipe Manufacturing......................................2-6
Welded Pipe................................................2-4
Seamless Pipe.............................................4-6
National & lnternational Standards............7-11
API Standard..................................................7
ASTM Standard ;..................................... 7,8
AWWA Standard.............................................8
AS Standard...................................................8
BS Standard.................................................9
CSA Standard.................................................9
DIN Standard ........................................ 9,1O
GOST Standard .......................................
1O
ISO Standard ...........................................
1O
JIS Standard ....................................... 1O,11
LR Standard .....................................................11
Pipe Properties & Characteristics ........ 11,12
Schedule Numbers ...................................13-15
General Piping Design ..............................14-17
Threading Allowance ......................................16
Steel Pipe Sizes ........................................16-42
Actual & Nominal Pipe Sizes .........................18
Steel Pipe (Imperial) .................................19-30
Steel Pipe (Metric) ....................................31-42
Pipe Lengths ...................................................43
Pipe End Finish .................................. 43,44

Pipe ldentification....................................45-48
ASTM Marking..............................................45
API Marking.............................................45-47
CSA Marking ...................................... 47,48
Finishing Processes................................48-50
Galvanized Pipe...........................................48
Coated Pipe..................................................49
Wrought lron Pipe.........................................49
Corrosion Protective Coatings......................50
Stainless Steel Pipe.................................51-55
Stainless Pipe Sizes (Imperial) ............ 52,53
Stainless Pipe Sizes (Metric) ............... 54,55
Copper & Brass Pipe...............................56-58
Copper & Red Brass Pipe Sizes ........... 57,58
Cast lron Pipe..........................................59-65
Cast lron Pressure Pipe ...................... 59,60
Cast lron Soil Pipe...................................60-65
Plastic Pipe.............................................66-81
Thermoplastic Pipe.......................................66
Thermoset Pipe............................................66
Laminated & Composition Pipe....................67
Plastic Pipe Standards & Ratings............67-70
Pressure Ratings (psi)..................................69
Pressure Ratings (kPa)................................70
Thermoplastic Temperature Factors.............71
Plastic Selection & Usage.......................72-75

ii

INDEX
ABS Pipe ....................................................72
PVC Pipe ....................................................72
CPVC Pipe .................................................73
PE Pipe ......................................................73
PP Pipe ......................................................74
PB Pipe ......................................................74
PVDF Pipe .................................................74
RTRP Pipe .................................................75
Solvent Cementing ............................... 75-78
Threading Plastic Pipe ...............................78
Grooved Plastic Joints ............................... 79
Flanged Plastic Joints ............
79,80
0-Ring Plastic Joints .............
80,81
Joining RTR Pipe ....................................... 81

SECTION TWO - TUBE DATA


Tube vs Pipe .............................................. 84
Structural Tube .................
85,84
Mechanical Tube ....................................... 84
Pressure Tube ...................................... 85-87
B\NGGage .................................................86
Aluminum Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87,88
Copper Tube ......................................... 89-97
Copper Tube Types K-L-M ..................89-93
Copper Color Coding .., ........................90

D\NV/ACR Tube...................................94-96
Copper GP Tube ................
97,98
Steel Tube..........................................98-104
Tube Specifications (Imperial). . . . .
99,100 Tube Specifications (Metric) .....
101,102 Still Tube..............................103
Steel GP Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
103,104
Special Application Tube.................104-106
Bundled Metallic . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
104,105
Special Alloy Tube..................................105
Plastic Tube. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
105,106
Tube Bending...................................106-113
Compression Tube Bender . . . . . . 107,108
Bending Near Fittings . . . . . . . . . . 108,109
Recommended \Nall Thickness...............109
Bending Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11O,111
45 Degree Bending.................................111
Bending
Length
lncrease
........
112,113 Swagelok Fitting lnstallation . . .
. . 112,114

SECTION THREE - VALVES


Basic Valve Types...................................116
Gate Valves......................................116-119
Solid \Nedge Gate Valve . . . . . . . .
116,117 Flexible \Nedge Gate Valve
...... 117,118

INDEX
Split Wedge Gate Valve .................. 118,119
Double Disc Gate Valve .................. 118,119
Globe Valves........................................119-123
Angle Body Globe Valve .................. 120,121
Y-Pattern Globe Valve ..................... 120,121
Conventional Disc (Globe Valve).................121
Plug Disc (Globe Valve)..............................122
Composition Disc (Globe Valve) ...... 122,123
Needle Valve (Globe Valve) ............. 122,123
Check Valves.......................................123-125
Swing Check Valve ......................... 123,124
Lift Check Valve..........................................125
By-Pass Valves....................................125-127
By-Pass Arrangement ..................... 125,126
By-Pass Connections & Locations ... 125,127
Diaphragm Valves................................126-130
WeirType Diaphragm Valve.........................128
Straightway Diaphragm Valve ......... 128,129
Pinch Valves................................................129

Plug Valves .................................... 134,135


Lubricated Plug Valve.................................134
Multiport Plug Valve Arrangements
.
134,135
Relief
&
Safety
Valves
.....................
135,136
Valve
End
Connection Variations .... 137,138 Valve
BonnetAssemblies.............................137-141
Valve Socket Dimensions...........................138
Threaded Bonnet........................................139
Union Bonnet..............................................139
Bolted Bonnet.............................................139
Pressure Seal Bonnet.................................139
Welded Bonnet...........................................140
Clip Type Bonnet.........................................140
Special Bonnet Designs .................. 140,141
Valve Stem Design ......................... 141,142
lnside Screw Rising Stem...........................142
lnside Screw Non-Rising Stem...................142
Outside Screw Rising Stem........................142
Quick Opening Sliding Stem.......................142

Air Operated Pinch Valve ....................... 129


Diaphragm Valve Materials .................... 130
.........
Ball Valves ............................................. 131
............................
Reduced Port Ball Valve.............................131
..................
Butterfly Valves .............................. 132,133
Water Type Butterfly Valve ...........................132
Double Flanged Butterfly Valve ...................133

Valve ldentification & Marking


Valve lnstallation
Valve Dimension Tables
SECTION FOUR - FITTINGS
Pipe Fitting Types
...........................
Fittings
(Elbows)
.............................

143145
146149
150160
162168
162164

iv

INDEX
Fittings (Uniens) '165
Fittings (Ceuplings).....................................166
Fittings (Tees/Wyes/Crosses)..............167-169
Cepper Selder Fittings.........................169-172
Malleable lron Threaded Fittings.........173-177
Ferged Steel Threaded Fittings...........178-181
Cast lren Threaded Fittings.................178-183
Welded Fittings....................................184-200
Secket Weld Fittings............................184-187
Butt Weld Fittings................................188-197
Weld Outlets........................................198-200
Groeved Fitting Jeints..........................198-202

SECTION FIVE - GASKETED JOINTS

Flange Types.......................................204-207
Weld Neck Flange......................................204
Slip-en Flange............................................204
Lap-jeint (Van Stene) Flange......................205
Reducing Flange........................................205
Secket Weld Flange...................................206
Blind Flange...............................................206
Spectacle Blind Flange...............................206
Screwed Flange.........................................207
Orifice Flanges...........................................207
Flange Faces.......................................208-211
Raised Face ................................... 208,209

Large Male & Female ...................... 208,209


Large Tengue & Groeve ..................
209,210 Flat Face ........................................
209,21 O
Ring Jeint ....................................... 209,21 O
Lap Jeint ........................................ 209,21 O
Small Tengue & Groeve ..................
209,210 Small Male & Female.................211
Small Male & Female Threaded End..........211
ASME/ANSI Flanges/
Flange Markings .......................... 212,213
Flange Data (Class 150/125)......................214
Flange Data (Class 300/250)......................215
Flange Data (Class 400).............................216
Flange Data (Class 600).............................217
Flange Data (Class 900).............................218
Flange Data (Class 1500)...........................219
Flange Data (Class 2500)...........................220
Flange Gaskets...................................221-225
Metallic Ring Gaskets ..................... 221,222
Full Face & Flat Ring Gaskets....................223
Gasket Materials ............................. 224,225
. Gasket Design Cenfiguratiens..................226-228
Flat Gaskets...............................................226
Reinferced & Multi-Ply Gaskets..................226
Cerrugated Metal Gaskets..........................227
Spiral Weund Gasket (Flexatallic)...............227

INDEX
Metal Jacket Gasket...................................228
Serrated Gasket.........................................228
Metal Ring Gasket......................................228
Cutting Gaskets .............................. 229,230
Bolt Hole Layout..................................231-235
Angle or Degree Method.....................231-233
Chord Chart Method............................233-235
Flange Belting Specifications...............236-238
Belting Cast lron Flanges ................
238,239 Bolt Size & Length........................239
Wrench Size ......................................... : 240

SECTION SIX - PIPE OFFSETS

Offset Terms...............................................242
Offset Calculation Methods.........................243
Constant Multiplier Calculation ........ 243,244
Trigonometry Offset Calculation.................245
Fitting Allowance........................................245
Calculating 45 Degree Offsets.............245-248
Calculating Rise, Run, Travel .......... 247,248
Equal Spread 2 Pipe Offsets...............248-255
Calculating Equal Spread Lengths .. 249-252
Tangent to Find Spread Length..................253
Equal Spread 90 Degree Turn ......... 254,255
Rolling Offset Calculation ................
256,257
Steel Square Calculation............................258

Triangle Method Calculation.......................258


Offsets Around Square Corners ....... 259,260
Offsets Around Circular Objects ...... 260,261
Pipe Runs Around Tanks.....................262-264

SECTION SEVEN - TRIGONOMETRY


Right Angle Triangles...........................266-270
Pythagorean Formula.................................266
Right Angle Triangle Functions............268-270
Trigonometric Functions.............................271
Trigonometry Formulas...............................272
Trigonometry Tables............................273-278

SECTION EIGHT - PIPE LAYOUT

Fabricated Fittings (Elbows)................280-283


Establishing Centerlines on Pipe ..... 284,285
Pipe Wrap-Around......................................286
Sectoring Pipe ................................ 286,287
Mitered Turns.......................................288-295
2 Piece Miter ................................... 288,292
Cut Angle of Miter.......................................288
Factor of the Cut Angle ....................
288,289 Cut Back Distance........................288
Multi Piece 90 Degree Miters...............293-295
Ordinate Unes.....................................296-298
Multiple Ordinate Unes ................... 297,298

vi

INDEX

Layout 16 Division Two Piece Miter


298,299 Schematic Diagram...........................................353
Flow Diagram
353,35
Tee Layout - Saddle In
(Simplified) ................................ 300-303
.................................
4
.. Layout - Saddle On
P&ID (Piping &Projection
lnstrumentation)
355Tee
358,35
Orthographic
9
.................. Dimensions, Elevation
(Simplified) ................................ 304-31 O
Lateral
..
Layout (Simplified)
310-314
& Coordinates
359,3
...............Peel Cap
.............................
60
Orange
314,315
Pictorial
Pipe Drawing
360,3
............................
.....................
61
True Wye Layout (Simplified)
316-319
lsometric Pipe Drawing
361...........
...................
365
Template Layout
319-331
lsometric Dimensioning
363,3
.............................
..................
65
Miter Turn Templates
320,321
Spool
Drawings
366......................
..............................
369
45
Degree Lateral Template
322-325
Bill of Material
366,3
............
Tee
Template Development
326-330
Double
.................................
Line Orthographic Spool ................367
70
............
Wye Template Development
330,331
Single Line Orthographic Spool ..................368
............
SECTION TEN - PIPE WELDING
SECTION NINE - PIPING
Welding Safety .....................................372-375
334-339
PRINTS
Hazardous Environment Tips ......................372
Line Description & Function
334-336
Safe Clothing
................................................372
............
Piping Line Symbols
337,338
Welding
Lenses
.............................. 373,374
.......................
Section Line Symbols.................................339
Are Flash....................................................374
Single or Double Line Drawings .................340
Welding Ventilation.....................................375
Line ldentification Numbers ............. 340,341
Fire Prevention...........................................375
Standard Piping Symbols ....................341-346
Oxy-Acetylene Safety..........................376-380
Piping Notes & Specifications .....................347
Oxygen & Cylinders ........................ 376,377
Piping Abbreviations ............................348-350
Acetylene & Cylinders ..................... 377,378
Reading Scale Drawings ................. 351,352
Oxy-Acetylene Safe Set-Up........................379
Development of Pipe Drawings ..................352

INDEX
Lighting a Cutting Torch
380
Shutting
Down the Equipment
380
.........................
................
Balancing a Welding Torch
381
....................
Types
of Flames
382
....................................
Cutting Torch Tip Alignment
382
...................
Welding
Symbols.................................383-386
Groove & Fillet Weld Positions....................387
Pipe Test Coupons......................................388
Pipe Coupon Root Pass Variables..............389
Polarity Check.............................................390
Welding Electrodes..............................390-394
Electrode ldentification ................... 390,391
Mild Steel Electrodes................................392
Stainless Steel Electrodes ............... 393,394
Gas Tungsten Are Welding..................394-398
GTAW (Tig) Machines.................................395
GTAW (Tig) Torches & Electrodes ... 395,396
GTAW (Tig) Procedures..............................397
Pipe or Tube Purging..................................398
Preheat
For
Welding
.......................
399,400
Pipe Preparation & Alignment ..........
401,402 Joint Assembly Methods .................
403,404 Backing Rings ................................
403,404
Joint Assembly Tacking .................. 405,406
Tee to Pipe Fit-Up.....................................406
Pipe Alignment With Two Squares..............407

Pipe to 90 Degree Elbow .................


90
Degree Elbow Fit-up ...............................408
407,408
45 Degree Elbow Fit-up ...............................409
Pipe to Flange Fit-up ....................... 409,41
O
Small
Diameter Pipe Jig .........................
41O

SECTION ELEVEN - RIGGING

Fibre Rope...........................................412-420
Safety Factors.............................................412
Rope Breaking Strength Reductions...........413
Rope Safe Working Loads..........................413
Bowline/Bowline on the Bight......................414
Self Centering Bowline...............................415
Barrel Hitch/Reef Knot................................416
Catspaw/Clove Hitch..................................417
Becket Hitch/Timber Hitch/Stop Hitch........418
Double Half Hitch/Pipe Hitch.......................419
Knot, Bend, Hitch Strength Reduction........420
Wire Rope............................................421-429
Regular Lay/Lang Lay ..................... 421 ,422
Strand Classifications..................................422
Wire Rope Safe Working
Load (SWL) ................................. 423,424
Wire Rope Breaking Strength .......... 423,425
Rule of Thumb Formulas............................423
Winding Wire Rope on a Drum ........ 426,427

vii

viii

INDEX

Wire
Rope
Clips
(Number/Spacing)
428,429
Shackles/Safe
Use
Tips
......... 430,431 Hooks/Safe Use Tips
........... 431,432 Turnbuckles/Safe
Working Loads ...................................432
Eye Bolts/Safe Use Tips . . . . . . . .
433,434
Spreader
Beams ......................................................434
Sheaves/Safe
Use
Tips
.........
435,436 Snatch Blocks/Safe Use Tips . .
. . 436,437 Slings
&
Chokers ..........................................438-450
Sling
SWL/Types
...................................................................438
Basket
Hitch/Choker
Hitch
.......
439,440
Synthetic
Slings ..............................................441-444
Synthetic
Web
Slings .....441443
Synthetic
Roundslings .....441444
Sling
Lifting
Angle .....445447
Recommended
Lifting
Angle
...................................................................445
Sling
Leg
Stress
...............
446,447
Centering
a
Load
...................................................................448
Edge
Softeners
...................................................................448
Sling Safe Working Load Chart . . .
449,450 Mobile & Crawler Set-Up

Summary .. 451 Load Pick & Carry


............. 452,453
Powerline
Clearances 454-456
Powerline
Limit
of
Approach 455
l..

After Powerline Contact...........................456


Grane & Hoist Signals . . . . . . . . . . 457,458

SECTION TWELVE APPENDICES


Appendices lndex....................................460
General Jobsite Safety.....................461-471
Safety & Accident Prevention...........461-463
Safe Use of Ladders . . . . . . . . . . . 463,464
Safe Use of Scaffolds..............................464
Trenching Safety..............................46.5-467
Confined Space Entry . . . . . . . . . . 468,469
Dust & Fibre Hazards ..........
469,470 Hazardous Piping ldentification
................................................................
471

Steam Trap Selection.......................472-474


Steam Trap Sizing/Condensate .. 475-478
Temperature Conversion....................478
Pipe Hangers ................. 479,480
Metal Properties ...............
481,482 Twist Drills/Tap Drill Sizes 483488
Pipe Tap Sizes.........................................489
Decimal Equivalents . . . . . . . . . . .
490,491 Math Formulas.....................492
lmperial-Metric Equivalents.............493-497
Swagelok Designations . . . . . . . . . 497,498
Swagelok Fittings.............. 499,500

SECTION
ONE
PIPE DATA

PIPE DATA
Pipe Manufacturing
Carbon steel pipe, wrought steel pipe, or
"st el pipe", as it is most commonly
referred to, 1s the material classification of
pipe most oft n u ed in industry. Steel pip
, because of 1ts h1gh pressure and
temperature rat ings, ase o joining and
overall durability, make 1t the pipe of
choice for the majority of piping
installations.
The three majar methods of manufacturing
steel pipe are referred to as:
Type F, Furnace butt welded or Continu
ous welded pipe
Type E, Electric resistance welded
pipe
Type S, Seamless
pipe
Note: A_nother m_e_thod of manufacturing
steel pipe class1f1ed as lap welding has
been replaced by the electric resistance
welding method.

Pipe Manufacturing
Both continuous welded and electric resist
ance.welded pipe are made by shaping
rolls of co1led steel called "skelp" into
cylindrical forms, and welding along the
longitudinal seam. In electric resistance
welding, the edges of the skelp used to
form the pipe are fused together by
pressure and heat without the addition of
filler metal. The heat is gen erated by the
steel's resistance toan elec trical current
that is passed through the edges to be
welded. The gradual forming of skelp and
the electric resistance welding operation
of the pipe is shown in illustra tion #1.
n t.he continu us butt welding process, skelp
1s f1rst heated 1n a skelp heating furnace to
a welding temperature of approximately
300 F (1260 C). lmmediately upon leav
ing t.he furnace, the skelp is run through
for in rollers that form the skelp into a
cylmdrical shape. The hot edges of the pipe
are squeezed together forming a welded
seam.

PIPE DATA
STEP 1
FORMING

STEP 2
FUSING

Pipe Manutacturing

Electrodes
Edges are
Fused
Together
by Pressure

Form Rollers
Shape the
Heated
Skelp

lllustration #1 - Forming and Electric Resistam:e Welding of


Pipe
/

High

Rotary
Coil of
Skelp

Skelp Heating
Furnac

r--=- ---=---=--,""";

lllustration #2 - Manufacture of Continuous Butt-Welded Pipe

/
Forming,
Welding and
Reducing
Mili

Hot
Saw
Sizing
Mili

Speed
Splitting
Saw

Cooling Rack

PIPE DATA
Pipe
Manufacturing
Welding)

Pipe Manufacturing
(Butt

Welding is performed by rollers that butt


the two edges of the pipe together causing
them to fuse, without the addition of new
metal. In this method of manufacturing,
continuous
pipe making is possible because new rolls
of skelp can be continuously added to the
ends of used rolls without stopping the
pipe making process. lllustration #2
displays the
torming and welding rollers used in manu
facturing of continuous welded pipe.

Seamless Pipe
There are two common methods of
produc ing seamless pipe:
Hot Rotary Piercing
Extrusion Process Method
In the extrusion process, hot billets of
metal
are formed into seamless pipe by forcing
the billets through an extrusion die and
over a
forming mandrel. This forms the metal into
the desired seamless cylindrical shape.

lllustration #3 show an example of the


extru sion process. The roughly formed
pipe is then further reduced and sized in a
reducing mill to the required dimensions.

Dummy
Block

Hot Billet
of Metal

Die
Extruded Tube

Ram

Mandrel

or Pipe

Liner

Container

lllustration #3 - Extrusion of Seamless Pipe

PIPE DATA

Pipe Manufacturing

Pipe Manufacturing

t
Round Billet

---1

Mandrell Rolling Mili


for Small Diameters
Piercing

Plug

t
Enlarged Pipe or Tube

For larger sizes of Seamless Pipe


(over 16 in. - 400 mm) a rotary
expander is used to enlarge the pipe

lllustration #4A,B - Hot Rotary Piercing of Seamless Pipe

Plug Rolling Mili for


Medium Diameters

Hot rotary piercing is the most common


method of producing seamless pipe. In
this process, heavy rollers rotate and
advance hot billets of metal over a
mandrel or pierc ing plug. The piercing
plug produces the hole through the
seamless cylindrical billets. Still further
reduction, sizing, and shaping is car ried
out on the pipe by other mill rollers.
lllustration #4A and #48 displays the pierc
ing and mill processes on seamless pipe.

sI

PIPE DATA

Pipe
Manufacturing
In addition to the previously mentioned
methods of manufaeturing, sorne larger
sizes of steel pipe are eleetrie fusion (are)
welded along the seams of the pipe. Usually
the are welding proeess is eompleted auto
matieally using the submerged-are welding
proeess. Pipe that is eleetrie fusion (are)
welded is manufaetured by the straight
seam method or by the spiral seam method.
The straight seam method of manufaeturing
shapes flat plate (skelp) into pipe and are
welds along the longitudinal seam. The spi
ral seam method of manufaeturing takes
skelp and spirally eurls the plate into eylin
drieal shaped pipe. The welding then is done
along the spiral seam of the pipe. See illus
tration #5 for examples of seamless and
seam welded pipe.

Pipe

Manufacturing

Sorne of the more common international


and national standards and specifica
tions for pipe and tube are Usted in
table #1.
Note: Many of the standards and specifi
cations correspond between countries
and/or agencies.

Pipe Standards and Specifications


Seamless and seam welded pipe and
tube are manufactured to various pipe
stan dards and specifications.
lllustration #5 - Seamless and Seam Welded
Pipe

PIPE DATA
Standards & Specifications
(Table #1)

National & lnternational Standards


National and lnternational Pipe

APl-AMERICAN PETROLEUM
INSTITUTE
API 5L Une Pipe
API 5LX High Test Une Pipe
API 5LS Spiral Weld Une Pipe
ASTM-AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR
TESTING AND MA TERIALS
ASTM A53 Welded and Seamless Steel
Pipe
ASTM A 106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe
for High Temperature Service
ASTM A120 Black and Hot Dipped Zinc
Coating (Galvanized) Welded and Seam
less Steel Pipe for Ordinary Use
ASTM A 134 Electric-Fusion (ARC) Welded
Steel Plate (Sizes 16 in. and Over)
ASTM A 135 Electric-Resistance-Welded
Steel Pipe
ASTM A 139 Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded
Steel Plate Pipe (Size 4 in. and Over)

ASTM A211 Spiral-Welded Steel or lron


Pipe
ASTM A312 Seamless and Welded Aus
tenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
ASTM A333 Seamless and Welded Steel
Pipe for Low-Temperature Service
ASTM A335 Seamless Ferritic Alloy Steel
Pipe for High-Temperature Service
ASTM
A358
Electric-Fusion-Welded
Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Alloy Steel
Pipe
for High-Temperature Service
ASTM A369 Carbon and Ferritic Alloy
Steel Forged
and Bored Pipe for High
Temperature Service
ASTM A376 Seamless Austenitic Steel
Pipe for High-Temperature Central-Station
Service
ASTM A381 Metal-Arc-Welded Steel Pipe
for High-Pressure Systems
ASTM A405 Seamless Ferritic Alloy Steel
Pipe Specially Heat Treated for High
Temperature Service

PIPE DATA
National & lnternational Pipe
Standards & Specifications
(Table #1 Cont'd)
ASTM A409 Welded Large Diameter
Austenitic Steel Pipe for Corrosive or High
Temperature Service
ASTM A430 Austenitic Steel Forged and
Bored Pipe for High Temperature Service
ASTM A523 Plain End Seamless and
Elec tric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe for
High Pressure Pipe-Type Cable Circuits
ASTM A524 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe
for Process Piping
ASTM A530 General Requirements for
Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe
ASTM A671 Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel
Pipe for Atmospheric and Lower Tempera
tures
ASTM A672 Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel
Pipe for High-Pressure Service at Moderate
Temperatures
ASTM A691 Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe,
Electric-Fusion-Welded for High-Pressure
Service at High Temperatures

National & lnternational Standards

ASTM A714 High Strength Low-Alloy


Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe
ASTM A 731 Seamless and Welded Ferritic
Stainless Steel Pipe
ASTM A 790 Seamless and Welded
Ferri tic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
ASTM A 795 Black and Hot-Dipped Zinc
Coated (Galvanized) Welded and Seamless
Pipe for Fire Protection

AWWA-AMERICAN WATER WORKS


ASSOCIATION
AWWA C200 Steel Water Pipe, 6 lnches
and Larger
A WWA C203 Standard for Coal-Tar Enamel
Protective Coatings for Steel Water Pipe

AS-AUSTRALIAN STANDARD
AS 1450 Steel Tubes for Mechanical
Purposes
AS 1835 Seamless Steel Tubes for Pres
sure Purpose
AS 1836 Welded Steel Tubes for Pressure
Purpose

PIPE DATA

National & lnternational


Pipe Standards &
Specifications (Table #1
Cont'd)
BS-BRITISH STANDAROS

National & lnternational Standards


CSA-CANADIAN STANDARD
ASSOCIA TION

BS 1387 Steel Tubes and


Tubulars
BS 3059 Steel Boiler and Superheater
Tubes
BS 3600 Dimensions and Masses per
Unit
Length of Welded and Seamless Steel Pipes
and Tubes for Pressure Purposes: Metric
Units
BS 3602 Steel Pipes and Tubes for Pres
sure Purposes Carbon Steel: High
Temper ature Duties
BS 3603 Steel Pipes and Tubes for Pres
sure Purposes Carbon and Alloy Steel: Low
Temperature Duties
BS 3604 Steel Pipe and Tubes for Pres
sure Purposes Low and Medium-alloy Steel
BS 3605 Specification for Steel Pipe and
Tubes for Pressure Purposes Austenitic
Stainless Steel

CSA Z245. 1 Steel Line Pipe


CSA Z245.2 High Strength Steel Line
Pipe 18 lnches and Larger in Diameter
CSA Z245.3 Low Strength Steel Line Pipe
Less Than 18 lnches in Diameter
CSA Z245.4 Low Strength Steel Line Pipe
18 lnches and Larger in Diameter
CSA Z245.5 High Strength Steel Line
Pipe Less Than 18 lnches in Diameter

DIN-DEUTSCHE NORMEN
(GERMANY)
DIN 1615 Welded Circular Unalloyed
Steel Tube not Subject to Special
Requirements DIN 1626 Welded Steel
Pipes in Unalloyed and Low Alloy Steel for
Supply Purposes DIN 1629 Seamless
Tubes in Unalloyed Steels
DIN 1630 High Performance Seamless
Circular Unalloyed Steel Tubes

10

PIPE DATA
National & lnternational Pipe
Standards & Specifications
(Table #1 Cont'd)
DIN 2440 Steel Tubes Medium-weight
Suitable for Threading
DIN 2441 Steel Tubes Heavy-weight Suit
able for Threading
DIN 17172 Steel Pipes for Pipelines
forthe Transport of Combustible Fluids and
Gases
DIN 17175 Seamless Steel Tubes for Ele
vated Temperatures
DIN 17177 Electrical Resistance or lnduc
tion Welded Steel Tubes for Elevated
Temperatures

GOST-USSR SPECIFICATIONS
GOST 8731 Seamless Hot-Rolled Tubes
Technical Requirements
GOST 8732 Seamless Hot-Rolled Steel
Tubes Range
GOST 10704 Electric Welded Steel Tubes
GOST 10705 Specification for Delivery of
Electric-Welded Steel Tubes of 8-530 mm in
Diameter

National & lnternational Standards


ISO-INTERNATIONAL
ORGANIZATION FOR
STANDARDIZATION
/OS 65 Steel Tubes Suitable for Screwing
in accordance with lnternational Standards
ISO 7/1.

JIS-JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL
STANDARDS
JIS G3441 Alloy Steel Tubes for Machine
Purpose
JIS G3442 Galvanized Steel Pipe for Water
Service
JIS G3443 Coating Steel Pipe for Water
Service
JIS G3445 Carbon Steel Tubes for Machine
and Structural Purpose
JIS G3446 Stainless Steel Tubes for
Machine and Structural Purpose
JIS G3451 Deformed Pipe for Coating Steel
Pipe for Water Service
JIS G3452 Carbon Steel Pipes for Ordi
nary Piping

PIPE DATA
National & lnternational Pipe
Standards & Specifications
(Table #1 Cont'd)

Standards/Pipe Characteristics
LR-LLOYD'S REGISTER OF
SHIPPING

J/S G3454 Carbon Steel Pipes for Pressure Services


JIS G3455 Carbon Steel Pipes far High
Pressure Service
JIS G3457 Electric Arc-Welded Carbon
Steel Pipe
JIS G3458 Alloy Steel Pipes
JIS G3459 Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes
JIS G3460 Steel Pipes for Low-Tempera
ture Service
JIS G3461 Carbon Steel Boiler and Heat
Exchanger Tubes
JIS G3462 Alloy Steel Boiler and Heat
Exchanger Tubes
J/S G3463 Stainless Steel Boiler and Heat
Exchanger Tubes
JIS G3464 Steel Heat-Exchanger Tubes for
Low Temperature Service
J/S G3473 Carbon Steel Tubes for Cylin
der Barreis

Pressure Pipes
Boiler and Superheater Tubes
Welded Pressure Pipes
Ferritic Steel Pressure Pipes for Low
Temperature Service
Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressure Pipes

Pipe Properties & Characteristics


Standards and/or specifications for pipe
indicate pipe grade designations, intended
use, testing practices, manufacturing meth
ods, chemical properties and various physi
cal characteristics of the pipe. Examples of
chemical
properties
and
physical
character istics of ASTM (A-53) and API
(5L) specified pipe are shown in table #2

11

PIPE DATA

Pipe Characteristics

Pipe Characteristics
Chemical Composition and Tensile Strength
of Grade A and Grade B Steel Pipe
Tensile Properties

Chemicat Composition

Designation
Grade
ASTM A-53

B
APl5L

0.
25
0.
30

M
n

0.9
5
1.
20

0.
05
0.
05

0.
06
0.
06

0.
0.
2
90
0.
B
1.
2
15
C = Carbon Mn = Manganese

0.
04
0.
0
P=

min/yield
min/tensile
strength
30000
(205)
35000
(240)

48000
(330)
60000
(415)

48000
30000
0.
(205)
(330)
05
35000
60000
0.
(240)
(415)
05
Phosphorous S = Sulfur

Table #2 - Grade A and B Pipe Chemical Composition

Even though steel pipe is availabe in


various grades, the most common grades
used are: Grade A and B, and the less
common Grade
C. lt is important that the grade be
specified for each application. Even
though Grade B
may have a higher tensile strength than
Grade A, Grade A pipe may be preferred
in sorne applications.

(See table #2 for tensile strengths). Grade


A is preferred where close coiling or cold
bending of pipe is required because of it's
lower carbon content which makes it more
ductile and less brittle.

PIPE DATA

Weights & Schedules

Weights and Schedule Numbers


Steel pipe is produced in three weights or
general wall thickness classifications:
Standard (Std.)
Extra Strong (XS) or Extra Heavy
(XH).
Double Extra Strong (XXS) or Double
Extra Heavy (XXH).
Note: Designations of Strong and Heavy
are interchangeable in the weight classi
fications.
Light wall, light weight or light gage pipe,
as it may be referred to, is another
weight classification sometimes given to
steel pipe. This pipe classification is used
extensively in many sprinkler installations
and other applications where a thinner
wall pipe may be preferred. The light wall
pipe designation corresponds to schedule
number 1O for steel pipe in most sizes.
Note: The weight classification denotes
the wall thickness of the pipe. For any
pipe size, the outside diameter is
constant and the inside diameter vares
with the wall thickness.

Pipe dies and fittings therefore remain


the same for specific sizes of pipe, no
matter what the weight. Because of the
variation in inside diameter, pipe sizes
from 118 inch (6 mm) to 12 inches (300
mm) are desig nated by nominal inside
diameter(ID), not by the actual inside
diameter. Nominal sizes are referred to
as Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) and less
commonly, lron Pipe Size (IPS). Pipe
sizes over 12 inch (300 mm) are classif
ied by actual outside diameter (OD).

Schedule Numbers
To further broaden the range of wall thick
nesses for specific applications and
various pressures,
steel
pipe
is
manufactured
in assorted schedule
numbers. These sched ule numbers range
from 1O through to 160 and are
commercially available in sched ules: 1O,
20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140,
and
160.

PIPE DATA
Schedule Numbers & Pipe Weights
Sorne schedule numbers and weight classi
fications of steel pipe have the same wall
thickness. Wall thicknesses for standard
weight pipe and schedule 40 are the same
for sizes 1/8 inch (6 mm) through to 1O
inches
(250 mm). All standard weight pipe sizes
over 1O inches (250 mm) have a constant
wall thickness of 3/8 inches {9.53 mm),
whereas, schedule 40 pipe has a wall
thick ness that varies depending upon the
partic ular size over 1O inches (250 mm).
Pipe sizes up to 8 inch (200 mm) in extra
heavy and schedule 80 have identical
dimensions. Over 8 inches (200 mm), extra
heavy pipe has a constant wall thickness of
1/2 inch (12.7 mm), whereas the wall thick
ness for schedule 80 pipe varies depending
on size.
There is no exact corresponding schedule
number for double extra heavy pipe.

Schedule Numbers/Design
Generally, double extra heavy pipe up to 6
inches (150 mm) has a thicker wall than
schedule 160 pipe. However, in sizes over
6 inches (150 mm) NPS, schedule number
160 becomes the thicker walled pipe. See
illustration #6 for the relationship between
wall thickness, schedule number and pipe
weights.

General Piping Design


An approximation of the required schedule
number, wall thickness, and maximum
interna! pressure for general design pur
poses can be determined by using the for
mulas:
1. Schedule Number = 1000 x

2. Wall Thickness = p X
3. Pressure

2xS

o+

(T-C)
0

2xS

Schedule Numbers

PIPE DATA
Schedule Numbers

Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) 1 inch (25mm )

o
Light Wall
Schedule #1O
Outside Diameter
1.315" (33.4mm)

Standard
Schedule #40

Extra Strong
Schedule #80

Schedule #160

Extra Extra Strong

1.315" (33.4mm)

1.315" (33.4mm)

1.315" (33.4mm)

1.315" (33.4mm)

1.049" (26.65mm)

0.957" (24.31 mm)

0.815" (20.7mm)

0.599" (15.2mm)

0.133" (3.4mm)

0.179" (4.6mm)

0.250" (6.35mm)

0.358" (9.093mm)

lnside Diameter
1.097" (27.864mm)
Wall Thickness
0.109" (2.769mm)

W a11 Th. kness = Outside Diameter - lnside Diameter


1c
2
lllustration #6 - Wall Thickness and Schedule Numbers

161

PIPE DATA

General Piping Design


The explanation below relates to the
formu las on the previous page.
P
interna! pressure in psi
S = maximum allowable stress value in
psi
D = outside diameter of
pipe
e
allowance for threading and
grooving
T = wall thickness
General A//owance For Threading
Pipe Size (NPS)
Allowance
1/2"(15 mm) to 3/4"(20 mm)
.0571"(1.45 mm)
1"(25 mm) to 2"(50 mm)
.0696"(1.77
mm)
2 1/2"(65 mm) and larger
.1000"(2.54
mm)
Stress va/ues may be found in manufac
turers' publications and in various
design specifications. See table #3 for
S-va/ues. lt should be noted that the
formula on page 14 is an approximate
calculation only.

Pipe

Design/Sizes

Other criteria such as corrosion, temper


ature, specific applications and various
code regulations must a/so be taken into
account befare an exact figure can be
determined for a particular job.

Pipe
Sizes
Carbon steel pipe is commercially available
in nominal pipe sizes ranging from 1/8 inch
(6 mm) through to 42 inches (1050 mm). The
following nominal pipe sizes are available
wit in th_is range. Outside diameter (OD)
des1gnat1ons are also given because of
varying trade practices in specifying sorne
line pipe by 00 measurements. See table #4
for actual and nominal pipe sizes.
Note
:
1. Metric nominal pipe sizes are based
on
lnternational Organization for Stand
ardization (ISO).
2. For specific
sizes, dimensions
weights, and schedule numbers of
steel pipe refer to tables #5 (imperial)
and #6 (metric).

PIPE DATA

Table #3 - Stress Values for Carbon Steel Pipe

Piping Design

18

Pi e Sizes Actual and Nominal)

PIPE DATA

ACTUAL ANO NOMINAL PIPE SIZES


ActualOD
lnches
(mm)

.405
.540
.675
.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.000
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625
10.750
12.750

10.3
13.7
17.1
21.3
26.7
33.4
42.2
48.3
60.3
73.0
88.9
101.6
114.3
141.3
168.3
219.1
273.1
323.9

Nominal
Sizes lnches

'fa

''

3/8

'/2

3/4

1'l.
1'/2
2
2'/2
3
31/2
4
5
6
8
10
12

Table #4 - Actual vs Nominal Pipe Sizes

ActualOD
Inches
(mm)

6
8
10
15
20
2
32
4
0
50
65
80
90
100
125
150
200
250
300

14.000
16.000
18.000
20.000
22.000
24.000
26.000
28.000
30.000
32.000
34.000
36.000
38.000
40.000
42.000

355.6
406.4
457.0
508.0
559.0
610.0
660.0
711.0
762.0
813.0
864.0
914.0
965.0
1016.0
1067.0

Nominal
Sizes lnches

14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42

350
400
450
500
550
600
650
7
0
7
5
800
850
9
0
9
5
1000
1050

(Imperial Units)

DIMENSIONS
Nominal
Outslde
Inside
Wall
Pipe
Slze
Welght Schedule Dlameter Dlameter ThlckneH
Pipe
Inches
Inches
lnches
Cla88 Number
lb/11
DESIGNA TION

1/s
1/4
3/s

1/2

40
80

0.405
0.405

0.269
0.215

0.068
0.095

0.106 0.0705
0.106 0.0563

0.244
0.314

0.025
0.016

STO
XS
STO

40
80

0.540
0.540

0.364
0.302

0.088
0.119

0.141 0.0955
0.141 0.0794

0.424
0.535

0.045
0.031

40
80

0.675
0.675

0.493
0.423

0.091
0.126

0.177 0.1295
0.177 0.1106

0.567
0.738

0.083
0.061

STO

40
80
160

0.840
0.840
0.840
0.840
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.315
1.315
1.315
1.315

0.109
0.147
0.188
0.294
0.113
0.154
0.219
0.308
0.133
0.179
0.250
0.358

0.220
0.220
0.220
0.220

0.1637
0.1433
0.1215
0.0660
0.275 0.2168
0.275 0.1948
0.275 0.1602
0.275 0.1137
0.344 0.2740
0.344 0.2520
0.344 0.2134
0.344 0.1570

0.850
1.087
1.311
1.714
1.130
1.473
1.944

0.132
0.101
0.073
0.022
0.230
0.187
0.127

2.440
1.678
2.171
2.840
3.659

0.063
0.378
0.311
0.226
0.122

1.660
1.660
1.660
1.660
1.900
1.900
1.900
1.900
2.375
2.375
2.375
2.375
2.375
2.375
2.375
2.375
2.375
2.375
2.375

0.622
0.546
0.464
0.252
0.824
0.742
0.612
0.434
1.049
.957
.815
.599
1.380
1.278
1.160
0.896
1.610
1.500
1.338
1.100
2.209
2.157
2.125
2.093
2.067
2.031
1.999
1.939
1.875
1.813
1.687

0.140
0.191
0.250
0.382
0.145
0.200
0.281
0.400
0.083
0.109
0.125
0.141
0.154
0.172
0.188
0.218
0.250
0.281
0.344

0.434
0.434
0.434
0.434

0.3620
0.3356
0.3029
0.2331

2.272
2.996
3.764
5.214

0.647
0.555
0.457
0.273

0.497
0.497
0.497
0.497
0.622
0.622
0.622
0.622
0.622
0.622
0.622
0.622
0.622
0.622
0.622

0.4213
0.3927
0.3503
0.2903
0.579
0.565
0.557
0.548
0.540
0.532
0.524
0.507
0.492
0.475
0.442

2.717

0.882

3.631
4.858
6.408
2.031
2.64
3.00
3.36
3.65
4.05
4.39
5.02
5.67
6.28
7.46

0.765
0.609
0.412
1.662
1.58
1.54
1.49
1.45
1.38
1.36
1.28
1.20
1.12
0.97

2.375
2.875
2.875
2.875
2.875
2.875
2.875
2.875
2.875

1.503
2.709
2.657
2.625
2.593
2.563
2.531
2.499
2.469

0.436
0.083
0.109
0.125
0.141
0.156
0.172
0.188
0.203

0.622
0.753
0.753
0.753
0.753
0.753
0.753
0.753
0.753

0.393
0.709
0.696
0.687
0.679
0.671
0.663
0.654
0.646

9.03
2.47
3.22
3.67
4.12
4.53
4.97
5.40
5.79

0.77
2.50
2.40
2.35
2.29
2.24
2.18
2.13
2.07

xs

xs
xs
-

STO

xs

xxs
1

STO
SX

11/4

XXS
STO
XS

xxs
STO

1112

xs
xxs
-

40
80
160

40
80
160

40
80
160

STO

40

xs

xxs
-

2 112

40
80
160

WEIGHT
Inside Plaln End Water
Welght
In
A rea
112111
112111
lb/11

STO

xxs
3/4

AREA
Outslde
A rea
Inches

STO

80

160

40

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

-m
"'O
"'O

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS

e
)>
)>

CD

3CD

:::s

o.
:: :s

en

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS


(Imperial Unlts)

No
min
al
Pipe
Slze

2
11
2

DESIGNATIO
N
W
el
g

X
X

x
x-

31
12

x
s

ST

X
X

Sche
dule
Num

80
16
0-

4
0-

8
0
160

4
0-

8
0

4
0-

80
12
0
160

DIMENSIONS
Outsl
de
Olam
eter

2.8
75
2.8
75
2.8
75
2.8
75
2.87
5
3.5
00
3.50
0
3.50
03.50
0
3.50
0
3.50
0
3.50
0
3.50
03.50
0
3.50
0
3.50
0
3.50
03.50
0
4.00
0
4.00
0
4.00
0
4.00
04.00
04.00
0
4.00
0
4.00
0
4.00
0
4.00
0
4.50
0
4.50
0
4.50
0
4.50
04.50
0
4.50
0
4.50
0
4.50
0
4.50
0
4.50
0
4.50
0
4.50
0
4.50
0
4.50
0

lnsld
e
Olam
eter

2.4
43
2.3
75
2.3
23
2.1
25
1.77
1
3.33
4
3.28
2
3.25
03.2
18
3.1
88
3.15
6
3.12
4
3.0
68
3.00
0
2.93
8
2.90
0
2.62
4
2.30
0
3.83
4
3.78
2
3.75
0
3.71
83.65
6
3.62
43.54
8
3.50
03.43
83.36
4
4.33
4
4.28
2
4.25
0
4.21
84.18
8
4.15
6
4.12
4
4.09
4.06
2
4.02
4.00
0
3.93
8
3.87
3.82
6
3.62
4
3.43
8
3.15
2

0.21
6
0.25
0
0.27
6
0.37
5
0.55
2
0.08
3
0.10
9
0.12
5
0.14
10.15
6
0.17
20.18
8
0.21
60.25
0
0.28
1
0.30
0
0.43
8
0.60
0
0.08
3
0.10
9
0.12
5
0.14
10.17
2
0.18
8
0.22
6
0.25
0
0.28
1
0.31
8
0.08
3
0.10
9
0.12
5
0.14
10.15
6
0.17
2
0.18
8
0.20
0.21
9
0.23
0.25
0
0.28
1
0.31
0.33
7
0.43
8
0.53
10.67
4

Out
sl
de
A

0.7
53
0.7
53
0.7
53
0.7
53
0.7
53
0.9
16
0.9
16
0.9
16
0.9
16
0.9
16
0.9
16
0.9
16
0.9
16
0.9
16
0.9
16
0.9
16
0.9
16
0.9
16
1.0
47
1.0
47
1.0
47
1.0
47
1.0
47
1.0
47
1.0
47
1.0
47
1.0
47
1.0
47
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78
1.1
78

"'tJ

WEIGHT

AREA

Wall
Thlckn
ess
Inches

ln
sl
d
e

0.
64
0.
62
0.
61
0.
55
0.
46
0.
87
0.
86
0.8
51
0.8
43
0.8
35
0.8
27
0.
81
0.8
02
0.7
85
0.7
69
0.7
61
0.6
81
0.6
01
1.
00
0.9
91
0.9
82
0.9
74
0.9
58
0.9
50
0.9
29
0.9
16
0.9
00
0.8
80
1.
13
1.1
21
1.
11
1.
10
1.
09
1.
08
1.
08
21.
06
. 3
1.04
1.0
31
1.
00
0.9
49
0.9
00
0.8
26

Plaln
End
Welg
ht

6.
13
7.0
1
7.6
6
10.0
113.
69
3.
03
3.
95
4.5
15.
06
5.5
7
6.1
16.
65
7.5
8
8.6
8
9.6
6
10.
25
14.
32
18.
58
3.4
7
4.5
35.1
7
5.8
1
7.0
3
7.6
5
9.1
1
10.0
1
11.1
6
12.
50
3.9
2
5.1
1
5.8
4
6.5
6
7.2
4
7.9
5
8.6
6
9.3
10.0
1
10.
11.3
5
12.
66
13.
14.
98
19.
00
22.5
1
27.5
4

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

Wa
ter
In
Pi

" 'tJ

2.
03
1.
9
1.
8
1.
5
1.
0
3.
78
3.
67
3.
60
3.
53
3.
46
3.
39
3.
32
3.
20
3.
06
2.
94
2.
86
2.
34
1.
80
5.
00
4.
87
4.
79
4.
71
4.
55
4.
48
4.
28
4.
17
4.
02
3.
85
6.
39
6.
25
6.
15
6.
06
5.
97
5.
88
5.
80
5.
62
5.
5.
45
5.
27
5.
4.
98
4.
47
4.
02
3.
38

.
.
.

>

)>

C'D

C'D

:J

tn

o
:J

tn

-,,

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS


(Imperial Units)

Nominal

Pipe
Slze
lnches

DESIGNA TION

Outslde
lnslde
Welghl Schedule Olameter OIsmeter
Clsss
-

STD

XS
-

xxs

Number

40

80
120
160

--

STD

40

xs

xxs

OIMENSIONS

80
-

120

160

20
30

STD

40

Wall
Thlckneu

AREA

WEIGHT

Outslde lnalde
Ares
Ares

Plaln End Water


Welghl
In Pipe

lnches

lnches

lnches

ft2/ft

tt21ft

lb/lt

5.563
5.563
5 563
5.563
5.563
5.563
5.563
5.563
5.563
5.563
5.563
5.563
5.563

5.397
5.313
5.251
5.187
5.125
5.047
5.001
4.939
4.875
4.813
4.563
4.313
4.063

0.083
0.125
0.156
0.188
0.219
0.258
0.281
0.312
0.344
0.375
o 500
0.625
0.750

1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456

1.413
1.391
1.375
1.358
1.342
1.321
1.309
1.293
1.276
1.260
1.195
1.129
1.064

486
7.26
9.01
10.79
12.50
14.62
15.85
17.50
19.17
20.78
27.04
32.96
38.55

9.92
9.62
9.39
9.16
8.94
8.66
8.52
8.31
8.09
7.87
7.08
6.32
5.62

6.625
6 625
6.625
6.625
6.625
6.525
6.625
6.625
6.625
6.625
6.625
6 625
6.625
6.625
6.625
6.625
6.625
6.625
6.625
6.625
6.625
6.625

6.459
6.407
6.375
6.343
6.313
6.281
6.249
6 219
6.187
6.125
6.065
6.001
5.937
5.875
5.761
5.625
5.501
5.375
5.187
5.125
4.897
4.875

0.083
0.109
0.125
0.141
0.156
0.172
0.188
0.203
0.219
0.250
0.280
0.312
0.344
0.375
0.432
o 500
0.562
0.625
0.719
0.750
0.864
0.875

1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73
1.73

1.690
1.680
1.670
1.660
1.650
1.645
1.637
1.630
1.620
1.610
1.590
1.570
1.550
1.540
1.510
1.480
1.470
1.41 o
1.360
1.340
1 283
1.277

5.80
7.59
8.68
9.76
10.78
11.85
12.92
13.92
14.98
17.02
18.97
21.04
23.08
25.03
28.57
32.71
36.39
40.05
45.35
47.06
53.16
53.73

14.20
14.97
13.83
13.69
13.57
13.43
13.29
13.16
13.03
12.77
12.52
12.26
12.00
11.74
11.30
10.77
10.30
9.83
9.16
8.94
8.16
8.09

2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26

2.19
2.18
2.16
2.15
2.15
2.13
2. 12
2.10
2.09
2.08
2.06

11.35
14.11
16.94
18.26
19.66
22.36
24.70
27.70
28.55
30.42
33.04

23.87
23.52
23.16
22.99
22.81
22.47
22.77
21.79
21.68
21.44
21.11

8.625
8.625
8.625
8.625
8.625
8.625
8.625
8.625
8.625
8.625
8 625

8.375
8.313
8.249
8.219
8.187
8.125
8.071
8.001
7.981
7.937
7.875

0.125
0.156
0.188
0.203
0.219
0.250
0.277
0.312
0.322
0.344
0.375

lb/lt

)>
)>

CD

CD
:l
C/l

o
C/l

Note: Dimensions based on ANSI/AS ME 8-36. 1OM-1985 Standard.


1 \)

... . .

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS


(Imperial Units)

DIMENSIONS
Nominal DESIGNATION
Outslde
lnside
Wall
Pipe
Slze
Welght Schedule Diameter Dlameter Thlckness
lnches
Inches
lnches
lnches Class Number

7.813
7.749
7.625
7.501

0.406
0.438
0.500
0.562

2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26

2.04
2.03
2.01
1.96

35.64
38.30
43.39
48.40

20.78
20.44
19.79
19.15

8.625
8.625
8 625
8.625
8.625
8.625
8.625
8.625

7.437
7.375
7.187
7.125
7.001
6.875
6.813
6.625

0.594
0.625
0.719
0.750
0.812
0.875
0.906
1.000

2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26
2.26

1.95
1.93
1.88
1.87
1.83
1.80
1.78
1.74

50.95
53.40
60.71
63.08
67.76
72.42
74.69
81.44

18.83
18.51
17.58
17.28
16.68
16.09
15.80
14.94

10.438
10 374
10.344
10.312
10.250
10.192
10.136
10.062
10.020
9.874
9.750
9.626
9.562

o 156

80

10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750

O. 188
0.203
0.219
0.250
0.279
0.307
0.344
0.365
0.438
0.500
0.562
0.594

2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814

2.732
2.716
2.708
2.699
2.683
2.668
2.653
2.634
2.623
2.585
2.552
2.520
2.503

17.65
21.21
22.87
24.63
28.04
31.20
34.24
38.23
40.48
48.24
54.74
61.15
64.43

37.08
36.63
36.42
35.19
35.76
35.36
34.97
34.46
34.17
33.18
32.36
31.54
31.12

100

10.750

9.312

0.719

2.814

2.438

77.03

29.51

10.750

9.502

0.625

2.814

2.487

67.58

30.73

60

XS

80

100

xxs
-

140

120

160

20

30

STD

40

XS

60

-m.,,
e
>
-f
>

3
;

"C

(1)
""'I

-.,,

120

10.750
10.750

9.126
9.062

0.812
0.844

2.814
2.814

2.389
2.372

86.18 28.35
89.29 27.95

xxs

140
160

10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750

9.000
8.874
8.750
8.500

0.875
0.938
1.000
1.125

2.814
2.814
2.814
2.814

2.356
2.323
2.291
2.225

92.28 27.57
98.30 26.80
104.13 26.06
115.64 24.60

(1)

2.814

2.160

126.83

(1)

10.750

8.250

1.250

23.17

12 750 12.406
0.172
3.338 3.248
23.11 52.39
25.22 52.12
12.750 12.374
0.188
3.338 3.239
12.750 12.344
0.203
3.338 3.231
27.20 51.86
12 750 12.312
0.219
3.338 3.223
29.31 51.60
20
12.750 12.250
b.250
3.338 3.207
33.38 51.10
12.750 12.188
0.281
3.338 3.191
37.42 50.56
12.750 12.126
0.312
3.338 3.174
41 .45
50.05
30
12.750 12.090
0.330
3.338 3.165
43.77 49.75
45.58 49.52
12.750 12.062
0.344
3.338 3.158
3.338 3.141
49.56 49.01
12.750 12.000
0.375
STD
40
12.750 11.938
0.406
3.338 3.125
53.52 48.51
12.750 11.874
0.438
3.338 3.108
57.59 48.00
-

12

10

Outslde lnslde Plaln End Water


Weight In Pipe
Area
A rea
lbllt
ft2/ft
ft2/ft
lb/lt

8.625
8.625
8.625
8.625

WEIGHT

AREA

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.10M-1985 Standard.

-3
.

o
::J

VI

(Imperial Units)

U1

m
1

WEIGHT
AREA
DIMENSIONS
Nominal DESIGNATION
Outside lnslde Plaln End Water
Outslde
lnslde
Wall
Pipe
A rea
Welght In Pipe
Slze Welght Schedule Dlameter Olameter Thlckness Area
lnches
ft2/ft
ft2/ft
lblft
lblft
lnches
lnches
lnches Class Number

i
"'O

-sID

o
'
ID
:::1

"'es
:::1

"'

12

XS

12.750

11.750

0.500

3.338

3076

65.42

47.00

60

12.750
12.750
12.750
12.750
12.750
12.750
12.750
12.750
12.750
12.750
12.750
12.750
12.750

11.626
11.500
11.374
11.250
11.126
11.062
11.000
10.874
10.750
10.626
10.500
10.250
10.126

0.562
0.625
0.688
0.750
0.812
0.844
0.875
0.938
1.000
1.062
1.125
1.250
1.312

3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338
3.338

3.043
3.010
2.977
2.945
2.913
2.896
2.880
2.847
2.814
2.782
2.749
2.683
2.651

73.15
80.93
88.63
96.12
103.53
107.32
110.97
118.33
125.49
132.57
139.67
153.53
160.27

46.00
45.00
44.03
43.08
42.13
41.65
41.18
40.25
39.33
38.43
37.53
35.76
34.90

14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000
14.000

13.624
13.594
13.580
13.562
13.500
13.438
13.376
13.312
13.250
13.188
13.124
13.062
13.000
12.876
12.812
12.750
12.624
12.500
12.376
12.250
12.124
12.000
11.876
11.812
11.750
11.500
11.188
10.000
9.750
9.600
9.000

0.188
0.203
0.210
0.219
0.250
0.281
0.312
0.344
0.375
0.406
0.438
0.469
0.500
0.562
0.594
0.625
0.688
0.750
0.812
0.875
0.938
1.000
1.062
1.094
1.125
1.250
1.406
2.000
2.125
2.200
2.500

3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67
3.67

3.57
3.56
3.56
3.55
3.53
3.52
3.50
3.49
3.47
3.45
3.44
3.42
3.40
3.37
3.35
3.34
3.30
3.27
3.24
3.21
3.17
3.14
3.11
3.10
3.08
3.01
2.93
2.62
2.55
2.51
2.36

27.73
29.91
30.93
32.23
36.71
41.17
45.61
50.17
54.57
58.94
63.44
67.78
72.09
80.66
85.05
89.28
97.81
106.13
114.37
122.65
130.85
138.84
146.74
150.79
154.69
170.21
189.11
256.32
269.50
277.25
307.05

63.18
62.90
62.77
62.60
62.03
61.46
60.90
60.32
59.76
59.20
58.62
58.07
57.52
56.43
55.87
55.33
54.24
53.18
52.13
51.08
50.03
49.01
48.01
47.49
47.00
45.01
42.60
34.04
32.36
31.37
27.57

16.000

15.624

0.188

4.19

4.09

xxs
-

100

120

140

160

10

20

30

40

xs
-

16

STO

14

80

60

80

100

120

140
160

-m

"O
"O

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS

r:r

e
)>

-1
)>

"'C

(1)

:::!.

"O
"'C

(1)

3(1)
:::s

o
:::s

(/)

31.75 83.09

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.10M-1985 Standard.

1\)

D MENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS


I (Imperial Units)

STEEL
PIPE

No
min
al
Pipe

Sche
dule

W
el

10

20
30

40

S
T1
8

--

S
T
O-

1
6

AREA

DESIGNA

60

8
0

10
0-

12
0140
160

20

30

40

60

Outsl
de
Olam

lnsld
e
Olam

16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
16.0
00
18.0
00
18.0
00
18.0

15.5
94
15.5
62
15.5
00
15.4
38
15.3
76
15.3
15.2
50
15.1
24
15.0
62
15.0
00
14.8
76
14.7
50
14.6
24
14.5
00
14.3
76
14.3
12
14.2
14.0
00
13.9
38
13.8
76
13.7
50
13.6
24
13.5
62
13.5
00
13.1
24
12.8
12
17.6
24
17.5
62
17.4
38
17.3
76
17.3
12
17.2
17.1
88
17.1
24
17.0
00
16.8
76
16.7
50
16.6
16.3
76
16.2

00
18.0
18.0
00
18.0
00
18.0
00
18.0
00
18.0
00
18.0
00
18.0
18.0
00
18.0

Wall
Thlckn
ess
Inches

0.20
30.21
9
0.25
0
0.28
10.31
2
0.34
0.37
5
0.40
0.43
8
0.46
9
0.50
0
0.56
2
0.62
50.68
8
0.75
0
0.81
2
0.84
4
0.87
1.00
0
1.03
11.06
21.12
51.18
8
1.21
9
1.25
0
1.43
8
1.59
4
0.18
8
0.21
9
0.28
10.31
2
0.34
4
0.37
0.40
6
0.43
8
0.46
0.50
0
0.56
2
0.62
5
0.68
0.81
2
0.87

Ouls
lde
A
rea

4.1
9
4.1
9
4.
19
4.1
9
4.
19
4.1
4.1
9
4.
4.1
9
4.1
9
4.
19
4.1
9
4.1
9
4.1
94.1
9
4.
19
4.1
9
4.1
4.
19
4.
19
4.1
9
4.1
9
4.1
9
4.1
9
4.1
94.1
9
4.1
9
4.7
1
4.7
14.7
14.7
1
4.7
1
4.7
14.7
1
4.7
1
4.7
1
4.7
1
4.7
4.7
1
4.7

ln
sl
d
e

4.
08
4.
07
4.
06
4.
04
4.
03
4.
3.
99
3.
3.
96
3.
94
3.
93
3.
89
3.
86
3.
83
3.
80
3.
76
3.
75
3.
3.
67
3.
65
3.
63
3.
60
3.
57
3.
55
3.
53
3.
44
3.
35
4.
61
4.
60
4.
57
4.
55
4.
53
4.
50
4.
48
4.
4.
45
4.
42
4.
39
4.
4.
29
4.

WEIGHT

Plaln
End
Welg
ht

34.
25
36.
91
42.
05
47.
17
52.
27
57.
62.
58
67.
72
80
77.
79
82.
77
92.
66
102.
63
112.
51
122.
15
131.
71
136.
61
141.
160.
20
164.
82
169.
43
178.
72
187.
93
192.
43
196.
91
223.
64
245.
25
35.
76
41.
49
53.
18
58.
94
64.
87
70.
76.
29
82.
15
87.
93.
45
104.
67
115.
98
127.
149.
06
160.

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

Wa
ter
In
Pi

82.
77
82.
43
81.
77
81.
12
80.
47
79.
79.
16
78.5
77.
85
77.
22
76.
58
75.
32
74.
05
72.7
971.
56
70.
34
69.
72
69.
66.7
166.1
265.
54
64.
35
63.
18
62.
60
62.
03
58.
62
55.
87
105.
72
104.
98
103.
50
102.
77
102.
01
101.
100.
55
99.8
1
99.
98.
37
96.
94
95.
49
94.
91.
28
89.

"'C
" 'C

me
)>
)>

"C
(t)

:::!.

Q)

-"'C

"C

(f)

3(t)::;,

o
::;,
U)

""C

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS


(Imperial Unlts)

DIMENSIONS
Nominal DESIGNATION
Wall
Outslde
lnside
Pipe
Slze
Welght Schedule Olameter Ola meter Thlckness
lnches
lnches
lnches Class Number Inches

18

100

120
140
160

STO

20

10

18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18000

16.124
15.000
15.876
15.750
15.688
15.624

Outslde
A rea
ft2/ft

Inside
A rea
ft2/ft

Plaln End Water


In Pipe
Welght
lb/lt
lbllt

0.938
1.000
1.062
1.125
1.156
1.188

4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71

4.22
4.19
4.16
4.12
4.11
4.09

170.92
181.56
192.11
202.75
207.96
213.31

88.49
87.13
85.79
84.43
83.77
83.09

4.71
4.71
4.71
4.71

4.06
3.99
3.89

223.61
244.14
274.22

81.77
79.16
75.32
70.95

18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000

15.500
15.250
14.876
14.438

1.250
1.375
1.562
1.781

3.78

308.50

20.000
20.000

19.562
19.500

0.219
0.250

5.24
5.24

5.12
5.11

19.438
19.376
19.312
19.250
19.188
19.124
19.062
19.000
18.876
18.812
18.750
18.624
18.500
18.376
18.250
18.124
18.000
17.938
17.876
17.750
17.624
17.500
17.438
17.376
17.250
17.000
16.500
16.062

0.281
0.312
0.344
0.375
0.406
0.438
0.469
0.500
0.562
0.594
0.625
0.688
0.750
0.812
0.875
0.938
1.000
1 031
1.062
1.125
1.188
1.250
1.281
1.312
1.375
1.500
1.750
1.969

5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24
5.24

5.09
5.07
5.06
5.04
5.02
5.01
4.99
4.97
4.94
4.92
4.91
4.88
4.84
4.81
4.78
4.74
4.71
4.70
4.68
4.65
4.61
4.58
4.57
4.55
4.52
4.45
4.32
4.21

46.27
52.73
59.18
65.60
72.21
78.60
84.96
91.51
97.83
104.13
116.67
123.11
129.33
141.90
154.19
166.40
178.72
190.96
202.92
208.87
214.80
226.78
238.68
250 31
256.10
261.86
273.51
296.37
341.09
379.17

80

100

120
140
160

10

22.000
22.000

21.562
21.500

0.219
0.250

5.76
5.76

5.64
5.63

50.94 158.24
58.07 157.34

22.000
22.000
22.000
22.000

21.438
21.376
21.312
21.250

0.281
0.312
0.344
0.375

5.76
5.76
5.76
5.76

5.61
5.60
5.58
5.56

65.18
72.27
79.56
86.61

XS

30

40

60

STO

20

" "C

em
)>

>

130.25
129.43
128.60
127.78

20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000

22

20

80

WEIGHT

AREA

126.94
126.13
125.32
124.48
123.68
122.87
121.27
120 45
119.66
118.81
116.49
114.93
113.36
111.80
110.28
109.52
108.77
107.24
105.72
104.24
103.50
102.77
101.28
98.37
92.67
87.81

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.10M-1985 Standard.

3
"

m
::!.

""C

"

e
3
m
en

o
en

156.43
155.53
154.60
153.70

c.n

1\)

en
PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS

STEEL
N
o
m
i

P
i
p
e
S
iz
e

a
l
s

D
E
W
ei

X
-

l
n
c
h
e

60

10
0-

12
0
14
0
160

X
S
2
4

30

80

2
2

(Imperial Units)

GNA
TION
Sche
dule
Num

10
-

20

30

40

60

80

Outs
ide
Diam
eter

22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
22
000
22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
220
00
22.0
00

22.000
22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
22.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
00
240
00
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0
24.0
00
24.0
00
24.0

lnsid
e
Oiam
eter

21.1
88
21.1
24
21.0
62
21.0
00
208
76
20.7
50
20.6
24
20.5
00
20.3
76
20.2
50
20.1
24
20.0
00
19.8
76
19.7
50
19.6
24
19.3

76
19.2
50
19.1
24
19.0
00
18.7
50
18.2
50
17.7
50
23.5
00
23.4
38
23.3
76
23.3
23.2
50
23.1
88
23.1
24
23.0
62
23.0
00
22.8
22.7
50
22.6
24
22.5
00
22.3
76
22.2
50
22.1
24
22.0
62
22.0
00
21.8
76
21.7
21.6
24
21.5
62
21.5

WEIGHT

AREA

DIMENSIONS
Wall
Thick
ness

lnches

0.40
6
0.43
8
0.46
9
0.50
0
0.56
2
0.62
5
0.68
8
0.75
0
0.81
2
0.87
5
0.93
81.00
10
062
1.12
5
1.18
81.31
12
375
1.43
8
1.50
0
1.62
5
1.87
5
2.12
5
0.25
0
0.28
1
0.31
2
0.34
0.37
5
0.40
6
0.43
8
0.46
9
0.50
0

o0.62
5
0.68
8
0.75
0
0.81
2
0.87
5
0.93
8
0.96
91.00
0
1.06
2
1.12
1.18
8
1
219
1.25

Out
side
,
Ar

5.
76
5.
76
5.
76
5.
76
5.
76
5.
76
5.
76
5.
76
5.
76
5.
76
5.
76
5.
76
5.7
6
5.
76
5.7
6
5.7
6
5.7
6
5.7
6
5.7
6
5
76
5.7
6
5.7
6
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
86.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2
6.2
8
6.2
8
6.2

lns
id
e
A

5.
55
5.
53
5.
51
5.
50
5.
47
5.
43
5.
40
5
37
5.
33
5.
30
5.
27
5.
24
5.
20
5.
17
5.
14
5.
07
5.
04
5.
01
4.
97
4.
91
4.
78
4.
65
6.
15
6.
14
6.
12
6.
6.
09
6.
07
6.
05
6.
04
6.
02
5.
5.
96
5.
92
5.
89
5.
86
5
83
5.
79
5.
78
5.
76
5.
73
5.
5.
66
5.
64
5.

Plain
End
Weig
ht

93.
63
100.
86
107.
85
114.
81
128.
67
142.
68
156.
60
170.
21
183.
75
197.
41
211.0
0
224.
28
237.
48
250.
81
264
06
289.

88
302.
88
315.
79
328.
41
353.
61
403.
00
451.
06
63.
41
71.
18
78.
93
86.
94.
62
102.
31
110.
22
117.
86
125.
49
140.
156.
03
171.
29
186.
23
201.
09
216.
10
231.
03
238.
35
245.
64
260.
17
274.
289.
44
296.
58
303.

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

Wa
ter
In
Pi

152.
80
151.
88
150.
99
150.
10
148.
34
146.
55
144.
78
143.
04
141.
31
139.
57
137.
84
136.
15
134.
46
132.
76
131.
08
127.
78
126.
13
124.
48
122.
87
119.
66
113.
36
107.
24
187.
97
186.
98
185.
99
184.
183.
99
183.
01
182.
00
181.
03
180.
05
178.
176.
16
174.
22
172.
31
170.
42
168.
50
166.
60
165.
67
164.
74
162.
89
161.
159.
16
158.
24
157.

"'O

" '

m
O

e
l>

-4

l>

3
-e
(1)

:::!.

ll>

"'O

-e(1)

(1)

::s

o.
::s

en

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS


(Imperial Units)

Nominal

DESIGNATION

A rea

lnslde

Outside

Insi de

lnches

lnches

tt2/f1

f12/f1

24.000
24.000
24.000
24.000
24.000
24.000
24.000
24.000
24.000

21.376
21.250
21.124
21.000
20.938
20 876
20.376
19.876
19.312

1.312
1.375
1.438
1.500
1.531
1.562
1 812
2.062
2.344

6.28
6.28
6.28
6 28
6.28
6.28
6.28
6 28
6.28

5.60
5.56
5.53
5 50
5.48
5.4 7
5 33
5.20
5.06

317.91 155 53
332.25 153.70
346.50 151.88
360.45 150.10
367.39 149 22
374.31 148.34
429.39 141.31
483.12 134 46
542.13 126.94

26.000
26.000
26.000
26.000
26.000
26.000
26.000
26.000
26.000
26.000

25.500
25.438
25.376
25.312
25.250
25.188
25.124
25.062
25.000
24.876

0.250
0.281
0.312
0.344
0.375

6.81
6.81
6.81
6.81
6 81

6.68
6.66
6.64
6.63
6.61

68.75
77.18
85.60
94.26
102.63

220.25
219.18
218.07
217.01

0.406
0.438
0.469
0.500
0.562

6.81
6.81
6.81
6.81
6.81

6.59
6.58
6.56
6.54
6.51

110.98
119.57
127.88
136.17
152.68

215.94
214.85
21379
212.73
210.63

26.000
26.000
26.000
26.000
26.000
26.000
26.000

24.750
24.624
24.500
24.376
24.250
24.124
24.000

0.625
0.688
0.750
0.812
0.875
0.938
1.000

6.81
6.81
6.81
6.81

6.48
6.45
6.41
6.38

208.50
206.38
204.31
202 24

6.81
6.81
6.81

6.35
6.32
6.28

169.38
185.99
202.25
218.43
234 79
251.07
267.00

Schedule

Olameter
Outslde

Ola meter

Inches

Class

Number

lnches

24

STD

26

xs
-

10

20

10

STD
-

XS

20
-

30

lb/11

74.09 257.40

7.33

7.20

7.33
7.33
7.33
7.33
7.33
7.33

7.18
7.17
7.15
7.13
7.12
7.10

83 19
92.26
101.61
110.64
119.65
128 93

7.33
7.33

7.08
7.07

137.90 249.27
146.85 248.13

7.33
7.33
7.33
7.33
7.33
7.33
7.33

7.04
7.00
6.97
6.94
6.91
6.87
6.84

164.69
18273
200.68
218.27
235.78
253.48
271.10

0.312
0.344
0.375
0.406
0.438

27.062
27.000
26.876
26750
26.624
26.500
26.376
26.250
26.124

0.469
0.500
0.562
0.625
0.688
0750
0.812
0.875
0.938

256.24
255 09
253.90
25274
251 60
250 41

245.85
243 55
241.27
239 02
23679
243.54
232.29

28.000

26.000

1.000

7.33

6.81

288.36 230.09

30.000
30.000

29.500
29.438

0.250
0.281

7.85
7.85

7.72
7.70

79.43 296.21
89.19 294.96

10

30.000

29.376

0.312

7.85

7.69

98.93 293.72

200 16
198.08
196.05

0.250

27.500
27.438
27.376
27.312
27.250
27.188
27.124

-1

)>

221 32

o 281

28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000
28.000

m
o

lb/11

30

120
140
160

28

100

Weight
In Pipe
Plaln End Water

A rea

Welght

WEIGHT

Thlckness
Wall

Slze
Pipe

AREA

DIMENSIONS

"'C
"'C

Note: Dimensions based on ANSI/AS ME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

et>

o
3

et>

:::::s

(/)

o
:::::s
(/)

N
QO

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS


(Imperial Unlts)

No
min
al
Pipe

OESIGNATIO
Sche
dule

W
el

S
T

x
3
0

30

ST
O-

10

- 20

3
2

3
0
40-

3
4

Outal
Ol1m
eter

30.0
00
30.0
00
30.0
00
30.0
00
30.0
00
30.0
30.0
00
30.0
00
30.0
00
30.0
00
30.0
00
30.0
00
30.0
00
30.0
30.0
00
30.0
30.0
00
32.0
00
32.0
00
32.0
00
32.0
00
32.0
00
32.0
00
32.0
00
32.0
00
32.0
00
32.0
00
32.0
32.0
00
32.0
00
32.0
32.0
00
34.0
00
34.0
00
34.0
00
34.0
00
34.0
00
34.0

DIMENSIONS
Wall
lnal
Dlam
Thlck
neu
eter

29.3
12
29.2
50
29.1
88
29.1
24
29.0
62
29.0
28.8
76
28.7
28.6
24
28.3
28.5
76
28.2
50
28.1
24
28.0
00
27.8
27.7
50
27.6
24
27.5
00
31.5
00
31.4
38
31.3
12
31.2
50
31.1
88
31.1
31.0
62
31.0
30.8
76
30.7
50
30.5
00
30.3
30.2
50
30.1
30.0
00
29.8
76
29.7
29.5
00
33.5
00
33.4
38
33.3
76
33.3
12
33.2
33.1
88
33.1

0.34
40.37
5
0.40
6
0.43
80.46
9
0.50
0.56
2
0.62
50.68
8
0.75
0.81
2
0.87
5
0.93
81.00
0
1.06
2
1.12
5
1.18
8
1.25
0
0.25
0
0.28
1
0.31
0.34
40.37
5
0.40
6
0.43
0.46
9
0.50
0.56
2
0.62
5
0.75
0
0.81
0.87
5
0.93
81.00
0
1.06
2
1.12
1.25
0
0.25
00.28
1
0.31
20.34
4
0.37
0.40
6
0.43

AREA
Outs
Insi
A
A
r
e
r

7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
57.8
5
7.8
5
7.8
5
8.3
8
8.3
8
8.3
88.3
8
8.3
8
8.3
8
8.3
8
8.3
8
8.3
8
8.3
88.3
8
8.3
8
8.3
8
8.3
8
8.9
0
8.9
0
8.9
0
8.9
0
8.9
0
8.9

7.
67
7.
66
7.
64
7.
62
7.
61
7.
59
7.
56
7.
53
7.
49
7.
43
7.
39
7.
36
7.
33
7.
30
7.
26
7.
23
7.
20
8.
25
8.
23
8.
20
8.
18
8.
16
8.
13
8.
08
8.
05
7.
98
7.
92
7.
89
7.
85
7.
82
7.
7.
72
8.
77
8.
75
8.
74
8.
72
8.
69
8.

WEIGHT
Wate
Plaln
In
Welg
r
Pipe
ht
lb/lt
lb/1

108.
95
118.
65
128.
32
138.
29
147.
92
157.
53
176.
69
196.
08
215.
38
234.
253.
12
272.
17
291.
14
309.
72
328.
22
346.
93
365.
56
383.
81
84.
77
95.
19
105.
116.
30
126.
66
136.
99
147.
157.
94
168.
188.
70
209.
43
250.
31
270.
290.
86
311.
17
331.
08
350.
90
370.
410.
51
90.
11
101.
19
112.
25
123.
65
134.
145.
67
157.

292.4
4
291.2
1
289.9
7
288.7
0287.4
8286.2
5283.8
1
281.3
4
278.8
8
276.4
274.0
6271.6
4
269.2
2266.
85
264.4
9262.1
0
259.7
3
257.4
0
337.
73
336.4
0
335.0
333.7
1
332.3
9331.0
7
329.7
328.4
0
327.0
324.4
8
321.8
4316.
63
314.0
311.4
6308.
87
306.
33
303.8
0
301.2
296.2
1
381.9
8
380.
57
379.1
6377.7
0
376.3
374.9
0
373.

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.10M-1985 Standard.

<D

(1)

:::J

o.

:: :J

en

(Imperial Units)

DIMENSIONS
Ou1slde
lnslde
Wall
Welgh t Schedule Olameter Olameter Thickne"8
lnches
lnches
lnches
Claaa Number
DESIGNA TION

Nominal
Pipe
Slze
lnches

34

38

--

36

AREA
Outslde lnslde
A rea
Ar ea
ft21ft
ft2/ft

WEIGHT
Plaln End Water
Welght
In Pipe
lb/ft
lb/ft

34.000

33.062

0.469

8.90

8.66

167.95 372.06

34.000
34.000
34.000
34.000
34.000

33.000
32.876
32. 750
32.624
32.500

0.500
0.562
0.625
0.688
0.750

8.90
8.90
8 90
8.90
8.90

8.64
8.61
8.57
8.54
8.51

178.89
200.70
222.78
244.77
266.33

370.66
367 88
365.07
362.26
359.51

34.000

o 812

34.000
34 000
34.000
34 000
34.000

32 376
32.250
32124
32.000
31.876
31.750
31.624
31.500

8.90
8.90
8.90
8 90
8.90
8.90
8.90
8.90

8.48
8.44
8.41
8.38
8.35
8.31
8.28
8.25

387 81
309.55
331.21
352.44
373.59
394 99
416.31
437.21

356.78
351.81
351.24
348.54
345.84
343 11
340 39
337.73

36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000

35.500
35.438
35.376
35.312
35.250

o 250

9.42
9.42

95.45 428.951
107.20 427.45 1

o 312
0.344
0.375

9.42
9.42
9.42

9.29
9.28
9.26
9.24
9.23

36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000

35188
35 124
35.062
35.000
34.876
34.750

0.406
0.438
0.469
0.500
o 562
0.625

9.42
9.42
9.42
9.42
9.42
9.42

9.21
9.19
9.18
9.16
9.13
9.10

154.34
166.35
177.97
189.57
212.70
236.13

421.44
419.91
418.43
416.95
414.00
411.02

36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000
36.000

34 624
34 500
34.376
34.250
34.124
34.000
33.876
33.750
33.624
33500

0.688
0.750
0.812
0.875
0.938
1.000
1.062
1.125
1.188
1.250

9.42
9.42
9.42
9.42
9.42
9.42
9.42
9.42
9.42
9.42

9.06
9.03
9.00
8.97
8.93
8.90
8.87
8 84
8.80
8.77

259.47
282.35
305.16
328.24
351.25
373.80
396.27
419 02
441.69
463.91

408.04
405.12
402.22
399.27
396.34
393.47
390.60
387.70
384.81
381.98

38000
38 000
38.000
38.000
38.000

37.376

0.312

9.95

9.79

125.58 475.48

37.312
37.250
37,188
37.124

0.344
0.375
0.406
0.438

9.95
9.95
9.95
9.95

9.77
9.75
9.74
9.72

138.35
150.69
163.01
175.71

38 000
38.000
38.000
38.000
38.000
38000

37.062
37.000
36.876
36.750
36.624
36.500

0.469

9.95

9.70

187.99 467.53

0.500
0.562
0.625
0.688
0.750

9.95
9.95
9.95
9.95
9.95

9.69
9.65
9.62
9.59
9.56

200.25
224.71
249.48
274.16
298.37

34
34.000

o 875

0.938
1.000
1 062
1125
1.188
1.250
0.281

-m

"C
"C

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS

118.92 425.96
131.00 424.42
142.68 422.93

473.86
472.28
470.71
469.09

Note: Dimensions based on ANSI/AS ME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

465 96
462.85
459.69
456.54
453.46

e
l>

-1

>

CD

e
3

CD
:::J

en

o
:::J

en

(.)

o
STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO WEIGHTS
(Imperial Units)

DIMENSIONS
Nominal DESIGNATION
lnslde
Wall
Pipe
Outslda
Slze Welght Schedule Dlameter Dlameter Thickness
lnches
Inches
lnches
lnches Class Number

38

38.000
38 000
38.000
38.000

36.376
36.250
36.124
36.000

0.812
0.875
0.938
1.000

9.95
9.95
9.95
9.95

38.000
38.000
38 000
38 000

35.876
35.750
35.624
35.500

1.062
1.125
1.188
1.250

9.95

39.376
39.312
39.250
39.188
39.124
39.062
39.000
38.876
38.750
38.624
38.500
38.376
38.250
38.124

0.312
0.344

0.406
0.438
0.469
0.500
0.562
0.625
0.688
0.750
o 812
0.875
0.938

10.47
10.47
10.47
10.47
10.47
10.47
10.47
10.47
10.47
10.47
10.47
10.47
10.47
10.47

9.95
9.95
9.95

450.38

9.52
9.49
9.46
9.42

322.50
346.93
371.28
395.16

447.27
444.16
441.12

9.39
9.36
9.33
9.29

418.96
443.05
467.06
490 61

43808
435.01
431.95
428 95

10.31 132 25 527.73


10.29 145.69 526 02
10 28 158.70 524 36
10.26 171.68 522.70
10.24 185.06 521.00
10.23 198 01 519.35
10.21 210.93 517.70
10.18 236.71 514.41
10.14 262.83 511.08
10.11 288.86 507.77
10.08 314.39 504.51
10.05 339 84 501.27
10.01 365.62 497.98
9.98 391.32 494.70

40.000
40.000
40.000
40.000
40.000
40.000
40.000
40.000
40.000
40.000
40.000
40.000
40.000
40.000

40.000
40.000
40.000

38
37.876
37.750

1.000
1.062
1.125

10.47
10.47
10.47

9.95
9.92
9.88

416.52 491.49
441.64 488.29
467 08 485

40.000
40.000

37.624
37.500

1.188
1250

10.47
10.47

9.85
9.82

492.44 481.81
517.31 478

42.000
42000
42.000
42.000
42.000
42 000
42.000
42.000

41.312
41.250
41.188
41.124
41.062
41.000
40.876
40.750

0.344
0.375
0.406
0.438
0.469
0.500
0.562
0.625

11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00

42.000
42.000
42.000
42.000
42.000
42000
42.000
42.000
42.000
42 000

40.624
40.500
40.376
40.250
40.124
40.000
39.876
39.750
39.624
39.500

0.688
0.750
0.812
0.875
0.938
1.000
1.062
1.125
1.188
1.250

11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00
11.00

10.82
10.80
10.78
10.77
10.75
10.73
10 70
10.67
10.64
10.60
10.57
10.54
10.50
10.47
10.44
10.41
10.37
10.34

40

AREA
WEIGHT
Outslde Inside Plaln End Water
A rea
Welghl In Pipe
Ar ea
tt2/fl
ft2/ft
lb/fl
lb/lt

o 375

-m
"O
"O

e
)>
-

)>

05
-

64
-

42

153.04
166.71
180.35
194.42
208.03
221.61
248.72
276.18

580.90
579.16
577.42
575.63
57389
572.16
568.70
565.20

303.55
330.41
357 19
384.31
411.35
437.88
464.32
49111
517.82
544.01

561.71
558.29
554 88
551.42
547.97
544.59
541.22
538.80
534.40
531.06

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.10M-1985 Standard.

('D

e
3

('D
:::::s
(/)

o
:::::s

(/)

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO MASS (WEIGHT)


(Metric Unlts)

Nominal
Pipe
Slze
mm

DESIGNATION

DIMENSIONS
lnslde
Wall
Outslde
Welght Schedule Dlameter Olameter Thlckness
mm
mm
Class Number
mm

STO

40

10.3

6.84

1.73

0.0324 0.0215

0.37

xs

80
40
80

10.3
13.7
13.7

5.48
9.22
7.66

2.41
2.24
3.02

0.0324 0.0172
0.0430 0.0290
0.0430 0.0241

0.47
0.63
0.80

0.024
0.067
0.046

40
80
40
80
160

17.1
17.1
21.3
21.3
21.3

12.48
10.70
15.76
13.84
11.74

2.31
3.20
2.77
3.73
4.78

0.0537
0.0537
0.0669
0.0669
0.0669

0.0392
0.0336
0.0495

0.84
1.10
1.27
1.62
1.95

0.124
0.091
0.197
0.150
0.109

7.47
2.87
3.91
5.56
7.82
3.38
4.55
6.35
9.09
3.56
4.85
6.35
9.70
3.68
5.08
7.14
10.15

0.0669
0.0839
0.0839
0.0839
0.0839
0.1049
0.1049
0.1049
0.1049
0.1326
0.1326
0.1326
0.1326

0.0200
0.0658
0.0593
0.0489
0.0347
0.0837
0.0763
0.0650
0.0478
0.1102
0.1021
0.0927
0.0716

0.1517
0.1517
0.1517
0.1517

0.1286
0.1198
0.1069
0.0880

2.55
1.69
2.20
2.90
3.64
2.50
3.24
4.24
5.45
3.39
4.47
5.61
7.77
4.05
5.41
7.25
9.56

0.033
0.343
0.279
0.189
0.094
0.563
0.463
0.337
0.182
0.964
0.827
0.684
0.407
1.314
1.140
0.907
0.614

2.11
2.77
3.18
3.58
3.91
4.37
4.78
5.54
6.35
7.14
8.74
11.07

0.1894
0.1894
0.1894
0.1894
0.1894
0.1894
0.1894
0.1894
0.1894
0.1894
0.1894
0.1894

0.1762
0.1720
0.1695
0.1669
0.1649
0.1620
0.1594
0.1546
0.1495
0.1446
0.1345
0.1199

3.03
3.93
4.48
5.01
5.44
6.03
6.54
7.48
8.45
9.36
11.11
13.44

2.476
2.354
2.295
2.220
2.161
2.056
2.026
1.907
1.788
1.669
1.445
1.147

2.11
2.77
3.18
3.58
3.96
4.37
4.78
5.16

0.2293
0.2293
0.2293
0.2293
0.2293
0.2293
0.2293
0.2293

0.2161
0.2119
0.2094
0.2068
0.2045
0.2019
0.1993
0.1969

3.69
4.80
5.48
6.13
6.74
7.40
8.04
8.63

3.73
3.58
3.50
3.41
3.34
3.25
3.17
3.08

STO

10

STO

xs

xs

STO

xs
-

xxs
STO
20

xs

xxs
STO
25

xs

xxs
STO
32

xs

xxs
STO
40

xs

21.3

6.36

26.7
26.7
26.7
26.7

40
80
160

33.4
33.4
33.4
33.4
42.2
42.2
42.2
42.2
48.3
48.3
48.3
48.3

20.96
18.88
15.58
11.06
26.64
24.30
20.70
15.22
35.08
32.50
29.50
22.80
40.94
38.14
34.02
28.00

60.3
60.3
60.3
60.3
60.3
60.3
60.3
60.3
60.3
60.3
60.3
60.3
73.0
73.0
73.0
73.0
73.0
73.0
73.0
73.0

56.08
54.76
53.94
53.14
52.48
51.56
50.74
49.22
47.60
46.02
42.82
38.16
68.78
67.46
66.64
65.84
65.08
64.26
63.44
62.68

40
80
160

40
80
160

40

xs

80

160

xxs

65

40
80
160

XXS

STO
50

WEIGHT
Plaln End Water
Meas
Masa
kg/m
kg/m

0.037

15

AREA
Outalde Inside
A rea
A rea
m2/m
m2/m

STO

40

0.0435
0.0369

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME 8-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

"C
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l>

3:

.. ...

C D
(")

"C
(1)

e
3

(1)

:::J

o.
:::J

"'

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO MASS (WEIGHT)


(Metric Units)

Nominal
Pipe
Size
mm

65

AREA
WEIGHT
DIMEtlSIONS
Outslde
lnslde
Wall
Outslde lnslde Plaln End Water
A rea
Masa
Masa
Ares
Welght Schedule Olameter Olameter Thlckness
m2/m
m2/m
kg/m
kg/m
mm
mm
mm
Class Number
DESIGNATION

xs
XXS

80

STO
-

80
160

40

80
160

xxs
-

STO

xs

100

xs

90

STO
-

xs
-

XXS

40

80

40

80
120
160

0.1948
0.1894
0.1853
0.1695
0.1412

9.14
10.44
11.41
14.92
20.39

3.02
2.86
2.73
2.29
1.D

2.11
2.77

0.2793 0.2660
0.2793 0.2619

4.52
5.88

5.63
5.47

3.18
3.58
3.96
4.37
4.78
5.49

0.2793 0.2593
0.2793 0.2568
0.2793 0.2544
0.2793 0.2518
0.2793 0.2493
0.2793 0.2448

6.72
7.53
8.29
9.11
9.92
11.29

0.2394
0.2344
0.2314
0.2094

12.93
14.40
15.27
21.35

5.36
5.26
5.16
5.05
4.95
4.77
4.56
4.38
4.31
3.49

73.0
73.0
73.0
73.0
73.0

62.02
60.30
58.98
53.94
44.96

5.49
6.35
7.01
9.53
14.02

88.9
88.9

84.68
83.36

88.9
88.9
88.9
88.9
88.9
88.9
88.9
88.9
88.9
68.9

82.54
81.74
80.98
80.16
79.34
77.92
76.20
74.62
73.66
66.64

88.9

58.42

101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6

97.38
96.06
95.24
94.44
93.68
92.86
92.04
90.12
88.90
87.32
85.44

114.3 110.08
114.3 108.76
114.3 107.94
114.3 107.14
114.3 106.38
114.3 105.56
114.3 104.74
114.3 103.98
114.3 103.18
102.26
114.3
114.3 101.60
114.3 100.02
114.3
98.46
114.3
97.18
114.3
92.04
114.3
87.32
114.3
80.06

6.35
7.14
7.62
11.13

0.2293
0.2293
0.2293
0.2293
0.2293

0.2793
0.2793
0.2793
0.2793

15.24
0.2793 0.1835 27.68
5.18
2.11
0.3192 0.3059
2.77
0.3192 0.3018
6.75
3.18
0.3192 0.2992
7.72
3.58
0.3192 0.2967
8.65
0.3192 0.2943
9.53
3.96
0.3192 0.2917 10.48
4.37
4.78
0.3192 0.2892 11.41
13.57
5.74
0.3192 0.2831
0.3192 0.2793 14.92
6.35
7.14
0.3192 0.2743 16.63
18.63
8.08
0.3192 0.2684
2.11
2.77
3.18
3.58
3.96
4.37
4.78
5.16
5.56
6.02
6.35
7.14
7.92
8.56
11.13
13.49
17.12

0.3591 0.3458
0.3591 0.3417
0.3591 0.3391
0.3591 0.3366
0.3591 0.3342
0.3591 0.3316
0.3591 0.3291
0.3591 0.3267
0.3591 0.3242
0.3591 0.3213
0.3591 0.3192
0.3591 0.3142
0.3591 0.3093
0.3591 0.3053
0.3591 0.2892
0.3591 0.2743
0.3591 0.2515

5.84
7.62
8.71
9.77
10.78
11.85
12.91
13.89
14.91
16.07
16.90
18.87
20.78
22.32
28.32
33.54
41.03

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

2.68
7.48
7.26
7.14
7.02
6.90
6.78
6.68
6.38
6.21
5.99
5.74
9.52
9.31
9.16
9.03
8.90
8.76
8.64
8.51
8.37
8.21
8.12
7.85
7.63
7.42
6.66
5.99
5.04

-m,,
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s
:::s
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-m.,,

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO MASS (WEIGHT)


(Metric Units)

Nominal
Pipe
Slze

mm

AREA
DIMENSIONS
Outalde Inalde
Outslde
lnalde
Wall
Area
Ares
Welght Schedule Olameter Dlameter Thlcknesa
m2/m
m2/m
Class Number
mm
mm
mm
DESIGNATION

STO

40

xs

80
120
160

xxs
-

150

125

STO

40

xs 80
120
- - 160
xxs -

200

--

20
30

STO

40

WEIGHT
Plaln End Water
Masa
Masa
kg/m
kglm

7.24 1 14.78
10.83 14.33
13.41 13.99
16.09 13.65

141.3
141.3
141.3
141.3

137.08
134.94
133.38
130.74

2.11
3.18
3.96
4.78

0.4439
0.4439
0.4439
0.4439

0.4307
0.4239
0.4190
0.4107

141.3
141.3
141.3
141.3
141.3
141.3
141.3
141.3
141.3

130.18
128.20
127.02
125.46
123.82
122.24
115.90
109.54
103.20

5.56
6.55
7.14
7.92
8.74
9.53
12.70
15.88
19.05

0.4439
0.4439
0.4439
0.4439
0.4439
0.4439
0.4439
0.4439
0.4439

0.4090 18.61
0.4028 21.77
0.3990 23.62
0.3941 26.05
0.3890 28.57
0.3840
30.97
0.3641 40.28
0.3441 49.11
0.3242 57.43

13.32
12.90
12.69
12.38
12.05
11.73
10.55
9.42
8.37

168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3

164.08
162.76
161.94
161.14
160.38
159.56
158.74
157.98
157.18
155.60
154.08
152.46
150.82
149.24
146.36
142.90
139.76
136.54
131.78
130.20
124.40
123.84

2.11
2.77
3.18
3.58
3.96
4.37
4.78
5.16
5.56
6.35
7.11
7.92
8.74

0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.2587
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287

9.53
10.97
12.70
14.27
15.88
18.26
19.05
21.95
22.23

0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287
0.5287

8.65
0.5155
0.5113 11.31
0.5088 12.95
0.5062 14.54
0.5038 16.05
0.5013 17.67
0.4987 19.27
0.4963 20.76
0.4938 22.31
0.4888 25.36
0.4841
28.26
0.4790 31.32
0.4738 34.39
0.4689 37.31
0.4598
42.56
0.4489 48.73
0.4391 54.20
0.4290 59.69
0.4140 67.56
0.4090 70.11
0.3908 79.22
0.3891 80.07

21.16
22.31
20.61
20.40
20.22
20.01
19.80
19.61
19.41
19.03
18.52
18.27
17.88
17.49
16.84
16.05
15.35
14.65
13.65
13.32
12.16
12.05

219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1

212.74
211.18
209.54
208.78
207.98
206.40
205.02
203.26
202.74
201.62

3.18
3.96
4.78
5.16
5.56
6.35
7.04
7.92
8.18
8.74

0.6683
0.6634
0.6583
0.6559
0.6534

16.91
21.02
25.24
27.21
29.29

200.04

9.53

0.6484
0.6441
0.6386
0.6369
0.6334
0.6284

33.32
36.80
41.27
42.54
45.33
49.23

35.57
35.04
34.51
34.26
33.99
33.48
33.03
32.47
32.30
31.95

219.1

0.6883
0.6883
0.6883
0 6883
0.6883
0.6883
0.6883
0.6883
0.6883
0.6883
0.6883

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.10M-1985 Standard.

31.45

e
l>

-4

l>

s::
C'D

: : :! .

., ,

"C
C'D

3-
C'D

:::::s

oU> -
U >

:::::s

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO MASS (WEIGHT)


(Metric Units)

Nominal
Pipe
Size
mm

200

DIMENSIONS
Outslde
lnside
Wall
Weight Schedule Olameter Dlameter Thickness
mm
mm
mm
Class Number
DESIGNATION

xs
XXS

80

100

120

140

160

20

30

40

XS

60

XXS

300

STO

250

60

STO

80

100

120

140
160

20

30

40

AREA
Outside lnside
Area
A rea
m2/m
m2/m

WEIGHT
Plain End Water
Masa
Masa
kg/m
ka/m

219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1

198.48
196.84
193.70
190.56
188.92

10.31
11.13
12.70
14.27
15.09

0.6883
0.6883
0.6883
0.6883
0.6883

0.6235
0.6184
0.6085

53.10
57.07
64.65

0.5987
0.5935

72.12 28.53
75.92 28.06

219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1

187.34
182.58
181.00
177.86

15.88
18.26
19.05
20.62

219.1
219.1
219.1

174.64
173.08
168.30

22.23
23.01

0.6883
0.6883
0.6883
0.6883
0.6883
0.6883

0.5885 79.57 27.58


0.5736 90.46 26.19
0.5686 93.99 25.75
0.5588 100.96 24.85
0.5486 107.91 23.97
0.5437 111.29 23.54

273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0

265.08
263.44
262.68
261.88
260.03
258.82
257.40
255.52
254.46

273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0
273.0

250.74
247.60
244.46
242.82
241.24
236.48
231.76
230.12
228.54
225.34
222.20

25.40

30.96
30.46
29.49

)>

-t

)>

0.6883 0.5287 121.35 22.26

3.96

0.8577 0.8328

26.30

4.78
5.16
5 56
6.35

0.8577
0.8577
0.8577
0.8577

31.60 54.58
34.08 54.27
36.70 52.43
41.78 53.28
46.49 52.69
51.02 52.11
56 96 51.35
60.32
50.91

7.09
7.80
8.74
9.27

.,,

0.8276
0.8252
0.8227
0.8169
0.8577 0.8131
0.8577 0.8086
0.8577 0.8027
0.8577 0.7994

55.25

11.13
12.70
14.27
15.09
15.88

0.8577
0.8577
0.8577
0.8577
0.8577

0.7877 71.88
81.56
0.7779
0.7680 91.11
0.7628 96.00
0.7579 100.69

49.44
48.22
46.99
46.37
45.79

215.84
209.50

18.26
20.62
21 .44
22.23
23.83
25.40
28.58
31.75

0.8577
0.8577
0.8577
0.8577
0.8577
0.8577
0.8577
0.8577

0.7429
0.7281
0.7229
0.7180
0.7079
0.6981
0.6781
0.6582

43.97
42.24
41.65
41.08
39.93
38.83
36.65
34.52

323.8
323.8
323.8
323.8
323.8
323.8

315.06
314.24
313.48
312.68
311.10
309.52

4.37
4.78
5.16
5.56
6.35
7.14

1.0173
1.0173
1.0173
1.0173
1.0173
1.0173

0.9898
0.9872
0.9848
0.9823
0.9774
0.9724

34.43 78.06
37.62 77.66
40.56 77.27
43.65 76.88
49.73 76.14
55.77 75.33

323.8
323.8
323.8
323.8
323.8

307.96
307.04
306.32
304.74
303 18

7.92
8 38
8.74
9.53
10.31

1.0173
1.0173
1.0173
1.0173
1.0173

0.9675
0.9646
0.9623
0.9574
0.9525

61.71
65.20
67.93
73.88
79.73

74.57
74.13
73.78
73.02
72.28

323.8

301.54

11.13

1.0173 0.9473

85.84

71..52

114.77
128.41
133.04
137.50
146.47
155.15
172.30
188.98

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

3:
::!.

.,,

"C

CD

3-

CD

::::s

en

o
::::s

en

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO MASS (WEIGHT)


(Metric Units)

Nominal
Pipe
Slze
mm

300

WEIGHT
AREA
DIMENSIONS
Outalde Inside Plaln End Water
Outslde
lnslde
Wall
A rea
Mass
Mass
Welght Schedule Dlameter Dlameter Thlckness A rea
m2/m
kglm
m2/m
kglm
mm
mm
mm
Class Number

DESIGNATION

xs
xxs
-

STO

xs
-

350

400

-
-

-60

12.70
14.27
15.88
17.48
19.05
20.62

1.0173
1.0173
1.0173
1.0173
1.0173
1.0173

0.9375 97.46
0.9276 108.96
0.9175 120.62
0.9074 132.08
0.8976 143.21
0.8877 154.21

70.03
68.54
67.05
65.60
64.19
62.77

80

323.8
323.8
323.8
323.8

323.8
323.8

298.40
295.26
292.04
288.84
285.70
282.56

323.8
323.8
323.8
323.8
323.8
323.8
323.8
323.8

280.92
279.34
276.14
273.00
269.86
266.64
260.30
257.16

21.44
22.23
23.83
25.40
26.97
28.58
31.75
33.32

1.0173
1.0173
1.0173
1 0173
1.0173
1.0173
1.0173
1.0173

0.8825
0.8776
0.8675
0.8577
0.8478
0.8377
0.8178
0.8079

159.91
165.37
176.33
186.97
197.48
208.14
228.74
238.76

62.06
61.36
59.97
58.60
57.26
55.92
53.28
52.00

355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6

346.04
345.28
344.94
344.48
342.90
341.32
339.76
338.12
336.54
334.98
333.34
331.78
330.20
327.06
325.42
323.84
320.64
317.50
314.36
311.14

4.78
5.16
5.33
5.56
6.35
7.14
7.92
8.74
9.53
10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70
14.27
15.09
15.88
17.48
19.05
20.62
22.23

1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172

1.0871
1.0847
1.0837
1.0822
1.0773
1.0723
1.0674
1.0622
1.0573
1.0524
1.0472
1.0423
1.0374
1.0275
1.0223
1.0174
1.0073
0.9975
0.9876
0.9775

41.35
44.59
46.04
47.99
54.69
61.35
67.90
74.76
81.33
87.79
94.55
100.94
101:39
120.11
126.71
133.03
145.75
158.10
170.33
182.75

94.14
93.72
93.53
93.27
92.42
91.58
90.74
89.88
89.04
88.21
87.34
86.52
85.70
84.08
83.25
82.44
80.82
79.24
77.67
76.11

355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
355.6
3556
355.6

307.94
304.80
301.66
300.02
298.44
292.10
284.18
254.00
247.64
243.84
228.60

23.83
25.40
26.97
27.79
28.58
31.75
35.71
50.80
53.98
55.88
6350

1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172
1.1172

0.9674
0.9576
0.9477
0.9425
0.9376
0.9177
0.8928
0.7980
0.7780
0.7660
1.1172 0.7182

194.96
206.83
218.57
224.65
230.48
253.56
281.70

74.54
73.02
71.58
70.76
70.03
67.06
63.47

381.83
401.50
413.01

50.72
48.22
46.74
41.08

406.4

396.84

4.78

100

120

140

160

10

20

30

40

60

80

100

120

140
160

1.2767 1.2467

457.40

,,m

)>

-1

)>

3:

C'D

:!.

"'CJ
"'C
C'D

e
3

C'D

e:
l
n

o:

e:
l
n

47.34 123.80

Note: Dimensions based on ANSI/AS ME B-36.1OM-1985


Standard.

w
CJ1

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO MASS (WEIGHT)


(Metrlc Units)

Nominal
Pipe
Slze
mm

AREA
WEIGHT
DIMENSIONS
Outslde
lnslde
Wall
Outslde lnslde Pialn End Water
Masa
Area
Area
Mass
Welght Schedule Olameter Dlameter Thlckness
m2/m
m2/m
kg/m
mm
kglm
Class Number
mm
mm
DESIGNATION

20

30

xs

400

STO
450

STO

xs
-

40

60

80

100
-

120

140
160

10

20

30

40

90

406.4
396.08
406.4
395.28
406.4
393.70
406.4
392.12
406.4
390.56
406.4
388.92
406.4
387.34
406.4
385.78
406.4
384.14
406.4
382.58
406.4
381.00
406.4
377.86
406.4
374.64
406.4
373.08
406.4
371.44
406.4
368.30
406.4
365.16
406.4
363.52
406.4
361.94
406.4
358.74
406.4
355.60
406.4
354.02
406.4
352.46
406.4
349.24
406.4
346.04
406.4
344.48
406.4
342.90
406.4
333.34
406.4
325.42
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457

447.44
445.88
444.30
442.72
441.16
439.52
437.94
436.38
434.74
433.18
431.60
428.46
425.24
422.04
418.90
415.76
412.54

5.16
5.56
6.35
7.14
7.92
8.74
9.53
10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70
14.27
15.88
16.66
17.48
19.05
20.62
21.44
22.23
23.83
25.40
26.19

1.2767
1.2767
1.2767
1.2767
1.2767
1.2767

1.2443
1.2418
1.2368
1.2319
1.2270
1.2218

51.06
54.96
62.64
70.30
77.83
85.71

1.2767
1.2767
1.2767
1.2767
1.2767
1.2767

1.2169
1.2120
1.2068
1.2019
1.1969
1.1871

93.27
100.70
108.49
115.86
23.30
137.99

123.33
122.82
121.84
120.87
119.90
118.90
117.95
116.98
116.00
115.06
114.10
112.23

-"'tJ"'tJ
e
)>

-t

)>

1.2767 1.1770 152.93 110.33


1.2767 1.1721 160.12 109.41
1.2767 1.1670
1.2767 1.1571
1.2767 1.1472
1.2767 1.1420

210.60
224.82
238.64
245.56

108.46
106.62
104.81
103.88
102.98
101.17
99.40
98.52

26.97
28.58

1.2767 1.1073 252.35


1.2767 1.0972 266.28

97.65
95.88

30.18
30.96

1.2767 1.0872 280.00


1.2767 1.0822 286.64

94.14
93.27

31.75
36.53

1.2767 1.0773 293.33


1.2767 1.0472 333.19

92.42
87.34

40.49

1.2767 1.0223 365.35

83.25

1.2767
1.2767
1.2767
1.2767

1.1371
1.1270
1.1172
1.1122

167.65
181.97
196.16
203.53

4.78
5.56

1.4357 1.4057
1.4357 1.4008

53.31 157 52
61.90 156.42

6.35
7.14

1.4357 1.3958
1.4357 1.3908

70.57 155.32
79.21 154.22

7.92
8.74
9.53
10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70
14.27
15.88
17.48
19.05
20.62
22.23

1.4357 1.3859
1.4357 1.3808
1.4357 1.3758
1.4357 1.3709
1.4357 1.3658
1.4357 1.3609
1.4357 1.3559
1.4357
1.4357
1.4357
1.4357
1.4357
1.4357

1.3460
1.3359
1.3259
1.3160
1.3062
1.2960

87.71
96.61
105.16
113.57
122.38

153.13
151.99
150.91
149.82
148.72

130.72 147.64
139.15 146.57
155.80 144.44
172.74 142.28
189.46 140.15
205.74 138.08
221.89 136.01
238.34 133.92

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

s:
(1)

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"C
(1)

-
3
(1)

en:l

o
:l
e
n

"'tJ
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STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO MASS (WEIGHT)


(Metric Units)

Nominal

Pipe
Slze
mm

DESIGNA TION

80

450

500

550

OIMENSIONS

AREA

Outalde
lnalde
Wall
Welght Schedule Oiameter Olameter Thlckneaa
mm
Claas Number
mm
mm

STO

100

120
140
160

10

20

40
30

60

80

100

120
140
160

10

20

WEIGHT

Outslde
Ar ea
m2/m

lnslde
Area
m2/m

Plain End
Masa
kg/m

Water
Masa
kg/m

131.49

457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457

409.34
406.20
403.06
399.84
398.28
396.64
393.50
387.14
377.66
366.52

23.83
25.40
26.97
28.58
29.36
30.18
31.75
34.93
39.67
45.24

1.4357
1.4357
1.4357
1.4357
1.4357
1.4357
1.4357
1.4357
1.4357
1.4357

1.2860
1.2761
1.2663
1.2561
1.2512
1.2461
1.2362
1.2162
1.1865
1.1515

254.55
270.34
286.00
301.94
309.62
317.66
332.95
363.56
408.26
459.37

508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508
508

496.88
495.30
493.72
492.16
490.52
488.94
487.38
485.74
484.18
482.60
479.46
477.82
476.24
473.04
469.90
466.76
463.54
460.34
457.20
455.62
454.06
450.84
447.64
444.50
442.92
441.36
438.14
431.80
419.10
407.98

5.56
6.35
7.14
7.92
8.74
9.53
10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70

1.5610
1.5560
1.5511

14.27
15.09
15.88
17.48
19.05
20.62
22.23
23.83
25.40
26.19
26.97
28.58
30.18
31.75
32.54
33.32
34.93
38.10
44.45
50.01

1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959
1.5959

68.89 194.07
78.55 192.85
88.19 191.61
97.67 190.39
107.60 189.14
117.15 187.93
126.53 186.73
136.37 185.48
145.70 184.28
155.12 183.08
173.74 180.69
183.42 179.47
192.71 178.29
211.44 177.03
229.70 173.57
247.83 171.25
266.29 168.91
284.52 166.58
302.28 164.32
311.17 163.18
319.92 162.07
337.89 159.79

559
559
559
559
559
559

547.88

5.56

1.7562 1.7212

546.30
544.72
543.16
541.52
539.94

6.35
7.14
7.92
8.74
9.53

1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562

1.5462
1.5410
1.5361
1.5312
1.5260
1.5211
1.5161
1.5063
1.5011
1.4962
1.4861
1.4762
1.4664
1.4563
1.4462
1.4363
1.4314
1.4265
1.4164
1.4063
1.3964
1.3915
1.3866
1.3765
1.3565
1.3166
1.2817

355.61
372.88
381.53
390.03
407.49
441.49
508.11
564.81

e
)>

-1

129.82 )>
127.83
125.80
124.82
123.80
121.84
117.95
112.23
105.72

157.52
155.32
154.22
153.13
150.91
146.57
138.08
130.84

75.88 235.78
1.7163 86.54 234.44
1.7113 97.17 233.08
1.7064 107.63 231.74
1.7012 118.60 230.35
1.6963 129.13 229.01

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

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STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO MASS (WEIGHT)
(Metric Units)

Nominal

Pipe

Slze
mm

DIMENSIONS
Outaide
lnside
Wall
Welght Schedule Olameter Oiameter Thickneaa
mm
mm
mm
Claas Number
DESIGNATION

xs

550

30

60

80

STO

100

120
140
160
10

20

xs

600

30

40

60

80

AREA
Outaide lnalde
Area
A rea
m2/m
m2/m

1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562

1.6914
1.6862
1.6813
1.6764
1.6665
1.6564
1.6463
1.6365
1.6266
1.6165
1.6064
1.5966
1.5867
1.5766
1.5665
1.5567
1.5466
1.5367
1.5266
1.5168
1.4968
1.4569
1.4170

139.50 227.67
150.37 226.30
160.68 224.98
171.09 223.65
191.69 221.03
212.69 216.36
233.43 215.72
253.65 213.13
273.76 210.55
294.25 207.96
314.49 205.38
334.23 202.86
353.84 200.35
373.63 197.81
393.57 195.31
412.81 192.85
431.94 190.39
451.42 167.93
470.66 185.48
489.41 163.08
527.02 178.29
600.63 168.91
672.26 159.79

1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164

1.8765
1.8715
1.8665
1.6615
1.8565
1.6516
1.6464
1.8415
1.8366
1.6267
1.8166
1.8065
1.7967
1.7666
1.7767
1.7666
1.7617
1.7568
1.7466
1.7366
1.7267
1.7218
1.7169

94.53
106.15
117.59
129.59
141.12
152.47
164.37
175.66
187.06
209.64
232.66
255.41
277.61
299.69
322.21
344.46
355.26
366.17
367.76
409.77
431.52
442.08
452.74

1.7562
1.7562
1.7562
1.7562

530.46
527.24
524.04
520.90
517.76
514.54
511.34
506.20
505.06
501.64
496.64
495.50
492.36
489.14
485.94
482.80
476.44
463.74
451.04

10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70
14.27
15.88
17.48
19.05
20.62
22.23
23.83
25.40
26.97
26.58
30.18
31.75
33.32
34.93
36.53
38.10
41.26
47.63
53.96

597.30
595.72
594.16
592.52
590.94
589.38
567.74
566.16
564.60
581.46
578.24
575.04
571.90
568.76
565.54
562.34
560.78
559.20
556.06
552.84
549.64
548.08
546.50

6.35
7.14
7.92
6.74
9.53
10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70
14.27
15.66
17.48
19.05
20.62
.22.23
23.83
24.61
25.40
26.97
26.56
30.18
30.96
31.75

559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559
559

538.38
536.74
535.18
533.60

610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610

WEIGHT
Plain End Water
Maas
Mass
kg/m
kg/m

280.08
278.60
277.13
275.61
274.15
272.68
271.16
269.73
268.27
265.40
262.48
259.59
256.74
253.93
251.07
246.23
246.85
245.46
242.71
239.92
237.15
235.78
234.44

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.10M-1985 Standard.

-m

"'C
"'C

)>

-1
)>

s:

(D

:::!.

(')

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(D

3-

(D

:s
!.
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:s
en

STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO MASS (WEIGHT)


(Metric Units)

Nominal
Pipe
Slze
mm

OIMENSIONS
Outslde
lnslde
Wall
Welght Schedule Olameter Olameter Thlckness
mm
mm
mm
Class Number
OESIGNATION

100

120
140
160

600

10

XS
-

XS
-

STO

750

700

STO

650

20

10

20

30

10

AREA
Outslde lnslde
A rea
Area
m2/m
m2/m

WEIGHT
Plaln End Water
Mass
Mass
kg/m
kg/m

34.93
36.53
38.10
38.89
39.67
46.02
52.37
59.54

1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164
1.9164

1.7070 473.84
1.6969 495.35
1.6869 516.80
1.6770 537.33
1.6720 547.71
1.6671 557.43
1.6272 640.03
1.5873 720.15
1.5423 808.22

231.74
229.01
226.30
223.65
222.34
221.03
210.55
200.35
189.14

647.30
645.72
644.16
642.52
640.94
639.38
637.74
636.18
634.60
631.46
628.24
625.04
621.90
618.76
615.54
612.34

6.35
7.14
7.92
8.74
9.53
10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70
14.27
15.88
17.48
19.05
20.62
22.23
23.83

2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735
2.0735

2.0336 102.36
2.0286 114.95
2.0237 127.36
2.0185 140.37
2.0136 152.87
2.0087 165.18
2.0035 178.09
1.9986 190.34
1.9937 202.72
1.9838 227.23
1.9737 252.24
1.9636 276.96
1.9538 301.10
1.9439 325.12
1.9338 349.62
1.9237 373.84

329.77
327.80
326.58
324.92
323.34
321.75
320.13
318.55
316.97
313.84
310.67
307.51
304.42
301.34
298.24
295.14

660

609.20

25.40

2.0735 1.9139 397.49 292.11

711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711

698.30
696.72
695.16
693.52
691.94
690.38
688.74
687.18
685.60
682.46
679.24
676.04
672.90
669.76
666.54
663.34
660.20

6.35
7.14
7.92
8.74
9.53
10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70
14.27
15.88
17.48
19.05
20.62
22.23
23.83
25.40

2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337
2.2337

762
762
762

749.30
747.72
746.16

6.35
7.14
7.92

610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610

543.36
540.14
536.94
533.80
532.22
530.66
517.96
505.26
490.92

33.32

660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660
660

2.1938
2.1888
2.1839
2.1788
2.1738
2.1689
2.1637
2.1588
2.1539
2.1440
2.1339
2.1238
2.1140
2.1041
2.0940
2.0839
2.0741

110.34
123.93
137.32
151.36
164.85
178.15
192.09
205.32
218.69
245.18
271.21
298.95
325.06
351.05
377.58
403.81

383.53
381.80
380.08
378.31
376.58
374.88
373.11
371.41
369.71
366.32
362.89
359.49
356.14
352.82
349.46
346.11
429.44 342.83
2.3939 2.3540 118.33 441.35
2.3939 2.3490 132.91 439.49
2.3939 2.3441 147.28 437.64

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

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CD

CD

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STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO MASS (WEIGHT)


(Metrlc Unlts)

No
mi
na
l
Pi

DESIGNATIO
N
W
Sche
el
dule
g
Nu

STO

XS

75
0

80
0

85
0

20
30
-

DIMENSIONS
Outsl
de
Dlam
eter

76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76

Inald
e
Dlam
eter

744.
52
742.
94
741.
38
739.
74
738.
18
736.
60
733.
46
730.
24
727.
04
723.

AREA

Wall
Thlck
neu
mm

8.7
4
9.5
3
10.3
1
11.1
3
11.9
1
12.7
0
14.2
7
15.8
8
17.4
8
19.0

Outs
lde
Are
a

2.3
939
2.3
939
2.3
939
2.3
939
2.3
939
2.3
939
2.3
939
2.3
939
2.3
939
2.3

WEIGHT
ln
sl
de
Ar

2.3
390
2.3
340
2.3
291
2.3
240
2.3
191
2.3
141
2.3
042
2.2
941
2.2
841
2.2
742
2.5

Plaln
End
Ma
u

162.
35
176.
84
191.
11
206.
09
220.
30
234.
67
263.
12
292.
18
320.
93
349.
02
126.

W
a
t
e

435.
74
433.
90
432.
06
430.
16
428.
35
426.
51
422.
88
419.
20
415.
53
411.
93
503.

- - - - 2.5
81
800.
6.3
22
541
142
31
3
30
5
- 141.
501.
7.1
2.55
2.5
81
798.
- 10
89
24
4
41
093
3
72
- 499.
2.5
157.
7.9
2.55
81
797.
S
T
27
044
24
2
41
3
16
O
173.
497.
2.55
2.4
81
795.
8.7
34
23
41
992
3
52
4
- 20188.
495.
2.4
81
793.
9.5
2.55
82
26
942
3
94
3
41
x
493.
204.
10.3
2.55
2.4
81
792.
30
s
29
08
1
41
893
3
38
40
491.
11.1
2.55
2.4
220.
81
790.
- -28
3
41
842
08
3
74
489.
2.55
2.4
235.
81
789.
11.9
- 32
41
793
28
3
18
1
- 250.
2.4
487.
12.7
2.55
81
787.
64
743
36
0
41
- 3
60
483.
14.2
2.55
2.4
281.
81
784.
- 48
7
41
645
07
3
46
312.
479.
15.8
2.55
2.4
81
781.
- 15
54
8
41
543
3
24
- 475.
2.55
2.4
342.
17.4
81
778.
2.6
134.
569.
6.3
2.7
- 851.
86
744
30
15
5
143
30
4
- 150.
567.
7.1
2.7
2.6
86
849.
- 10
87
05
4
143
695
- - 486 72
564.
2.7
167.
7.9
2.6
848.
S
T
95
143
20
2
646
16
4
O
2.6
184.
562.
8.7
2.7
846.
86
- 594
33
77
4
143
52
4
Note: Dimensions based on ANS!/ASME B-36.10M-1985 Standard.

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STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS


ANO MASS (WEIGHT)
(Metric Units)
Nominal
Pipe
Slze
mm

DESIGNA TION

xs

850

11.91
12.70

2.7143 2.6395 250.26 554.37


2.7143 2.6345 266.61 552.28

864
864
864

835.46
832.24
829.04

14.27
15.88
17.48

2.7143 2.6247 299.02 548.14


2.7143 2.6146 332.12 543.95
2.7143 2.6045 364.90 539.77

864

825.90

864
864
864
864
864
864

822.76
819.54
816.34
813.20
810.06
806.84

19.05
20.62
22.23
23.83
25.40
26.97
28.58

2.7143
2.7143
2.7143
2.7143
2.7143
2.7143
2.7143

864
864

803.64
800.50

30.18
31.75

2.7143 2.5247 620.56 507.18


2.7143 2.5149 651.61 503.22

914
914
914

901.30
899.72
898.16

6.35
7.14
7.92

2.8714 2.8352 142.13 639.14


2.8714 2.8266 159.67 636.90
2.8714 2.8217 176.96 634.68

914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914

896.52
894.94
893.38
891.74
890.18
888.60
885.46
882.24
879.04
875.90
872.76
869.54
866.34
863.20
860.06
856.84
853.64
850.50

8.74
9.53
10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70
14.27
15.88
17.48
19.05
20.62
22.23
23.83
25.40
26.97
28.58
30.18
31.75

965

949.16

7.92

965
965
965
965
965
965
965
965
965

947.52
945.94
944.38
942.74
941.18
939.60
936.46
933.24
930.04

8.74
9.53
10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70
14.27
15.88
17.48

3.0316
3.0316
3.0316
3.0316
3.0316
3.0316
3.0316
3.0316
3.0316

965

926.90

19.05

3.0316 2.9119 444.38 675.66

30
40

10

STO

xs
-

STO
950

840.18
838.60

xs

WEIGHT
Plaln End Water
Mass
Mass
kg/m
kg/m

864
864

AREA
Outslde lnslde
Aree
A rea
m2/m
m2/m

20

900

DIMENSIONS

Wall
Outslde
Inside
Welght Schedule Dlameter Olameter Thlckness
mm
Class Number
mm
mm

20

30

40

2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714
2.8714

2.5946 396.93
2.5848 428.85
2.5747 461.45
2.5646 493.72
2.5547 525.27
2.5449 556.69
2.5348 588.79

2.8165
2.8115
2.8066
2.8015
2.7966
2.7916
2.7818
2.7716
2.7616
2.7517
2.7419
2.7317
2.7217
2.7118
2.7020
2.6918
2.6818
2.6719

195.11
212.56
229.76
247.31
264.94
282.27
316.11
351.70
386.45
420.42
454.27
488.86
523.11
556.59
589.95
624.03

632.39
630.17
627.95
625.67
623.46
621.26
616.86
612.42
607.98
603.63
599.31
594.91
590.55
586.27
581.99
577.67
657.77 573.37
690.76 569.15

206.10
224.54
242.72
261.80
279.92
298.24
334.56
371.68
408.43

'1J
'1J

)>
)>

535.67
531.60
524.20
523.35
519.32
515.30
511.23

3.0316 2.9819 186.92 708.47


2.9767
2.9718
2.9669
2.9617
2.9568
2.9518
2.9420
2.9319
2.9218

706.05
703.70
701.36
698.94
696.62
694.28
689.65
684.94
680.24

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.1OM-1985 Standard.

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STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS ANO MASS (WEIGHT)


(Metric Units)
WEIGHT
DIMENSIONS
AREA
Nominal DESIGNA TION
Outslde
lnslde
Wall
Outslde lnslde Plain End Water
Pipe
Area
Mass
Masa
f.rea
Slze
Welght Schedule Diameter Ola meter Thlckness
m2/m
m2/m
mm
mm
kg/m
k9im
mm
Class Number
mm
965
923.76
20.62
3.0316 2.9021 480.21 671.07
965
920.54 22.23
3.0316 2.8920 516.82 666.43
965
917.34
23.83
3.0316 2.8819 553.08 661.80
965
917.34
23.83
3.0316 2.8721 588.53 657.27
950
965
911.06
26.97
3.0316 2.8622 623.87 652.74
965
907.84
28.58
3.0316 2.8521 659.97 648.16
955
904.64
30.18
3.0316 2.8420 695.73 643.61

STD

XS

1000

STD

xs

1050

965
1016

901.50
1000.16

31.75
7.92

3.0316 2.8322 730.69 639.14


3.1919 3.1421 196.89 786.32

1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016
1016

998.52
996.94
995.38
993.74
992.18
990.60
987.46
984.24
981.04
977.90
974.76
971.54
968.34
965.20
962.06
958.84
955.64
952.50

8.74
9.53
10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70
14.27
15.88
17.48
19.05
20.62
22.23
23.83
25.40
26.97
28.58
30.18
31.75

3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919
3.1919

3.1370
3.1320
3.1271
3.1219
3.1170
3.1121
3.1022
3.0921
3.0820
3.0722
3.0623
3.0522
3.0421
3.0323
3.0224
3.0123
3.0022
2.9924

217.09
236.53
255.69
275.80
294.90
314.22
352.51
391.65
430.42
468.34
506.14
544.78
583.05
620.48
657.78
695.92
733.68
770.62

783.77
781.30
778.82
776.29
773.83
771.37
766.47
761.51
756.58
751.72
746.89
741.99
737.10
732.32
727.55
722.72
717.90
713.17

1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067

1049.52
1047.94
1046.38
1044.74
1043.18
1041.60
1038.46
1035.24
1032.04
1028.90
1025.76
1022.54
1019.34
1016.20
1013.06
1009.84
1006.64
1003.50

8.74
9.53
10.31
11.13
11.91
12.70
14.27
15.88
17.48
19.05
20.62
22.23
23.83
25.40
26.97
28.58
30.18
31.75

3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521
3.3521

3.2972
3.2922
3.2873
3.2822
3.2773
3.2723
3.2624
3.2523
3.2423
3.2324
3.2225
3.2124
3.2024
3.1925
3.1826
3.1725
3.1625
3.1526

228.09
248.52
268.66
289.80
309.88
330.19
370.45
411.62
452.40
492.30
532.07
572.73
613.02
652.42
691.70
731.86
771.64
810.55

865.54
862.95
860.36
857.69
855.10
852.52
847.36
842.15
836.95
831.85
826.77
821.62
816.48
811.44
806.42
802.81
796.26
791.28

Note: Dimensions based on ANSl/ASME B-36.10M-1985 Standard.

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PIPE DATA

Pipe Lengths/End Finish

Pipe Lengths
Generally, steel pipe when specified, is
sup plied in 21 ft. (6.4 m) lengths, + or 1/2 inch
(12.7 mm). lt is also available in random
lengths, 16 ft. to 22 ft. (4.88 m to 6.71 m),
and double random lengths, 22 ft. (6.71 m)
minimum, with a minimum average length
per order of 35 ft. (10.67 m).

Pipe End Finish


The ends of pipe are commercially
available in the following end finishes:
Threaded and Coupled
Threaded without Couplings
Plain End -cut square
Beveled for Welding - 30 degree
bevel with a 1/16" (1.6 mm) land.
Grooved End -cut or rolled for
mechan ical couplings
The preceding end finishes are shown in
illustration
#7.

Threaded and Coupled

Threaded End

Plain End

Bevelled End

Grooved End

lllustration #7 - Five Common Pipe End Finishes

PIPE DATA

Pipe End Finish

Pipe End Finish


When ends are threaded and coupled,
only one end of each length is supplied
with a coupling. In sizes 4 in. (100 mm)
and larger, it is common practice to supply
the unpro tected thread with a thread
protector. The pipe couplings supplied for
standard weight pipe 2 inches (50 mm)
and under are paral lel threaded (straighttapped).

l:;::tj

Supplied on pipe sizes


2 in. (50 mm) and smaller

Straight Tapped Coupling

Taper Pipe Thread

#BA

Straight

Supplied on pipe sizes

Taper-Tapped Coupling

2 1/2 in. (65 mm) and larger and for


Extra Stong and Double Extra Strong pipe

'

"

Taper Pipe Thread

Joints made with straight tapped couplings


are inferior to those with taper tapped couplings
lllustration
Coupling

Couplings supplied for extra strong and


double extra strong pipe are taper
threaded (taper-tapped) and recessed for
ali sizes. lllustrations #BA and #88 display
cross sec tional drawings of both a
straight-tapped merchant coupling and a
taper-tapped line coupling used on pipe
ends.

Tapped

Recesses in coupling facilitate pipe alignment when makingup threaded joints of larger sizes and heavier pipe
lllustration #88 Coupling

Taper Tapped and Recessed

Pipe ldentification & Marking

PIPE DATA
Pipe
ldentification
Marking

and

Steel pipe is available in numerous manu


facturing classifications, grades, weights,
schedule numbers, sizes, and lengths. For
this reason it is important to be able to
inter pret steel pipe's identification
markings. Steel pipe can be identified by
paint stencil, or stamped markings on the
pipe itself or by a tag attached to smaller
sized bundles of pipe.
The American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) require pipe made to
their specifications to be labeled with the
follow ing:
Manufacturer's Name (trademark or brand
may be used).
Pipe
manufacturing
method:
F = Furnace butt welded, continuous
welded
E = Electric resistance
welded S = Seamless
Weight of Pipe: Std., XS., or XXS.

Specification Number; ASTM specification number.


Length: units pipe was ordered
in.
In addition to the above marking, certain
ASTM pipe classifications may require
pipe to be marked with:
Grade
of
pipe.
Hydrostatic Test Pressure
or:
NH when not
tested Schedule
Number
S for supplementary requirements
Pipe size
An example of ASTM marking on pipe is
given in illustration #9
TheAmerican Petroleum Association (API)
Require pipe conforming to their specifica
tions to be marked with the following:
Manufacturer's
Name or
Mark
APl's
Specification
Number
Diameter: either
the
nominal
or
outside
diameter in inches
Weight
per
Foot

45

IPEDATA

Pipe ldentification & Marking


ASTM
Specification No.
A&B Co.

Trade Mark or
Company Name

Method of Manufacture
(S = Seamless)
A53

Seamless
Wall Th1ckness

xs

Length

21'

Weight

lllustration #9 - Typical ASTM Pipe


Marking

Grade: APl's grades use numbers follow


ing letters to indicate minimum yield
strength
Process of Manufacture:
S
= Seamless
E
= Welded, except butt-welded
F
= Butt-welded
SW = Spiral welded
Type of Steel:
E-Electric-fumace steel
R-Rephosphorized steel (class 11) no
marking required for open hearth or
basic-oxygen steel

Heat Treatment:
HN-Normalized or normalized/
tempered
HS-Subcritical stress relieved
HA-Subcritical age hardened
HQ-Quench and tempered
Test Pressure: if pressure is higher than
in tables
An example of API marking on pipe is given
in illustration #1O.

PIPE DATA

Pipe ldentification & Marking


API
Specification No.-ft.)

Grade of Pipe
Seamless Pipe
Steel Type Electric Furnace

Outside Diameter

A&B Co.

Pipe Weight (per

Spec 5L

14"

54.68
0.25 X 40'

E------

Trade Mari< I Company


Name or API monogram

Length

Wall Thickness

lllustration #10 - Typical API Pipe Marking

The Canadian Standards Association


(CSA) require pipe made to their specifica
tions to be marked with the following:
Manufacturer's Name or Mark.
Specified Outside Diameter, in milli
metres.
Specified
Wall
Thickness,
in
millimetres.
Grade of Pipe (CSA Z245.1 Grades
range from 172 to grade 550 inclusive).
Sour Service: if pipe is intended for this
use it must be labeled with the symbol
SS
Process of Manufacture:

E-Electric welded or submerged are


welded pipe
- F-Butt welded pipe
Type of Steel:
E = electric furnace steel.
Open hearth or oxygen steel: no
mark required.
Heat Treatment: if required.
Length: in metres to two decimal places.
Hydrostatic Test Pressure: if applicable.
An example of CSA marking on pipe is
given in illustration #11.

48

PIPE DATA

ldentification/Finishing/Galvanized

CSA Specification

Trade Mark

--

or Designation #
A&B Co.
Z245.1
I Company
18300

Name or API monogram

Process of Manufacture
Type of Steel
Heat Treatment

Outside Diameter (mm)


Wall Thickness (mm)
114.3 X 8.6
359

Hydrostatically tested
at 18300 kPa

HQ

Yield Strength
Grade in MPa

lllustration #11 - Typical CSA Pipe Marking

Note: Pipe marking may vary depending


upon specific pipe specification require
ments within each standard.

Steel Pipe Finishing Processes


The standard finish given to steel pipe is a
lacquer coating that is intended to prevent
corrosion in transit. This pipe is usually
referred to as black iron pipe. Other com
mon surface finishes include:
Bare Metal
Pickled
only
Pickled and Oiled

Galvanized

Galvanizing
Zinc is one of the most common types of
cor rosion protective coatings given to
steel pipe. Galvanized pipe is carbon steel
pipe which has been coated with zinc both
on the inside and outside of the pipe. The
zinc is usually applied by a hot-dipping
process where the pipe is submerged in a
molten bath of zinc. The standard weight
of zinc applied to the pipe is a minimum
average of 1.8 oz. of zinc per square ft. of
pipe (.55 kg per square m).

PIPE DATA

Coated Pipe/Wrought lron

Corrosion Protective/Lined and


Coated Pipe
To enhance pipe's corrosion resistance,
and to rnodify flow characteristics, pipe
can be lined and/or coated with a variety
of rnate rials. Table #7 shows sorne
corrosion pro tective rnaterials available
for pipe. lt is by no rneans cornprehensive,
but is intended to give an overview of
sorne of the rnaterials that rnay be utilized.
Even though rnost of the rnaterials listed
are used to prevent cor rosion, sorne are
also used to irnprove flow characteristics
within the piping systern.

Wrought
Pipe

lron

The material classification of wrought


iron pipe should not be confused with
being the same type of pipe or pipe
material classification as wrought steel
pipe. Wrought steel pipe is another term
given to carbon steel pipe because of
the method of manufacturing. Wrought in
this sense means to work or to be
formed as compared to casting.

Wrought iron pipe prirnarily consists of


refined iron and iron silicate (slag) which
gives the pipe a tough fiberous structure.
The iron silicate (appoxirnately 1% to 3%
by weight) was believed to give the pipe
an added
resistance to corrosion.
However, steel pipe has generally proven
to be equal to wrought iron in withstanding
corrosion and is less expensive to
produce. Because of these factors,
wrought
iron pipe
is
no longer
commerically produced, however it is
still encountered in existing installa tions.
Distinguishing between wrought iron pipe
and steel pipe can be rnade by wrought
iron's sornewhat rougher surface and its
thicker pipe wall. Since wrought iron is
less dense than steel but rnade to the
sarne outside diarneter and weight per
ft., its wall thick ness is slightly larger to
cornpensate tor the lighter density.

sol

PIPE DATA

Coatings and Linings


CORROSION PROTECTIVE COATINGS & LININGS
Pipe Wrapping

Metallic Coating
-

Galvanizing (lnternal/External)

Lead Lining

a) bonded
b) expanded
-

Aluminized (lntemal/External)

.... Chromium
......

Cladded & Plating (lnternal/External)


a) Various metals

Non-metallic Coating
._. Oiling

,.._

Paint

1
[

Oil paint

Synthetic res1n paint


---

Paint

Epoxy-resin paint

--e

Oil Varnish
Pheno resin pa1nt

Fluorocarbon
-

PlasticCoating-Thermoplastic

_f
..._ Bituminous

Asphalt
Coal tar
Asphalt

-C

Brick
Miscellaneous

Glass
Ruhber

Kynar

Cement & Concrete


-

Most common: coal tar/bituminous coating


wrapped with Kraft paper
(usually two layers of each)

Am1noal Kyd-res1n

Teflon
Alkyd-resin pa1nt
Polyvinyl chlonde (PVC)
Polyethylene
Polypropylene (PP)
Polyv1nyhdene chloride
Polyvinyhdene fluonde (PVDF)

Natural
Butyl
Hard

Table #7 - Pipe Corrosion Protective Coatings

P
ure epoxy
Tar-epoxy

PIPE DATA
Stainless Steel Pipe

Stainless Steel Pipe


Stainless Steel Pipe Dimensions

The principal alloy elements in stainless


steel pipe are chromium and nickel,
which are added to steel to give it a high
resistance to corrosion and heat.
Chromium forms a thin oxide layer on pipe
which prevents further oxidation and
corrosion of the pipe. The majar effects
of nickel are to increase the pipe's
toughness, strength and resistance to
heat. The amounts of these two elements
vary depending on the type of stainless
steel, ranging from 4% to 27% for
chromium and 0% to 22% for nickel.
Stainless Classifications: The American
lron and Steel lnstitute (AISI) uses the fol
lowing standard type numbers to identify the
three majar types of stainless steel:
Austenitic (AISI types 200 and 300
series)
Ferritic (AISI type 400 series)
Martensitic (AISI types 400 and 500
series)
The majority of stainless steel pipe is
made from Austenitic stainless steel
which pro vides maximum corrosion
resistance, strength and ductility.

Wall thickness dimensions for stainless


steel pipe, as a rule coincide to steel
pipe dimensions. However, there are
sorne exceptions: 12 inch (300 mm)
schedule 40S stainless pipe has a
slightly thinner wall than schedule 40
steel pipe and 1O inch (250 mm) and
12 inch (300 mm) schedule BOS
stainless both have thinner walls than
the corresponding sizes in
schedule 80 steel pipe. Stainless steel
pipe is a/so available in schedule SS
and 1OS virtual/y throughout the size
ranges available.
All dimensions for stainless steel pipe are
shown in tables #8 and #9.
Note: the suffix S in schedule numbers
distinguish stainless steel numbers from
carbon steel schedule numbers.

U1

STAINLESS STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS & WEIGHT

-m

(Imperial Unlts)
DIMENSIONS
Nomi
nal
Pipe
Slze

Sched
ule#
Stalnle
ss

s
80 s
10 s
80 s
10 s
10

1/s

1/4

Outsl
de
Olam
eter

0.40
5
0.40
5
0.54
0
0.54
0
0.67

lnsld
e
Olam
eter

0.30
7
0.21
5
0.41

Nomi
nal
Welg
ht
Plaln

Wall
Thlckn
ess
Inches

0.049
0.068
0.095

0.19
0.24
0.31

0.065
0.088
0.119

0
0.30
2
0.54

Nomi
nal
Welg
ht
Wate

0.33
0.42
0.54

0.065
0.42
0.57
0.49
0.091
0.67
5
5
3
0.74
5
0.126
0.42
0.67
0.065
0.54
5
0.84
0.71
0.083
0.67
0.67
10 8
0.84
1/2
0.109
0.85
4
40 8
0
0.147
1.0
0.62
0.84
STAINLESS STEEL PIPE
DIMENSIONS
& WEIGHT
9
2
0
0.92
0.065
0.69
5
1.05
(Imperial Units)
0.86
0.083
10
8
1.05
0.88
3/4
WEIGHT
1.1
0.113
0 DIMENSIONS
4
3 Nom
0.74
0.154Nomi
1.4
1.05
80
2
7 inal
Nomi
Sched 5 Outsi 0
0.87
1.31lnsid 1.18 Wall 0.065 nal
e
Thickn 0.109Weig
nal
ule#
de
1.40Wei
5
5
8
1 Stainle
Pipe
1.6 ght
40 8 Diam 1.31Dlam 1.04 ess 0.133 ht
Inches 0.179Plain
eter
Size
ss
8 Wate
80 8 eter
0.083
6.3
S
4.SO 1.31 4.33 5.
3.92 2.17
5
957 0.120
4
S
O
S
0.065
1.11 9
1.66
1.53
58
4
1.81 6.1
10 8 4.SO 1.66 4.26 1.44 0.237 0.109 .6
11/4 40 s
0
0.337 0.140 1
2
2.27 8
40 8 O
0
s.s
4
1.38 0.109 0.191 16.36 3.00 9.7
1.66 4.02
S.
S.
SS
0
0
S
1.77 0.134 0.065 7.77 1.2 2
5
1.90 34
s
40 s
0.2S8 0.109 14.6
9.S
63
S
0
8
0
1 1/2 80 s $
S.S6 1.90 4.81 1.68 0.37S 0.145 20.78 2.09 7.8
3
3
8
4
6.62 0
0.109 0.200 7.60 2.72 13.9
S
6.40 2
1.61 0.134 0.065 9.29 3.63
1.90 7
7
S
S
1.61
5
2.37
2.24
0
6
0.280
18.97 2.64 13.7
6.62
6.3S
2 4080s s 10 8 6.62 2.37 S.76 2.15 0.432 0.109 28.S7
7
3.65 11.2
0.154
5
9
S
1
80
8.62 2.37 8.40 2.06 0.109 0.218 9.93 5.02 24.0
S
7
5
13.40
S
7
0.148
6
S
2.48
2.70
0.083
2.87
5$
8
0.322 0.120 28.SS 3.53 23.6
8.62 5
8.32 9
2 1/2 80
4 s40
8.62 2.87 7.62 2.63 o.soo 0.203 43.39 5.79 19.7
8
S
S
2.32 0.134 0.276 1S.19 7.66 37.3
2.87 10.48
80 10.7S
S
3
5
9
18.6S
O
2
0.16S
S
3.03
0.083
3.33
1
5
3.50
0.36S 0.120 40.48 4.33 36.9
10.7S 0
10.42 4
0
3
4 s $
9.7S
10.7S
o.soo
80
0.216 S4.74 7.58 32.3
3.26
3.50 O
S
O
0.1S 0.300 20.98 10.2 S
12.43 0
S 40 8 12.7S 0
5
24.17
O
6
2.
8
3.06
S
3.50
1
3.83
0.083
3.48
5.S
4.00
12.39
12.7S
0.180 0.120 49.S6 4.97 6
2
4
0
31/2 4080s s
11.7S
12.7S
6S.42
o.soo
9.11 46.9
40
0.226
3.76
4.00 O
2
O
12.51
0.318
14.00
13.68
0.1S6
23.07
63.7
0
80
8
S
0
1
0
0.188
8
27.73
7
4.00
S
3.54
4
40

3/s

3
"...

"O

_g

J>

0.101
0.083
0.061
0.172
0.155
0.132
0.102
0.288
0.266
0.231
0.188
0.478
0.409
0.375
0.312

0.16S
0.188

31.43
3S.76

0.188
0.218

39.78
46.06

0.188
0.218

43.80
S0.71

0.218
0.2SO

S
S.
37
79.43
98.93

0.2SO
0.312

available nominal weight

0.797
0.708
0.649
0.555

-"'C"'C

3.78
3.62
3.20
2.86
5.00
4.81
4.29
3.84

)>

-t
)>

63.1
83.S
7
83.0
106.2

S
10S.7
131.0
0
130.2
1S9.1
0
1S8.20
188.9
0
187.9
296.30
293.70

---
CJ>
::l

en
e
n"O

1.06
6
0.963
0.882
0.765
1.72

s
s

27.90
31.7S

J>

0.057
0.045
0.031

2.50
2.36
2.07
1.87

0.16S
0.188

-4

0.032
0.025
0.016

14.00
13.62
16.00
1S.67
0
0
16.00
1S.62
18.00
17.67
SS
18
0
0
10 s
18.00
17.62
20.00
S
19.62
2
0
S
4
0
20.00
19.S6
22.00
21.62
S
22
0
4
S
22.00
21.S6
SS
24.00
23.S6
24
0
4
24.00
23.SO
30.00
29.SO
SS
30
0
O
30.000
29.37
Note: Because of the various types of stainless steel
(mass) based on carbon steel has been used.
Far general correction factor multiply by:
0.99 far AISI 400 series stainless steel
1.02 far AISI 300 series stainless steel
S
S

1.58
1.45
1.28

1
6

"O
"O

WEIGHT

en
m

..::;

::::::J

(
1
)

en
en

"'C
"C

3
"C
(1)

:::!.

(
1
)

(J1

STAINLESS STEEL PIPE D

(Metrlc Uni

IMENSIONS & MASS


ts)

DIMENSIONS
Nomin
al Pipe
Slze
Milllmet

10

Schedul
e 11
Stalnles
s Steel
10

s
40 s
80 s
10 s
40 s
80 s
10 s
40 s
80 s

SS
15

40
80

5S
20

40
80

25

5
S

32

4
0
5
S

ss

4080

5
S

40

ss

4080
S
S

so

ss

4080

5S
65

40

SS
80

40

5S
90

40

Outsld
e
Dlamet
er

10.
10.
10.
3
13.
13.
7
13.
7
17.
17.
1
17.
1
21.
3
21.
21.
3
26.
7
26.
26.
7
33.
4
33.
4
33.
42.
2
42.
42.
2
48.
3
48.
48.
3
60.
3
60.
60.
3
73.
0
73.
0
73.
88.9
88.9
88.9
88.9

101.
6
101.
6
101.6

lnslde
Diamet
er
Mllllmet

7.82
6.84
5.48

MASS
Wall
Thlckne
as
Mlllimet
1.24

Nomi
nal
Mass
Plaln
End

Nom
inal
Mass
Wate
rfill

1.73
2.41

0.28
0.37
0.47

10.40
9.22
7.66

1.65
2.24
3.02

0.49
0.63
0.80

0.085
0.067
0.046

13.80
12.48
10.70

1.65
2.31
3.20

0.150
0.124
0.091

18.00
17.08
1S.76
13.84

1.6S
2.
11
3.73

0.63
0.84
1.1
0
0.80
1.00
1.27
1.62

0.2S6
0.231
0.197
0.1S2

23.40
22.48
20 96
18.88

1.65
2.
11
3.91

1.03
1.28
1.69
2.20

0.429
0.396
0.344
0.280

30.10
27.86
26.64
24.30

1.65
2.77
3.38
4.55

1.30
2.09
2.50
3.24

0.712
0.609
0.559
0.465

38.90
36.66
35.08
32.50

1.65
2.77
3.56
4.85

1.65
2.70
3.39
4.47

1.187
1.055
0.967
0.827

45.00
42.76
40.94
38.14

1.6S
2.77
3.68
S.08

1.91
3. 11
4.0S
S.41

1.S88
1.434
1.314
1.139

S
7.
00
49.22

1.6S
2.77
3.91
S.54

2.40
3.93
5.44
7.48

2.S62
2.3S3
2.160
1.907

68.78
66.90
62.68
58.98

2. 11
3.0S
s. 16
7.01

3.69
5.26
8.63
11.41

3.724
3.S1S
3083
2.78S

84.68
82.80
77.92
73.66

2.11
3.05
S
.
4
2
.
1
1
3

4.S1
6.45
11.29
1S.27

S.
63
0
S.
39
7.448
7.165
6.390
S.720

97.38
95.50
90.12
8S.44

S. 18
7.40
13.57
18.63

0.048
0.037
0.030

""C
""C

e
l>

-t

l>

CJ>

m
::s
(t)

(/)
(/)

""C

-s:
(t)

"'C

STAINLESS STEEL PIPE DIMENSIONS & MASS

"'C

m
e

(Metrlc Unlts)
DIMENSIONS

Nominal
Schedule 11
Pipe Size Stalnless
Millimetres
Steel

Outslde
Dlameter
Mllllmetres

MASS

lnslde
Wall
Ola meter
Thlckness
Milllmetres Mllllmetres

Nominal
Mass
Plaln End
kg/m

Nominal
Mass
Waterfill
kg/m

5S
10
40
80
SS
10
40
80
SS
10
40
80
SS
10 s
40 s
80
SS
10
40 s
80 s
SS
10
40
80

s
s
s

114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
141.3
141.3
141.3
141.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
168.3
219.1
219.1
219.1
219.1
273.1
273.1
273.1
273.1
323.9
323.9
323.9
323.9

110.08
108.20
102.26
97.18
13S.76
134.SO
128.20
122.24
162.76
161.SO
1S4.08
146.36
213.S6
211.S8
202.74
193.70
266.30
264.72
2S4.S6
247.70
31S.98
314.76
304.84
298.SO

2.11
3.0S
6.02
8.S6
2.77
3.40
6.SS
9.S3
2.77
3.40
7.11
10.97
2.77
3.76
8.18
12.70
3.40
4.19
9.27
12.70
3.96
4.S7
9.S3
12.70

5.84
8.36
16.07
22.32
9.47
11.S7
21.77
30.97
11.32
13.84
28.26
42.S6
14.79
19.96
42.SS
64.64
22.63
27.78
60.31
96.01
31.2S
36.00
73.88
132.08

9.S18
9.20S
8.192
7.418
14.478
14.21
12.914
11.737
20.808
20.481
18.634
16.816
3S.838
3S.167
32.322
29.462
SS.692
5S.037
50.941
48.18S
78.422
77.826
72.986
69.887

SS
10
SS
10

35S.6
35S.6
406.4
406.4

347.68
346.04
398.02
396.84

3.96
4.78
4.19
4.78

34.36
41.30
41.S6
47.29

94.98S
94.092
124.478
123.748

450

5S
10

4S7
457

4.19
4.78

46.81
S3.26

158.260
1S7.440

soo

SS
10

S08
S08

448.62
447.44
498.44
496.92

4.78
S.S4

59.2S
68.61

19S.12S
193.933

5SO

SS
120

SS9
559

S49.44
S47.92

4.78
S.S4

6S.24
7S.S3

236.980
23S.639

600

SS
10

610
610

604.46
S97.30

5.S4
6.3S

82.47
94.4S

281.367
279.877

750

SS
10

762
762

749.30
746.16

6.3S
7.92

118.31
147.36

441.339
437.466

100

125

150

200

s
s
s
s
s
s

s
s
s

250

300

350
400

J>
-1
J>

-s:

CD

::!.

Note: Because of the various types of stainless steel available nominal mass (weight)
based on carbon steel has been used.
For a general correction factor multiply by:
0.99 for AISI 400 series stainless steel
1.02 for AISI 300 series stainless steel

CJ1
CJ1

PIPE DATA

Copper & Brass Pipe

Copper & Brass Pipe


Copper and copper alloy pipe offer
excellent resistance to corrosion in potable
and non potable water piping, boiler feed
water lines, and other similar systems. The
copper alloy used most often in these
systems is red brass. Red brass has a
chemical composi tion of approx!mately
84.0% to 86.0% cop per with the
remainder of the alloy being zinc.
Both copper and red brass pipe are pro
duced in two general weights or wall thick
ness classifications:
Regular
weight
Extra-strong
weight

The pipe dimensions within these two


classifications conform to standardized pipe
size dimensions (see table #10A,B for actual
dimensions and weights}.
Copper and red brass pipe is available in
seamless 12 ft. (3.66 m} lengths, with a
pos sible tolerance of + or - 1/2 inch (13
mm} per length. Sizes range from 1/8 inch
(6 mm}
to 12 inches (300 mm}
NPS.

PIPE DATA

Copper & Red Brass Pipe


COPPER & RED BRASS PIPE DIMENSIONS & WEIGHTS
(MASS)
IMPERIAL UNITS
Nomi
nal
Pip
e
Slz
lnch
es

'
l

''
3
/

'

3'
/

1
11
2 /2
2
1
3/
3'
41
5
6
8
10
12

METRIC UNITS
Nomi
nal
Pip
Bra
e
ss
Wel
Slz
m
lbl
m
ft

lnch
es

Wall
Thlckn
lnch
es

Cop
per
Wel
lb/
ti

0.4
05
0.5
40
0.6
75
0.8

0.06
2
0.08
2
0.09
0
0.10

0.
25
0.
45
0.

0.
53
0.
44
0.

40
1.
05
1.

7
0.11
4
0.12
6
0.14

64
0.
95
1.

62
0.
93
1.
27
1.

o.

31
1.
66
1.
90
2.3
75
2.
87
3.
50
4.
00
4.
50
5.
56
6.
62
8.
62
10.
750
12.
750

6
0.15
0
0.15

30
1.
82
2.
69
3.
20
4.

6
0.18
70.21

22
6.
12
8.

9
0.25
0
0.2

76
11.
4
12.
9
16.
2
19.

50
0.2
50
0.2
50
0.3
12
0.3
65
0.3
75

4
31.
6
46.
2
56.
5

7
2.
63
3.
13
4.
12
5.
99
8.
56
11.
2
12.
7
15.
8
19.
0
30.
9
45.
2
55.
3

Table #10A - Copper and Red Brass Pipe Dimensions

6
8
1
0
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
2
4
0
5

o.o.
Mass

1
0.
1
3.
1

1.5
7
2.0
8
2.2

7.
2
1.
2

9
2.7
2
2.9

6.
3
3.
4
2.
4

0
3.2
0
3.7

0
6
5
8

8.
6
0.
7
3.
8

0
9
10
0
1

8.
10
2
11
4
14

2
1
25

1
16
8
21
9
27
3
32
4

0
2
5
3
0

Wall
Copper
Brass
Thlckness Mass

1
3.8
1
3.9
6
4.7
5
5.5
6
6.3
5
6.3
5
6.3
5
6.3
5
7.9
2
9.2
7
9.5
2

0.3
85
0.6
80
0.9
54
1.
42
1.

0.3
76
0.6
65
0.9

93
2.
71
4.
00
4.

9
2.6
5
3.9
1
4.6

76
6.
28
9.

6
6.1
3
8.9

11
13.
0
17.
0
19.

1
12.7

2
24.
1
28.

23.5
28.3
46.0
67.3

9
47.
0
68.
7
84.
1

33
1.3
9
1.8

16-7
18.9

82.3

57

sal

PIPE DATA

Copper & Red Brass


COPPER & RED BRASS PIPE DIMENSIONS &
WE
No
min
al
Pipe
Size

'
l'

3
/

'
31

11
2

/41
1
/2

2
3 1/2
31
4 /2
5
6
8
10

IMPERIAL UNITS

o.
o.

Wall
Thickn
ess

lnches

.
4
.
.5
6
.
8
1.0

0.10
0
0.1

50
1.3
15
1.6

7
0.18
2
0.19

60
1.9
00
2.3
75
2.8
75
3.5

4
0.2
03
0.22

00
4.0
00
4.5
00
5.5
62
6.6
25
8.6
25
10.7
50

Co
ppe
r
Wei

0.
37
0.
62
0.
84
1.
25
1.
71
2.
51
3.

23
0.12
7
0.14
9
0.15

1
0.28
0
0.30
4
0.32
1
0.34
1
0.3
75
0.43
7
0.50
0
0.50
0

46
4.
19
5.
80
8.
85
11.
8
14.
4
17.
3
23.
7
32.
9
49.
5
62.

Nom
Br
as
s
We
EXTRA
STRONG

o.
o.

0.363
0.611

10
.3
13

0.829
1.23

.7
17
.1
21
.3
26
.7
33
.4
42
.2
48
.3
60

1.67
2.46
3.39
4.10
5.67

METRIC
UNI
Wall
Thickn
ess
mm

.3
73
.0
88

8.66
11.6
14.1
16.9

.9
10
2
114

23.2
32.2
48.4
61.1

141
168
219
273

Table #108 - Copper and Red Brass Pipe Dimensions

IGH
TS
Co
pp
er
M

B
ra
s
s

2.5
4
3.1
2
3.2
3
3.7

0.
55
0.
93
1.
26
1.

0.5
0.9
09
1.2
3
1.8

8
3.9
9
4.6
2
4.9

86
2.
54
3.
73
5.

3
2.4
8
3.6
6
5.0

3
5.1
6
5.6
1
7.1

15
6.
23
8.
63
13.
2
17.

4
6.1
0
8.4

1
7.7
2
8.1
5
8.6
6
9.5
2
11.1
12.7
12.7

6
21.4
25.7
35.
3
49.0
73.
7
92.
9

4
12.9
17.0
21.0
25.1
34.5
47.9
72.0
90.9

PIPE DATA

Cast lron

Pipe Cast lron Pipe


Orive

Motor

lllustration #12 - Centrifuga! Pipe Casting

Cast iron pipe is an iron alloy containing


between 2% to 4% carbon and approxi
mately 1% to 3% silicon. This chemical
composition may vary depending on type
and specific properties needed in the pipe.
Casting of pipe is accomplished by pouring
molten hot iron alloy into either a stationary
mold form or into the more commonly used
centrifuga! mold. Centrifuga! pipe cast
molding uses centrifuga! force (produced
by the rotating mold) to evenly distribute
the molten metal throughout the pipe
casting.

lllustration #12 shows an example of a


cen trifuga! pipe casting mold.
The tour principal types of cast iron avail
able for pipe and fitting manufacturing are:
White cast iron
Ductile iron
Gray cast iron
Malleable iron
These types of cast iron are manufactured
into two majar cast iron pipe
classifications:
a. Cast lron Pressure Pipe
b. Cast lron Soil Pipe

PIPE DATA

Cast lron Pipe

Cast lron Pressure Pipe


Cast iron pressure pipe was commonly
used
for carrying gas, water, and other liquid
services under pressure. lt is now being
rapidly replaced by various types of plastic
pipe. Ductile and gray cast iron fittings and
ductile pipe are the two predominant cast
iron types used in cast iron pressure sys
tems. Ductile iron is essentially made by
adding magnesium to molten cast iron.
Magnesium chahges most of the free car
bon into a modular form which gives it
added strength while still having the
corrosion
resistance of cast
iron.

Pressure cast iron can be specified by


weight, class, wall thickness and/or pres
sure rating. Because the majority of pres
sure cast iron is intended for underground
service, common standards usually incor
porate loading and laying conditions in
trenching. American National Standards
lnstitute (ANSI) and American Water Works
Association (AWWA) standards cover the
majority of manufacturing specifications for
ductile and gray cast iron fittings and
ductile pipe (gray cast iron pressure pipe is
no
longer
commercially
being
manufactured).

PIPE DATA
Cast
Pipe

lron

Cast/Silicon lron Pipe


Soil

Due to building code regulations, cast iron


soil pipe is commonly used in commercial
buildings far DWV (drainage, waste, and
vent). There are three styles of soil pipe
man ufactured: single hub, double hub, and
hub less pipe. All three styles of pipe are
usually made from gray cast iron. American
Society far Testing and Materials (ASTM)
standards categorize cast iron soil pipe into
two weights, extra heavy and service weight
pipe.

Tables #11A and #11B give specific dimen


sions far extra heavy and service weight soil
pipe based on ASTM standards. The
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) uses
only standard grade (CAN3-B70-M86) to
designate their cast iron pipe. Dimensions
based on CSA standards are presented in
table #11C.
Sizes far soil pipe range from 2 inches
(50 mm) to 15 inches (380 mm) nominal
inside diameter far all sizes. Soil pipe is
available in 5 ft. (1.5 m) and 1O ft. (3.0
m) lengths which are referred to as laying
lengths. lllustration #13 indicates laying
lengths of all three styles of soil pipe.

Silicon
Pipe

lron

Cast iron soil pipe and fittings can be man


ufactured with a special high silicon com
position (often referred to as Duriron), that
is intended far services requiring high
corro sion resistance.
A typical use of this type of pipe would be
for laboratory drainage and waste.
Silicon in this type of pipe makes up
approx imately 14.2% to 14.75% of the
chemical composition.
When used with hub and spigot joints, it is
recommended that acid proof rape
packing be used.
Note: lf M.J. couplings (Mechanical
Joints) are used, special acid resistant
sleeves or coatings on the elastomer
sleeve should be used.

PIPE DATA

Cast lron Soil Pipe

DOUBLE HUB PIPE

e
1(

La ing

Length

Overall Len th

1'

-,
1

17

zzzzz zz zz

zzzz z

2,

za

SINGLE HUB PIPE

La in

Len th

Overall Len th

z zz z

/!E

'"'"'"''*:"""' '"'"' }
LEGEND

HUBLESS PIPE

A = Hub Length
B = Hub l.D.
C = Wall Thickness
D = Caulking Width
E = Barre! l.D.
F = Barre! O.O.

La in
Overall Len th

Table #11 A,B,C Diagram

lllustration #13 - Laying Lengths for Casi lron Soil Pipe


(Used with Tables 11A,B,C)

PIPE DATA

Cast lron Soil Pipe


EXTRA HEAVY CAST IRON SOIL PIPE DIMENSIONS/
BASED ON ASTM STANDARDS (Imperial & Metric Units)
Metric Units

Imperial Units
(C)
Nominal
Wall
Thickness
Inches
0.19

Nomi
nal
Pipe
Size
Inch
2
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
15

(C)
Min.Wal
l
Thickn
ess
0.12
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.25
0.31
0.31
0.37

0.25
0.
2
5
0.
2
5
0.
2

Nomi
nal
Pipe
Size
Inch
2
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
15

(A)
Min.H
ub
Lengt
h
2.50
2.75
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.50
3.50
4.25
4.25

(8)
Hub

1.0.

Inches

(F)

o.o.

Inches
2.38
3.50
4.50
5.50
6.50
8.62
10.75
12.75
15.88

(E)
Nomin
al

1.0.

Inches
2.0
0
3.0
0
4.00
5.0
0
6.0
0

Nomi
nal
Pipe
Size
Millimetre
50
75
1
0
0
1
2
5
1
5

(C)
Min.Wall
Thickne
ss
Millimetr
3.05
4.57
4.57
4.57
4.57
6.35
7.87
7.87
9.40

(C)
NominalWa
ll
Thickne
ss
4.83
6.35
6.35
6.35
6.35
7.87
9.40
9.40
11.18

(
F
)

o.o.
60.45

88.90
114.90
139.70
165.10
218.95
273.05
323.85
403.35

HUB & SPIGOT DIMENSIONS


(O)
Caulki
ng
Width
lnches
0.35

3.06
4.19
0.35
5.
0.35
1
0.35
0.35
9
6.
0.44
1
0.44
9
0.50
7.
0.56
1
Table #11A - Extra Heavy Cast lron Soil Pipe

Nomi
nal
Pipe
Size
Millimetr
50
75
1
0
0
125
1
5
0
2

(A)
Min.
Hub
Lengt
h
63.50
69.85
76.20
76.20
76.20
88.90
88.90
107.95
107.95

(8)
Hub

1.0.

Millimetr
es
77.72
106.43
131.83
157.23
182.63
241.30
295.15
249.25
431.80

(O)
Caulking
Width
Millimet
res
8.89

8.89
8.89
8.89
8.89
11.18
11.18
12.70
14.22

(E)
Nominal

1.0
.

Millimetre
50.8
76.2
101.6
12
7.0
152.4
20
3.2
254.0
30

PIPE DATA

Cast lron Soil Pipe


SERVICE WEIGHT CAST IRON SOIL PIPE DIMENSIONS/
BASED ON ASTM STANDAROS (Imperial & Metric Units)

Imperial Units
Nominal
Pipe
Size

lnches
2
3
4
5
6
8
1
1
2
1
5

(C)
Min.Wall
Thickness
lnches
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.21
0.22
0.25

Nominal
(A)
Pipe
Min.Hub
Size
Length
Inches lnches
2
2.50
3
2.75
4
3.00
5
3.00
6
3.00
8
3.50
10
3.50
12
4.25
15
4.25

(C)
NominalWall
Thickness
lnches
0.17
0.17
0.18
0.
0.
2
0.22
0.26
0.28
0.30

Metric Units
(F)

o.o.

lnches
2.25
3.25
0
4.25
5.25
6.25
0
8.37
10.50
5
0
12.50
0
15.37
5

(E)
Nominal
1.0.
Inche
s2.08
3.08
4.07
5.06
6.05
8.16
10.24
12.22
15.08

Nominal
Pipe
Size
Millimetr
es 50
75
100
125
150
200
250
300
375

(C)
(C)
Min.Wall
NominalWall
Thickness
Thickness
Millimetres Millimetres
3.05
4.32
3.30
4.32
3.56
4.57
3.81
4.83
4.06
5.08
4.32
5.59
5.33
6.60
5.59
7.11
6.35
7.62

(E)
Nominal
1.0.
Millimetres Millimetres
52.83
57.15
82.55
78.23
107.95
103.38
128.52
133.35
153.67
158.75
212.73
207.26
266.70
260.10
317.50
310.39
383.03
390.53
(F)

o.o.

HUB & SPIGOT DIMENSIONS

(B)

Hub
1.0.
lnches
2.94
3.94
4.94
5.94
6.94
9.25
11.38
13.50
16.75

(O)

Caulking
Width
lnches
0.320
0.320
0.320
0.320
0.320
0.440
0.440
0.500
0.565

Table #118 - Service Weight Cast lron Soil Pipe

Nominal
(A)
Pipe
Min.Hub
Length
Size
Millimetres Millimetres
63.50
50
75
69.85
100
76.20
125
76.20
150
76.20
200
88.90
250
88.90
300
107.95
375
107.95

(B)

Hub
1.0.
Millimetres
74.68
100.08
125.48
150.88
176.28
234.95
289.05
342.90
425.45

(O)

Caulking
Width
Millimetres
8.13
8.13
8.13
8.13
8.13
11.18
11.18
12.70
14.35

PIPE DATA

lss

Cast lron Soil Pipe

CAST IRON SOIL PIPE DIMENSIONS/


BASED ON CSA (CAN3-B70-M86) STANDAROS (Imperial & Metric Units)
Imperial Units
Nomi
nal
Pipe
Size
lnche
1

(C)
Min.Wall
Thickn
ess
Inches
0.118

(C)
NominalWa
ll
Thickn
ess
1.398

1/
2

0.118
0.150
0.181
0.201
0.209
0.252
0.280
0.300
0.339

1.882
2.874
3.882
4.843
5.827
7.756
9.685
11.693
14.567

Nomi
nal
Pipe
Size
Inche

(A)
Min.
Hub
Len
gth
2.244

(B)
Hub

2
3
4
5
6
8
10
12

2
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
15

2.244
2.244
2.480
2.480
2.756
2.756
2.992
3.228

1.0.

lnches

2.937
4.173
5.197
6.063
7.126
9.488
11.575
13.819
17.047

Metric Units

(F)

o.o.

(E)
Nomin
al

Nomi
nal
Pipe
Size
Millimetre
40

1.0.
Inches
1.81
1.96
1
9
2.24
2.44
4
1
3.26
3.44
8
5
4.48
4.29
8
1
5.47
5.31
2
5
6.53
HUB &
SPIGOT

Inches

(O)
Caulkin
g
Wid
th
0.25

2
0.29
9
0.31
1
0.31
9
0.33
0

Table #11C - CSA Standards for Cast lron Soil Pipe

50
75
100
125
150
200
250
300
375

(C)
Min.Wall
Thickne
ss
Millimet
3

3
3
.
8
4
.
6
5
.
1

(C)
Nominal
Wall
Thickness
Millimetre
35.5

47.8
73.0
98.6
123
148
197
246
297
370

DIMENSIONS

Nomi
nal
Pip
e
Siz50

75
100
125
150
200
250
300
375

(A)
Min.
Hub
Lengt
h5

7
5
7
57
6
3
6
3
7

(B)
Hub

1.0.

Millimetres

74.6
106
132
154
181
241
294
351
433

(F)

o.o.

Millimetr
es

46
5
7
83
109
135
1
6
0
213
2

(
O
)
Caulking

6
.
4
7
.
6
7
.
9
8.

(E)
Nominal

1.0.

Millimetre
s5

0
62
87.5
114
1
3
9
1
6
6

66

PIPE DATA

Thermo lastic/Thermoset Pi e

Thermoplastic Pipe

Thermoset Plastic Pipe

Plastic pipe can be divided into two sepa


rata material categories. These are:
Thermoplastic
Thermoset.
Thermoplastic materials can be repeat
edly heated to a liquid state, cooled and
reformed without any chemical change
to the plastic. Pipe made from
thermoplas tic becomes soft when
heated, with a decrease in working
pressure and tensile strength. When
cooled, it becomes hard and brittle with
a decrease in its impact resistance. The
following
common
plastic
piping
materials are classified as thermo
plastics:

Thermoset plastic, once cured, can not be


reheated without effecting the chemical
make up of the plastic. Plastic pipe made
from thermoset material is permanently
rigid and encompasses all reinforced
thermoset ting resin pipes (RTRP). This
type of piping is often referred to as
fiberglass pipe or fiberglass reinforced
pipe (FRP). The follow ing are examples of
thermoset plastic pipe:

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)


Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Chlorinated
Polyvinyl
Chloride
(CPVC)
Polybutylene (PB)
Polyethylene (PE)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polyvinylidine Fluoride (PVDF)

Glass Reinforced Epoxy


Glass Reinforced Polyester
Glass
Reinforced
Vinylestes
Glass
Reinforced
Furan

PIPE DATA

Laminated
Plastic
Pipe/Standards
67
Laminated and Composition Plastic
Plastic Standards and
Ratings
Pipe
Most plastic pipe used in the North Amer/n addition to the two separate material ican market is manufactured to standards set
categories of plastic pipe, there is a third out by ASTM, CSA, and/or NSF (National
type that combines a thermoplastic /iner
Sanitation Foundation).
with a thermoset outer structure. This type
Plastic pipe is pressure designated (aside
of plastic pipe is referred to as dual /ami- from sewer drainage grade) by schedule
nated (DL).
number, pressure rating ata given temperlt combines the advantages of thermoplasature and/or given a standard dimension
tic with the rigid structural properties of a
ratio (SOR).
reinforced thermosetting resin.
The standard dimension ratio (SDR) is
the Metals can also be used with plastics to average outside diameter of the pipe
improve physical properties. Plastic metal
divided by the mnimum wal/ thickness.
composition pipe uses a metal core lamiExamples of thermoplastic pressure
ratings nated between interior and exterior layers of
and comparable SOR numbers
are shown in thermoplastic. The result is a plastic com- table #12A. Maximum operating
pressure position pipe that has the durability of plasrates for schedule 40 and 80
thermoplastics tic and the strength of metal.
are given in tables #128 and #12C.
Temper
ature correction factors are given in table
#120.

PIPE DATA

Pressure Ratings/Usage

THERMOPLASTIC PRESSURE RATINGS ANO COMPARABLE SOR NUMBERS


PSI

PVC&CPVC
kPa
SOR No.

PSI

Polybutylene
kPa
SOR No.

315
2172
13.5
160
1103
250
1724
17
125
862
200
1380
21
100
690
160
1103
26
80
552
125
862
32.5
45
310
100
690
41
63
435
63
Note: Pressure ratings are taken at 73degrees
Table #12A - Thermoplastic Ratings and SOR Numbers

13.5
17
21
26
45.5

Polyethylene (3408)
PSI
kPa
SOR No.

160
130
100
80
65
50

F (23degrees C)

1103
862
690
552
448
345

9
13.5
17

21
26
32.5
-

PIPE DATA

Pressure Ratings (psi}

Plastic Pipe Pressure Ratings (psi)


PLASTIC PIPE MAXIMUM PRESSURE RATING (PSI at
73F)
Schedule
Schedule 80
Schedule 80 Schedule
Nominal Schedule
40
Pipe
Size
PVC&CPVC Inches
Socket End

1/2
3/4

1
11/4
1
2
21/2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16-24
Table #128 -

80
PVC&CP
VC
Socket
85 Threaded
42

15
69
34
15
63
320
15
52
260
15
47
240
15
40
200
15
42
210
15
37
19
15
32
160
15
28
15
25
15
23
15
23
15
22
15
22
15
0
Plastic Pipe 0
Pressure Ratings (psi)
600
480
450
370
330
280
300
260
220
180
160
140
130
130
130

80
Heat Fusion
Heat
Fusion
Joint
Joint
218

218
174
174
174
162

130
130

Low
Pressure
or
Drainage
Applications
Only

176
164
134
121
101

96
81
6
5
51
4
-

Heat Fusion Threaded Filament


Wound Joint End
Socket

580
470
430
370
320
275
300
260
220
180
-

290
235
215
185
160
135
150
130
110
90

150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150

PIPE DATA

Pressure Ratings (kPa)

Plastic Pipe Pressure Ratings (kPa)

PLASTIC PIPE MAXIMUM PRESSURE RATINGS (kPa at 23C)


Schedule 80
Schedule 80
Schedule 80 Schedule 80
PVC&CPVC
PVDF
DL& RTRP
Nominal Schedule 40
Polypropylene Polyethylene
Heat
Fusion
Heat
Fusion
Threaded Filament Wound
Pipe Size PVC&CPVC Socket Threaded
Heat Fusion
Socket
Millimetres Socket End
End
End
Flanged
Joint
Joint
Joint
End

15
20
25
32
40
50
65
80
100
150
200
250
300
350
400-600

414
330
310
250
2280
193
207
179
152
124
0110
97
90
90
0

586
289
103
476
234
103
434
221
103
359
179
103
324
165
103
276
138
103
290
144
103
255
131
103
221
110
103
193
103
172
103
0
5
159
103
152
103
10
152
35
0
152 are rounded off.10
Metric Pressure ratings

1503
1503
1200
1200
1117

897
897

Low
Pressure
or
Drainage
Applications
Only

1214
1131
924
835
697
662
559
442
393
352
331
-

4000
3240
2965
2550
2210
1896
207
1790
1520
1240
-

2000
1620
1482
1276
110.0
930
1035
900
760
f'O

Note: 1.
2. indicates pressures only apply to RTRP.
3. All pressures based on water service.
4. For higher temperatures multiply the pressure rating by factor given in temperature correction table. Table
#12C - Plastic Pipe Pressure Ratings (kPa)

1035
1035
1035
1035
1035
1035
1035
1035
1035
1035
1035
*1035
*1035
*1035
*1035

PIPE DATA

Tem erature Correction Factors

Thermoplastic Temperature Factors


TEMPERATURE CORRECTION FACTORS FOR COMMONLY USED THERMOPLASTICS
PVC

CPVC

FACTORS
pp

1.00
0.90
0.75
0.62
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.22
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.

1.00
0.96
0.92
0.
85
0.
77
0.
7
0.
7
0.66
0.62
0.
55
0.
0.40
47
0.32
0.25
0.18
0.15
N.R.
N.R.

1.00
0.97
0.91
0.85
0.80
0.77
0.75
0.71
0.68
0.65
0.57
0.50
0.26
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.

Operatin
g
Temperatu
F. 70
C 21

80
90
100
110
115
120
125
130
140
150
160
170
180
200
210
240
280

27
32
38
43
46
49
52
54
60
66
71
77
82
93
99
116
138

PE

1.00
0.95
0.88
0.82
0.76
0.72
0.69
0.66
0.63
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.
N.R.

PVDF

1.00
0.95
0.87
0.80
0.75
0.71
0.68
0.66
0.62
0.58
0.52
0.49
0.45
0.42
0.36
0.33
0.25
0.18

Note: 1. N.A. - Not Recommended


2. Multiply maximum pressure rating by correction factor to determine pressure rating at given
temperature

Table #120 - Thermoplastic Temperature Correction

71

72

PIPE DATA
Plastic Pipe Selection and Usage
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS).
ABS pipe and fittings are colored black
for
schedule
40
and
blue-gray
for
pressure
ratings 145, 180, and 230 psi (1000,
1240,
& 1590 kPa). Airline, one of the only
plas
tic pipe designs approved for com
pressed air service, is light blue in
color.
Most ABS pipe is used in drainage, waste
and vent (DWV) housing applications, but
it does have limited use in well casing,
electri cal and communication conduit and
indus trial chemical services.
The methods used to join ABS are: solvent
cementing, threading, grooved joints, and
flanging.
lt is supplied in rigid lengths and has a
max imum operating temperature of 180
degrees F (82 degrees C).

Plastic Pi e/Selection & Usage


Polyvinyl
Chloride
(PVC)
PVC pipe and fittings are colored gray
for schedule 40, 80 and 120. AWWA
cate gories of PVC are white, blue or
green in color. Ali other pressure and
sewer grades of pipe are white.
PVC is the most widely used type of
plastic pipe material with use in: drainage,
waste and vent (DWV); building sewers;
well cas ing; irrigation systems; chilled
water piping; industrial applications; water
service and transmission lines.
The methods used to join PVC are:
solvent cementing, 0-rings, threading,
grooved joints, and flanging.
PVC is supplied in rigid lengths and has a
maximum operating temperature of 140
degrees F (60 degrees C).

PIPE DATA

Plastic Pipe/Selection & Usage

Plastic Pipe Selection & Usage


Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride
(CPVC)
CPVC pipe and fittings are colored pur
ple-gray for schedule 40 and 80.
Copper tubing equivalent sizes are
beige in color, and SDR 13.5 rated pipe
is orange.
Applications include: hot and cold water
dis tribution, sprinkler systems (UL &
FM approved), industrial applications and
for services requiring higher temperature
than PVC.
The methods used to join CPVC are:
solvent cementing, threading, grooved
joints, and flanging.
CPVC is supplied in rigid lengths and has
a maximum operating temperature of
21O degrees F (99 degrees C).

Polyethylene (PE)
PE gas service piping and fittings are col
ored orange, beige or black. Ali other
SDR
and classes are produced in the color
black.
Most PE piping is used for gas and water
distribution and service. Other usage
include: irrigation systems and industrial
applications.
The methods used to join PE piping are:
butt and socket heat fusion, 0-rings,
insert fit tings, threading and flanged
connections.
PE pipe is normally supplied in coils up to
3 inch (75 mm), and in rigid lengths over
this size. The maximum operating
temperature is 160 degrees F (71 degrees
C).

73

74

PIPE DATA

Plastic Pipe/Selection & Usa e

Plastic Pipe Selection & Usage


Polypropylene (PP)
PP pipe and fittings are colored black
or light blue for schedule 40 and 80. Ali
other pressure ratings are colored white.
lt is used in industrial applications, labora
tory waste and pure water systems.
The methods used to join PP piping are:
butt and socket heat fusion, electrical
resistance heat fusion and mechanical
couplings.
PP pipe is supplied in rigid lengths and
has a maximum operating temperature of
180 degrees F (82 degrees C).
Polybutylene
(PB)
Ali SDR ratings and classes of PB are col
ored black or blue.
Applications include: hot and cold water
dis tribution, hydronic heating, industrial
appli cations and sprinkler systems (UL
& FM approved).

The methods used to join PB piping are:


butt and socket heat fusion, 0-rings,
insert fit tings, crimped joints, threaded
and flanged.
PB pipe is supplied in rigid lengths or
coils.
The
maximum
operating
temperature is 21O degrees F ( 99
degrees C).

Polyvinylidine Fluoride (PVDF)


PVDF pipe and fittings are colored red
or natural for schedule 80 and natural
or white for ali other classes or ratings.
PVDF is used in highly corrosive and
chem ical s rvices including: wet and dry
chloride, bromme, pure water and
halogens.
The methods used to join PVDF include:
butt and socket heat fusion, grooved,
threaded and flanged connections.
lt is supplied in rigid lengths and has a
maximum operating temperature of 280
degrees F (138 degrees C).

PIPE DATA

Selection/Solvent Cementing

Selection & Usage

Solvent Cementing

Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Pipes


(RTRP).
RTRP pipe and fittings are supplied in
var ious colors depending on the
manufac turer. lt is used in al/ types of
industrial and commercial applications.
The methods used to join RTR piping
include: butt, bell and spigot adhesive
bond
ing,
flanged
and
threaded
connections.
lt is supplied in rigid lengths and has
maxi mum operating temperatures of:
Glass Reinforced Epoxy 300 degrees F
(149 degrees C).
Glass Reinforced Polyester 225 degrees
F (107 degrees C).
Glass Reinforced Vinylestes 250 degrees
F (121 degrees C).
Glass Reinforced Furan 300 degrees F
(149 degrees C).

So/vent cementing is the most common


method used to join thermoplastic
(ABS, PVC, and CPVC) pipe and
fittings. The fol lowing give a brief
description of the steps involved in the
assembling of a solvent cement joint:
1. Cut the pipe squarely with a miter box
and hand saw or with a plastic pipe
cutter.
2. Remove all burrs and ridges from the
pipe
end. Ridges or raised beads on the
pipe will have a tendency to wipe
away the cement when fitting the
joint together.
3. Wipe the end of the pipe and socket
of the fitting to remove any dirt,
moisture or grease.
4. Select the appropriate applicator for the
size of pipe used. See table #13.
5. The joining surfaces must be softened
by the use of primer, cement ora
combina tion of both primer and
cement.
Note: Primer is not required on
ABS.

75

PIPE DATA

Solvent Cementing

Solvent Cementing
6. Apply sufficient cement to pipe and fit
ting to fill the gap space in the joint.
See illustration #14.
7. Assemble the pipe and fitting while the
cement is still wet and fluid. Twist the
pipe slightly while assembling, and when
bot tomed, hold for approximately 30
sec onds to prevent push out from the
tapered
fitting.

8. Wipe off any excess cement from the


assembled joint. Handle the joint with
care during set time. Table #14 gives ini
tial set times for various pipe sizes and
temperatures.

APPROPRIA TE APPLICATOR BRUSH SIZE


Nominal Pipe Size
lnches
Millimetres
1 to 1V4
11/2 to 2
3
4
6
8

25 to 32
40to 50
80
100
150
200

Table #13 - Applicator Brush Sizes

Maximum Width
Inches
Millimetres
1
1112
2112
3
5
6

25
40
65
80
125
150

. Minimum Length
lnches
Millimetres
11/2
2
3
3
51
61

40
50
8
0
9
10
4
1
5

Solvent Cementing

PIPE DATA

Set and Cure Times


INITIAL SET ANO CURE ITEMS
lnitial Set Time
Temperat
ure
Range
60 -100F
1540C

Y2"to 1Y4"
(15 mm to 32 mm)
15 MIN.

1Yz"to3"
(40 mm to 80
mm)
30MIN.

3Y2"to 8"
(90 mm to 200
mm)
1 HA.

10"to 14"
(250 mm to 350
mm)
2HR.

16"to24"
(400 mm to 600
mm)
4HR
.

40 60F
5 -15C

1 HA.

2 HA.

4HR.

8 HA.

O 40F
-20 +5C

16
HR.

3HR.

6HR.

12 HR.

24HR.

48HR.

Cure Times
60-100F
15 60C

1to6 HA.

2to 12 HR.

6to24 HA.

24 HA.

48to 72 HA.

40 60F
5-15C

2to 12 HR.

4to24HR.

12to48HR.

72HR.

120 HA.

O 40F
-20- +5C

8to48HR.

16 to 96 HR.

48to 192 HA.

192 HR.

240 to 336 HR.

Note: 1. lnitial set time indicates joints will withstand normal installation and handling stresses.
2. Cure times indicates required time before testing or before line pressure can be applied.
3. 50% more cure time is required in damp or humid conditions.
Table #14 - Set and Cure Times

78

Cementin /Threadin

PIPE DATA
Solvent
Cementing
Pipe and fitting surfaces both require softening
and adequate cernen! coating far bonding
Pipe Surfaces

Fitting Surfaces

lllustration #14 - Fitting Surfaces for Plastic


Pipe

Threading Plastic
Note: When threading plastic pipe, use
only Schedule 80 or heavier pipe, and
after threading the pressure rating must
be reduced by 50 percent.

Plastic

1. Use pipe dies designad for plastic pipe


(recommended front rake angle of 5 to
1O degrees).
2. Do not over tighten the vise used to hold
the pipe and, if needed, insert an alumi
num or wooden plug in the pipe end to
maintain roundness.
3. Cutting oil is not needed. A small amount
of oil periodically applied to the chasers
is adequate.
4. Only use Teflon tape or other approved
joining compound to assemble the joint
(do not use an oil base compound or
Teflon paste).
5. Tighten by hand. Then an additional 2
turns with a strap wrench is usually suffi
cient, this is approximately 150 inch/
pounds torque (17 Newton-metres).

PIPE DATA
Grooved Plastic Joints

Grooved Plastic Joints


Flanged Plastic Joints

1. Check with the pipe supplier far the rec


ommended grooving method (roll
groove
or cut groove). Maximum operating
pres sure will depend on the grooving
method used.
2. Groove dimensions and coupling
assem bly coincide to methods used
with stand
ard
steel
pipe.
3. Use grooved couplings recommended far
plastic use.
4. The following PVC pipes may be
grooved:
SOR 26 - sizes 6 inches to 12 inches
(150 mm to 300 mm)
SOR 21 - sizes 4 inches to 12 inches
(100 mm to 300 mm)
Sch 40- maximum size 8 inches (200
mm)
Sch 80

1. Align bolt hales and flange faces without


putting stress on the flange 0r piping.
2. Place a full flat faced soft gasket of
approximately 1/8 in. (3 mm) between
the
flange faces.
3. Tighten bolts in a proper diametrically
opposed pattern and final torque to val
ues given in table #156.
Note: Plastic flanges comply with ANSI
150 lb. steel flange dimensions.

sol

Grooved

PIPE DATA

Joints/0-Rings

RE COMMENDED PLASTIC FLANGE TORQUE VALUES


Flange Size
Millimetres
lnche
s
112 to
15 to 40
2to4
50to 100
150to 200
6to8
250
10
12to
300to600
Table #1524
- Plastic Flange Torque Values

Ft. lbs.
15
30
50
70
100

Torque
Newton Metres
21
41
68
95
136

INSERTION DISTANCE FOR AWWA C-900 PVC PIPE


Nominal Pipe Size
lnches
Millimetres
4
6
8
10
12

100
150
200
250
300

Table #16 - Plastic Pipe lnsertion Distances

lnsertion Depth
lnches
Millimetres
4.02
5.30
5.
70
7.
70
8.20

102
1
3
1
4
195
210

'

PIPE DATA
0-Ring or Gasket Joints for
Underground Service

0-Rin

1. Wipe clean the spigot end, bell end and


gasket groove of the pipe or fitting to be
joined.
2. lnspect (making sure the correct gasket
is used) and insert the gasket in bell
groove. An easy way of inserting the
gas ket is to bend the gasket into a
heart shape and then place into the bell
groove.
3. Lubricate the pipe end that will be
inserted
into the bell. lf the pipe is field cut cham
fer the end of the pipe (approx. 15
degrees) with chamfering tool, coarse
file or rasp.
4. Align and then push the end of the pipe
into the bell up to the appropriate dis
tance or reference mark, see illustration
#15. Aeference mark distances are
shown in table #16.

Joints (Under round)/RTR Pi e


15 degree chamfered
spigot end

lllustration #15 - Assembly of 0-Ring or Gasket Type


Joining

Joining RTR Pipe


The two standard methods of joining ATA
pipe is by butt and strap adhesive bonding
or bell and spigot adhesive bonding.
Butt and strap joints are made by butting
two pieces of pipe together and then
wrapping the joint with layers of resin
saturated glass mat.
Bell and spigot adhesive bonding uses
tapered fittings and epoxy to make the
joint. Pipe ends are sanded and fitted to
the taper fittings before an adhesive is
applied to the pipe and fitting.

81

SECTION ONE QUESTIONS


PIPE DATA
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Which of the methods listed below is not used for stee/ pipe manufacturing?
type L, lap welded
type E, electric resistance welded
type F, furnace butt welded or continuous welded
type S, seamless

2.
a.
b.

Pipe is classed as either welded or seamless manufacturad.


true
false

3.

d.

The standards for A-53 and A-106 pipe are established by:
API
ASTM
AWWA
CSA

4.
a.
b.

A-53 is a commonly used pipe. Al/ A-53 pipe is classified as A-53, grade B.
true
false

a.
b.

c.

5.
1.
2.
3.
6.

What are the three general weight or wall thickness classifications for steel pipe?

For any steel pipe size:


a.
the O.D. is constant and the l.D. varias
b.
the l.D. is constant and the O.O. varias
7.
The pipe abbreviation NPS means:
Answer:

8.

Steel pipe in sizes up to 12 inch (300 mm) are larger in outside diameter than their
nominal size, and pipe in sizes over 12 inch have an outside diameter
corresponding to their nominal size.
a.
true
b.
false

9.

Wall thicknesses for standard weight pipe and schedule 40 are identical through the
entire size range.
a.
true
b.
false

1O.
a.
b.
c.
d.

What is the actual


8.375 inches (213
8.500 inches (216
8.625 inches (219
8.750 inches (222

11.
1.
2.
3.

List the tour basic pipe end finishes which are commercially available.

outside diameter of an 8 inch (200 mm) steel pipe?


mm)
mm)
mm)
mm)

4.

12.

Threaded couplings supplied on pipe sizes up to 2 inch (50 mm) are


threaded; whife ali extra strong and double extra strong supplied
coupling are
threaded.

13.

Ali steel pipe manufactured in North America under the ASTM, API, or CSA
standard will have identical specification markings.
a.
true
b.
false

14.

The commonly used steel pipe, referred to as black iron pipe, has a lacquer finish to
prevent corrosion.
a.
true
b.
false
15.
a.
b.

Wrought iron pipe is another name for wrought steel pipe.


true
false

16.
1.
2.

State two main advantages of stainless steel pipe over carbon steel pipe:

17.

Copper and red brass pipe is actual/y tubing. Therefore the outside diameter is not
the same as steel pipe for sizes up to 12 inch (300 mm).
a.
true
b.
false

18.

Cast iron pressure pipe was original/y designed for underground service. In
modern day construction projects for gas, water, or other liquid;
a.
it is still commonly used
b.
it is being replaced by plastic pipe

19..
Cast iron steel pipe is still commonly used in many commercial
buildings beCause:
a.
cheaper than plastic pipe
b.
easier to install than plastic pipe
c.
lasts longer than plastic pipe
d.
sorne building code regulations prohibit plastic pipe

20.
What is a typical use of silicon iron pipe?
Answer:
21.
a.
b.

What are the two basic categories of plastic pipe?

22.

ABS and PVC are types of thermoset plastic pipe.


a.
true
b.
false

23.

Plastic metal composition pipe uses a


exterior layers of
24.

interior and core laminated between


_

Plastic metal composition pipe results in a pipe that is as

plastic pipe, and has the

of a steel pipe.

as a

27.

25.

ABS pipe, rated at 230 PSI (1590 kPa), is

a.
b.
c.
d.

black
white
light blue
blue grey

26.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

PVC pipe can be joined by the following methods.

in color.

PVDF pipe has a maximum operating temperature of 2BDF (13BC) and is safely
used far.
a.
wet and dry chloride
b.
bromine
c.
pure water
d.
halogens
e.
all of the above

28.
a.
b.
c.
d.
29.

When solvent cementing plastic pipe the joining surfaces are softened by:
primer
cement
primer and cement combination
all of the above

A 10 inch (250 mm) joint cemented ata temperature of 7DF (21CJ would
require a cure time of
before the fine was pressure tested.
a.
2 hours
b.
12 hours
c.
24 hours
d.
48 hours
30.
What schedule of plastic pipe is recommended for threading?
Answer:
31 .
What is used to keep a plastic pipe round while threading?
Answer:

32.

Plastic pipe flanges are manufactured to the same dimensions as:


Answer:

SECTION
TWO
TUBING DATA

84

TUBING DATA

Tube
Pipe

vs.

Tube differs from pipe in that it does not


have the more liberal tolerances for inside
diam eter,
outside
diameter,
wall
thickness and nominal sizes given to
pipe. Pipe sizes up
to 12 inches (300 mm) are designated
by
nominal sizes which are smaller than the
outside diameter of the pipe; where as, in
most cases, tube sizes are identical to the
outside diameter of the tube. Tubing is
classified into three major types: structural
tube, mechanical tube, and pressure tube.

Structural
Tube
Structural tube is used in construction of
such things as: building frameworks, road
way median barriers, bridge structures and
for other general structural applications. lt
is available not only in round tubing
shapes, but also in rectangular, square
and other special structural shapes as
needed. lllus tration #16 shows sorne of
the more com mon tube shapes available.

Structural/Mechanical Tube
ASTM standards cover ferrous and non
fer rous structural tube in both welded
and seamless forms. Sizing of structural
tube is specified by actual outside
diameter and wall thickness. Maximum
sizes normally extend up to 24 inches
(609.4 mm) for round tubing with wall
thickness up to 1 inch (25.4 mm).
Structural tubing with other dimensions
may be furnished providing they meet
ASTM or equivalent specifications.

Mechanical Tube
Mechan cal tube is utilized in a variety of
mechanical and structural applications
and like structural tube, it is not
intended to carry fluids or gases under
pressure. Because mechanica/ tubing is
usual/y man
ufactured for specific applications needing
particular mechanical and chemica/ proper
ties, only limited standards are covered by
ASTM or other agencies. Sizes and dimen
sions are usual/y determined by established
end usage or customer needs.

TUBING DATA

Structural/Pressure Tube

o[

Structural Tube

CJEmptical

Rectangular

Hexagonal
lllustration
Shapes

#16

Structural

Pressure Tube

Tube

Pressure tube is the type of tubing used


most often in the piping industry. lt is
designed to carry fluids under pressure.
Sizing is customarily designated by the
tube's actual outside diameter and wall
thickness or tube gage given in either:

Oval

Octagonal

Fractions of an inch, decimals of an


inch, millimetres or by wire gage
(usual/y in the Birmingham /ron Wire
Gage/''BWG'').
Table #17 gives wall thickness equivalents
for BWG, decimals of an inch and milli
metres.

85

co
en
Birmingha
Tubing Wall Thickness Equivalents Given
in Wire Gage, Decimal of an lnch and m metres.
Milli
BWG
Decimal of an lnch
Millimetres
0.3048
0.0
3
12
0
0.3302
0.0
29
13
0.3556
28
0.014
0.0
0.4064
27
16
0.0
0.4572
26
18
0.5080
2
0.0
5
20
2
0.0
0.5588
4
22
0.6350
2
0.0
3
25
0.7112
22
0.0
28
0.8128
21
0.0
32
0.0
0.8890
20
35
0.0
1.0668
19
42
0.0
18
1.2446
49
1.4732
1
0.0
7
58
0.065
1.6510
1
6
0.0
1.8288
1
72
5
1
0.0
2.1082
4
83
2.4130
13
0.0
95
0.1
2.7686
1
09
2
0.1
11
3.0480
20
0.1
3.4036
1
34
0
0.148
3.7592
9
0.1
4.1910
8
65
0.1
4.5720
7
80
0.2
5.1562
6
03
0.2
5.5880
5
20
0.2
4
6.0452
38
0.2
6.5786
3
59
2
0.2
7.2136
84
1
0.3
l.6200
00

-t

-z

CJ

"e
)>

-t

)>

..C'D,

" tJ

"e..:"'',
C'D

-t

e:

O"

C'D

OJ

:E

G)
G)
ll)

C'D

TUBING DATA

Pressure/Aluminum Tube

Most tube acquired is produced to the gen


Pressure
eral purpose ASTM B-21O standards for
Tube
drawn seamless aluminum alloy tube. This
Tubing is available in severa! material
tube is supplied in sizes from 1/8
classifications and in sub-groupings under
inch
each material heading. The following are
(3.175 mm) to 12 inches (304.8 mm) out
the general material classifications most
side diameter and is available in straight
often given to pressure tubing:
lengths and coils.
Aluminum Tubing
Coils are supplied in annealed temper only
Special Application Tubing
with
maximum
wall thickness not
Copper Tubing
exceeding
Special Alloy Tubing
0.083 inches (2.11 mm). Coiled rolls are
Carbon Steel Tubing
usually supplied in 50 ft. (15 m) and 100
Plastic Tubing
ft.
Stainless Steel Tubing
m) lengths, but lengths up to and exceeding
500 ft. (153.5 m) are available.
Aluminum Tubing
Straight tube lengths are usually available
in 12 ft.(3.66 m) lengths but, may be
Aluminum tubing is available in both
special ordered up to 50 ft. (15 m) or
welded and seamless forms in various
more.
Wall
thickness
for
straight
alloys, tem pers, and wall thicknesses.
aluminum alloy tube can range between
Pure aluminum is seldom used for
0.01 inches (0.25 mm) to 0.50 inches
manufacturing tube, but is alloyed with
(12.50 mm). Table #18 gives common
other metals to improve its physical
commercial sizes, wall thick nesses, and
properties.
pressure ratings for general purpose
aluminum alloy tubing up to 1 inch (25
mm).

87

00
00

Aluminum Tubing Suggested Allowable Working Pressure and Wall Thickness Dimensions for General Purpose ASTM B-21O or Equivalent (Aluminum Alloy
6061- 76 Annealed Seamless Tubing)
Tubln
g

o.o.
lnche
1/e
311e
1/4
5/19

3/

1/2
S/e
3/4
7/e

1
Tublng

o.o.
Mllllmetr
es
3.17

4.763
6.350
7.938
9.525
12.700
15.880
19.050
22.230
25.400

WALL THICKNESS INCHES

.
0

.
0

45
33
08
25
21
83
21
15
54
12
10
19
8
76
5

66
48
30
37
70
30
66
22
32
17
54
14
49
12
29
10
71

65
51
56
42
21
30
45
23
84
19
53
16
59
14
39

55
40
23
22
31
25
52
21
53
18
69
WALL THICKNESS MILLIMETRES
0.5
0.7
0.8
08
11 In MPa
84
Pressure

1.2
45

1.6
51

.
.
.
0
0
0
Pressure In P.S.I.
38
24
17
47
1
4
1
8

26
1
6.
1
2.9
.
8

55
35
25
60
20
27
16
70
12
29

38
24
.5
17
.8
14
.0
11
.58
.
5

31
22
.8
17
.8
14
.6
10
.78
7.
.
6
.
5
.

45.
33
.3
26.
0
21.
115
.4
12.
1
10
.08.
5
7.
4

.
0

2.1
08

.
1

.
12

46
36
29
61
24
99
21
63

34
29
09
25
10

385
323
4
278
3

2.4
15

2.7
69

3.0
48

.
09

3-
::::s

45
35
.5
29
.1
21
.0
16
.4
13
.4
11
.49
.

38
27
32.
.7
21
25.
.5
20.
0
17
23
26.
417.
14
20
22.
.8
2
.0
319.
12
14.
1
.9
9
7.
2
NOTES: 1. Table based on allowable stress of 10,500 psi (72.4 MPa) at
-20F ( - 29C) to 1OOF (39C)
2. Safety factor of 4 used in table

-f

C"
CD

TUBING DATA

CopperTube

CopperTube
There are numerous types of copper and
copper alloy tubing being manufactured.
However, the greater part of copper tube
used in the piping industry is manufactured
from
99.90
percent
pure
copper
(minimum). This copper tube can be
classified into two general groupings.

One type of tubing designation has tub


ing measured by its approximate inside
diameter and is often referred to as
plumbing
tube.
This
designation
consists of tube types: K, L, M, pressure
tube and
DWV, a non-pressure type of
tubing.
The other type has tubing which is
desig nated by the outside diameter
and wall thickness measurements. lt
comprises of "ACR" (air conditioning
and refrigera tion) tubing and "GP"
(general purpose) tubing.

Seamless Copper Tube Types K,

L, M

Type K, L, and M seamless copper tube is


manufactured to ASTM B-88 specifications
for seamless water tube.
Nominal l.D. sizes are used to designate
tubing sizes for the imperial or inch
system, with actual outside diameters of
the tube being 1/8 (0.125) inches (3 mm)
larger than the nominal tube size.
Metric Version: ASTM B-88M, the metric
version of the B-88 standard, reclassifies the tube into types A, B,and C
c/assifica tions. The metric standard
a/so desig nates the tube size by its
actual outside diameter, not its nominal
size.
Ali
other
dimensions
and
properties
of
the
tube
remain
comparable to the imperial speci
fications.

90

TUBING DATA

Tube Types K, L,
M
Copper tubes K, L, and M are available in
either annealed (soft) temper copper, or
drawn (hard) temper copper.
Soft copper tube is commercially available
in types K and L, however, type M soft can
be supplied. Soft copper is normally sup
plied in coils ranging from 40 ft. (12.2 m) to
100 ft. (30.5 m) lengths. CoiIs are
manufac tured in nominal sizes ranging
from 1/4 inch (8 mm) through to 2 inches
(50 mm).
Hard copper (types K, L, and M ) is
supplied in straight lengths of 12 ft. (3.66
m) or 20 ft. (6.1O m). Nominal sizes of
copper water tube range from 1/4 inch (6
mm) through to 12 inches (308 mm), with
wall thickness vary ing as per type
classification. Tables #19A,
#198, and #19C give specific size and
dimensions for type K, L, and M respec
tively.
Oxygen Tube: Copper tube that is used
for oxygen lines and other medica/
gases is often referred to as oxygen
tube.

Copper Tube/Color Coding


This tube is basically type K or L tube
that has been specially cleaned and
capped. The cleaning is a safety
measure to pre vent contamination and
possible sponta neous combustion with
organic oils or
impurities
in
the
tube.

Color Coding of Copper


Color coding of copper tubing is applied to
help distinquish between the various types
of tube.
Type K copper has the heaviest wall
thick ness and is color coded green.
Type L is the intermediate wall thickness
tube and is color coded blue. Type M is
the thin nest wall thickness of pressure
tube and is color coded red. DWV, a
non-pressure copper tube, is color
coded yellow. lt should be noted that
annealed copper is
not color coded in any
types.

Plumbing Tube Color Code


Type K = Green
Type L = Blue

Type M = Red
Type DWV = Yellow

TUBING DATA

Copper Tube/Type K

91

Type K Copper Tube Dimensions given in lnches and Millimetres


Nominal Dimenslons, inches
Nomin
al Size,
lnches
1/4

Outslde
Diameter

lnside
Diameter

Wall
Thickn
ess

.375

.305

38

.500

.402

'12

.625

.527

.
0
.
0
.049

5ta

.750

.652

.049

3
1.

.875

.745

1.125

.995

111.

1.375

1.245

.
0
.
0
.065

1112

1.625

1.481

.072

2.125

1.959

.083

2.625

2.435

.095

3.125

2.907

3.625

3.385

4.125

3.857

.
1
.
1
.134

5.125

4.805

.160

6.125

5.741

8.125

7.583

2
2 112
3
3112

1
0
1
2

.192
.271

10.125

9.449

.338

12.125

11.315

.405

Notes: 1. Dimensions based on ASTM Standard B.88.

Nomina
l Size
Millimet
res

Nominal Dimensions, Millimetres


Outside
Diameter

lnside
Diameter

9.53

7.75

10

12.70

10.21

1
2
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
2
4
0
5
0
6
5
8
0
9
0
1
0
125

15.88

13.39

Wall
Thickness
.
8
1
.
1
.
1
1.

.145

(.400)

.344

(.512)

.418

(.622)

.641

(.954)

.839

(1.25)

19.05

16.56
18.92

28.58

25.27

34.93

31.62

41.28

37.62

53.98

49.76

66.68

61.85

79.38

73.84

92.08

85.98

104.78

97.97

.
1
.
1
.
1
.
2
.
2
.
2
.
3
.
3.40

130.18

122.05

4.06

150

155.58

145.82

4.88

13.9

2
0
2
5

206.38

192.61

6.88

259

257.18

240.00

B.59

40.3

307.98

287.40

10.29

57.8

30
0

(.216)

.269

22.23

2. Use for underground gas, oil, and water lines and for plumbing anc heating systems above ground. Has thick wall. Furnished in
hard and soft copper. Can be bent cold. Weight: .323 lbs. per cu. in.

Table #19A - Type K Copper Tube

proxim

1.04

(1.55)

1.36

(2.02)

2.06

(3.06)

2.93

(4.36)

4.00

(5.95)

5.12

(7.62)

6.51

(9.69)

9.67

(14.39)
(20.68)

(65.00)

92

TUBING DATA

Copper Tube/Type L

Type L Copper Tube Dimensions given in lnches and Millimetres


Nominal Dimensions,
inches
Nominal
Size, inches

''

38

Outside
Diameter

lnside
Diameter

.375
.500

.315
.430

Nominal

Wall
Thickness

Size
Millimetres

.030
.035

6
10

Approximate

Nominal Dimensions,
Millimetres
Outside
Diameter

lnside
Diameter

9.53
12.70

8.00
10.92

Wall
Thickness

0.76
0.89

'12

.625

.545

.040

12

15.88

13.84

1.02

58

.750

.666

.042

15

19.05

16.92

1.07

3/
4

.875

.785

.045

20

22.23

19.94

1.14

1.125

1.025

.050

28.58

26.04

1 '/4

1.375

1.265

.
0.
0.

2
5
3

34.93

32.13

1
.
1.40

402

41.28

38.23

1.52

50

53.98

50.42

1.78

0.
0.

6
5
8

66.68

62.61

2.03

1'/2

1.625

1.505

2.125

1.985

2 1 /2

2.625

2.465

3
4

.126
.198

(.187)
(.295)

.
2
.

(.424)

3
.
4
.

(.677
)(.976

6
.
1.8

)(1.32
)(1.70
)(2.60
)(3.69

(.539)

79.38

74.80

2.29

1
1.
7
2.
48
3.

0
90

92.08

86.00

3.905

0.
1
.110

100

104.78

99.19

2
.
2.79

33
4.
29
5.

4.875

.125

125

130.18

123.83
148.46

3
.
3.56

3
7.
6
10.

)(8.01
)
(11.32
)(15.18

2
19.
3
30.
1
40.

)(28.71
)
(44.78
)(60.11

3.125

2.945

3.625

3.425

4.125

5.125

Weight lb/ft
Mass (Kg/m)

6.125

5.845

.140

150

155.58

8.125

7.725

.200

206.38

196.22

1
0
1

10.125

9.625

257.18

244.48

5
.
6.35

12.125

11.565

.
2.

2
0
2
5
300

307.98

293.75

7.11

4
Notes:2 1. Dimensions based on ASTM Standard B.88. 2
2. Use far plumbing and heating systems. Madium wall thickness. Furn1shed in hard and soft copper. Can be bent cold. Weight: .323 lbs. per
cu. m

Table #198 - Type L Copper Tube

)(4.96
)(6.38

Tubing DATA

Copper Tube/Type M

93

Type M Copper Tube Dimensions given in lnches and Millimetres.


Nominal Dimensions, inches

.500

lnsi
de
Diam
.450

l
Thickn
.025

.625

.569

.028

.875

.811

1.125

1.055

111.

1.375

1.291

1.625

1.527

2.125

2.009

2 1/2

2.625

2.495

3.125

2.981

3.625

3.459

4.125

3.935

5.125

4.907

6.125

Nomin
al Size,
lnches
3/a

1/2

3/4

31/2

Outside
Dameter

Nomin
al Size
Millimet
res
10

Nominal Dimensions, Millimetres


Outs
ide
Diam
12.70

lnsi
de
Diam
11.43

15.
88
22.23

14.45

.032

1
202

20.60

.
0.

2
5
32

28.58

Wal

Wal
l
Thickn
.
6
.

'Wproxim
.145

(.216)

.204

(.304)

7
.81

.328

(.488)

26.80

.89

.465

(.692)

34.
93
41.2

32.79

1
1.

.682

(1.01)

8
53.
98
66.

.940

(1.40)

51.03

8
0
90

68
79.38

75.72

92.08

87.86

1.
.
2.11

104.78

99.95
124.64

2
150

130.18

5.881

0.
1.

1
0
1

155.58

149.38

0
.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.

4
0
50
65

38.79
63.37

1.
1.

1.46

(2.17)

2.03

(3.02)

2.68

(3.99)

3.58

(5.33)

2.41

4.66

(6.93)

2
.
3.10

6.66

(9.91)

8.92

(13.27)

8.125

7.785

1
.170

200

206.38

197.74

(24.55)

10.125

9.701

250

257.18

246.41

25.6

(38.09)

12

12.125

11.617

.
2.

4
.
5.38

16.5

10

300

307.98

295.07

6.45

36.7

Notes: 1. Dimensions based on ASTM Standard B-88. 2


2. Use for waste interior drainage, vents, and other non-pressure applications. Bending not recommended. Use with solder fittings only.
Thin wall thickness. Furnished in hard temper only. Weight: .323 lbs. per cu in.

Table #19C - Type M Copper Tube

TUBINGDATA
DWV
Tube

Drainage

Type DWV copper drainage tube is another


type of copper tube which is classified by
its
approximate
inside
diameter.
Specifica tions for the tube are covered in
the ASTM B-306 standard for copper
drainage tube. DWV tube is intended for
use in drainage, waste, and vent
applications,
which
the
''DWV''
abbreviated letters stand for. The tube has
a color code of yellow and is man
ufactured in 12ft. (3.66 m) and 20 ft. (6.1O
m) straight hard temper lengths only. The
wall thickness of DWV is thinner than types
K, L, or M tubing. See table #20 for specific
sizes and wall thickness for type DWV
copper tube.

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration


Tube and General Purpose
Copper Tube
ACR (air conditioning and refrigeration) and
GP (general purpose) copper tubing are two
types of tube which are measured and des
ignated by outside diameters and wall thick
ness.

Copper Tube/DWV /ACR


ACR Tube: Seamless copper tube
designed for
air
conditioning
and
refrigeration field service. ACR tube is
covered under ASTM specification B-280.
The tube is good for carrying most
commercial refrigerants (except ammonia).
ACR tube is available in 12 ft. (3.66 m) or
20 ft. (6.1O m) straight hard temper
lengths and standard 50 ft. (15.2 m) soft
temper coils.
Hard temper lengths of tube are color
coded blue and identified with the ACR
inscription. The tube differs from other
copper tube in that it is thoroughly
cleaned, degreased, dehydrated, and
capped prior to delivery (tube may be
supplied nitrogen charged).
Another point of deviation from other
copper tube is that annealed temper tube
dimen sions differ in size designations.
Table #21 gives sizes and dimensions of
annealed and hard temper ACR tube.

TUBING DATA

Copper Tube/DWV

95

Type DWV Copper Tube Dimensions given in lnches and Millimetres


Nominal
Size, inches

Nominal
Dimensions,

11/4

Oiamete
r
1.375

Diamete
r
1.295

11/2

1.625

1.541

2.125

3
4

inches
Wall
Thickness

2.041

.
0.
0
.042

3.125

3.030

Nom
in
Millimetres

Diameter

Dimensions
, Mi
Oiameter

llimetres
Wall
Thickness

34.93

32.89

41.28

39.14

1
1.

0
50

53.98

51.84

.
1.07

.045

80

79.38

76.96

1
0
1
2
1
5
2
0

104.78

101.83

130.18

126.52

4.125

4.009

.058

5.125

4.981

.072

6.125

5.959

.083

8.125

7.907

.109

3
2
4

Nom
inal

155.58

151.36

206.38

200.84

1
.
1
.
1
.
2
.
2
.

Notes: 1. Dimensions based on ASTM Standard B-306.


2. Millimetre dimensions are calculated by multiplying inch dimensions by 25.4 and rounding off to second decimal point.
3. Mass (Kg/m) is calculated by multiplying lbs/ft by 1.49 and rounding off to second decimal poini.

Table #20 - Type DWV Copper Tube

Approxim
ate
Mass(Kg/m)
.
6
.
8
1.0
7
1.6
9
2.8
7
4.4
3
6.1
0
10.
6

(.967)
(1.20)
(1.59
)
(2.51
)
(4.27
)
(6.59
)
(9.08
)
(15.8
)

96

TUBING DATA

Copper Tu be/ACR

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (ACR) Copper Tube


Dimensions given in lnches and Millimetres
Dimensions, lnches

Avail
able
Temp
er

Size
Inche
s

e
e
e
e
s
e
e
s
e
s

''"

''

,,,

B
B
B
B

s
s
s
s
s
s

Notes: 1.
2

3.
4.

Dimensions, Millimetres

Outside
Siz
Inside
W
Outside
lnside
Wall
al
Oiamete
Diamete
e
Diamete
Diamete
Thickness
l
r
r
Millimet
r
r
.125
.065
.
3.18
3.18
.
1.65
0.
3,fi
.188
.128
4.78
4.78
3.25
.76
.250
.190
.
6.35
6.35
4.83
.
0.
76
5"
.312
.248
7.92
7.92
6.30
.
38
.375
.315
.
9.53
9.53
8.00
.
0
7
3/s
.375
.311
.
9.53
9.53
7.90
.
.'I?
0.
.500
.436
12.70
12.70
11.07
.
0
.500
.430
.035
12.70
12.70
10.92
.8
5/R
.625
15.88
.555
.035
15.88
14.10
.
5/R
.625
.545
.
15.88
15.88
13.84
1.0
0.
2
3,
.750
.666
19.05
19.05
1.0
16.91
0.
7
7R
.875
.785
22.23
22.23
19.94
1.1
0.
11/R
1.125
1.025
28.58
28.58
26.04
1.2
13.
1.375
1.265
.
34.93
34.93
32.13
1.4
0
15/R
1.625
1.505
41.28
41.28
.
38.23
1.5
2
2.125
1.985
.
53.98
53.98
50.42
1.7
2 1/R
2.625
25/R
2.465
.
66.68
66.68
62.61
2.0
0.
2.945
79.38
79.38
3.125
74.80
2.2
3 1/R
9
0
3.625
35/R
3.425
.100
92.08
92.08
86.00
2.5
4
4.125
4 1/8
3.905
.110
104.78
104.78
99.19
2.7
9
Dimensions based on ASTM Standard B-280.
Available Temper indicates temper and form tube is
supplied in: C = Coiled lengths, soft annealed temper
S = Straight lengths, hand drawn general purpose
temper B = Both Tempers or forms available in this
size
Millimetre dimensions are calculated by multiplying inch dimensions by 25.4 and rounding off to second decimal point
Mass (Kg/m) is calculated by multiplying lbs/ft by 1.49 and rounding off to second decimal point.

Table #21 - ACR Copper Tube

Approxim

.0347
.0575
.0804
.109
.126
.134
.182
.198
.251
.285
.362
.455
.655
.884
1.14
1.75
2.48
3.33
4.29
5.38

(.0516)
i.086)
1.120)
(.162)
(.187)
(.199)
(.271)
(.295)
1.373)
(.424)
(539)
(.677)
(.975)
(1.32)
(1.70)
(2.60)
(3.69)
(4.96)
(6.38)
(8.01)

-1

e CD:

z e> e

-1

>

General Purpose (GP) Copper Tube Commercial


Sizes and Wall Thickness Dimensions
given in lnches and Millimetres
Tubing
O.O.
lnche
'la
3/,5

''

5/16

Wall Thickness, lnches


0.0
28
00
28
0.0
28

3/e
1

12

0.0
32
0.0
32
0.0
32
0.0
32
0.0
32

3/4

1/a

1
Tubing
O.O.
Millimet
res
3

0.035
0.0
35
0.0
35
0.0
35
0.0
35
0.0
35
0.0
35
0.0
35
0.0
35

0.0
49
0.0
49
0.0
49
0.0
49
0.0
49
0.0
49
0.0
49
00
49

0.0
65
0.0
65
0.0
65
0.0
65
0.0
65
0.0
65
0.0
65

0.0
83
0.0
83
0.0
83
0.0
83
0.0
83

0.0
95
0.0
95
0.0
95
0.0
95

0.1
09
0.1
09
0.1
09

""C
""C
0.12
0

0.8
13
0.8
13
0.8
13
0.8
13
0.8
13

0.8
1
89
4.
0.8
1.2
7
89
45
6.
1.2
0.8
1.6
3
45
89
51
7.
1.2
0.8
1.6
9
45
89
51
9.
1.2
0.8
1.6
5
45
89
51
12.
0.8
1.2
1.6
70
89
45
51
15.
0.8
1.2
1.6
88
89
45
51
19.
1.2
08
1.6
05
45
89
51
22.
08
1.2
1.6
230
89
45
51
25.
0.8
1.2
1.6
400
89
45
51
Note: 1. Table based on ASTM Standard B75 or equivalen!.

-1

C"

Wall Thickness, Millimetres


0.7
11
0.7
11
0.7
11

(1)

(1)

e>

"tJ

2.1
08
2.1
08
2.1
08
2.1
08
2.1
08
2.1
08

2.4
13
2.4
13
2.4
13
2.4
13

2.7
69
2.7
69
2.7
69

3.04
8

981

TUBING DATA

General
Tube

Purpose

Copper/GP/Carbon
(GP)

Copper

GP tubing is the classification of seamless


copper tube designed for general engineer
ing purposes. ASTM specification B-75 cov
ers specific requirements while ASTM B-251
and B-251M (Metric) standards cover com
mon requirements such as: lengths, wall
thickness and other general dimensions and
specifications.
See table #22 for common GP tube sizes
and wall thickness dimensions.

Carbon Steel and Stainless


Steel Tube
Carbon steel and stainless steel pressure
tubing are used for various applications
and these applications can be classified
into general groupings. The following are
the major grouping classifications for
both carbon steel and stainless steel
pressure tubing:
Boiler
&
superheater
tubing
Heat exchanger and condenser
tubing
Still tubing
General
purpose
tubing

and Stainless

See tables #23 and #24 for common tube


characteristics.
Boi/er & Superheater Tubes: Seamless
and welded boiler and superheater tubes
are available in both hot rolled and cold
drawn tube for various pressure and
temperature applications. The tube is
sized by outside diameter and minimum
wall thickness. Boiler and superheater
tubes are made to various ASTM
specifications depending on type of
operations and designated use.
Heat Exchanger and Condenser Tubes:
Tubing under this classification is used for
heat exchangers, condensers, and similar
units where the tube is used to transfer
heat from one medium to another. Tubing
is des ignated by outside diameter,
minimum wall thickness, and frequently,
the exact tubing length. A typical shell and
tube heat exchan ger with a removable
tube bundle is shown in illustration #17.

General Tube Dimensions and Weight (Imperial)


SIZE

WALL
THICKNESS

-t

-toz

AREA

Inter
Exter
Cross
lnsid
na!
lb
na!
Secti
B.W.
e
/lt
G.
Surf
onal
Surf
Diam
lnch
len
ace
Gau
lnch2
es
ace
eter
0.066
0.0508
0.029
0.06
2
0.19
0.0
'/4
0.054
5
55
0.06
0.0539
0.033
22
40.20
28
0.0
1/4
55
30.036
22
0.045
0.0560
0.06
6
0.21
0.0
24
'/4
55
0.040
0
0.0570
4
18
62
0.06
1/4
0.0
0.037
0.21
55
16
7
3
8
0.171
0.0725
0.060
.
3/e
0.0
1
0.27
3
0.0982
0.127
0.09
0.0798
49
0.073
7
3/e
0.0
208
0.30
82
1
0.104
35
0.0835
0.079
0.09
5
2
3/e
0.0
0.31
90.086
82
0.083
22
0.0867
0.09
28
9
3/e
0.33
0.0
82
4
0
1
22
0.0969
0.302
1
0.13
0.107
0.37
0.0
'12
61
09
0.236
5
0.1052
0.126
0.13
0
65
0.0
0.40
'12
90.145
09
49
0.174
0.13
0.1126
2
0.43
28
0.0
'12
09
2
0
0.141
35
0.13
0.1162
0.154
20
0.44
0.0
'12
09
8
2
4
28
0.602
0.16
0.1066
0.130
1
0.1
5/e
0.40
36
1
0.537
0.16
0.1139
0.148
09
12
7
0.43
0.0
5/e
36
6
0.479
0.1202
5
0.16
95
0.165
0.0
13
5/e
0.45
36
0.425
0.1259
50.181
0.16
83
14
9
0.0
5/e
0.48
36
7
0.388
0.16
0.1296
0.192
72
15
1
5/a
0.49
0.0
36
4
0.350
0.1333
0.16
16
0.203
5
65
5/a
0.50
0.0
36
5
0.303
0.1380
0.218
0.16
17
9
58
0.0
5/a
0.52
10.229
36
81
0.262
0.16
0.1416
49
7
5/e
0.54
0.0
36
8
0.221
0.1453
0.16
0.241
1
42
29
5/e
0.55
0.0
36
9
0
5
35
0.884
0.1262
0.19
1
0.182
3/4
0.1
0.48
0.809
63
0.1335
01
50.204
0.19
34
3/4
0.51
0.1
3
63
0.748
0.1393
0.19
0
20
1
0.222
0.1
3/4
0.53
63
0.666
30.246
0.19
0.1466
09
20.56
0.0
12
3/4
63
30.267
0.592
0.1529
0.19
95
13
0
3/4
0.58
0.0
63
9
0.520
0.1587
0.288
0.19
14
4
83
3/4
0.0
0.60
4
63
0.476
0.1623
0.301
0.19
72
15
6
0.0
3/4
0.62
9
63
6
0.428
0.19
0.1660
65
0.315
0
3/4
1
0.0
0.63
63
7
0.1707
0.367
58
0.19
0.333
40.65
3/4
17
0.0
63
9
0.1780
0.269
0.19
2
49
0.363
3/4
28
0.68
0.0
63
2
0
0
35
Note: Table weights (MASS) based on carbon steel tube. To establish other metal weights
(mass) multiply by:

Outsi
de
Diam

Aluminum ........................................................................................................... 0.35


Titanium ............................................................................................................ 0.58
A.l.S.I. 400 Series Stainless Steels .........................................................................0.99
A.l.S.I. 300 Series Stainless Steels .........................................................................1.02
Aluminum Bronze ................................................................................................ 1.04
Aluminum Brass .................................................................................................. 1.06
Nickel-Chrome-lron............................................................................................................... 1.0
Admiralty.............................................................................................................................. 1.0
Nickel and Nickel-Copper..................................................................................................... 1.1
Copper and Cupro-Nickels................................................................................................... 1.1

G)

e
l>
-t
l>

--

en
C1>

-t

e:

C"
C1>

en

""C
C1>

=-

m
o
:: :J
en

-3
""C

...

C1>

ji;'

CD
CD

.....

o
o
General Tube Dimensions and Welght (Imperial)
WALL
THICKNESS

SIZE
Diameter
Inches
1

Outsi

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Insid
B.W.G.
Diameter
lnches Gauge
lnches
o 670 0.165 8
1.462
10
0.732
0.134
11
0.760
0.120
0.109
12
0.782
0.095
13
0.810
14
0.834
0.083
0.072
15
0856
0.065
16
0.870
0.049
18
0.902
0.035
20
0.930

o 180

AREA
Cros
Sectional
lnch2

Extern
Surface
ft. 2/ft

Intern
Surface
ft.2 /ft.

0.3526

0.2618

0.1754

WEI
GHT
lb/ft
length

-t

eCD :

-z

C)

e
)>

0.4208
0.4536
0.4803
0.5153
0.5463
0.5755
0.5945
0.6390
0.6793

0.2618
0.2618
0.2618
0.2618
0.2618
0.2618
0.2618
0.2618
0.2618

0.1916
0.1990
0.2047
0.2121
0.2183
0.2241
0.2278
0.2361
0.2435

1.237
1.129
1.037
0.918
0.813
0.714
0.649
0.496
0.360

111.
11/4
111.
11/4
111.
111.
1 1/4
111.
111.
111.

0.890
0.920
0.982
1.010
1.032
1.060
1.084
1.120
1.152
1.180

0.165
0.134
0.120
0.109
0.095
0.083
0.065
0.049
0.035

7
8
10
11
12
13
14
16
18
20

0.6221
0.6648
0.7574
0.8012
0.8365
0.8825
0.9229
0.9852
1.042
1.094

0.3272
0.3272
0.3272
0.3272
0.3272
0.3272
0.3272
0.3272
0.3272
0.3272

0.2330
0.2409
0.2571
0.2644
0.2702
0.2775
0.2838
0.2932
0.3016
0.3089

2.057
1.921
1.598
1.448
1.329
1.173
1.033
0.823
0.629
0.456

1112
1112
1112
1112

1.232
1.282
1.334
1.370

0.134
0.109
0.083
0.065

10
12
14
16

1.192
1.291
1.398
1.474

0.3927
0.3927
0.3927
0.3927

0.3225
0.3356
0.3492
0.3587

1.955
1.618
1.258
0.996

-t

>

" '

!.
-t
e

C"
(1)

"C
(1)

2.410
0.120
11
2.433
0.5236
0.4608
2
1.760
2.201
0.4665
1.782
0.109
12
2.494
0.5236
2
1.934
1.810
0.095
13
2.573
0.5236
0.4739
2
1.699
0.083
14
2.642
0.5236
0.4801
1.834
2
Note: Table weights (MASS) based on carbon steel tube. To establish other metal weights
(mass) multiply by:

Aluminum............................................................................................................................0.35
Titanium...............................................................................................................................0.58
A.1.S.I. 400 Series Stainless Steels....................................................................................0.99
A.l.S.I. 300 Series Stainless Steels.....................................................................................1.02
Aluminum Bronze................................................................................................................1.04
Aluminum Brass..................................................................................................................1.06
Nickel-Chrome-lron..............................................................................................................1.0
Admiralty..............................................................................................................................1.0
Nickel and Nickel-Copper....................................................................................................1.1
Copper and Cupro-Nickels..................................................................................................1.1

tn

"'-
=.

D>

(1)

O"
iD"

:;,

"" '

, :.

>
1

"

General Tube Dimensions and MASS (Metric)


SlZE
Outside
lnside

AREA

WALL THICKNESS
Cross

B.W.G. Seclional
Diameter Diameter
cm2
Millimetres Gauge
(mm)
(mm)

Externa!

Interna!

Surface
m 2 /m

Surface
m2/m

MASS

-4
e

Kg/m
length

z
G')

6.3S

4.928

0.711

22

0.190

0.020

0.01S

o 098

6.3S
6.3S

S.232
S436

O.SS9
04S7

24
26

0.21S
0.232

0.020
0.020

0.016
0.017

0080
0.067

O"

6.3S

S.S37

0.406

27

0.241

0.020

0.017

0.060

9.S2S
9.52S

7.036
7.747

1.24S
0.889

18
20

0.389
0472

0.030
0030

0.022
0.024

0.2SS
0.189

9.S25
9.S25

8.103
8407

0.711
O.SS9

22
24

0.51S
O.SSS

0.030
0030

0.025
0.026

0.1SS
0.124

12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7

9.398
10.211
10.922
11.278

1.651
1.24S
0.889
0.711

16
18
20
22

0.694
0.819
0.937
0.999

0.040
0.040
0.040
0.040

0.030
0.032
0.034
0.03S

0.4SO
0.3S1
0.260
0.210

15.875
15.875
15.875
15 875
15.875
15.875
15.875
15.875
15.875

10.338
11.049
11.6S9
12.217
12.573
12.929

2.769
2413
2.108

0.839
0.9S9
1.068
1.172
1.241
1.313

o oso
o.oso
o oso

1.829
1.6S1
1.473

12
13
14
15
16
17

0.032
0.035
0.037
0038
0.040
0.041

0.897
0.800
0.714
0.633
578
0.522

13.386
13.741
14.097

1.245
1.067
0.889

18
19
20

1.407
1483
1.S61

O.OSO
0.050

0.042
0.043
0.044

04S1
0.390

19.0S
19.0S
19.05
19.05
19 os
19.0S
19.0S

12.243
12.9S4
13.S13
14.224
14.834
1S.392
1S.748

3404
3.048
2.769
2.413
2.108
1.829
1.6S1

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

1.317
1.20S
1.11S
0.992

16.104
16.561
17.272

1.473
1.24S
0.889

17
18
20

0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060

0.038
0.041
0.042
0.04S

19.05
19.0S
19.05

1.177
1.318
1.434
1.589
1.728
1.861
1.948
2.037
2.1S4
2.343

0.047
0.048
0.049
0.0S1
0.052
0.052

0.882
0.775
0.709
0.638
0.547
0.401

CD
:::J

!!!.

2
CD

o
CD
:::J

l l l

e
:::J
lll

0.050
0.050

o oso
o.oso

0.329

Note: Table weights (MASS) based on carbon steel tube. To establish other metal weights
(mass) multiply by

........ .............. ..
0.58
Titanium .
0.35
Aluminum .......... ,,....
0.99
...............
AJSJ 400 Series Stainless Steels ..
1.02
AJSJ 300 Series Stainless Steels . . . .. .. . . . ..... . ..... ..
1.04
.
Aluminum Bronze ..
1.06
..
................
........
......
........
Aluminum Brass ..
""""""'" .
...................
'..........1.07
..........
Nickel-Chromelron .
Admiralty............................................................................................................................. 1.09
........................
Nickel and Nickel-Copper .
Copper and Cupro-Nickels ................... .............. ..... .................. ....

1.13
1.14

C J

e
>
-4

>

en
(1)

(1)

-4

e:

C"

(1)

"O
(1)

n
:::;
n

--

Q)

-s::...,
::l

en

......

:ii: f--

r-

5'j

General Tube Dimensions and


M
SIZE

e>
!!!.

5
:::l

"'

WALL THICKNESS
A

-'--

REA

xterna!
urface

Outside

lnside
Cross
E
Diameter Diameter
B.W.G. Sectional
S (mm}
(mm)
Millimetres Gauge
cm2
m

2
g f-o

.,-

ASS (Metric)

25.4
25.4
25 4
25.4
25.4
25.4
25.4

31.7
5
31.7
5
31.7
5
31.7
5
31.7
5
31.7
5
31.7
5
31.7
5
31.7
5
31.7
5

-+-+
--+
17.018
4.191
21.184
2.108
18.593
3.404
21.742
1.829
22.098
1.651
22.911
1.245
23.622
0.889
22.60
6
23.36
8
24.94
3
25.65
4
26.21
3
26.92
4
27.53
4
28.44
8
29.26
1
29.97
2

4 572
4.191
3.404
3.048
2 769
2.413
2.108
1.651
1.245
0.889
3.404
2.769
2.108
1.651
3.048
2.769
2.413
2.108

8
14
10
15
16
18
20

7
8
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
6
1
8
2
0
1
0

+ ------2.275
3.525
2.715
3.713
3.835
4.123
4.383

Interna!
Surface
Kg/m 2/m
m2/m
length

+0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080

-r-

-+-1
0.053
2.462
0.058
1.843
0.061
1.682
0.062
1.545

401
4
4.28
9
4.88
6
5.16
9
5.39
7
5.69
4
5.95
4
6.35
6
6.72
3
7.05
8

Note: Table weights (MASS) based on carbon steel tube. To establish other metal
weights (mass) multiply by:
0.35
Aluminum ............
Titanium ........................................................................................................... 0.58
A.1. S.I. 400 Series Stainless Steels ......................................................................0.99
A.1.S.I. 300 Series Stainless Steels ........................................................................1.02
Aluminum Bronze ............................................................................................... 1.04
Aluminum Brass ................................................................................................. 1.06
Nickel-Chrome-lron ............................................................................................. 1.07
Admiralty .......................................................................................................... 1.09
Nickel and Nickel-Copper ..................................................................................... 1.13
Copper and Cupro-Nickels ................................................................................... 1.14

-1

-z

em:

G)

e
)>

-1
)>

CJ)

--1e
C1>
C1>

C"
C'1)

CJ)

"C
C'1)

D>

o-

-
::::1
fn

-3:
C1>

:::!.

TUBING DATA
Stationary
tubesheet
Baffle

fluid
1st
leaves
(warm)

1st fluid
enters
(cold)

2nd fluid
leaves
(warm)

Steel Tube/Still/GP

Shell

: ill

--'1-rt-t

Removable
tube bundle

2nd fluid

Floating
head ring
Floating

, 111

tubesheet

+----head
Rear

Baffles

lllustration #17 - Typical Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Still Tubing: Still tubing is designed far


pro cess refinery type heater applications
where the tube is subject to externa!
furnace tem peratures higher than the
fluid or vapors contained internally in the
tube. lt is usually supplied in seamless,
hot-finished or cold drawn types for
various ranges of tempera ture and
pressure. Like other types of tube, it is
sized by outside diameter and minimum
wall thickness.

General Purpose Tube: Tube classified


under this heading is used for applications
that require general service types of
tubing. ASTM A 179 and SAE J524b
(Society
of
Automotive
Engineers)
standards are usu ally the two major
carbon steel tube specifi cations used
under this classification. The tubes are low
carbon seamless tubes which are colddrawn and in the case of the SAE tube,
are annealed for bending and flaring.

104

TUBING DATA

Steel Tube/GP/Special Application

General Purpose
Stainless steel tubing for general service is
covered under either ASTM A268 for ferritic
stainless steel or ASTM A269 for austenitic
stainless steel. These standards cover
both welded and seamless tube, which are
sized by the outside diameter and wall
thickness.

Special Application Tube


Tubing classified in this group is used f r
applications where environmental condt
tions or installation requirements require a
specific type of tube or tube arrangement.
Copper Brazed Stee/ Tube:_ This type of
tubing is used in the automot1ve, refngera
tion and stove industries. The tube is man
ufacturad from steel strips coated with
copper and formed into tubing. lt is then
brazed to form a complete tube. Sizes are
limitad from 3/16 inches (4.76 mm) to 5/8
inches (15.88 mm) OO. lllustration #18
details two types of copper-brazed steel
tub ing identified in ASTM A 254-84
standards.

Double Wall 360 degree Brazed Tubing

Single-Strip Type

Double-Strip Type
lllustration #18 - Copper Brazed Steel
Tubing

Bundled Metallic or Plastic Tube: These


tube bundles can also be classified as spe
cial application tubing. The bundles can
incorporate either metallic or plastic tu es
encasad in plastic or steel armor
protect1ve jackets. Tubing bundles are
primarly used for pneumatic measurement
and control signal instrumentation lines.
They pro ide protection for individual tubes
and faster fteld installation. Two typical
tube bundles are shown in illustration #19.

TUBING DATA

Special Application/Plastic

Bundled Metallic or Plastic Tube


Plastic
Jacket

Numbered
Tubes

Parallel
Lay
Tubes are numbered
sequentially through
the bundle for
identification

Steel
Armor

Protective
Vinyl Tape

Spiral
Lay

llllll

Spiral Lay bundles


provide optimum
flexibility for
applications requiring
frequent bends

lllustration#19-TypicalBundledTube

Special Alloy Tube


Service conditions that require tube
outside of the scope of carbon steel or
stainless steel specifications can usually
be accommo dated by one of the special
alloy tubes. The following are commonly
available tube alloys:

Monel
Cupro
Nickel Brass
Alloys
Hastelloy
Titanium

lnconels, lncoloys
Nickel
Chrome Moly
Stainless Steel
Alloys Molybdenum

Plastic Tube
Because of plastic's good corrosion resist
ance, ease of handling and low cost of
manufacturing, it is becoming commonly
used. Typical applications of plastic tubing
range from instrumentation air to beverage
and pharmaceutical lines. The more com
mon types of plastic tubing used are:
Nylon, Polyethylene, Polypropylene,
Teflon and PVC.
Working pressure for these plastics range
up to 600 psi (4100 kPa) with temperature
maximums as high as 400 F (204 C).
Sug gested allowable working pressure
and watt thickness dimensions for nylon
and polyeth ylene tube are given in tables
#25 and #26.

105

TUBING DATA

Plastic Tube

Allowable Working Pressure and Wall Thickness Dimensions


Nylon Tubing
Suggested
Wall
Thickness
lnches
Wall Thickness Millimetres
Tubing
Tubi
0.76
0.08
0.12
ng
1.1
1.5
2.0
3.18
0.06
0.03
0.04
o.o.
lnche
s
3/16
l/4
3/a

0
2
Pressure in P.S.I.

530

790

400

590

810

260

390

540

700

4.76

300

6.35
9.53

410

530

820

3/4

270

350

550

200

260

410

1 /2

12.7

3.6
5
2.7
6
1.7
9

19.05

7
3
Pressure in MPa

5.4
5
4.0
7
2.6
9
2.0
7

5.5
8
3.7
2
2.8
3
1.8
6
1.3
8

25.4

Table #25 - Nylon Tube Oimensions

4.8
3
3.6
5
2.4
1
1.7
9

5.65
3.79
2.83

Polyethylene Tubing Suggested Allowable Working Pressure and Wall Thickness Dimensions
Tubing
O.O.
lnches

Wall Thickness lnches


0.045

0.062

0.090

4.76

190

l/4

140

195

3/a

95

190

'f 2

70

3/4

45

1
3
1
0
65
50

o.o.

3.18

1.31
1.34

9.53

0.655

0.896

1.31

0.483

0.689

0.966

1.38

0.310

0.448

0.655

0.986

0.345

0.483

0.689

95
70

100

25.4

Table #26 - Polyethylene Tube Oimensions

2.29

0.966

12.7

Note: Pressure is determined al room temperature

1.57

Pressure in MPa

6.35
2
0
130

140

1.14

Millimetres

Pressure in P.S.I.

3/16

Wall Thickness Millimetres

Tubing
0.125

19.05

TUBING DATA

Tube Bending

Tube Bending
Tube benders range from the most simple
spring types shown in illustration #20A to
the diverse mechanically driven types used
on larger sizes of tubing. Most smaller sizes
of tubing can be easily and accurately bent
by hand, using the appropriate type of hand
tubing benders. 8ending of such tube is not
limited to annealed copper and aluminum,
but can be performed readily on annealed
carbon steel and stainless steel tubing.
Maximum tubing size for hand benders var
ies depending on tube material, temper, wall
thickness, and the style of benders used.
Table #27A gives recommended minimum
and maximum wall thickness for bending
tube.

Compression Tube Bender


This instruction section on bending will deal
with a hand lever type tube bender often
referred to as a compression tube bender,
see illustration #208.

l 101

Tube size dimensions for this type of bender


usually range from 3/16 of an inch (4.76
mm) through to 3/4 inch (19 mm) outside
diameter.

Bender Part ldentification


All parts identified in the following descrip
tion of benders are shown in illustration
#208
1. "8ending Wheel" shown provides the cir
cular form the tubing rotates around to
make the actual bend. lt is marked off in
degrees of a half circle.
2. "Stationary Handle" supports the bending
wheel while bending.
3. "Pull Handle" pulls the tube around the
bending wheel to designated bend need
ed.
4. "Placement Link" indicated where to
place the measured mark on the tubing
that is to be
bent.
5. "Fastener" holds tubing in place while
bending.

TUBING DATA

Tube Bending
lnstalling Fittings Near Bends

Tube Bending
2.

Slip the center of the


spring over the center of
the desired bend

3.

Hold bender in both hands


and slowly make the bend

4.

Grasp flat end of the spring


and remove from the

When installing fittings clase to tube bends,


the distorted tube section (caused by bend
ing) must not enter the tube fitting. Table
#278 and #27C give the necessary straight
tube lengths. See illustration #21.
---

_y_

--T

---..U--

T Tube outside diameter

tubing

lllustration #20A - Spring Tube


Benders

Placement
Link

Radius of tubing bend


as required or minimum
allowed for specified
wall thickness and tube
size as
recommended by the
bender
manufacturer.

L Straight tube lngth


required from end
of tube to beginning
of bend

Tube

Stat1onary Handle

""'

Bendmg
Wheel

Fastener

lllustration #208 - Hand Lever Tube Bender

lllustration #21 - Fittings Near Tube Bends

TUBING DATA

Tube Bending

TUBE BENDING
Recommended Maximum and Minimum

Thickness for Tube Bending


Table #278 and #27CWall
Notes
Min.W
Recommended
all
Maximum Wall
Witho
ut
Aluminu
Copp
Steel
Flatten
m In.
er In.
In.
In.
mm
ing
mm.
mm
1
- - 3
.
.
.
.
.
0
3
0
8
/
2
1
3
.
.
e
.
2
.
2
2
2
4
5 0
8
.
.
0
.
.
.
.
8
1
1
.
8
8
0
0
7 3
8
3
2
2
3
2
3
6
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
2
.
1
8 0
4
1
9
0
4
.
.
1
9
8
.
2
2
1
0
0
7
5
3
8 5
.
.
.
2
3
.
..
1
.
8
1
2
.
1
8
/
2
Table
#27ARecommended
Thickness
for
Bending.
9
1
4
.
0
2
2
1
TubeO.
D.

Radiu
sTo
Tube
Center
ing

Gain

In.
.
1
7
.
1
9
.
2
9
.
2
9

9
.
5
1
1
.
1
1
4
.
3
1

3/
e

7
1
1
6
91
15
11
/1

4
.
3
4
.
8
7
.
4
7
.
4

1. R = Radius of tube bend as rec


ommended by bender manufac
turar
2. Dimensions in Row A represent
recommended straight
tube
length. Dimensions in Row B are
to be used when an absoluta
minimum straight tube length is
necessary.
NOTE: Table #27C uses metric
tube fittings which are not inter
changeable with fractional sizes
and conversions.

Fractional Measurement

T
Tube O.O.

1
3
1

1
1
1
1
L
3
2
A
1
Lengt

h of
3
Strai
1
%
B 1
ght
3
Tube
%
(inche #278 - Straight Tube
Table
Lengths
(inches)

4
1

f
1
1

5
1
7
;

2
3

1
5

3
1

1
1
1
f
3
1

%
1
1
1
1

Metric Measurement
3
1

7
;
1

1
1
1
1

1
5
1
3

1
1
1
1
%

T
Tube O.D.
(mm)

1
0

1
2

L
A
1 2 2 2 2
Length
of
Straigh
B
1 1 1 2 2
t
6 7 8 0 4
Table #27C - Straight Tube Lengths

1
4

1
6

1
8

2
0

2
2

2
5

2
5

2
5

2
5

2
6

2
7

3
3

1101

TUBING DATA

Tube Bending Steps


Bending Steps

1. 90 Degree Bend: (illustration #21A)


a. Measure and mark tube to the desired
length; measuring from the end of the
tube to the center of the 90 degree
bend and mark with a pencil or fine
point felt
marker. lf more than one bend is required,

center line of the pre


vious bend to the center line of the
required 90 degree bend.
.
b. Place the tubing in the bender w1th the
measured end of the tubing along the
stationary handle of the bender (from
left to right).
c. Position the mark at which to bend the
tube directly in line with the 90 degree
notch on the placement link. Secure the
fastener latch onto the tube (making
sure the "O" notch on both the bending
wheel and placement link are in line).
d. While moving the pull handle towards
the stationary handle, pull down
smoothly until the "O" notch on the
placement link lines up with the 90
degree on the bend ing wheel.

Measured Len th

measure from the

l Stop bend
rwhen "O" on
:
placement
: :
link lines
: :
up here

lllustration #21A - 90 Degree


Bend

2. Reverse
90
Degree
Bend:
(illustration
#218
The "R" indicator notch on the placement
link is used when the end of the tube from
which the bend is measured from is
reversed. That is, the tube is positioned in
the bender from the opposite or reverse side
of the stationary handle. All of the aforemen
tioned bending procedures remain the same
except the mark on the tube is placed on the
"R" notch on the placement link.

TUBINGDATA
Bending Steps

Tube Bending Steps


Measured Length
Place tube
mark
on "R"
\

t--

:
: :

LJ

Stop

bend

when "O" on
placement
link lines
up here

c. Position the mark at which to bend the


tube directly in line with the 45 degree
bend notch on the placement link.
Close the fastener onto the tube
(making sure the "O" notch is lined
up on both the bending wheel and the
placement link).
d. While moving the pull handle towards the
stationary handle, pull down smoothly on
the pull handle till the "O" notch on the
placement link lines up with the 45 degree
on the bending wheel.

lllustration #21B - Reverse 90 Degree Bend

3. 45 Degree Bend (illustration #21C)


a. Measure and mark tube to the needed
length, measure from the end of the
tube to the center mark of the
required 45 degree bend. lf more than
one bend is required, measure from the
center line of the first bend to the center
of the second 45 degree bend and
mark.
b. Tubing can be placed in either direction
(left or right) from the form handle.

Place tube
mark
on "45"

Stop bend
when "O" on
placement
link lines
up
here lllustration #21C - 45 Degree
Bend

112

TUBING DATA

Tube Bendin /Gain/Swa elok

Tube Gain (Bending Length lncrease


When tube bending, the actual bend made
does not follow the absolute profile of a
straight line lay out, but short cuts the
angles.
A tube bent
around a comer
follows a
shortened path
Bent tubing
follows a bending
radius NOT a 90
degree comer
profile

Square 90 degree
comer line ;-

.,..----=-

Bending radius
of the tube
lllustration #22 - Tubing Bend
Gain

This short cutting of the corners gives addi


tional length to the remaining straight tube.
The length acquired is commonly referred to
as gain. lllustration #22 shows this short cut
ting of the straight angle by the tube.
Gain for 90 degree bends is approximately
equal to the O.O. of the tube being bent.

Table #28 gives exact gain lengths for various


sizes of tube and different bending radii. lf
bends are made correctly by positioning the
mark to be bent on the proper placement link
notch (either 90 degree or R), and in multi
bending situations, measuring each bend
from the previous bend, the gain appears on
the straight length of tube opposite the mea
sured length.
Bending in this manner ensures correct end
to center or center to center measurements in
bending.

Swagelok Tube Fittings Assembly


Swagelok fittings come completely assem
bled, finger-tight, and are ready for use.
Disassembly before use is unnecessary and
could result in dirt getting into the fittings
resulting in leaks.
Step 1: lnsert the tubing into the fitting.
Ensure that the tubing rests on the fitting
shoulder and the nut is finger tight.

TUBING DATA

Tube Bending/Tube Gain

Tube Size

in
18
31
6
1/4
1/4
51

3!s

38
112

5!s
5/A

3/4
34
78
7/A

1
1
1
1/
4

1 1/2
1 112

mm
3.
2
4.
8
6.4
9.
5
9.
5
12.
19.
1
19.
1
25.
4
25.
4
31.
8

113

Tube Gain Calculation Table


90 Bend Gain
Common
Bender

in
38
71
6
91
6
3
1516

1
1/8

1
1/2

2
1/

4
1/2

2
3
3 112
3 3/4
4
1/2

mm

9.
5
11.1
14.
3
23.
8
28.6
38.1
47.6
57.2
63.
5
66.
76.
2
88.9
95.
3
114.

in
0.
16
0.1
9
0.2
0.4
0
0.4
8
0.6
0.
97
1.
07
1.
29
1.
50
1.
61

mm

4.1
4.8
6.1
8.
2
10.
2
12.
3
16.
24.5
27.2
28.6
32.
32.
7
38.
1
40.
9

Table #28 - Tube Bend Gain

45 Bend Gain

in
0.0
2
0.0
2
0.0
0.0
4
0.0
5
0.0
0.1
0
0.1
1
0.
13
0.
15
0.
16

mm
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.2
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.3
3.3
3.8
4.1
4.9
5.5
8.7

1141 TUBING DATA

Swagelok Fittings
Swagelok Fittings lnstallation
Note: See pages 498, 499, 500 for addi
Step 2: Befare tightening the nut, scribe the
nut at the 6.00 o'clock position.
Step 3: While holding the fitting body with a
backup wrench, tighten the nut 11/4 turns.
For sizes 1/15, 1/a, 3/15 (2, 3, 4 mm) tighten
3/4 of a turn from finger
tight.
Note: Swagelok installation and related
information
reproduced
courtesy
Swagelok Co.

tional Swagelok information.


8

12

lllustration #23 - Swagelok lnstallation

SECTION TWO QUESTIONS

TUBINGDATA
1.

An B inch (200 mm) tube will have an outside diameter equa/


to an 8 inch (200 mm) pipe.
a.
true
b.
false
2.
1.
2.
3.

What are the three main categories of tubing?

3.
How is structural tube sized?
Answer:
4.
a.
b.

Mechanical tube is designed to carry f/uids under pressure.


true
false

5.

a.
b.

c.

d.

The BWG gage tube wall thickness closest to 118" (3 mm) is:
23
11
10
8

6.

a.
b.

Coiled aluminum tubing is general/y supplied in thicknesses up to 318" (9.5 mm).


true
false

7.
a.
b.

Tube types K, L, and M are sized by the actual outside diameter measuremenr?
true
false

8.
a.
b.
c.
d.

What is the outside diameter of a 1 inch (25 mm) type K tube?


1.25 inches (31.7 mm)
1.125 inches (28.575 mm)
1 inch (25.4 mm)
.875 inch (22.2 mm)

9.
What is the easy way to determine the O.D. of a type K, L, or M, tube.
Answer:

1O.
a.
b.
c.

With reference to copper tube, what do the following abbreviated letters stand far?
ACR tube
GP tube
DWV tube

11.
a.
b.

These types K, L, and M are only available in coils of "soft" copper.


true
false

12.
a.
b.

State the color code far each of the copper types.


Type K
Type L
Type M
Type DWV

c.

d.

13.
1.
2.
3.
4.

What are the four majar groupings far carbon steel and/or stainless steel tube?

14.
What is the thinnest wall thickness available far a 1 inch (25.4 mm) condenser tube?
Answer:
-

15.
What is the purpose of still tubing?
Answer:
16.

1.
2.

17.

Name two Special Application Tubes.

Which type of tube bundle is best suited for applications requiring frequent bends or
turns:
Answer:

18.
a.

The suggested maximum allowable working pressure of a 114 inch (6.4 mm) O.O. nylon
tube is:
81O psi (5.58 MPa) b.
400 psi (2.76 MPa)
c.
195 psi (1.34 MPa)
d.
95 psi (.655 MPa)

19.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Compression hand type tube benders are usual/y limited to what size of tube?
3/16 inch (4.8 mm)
1/2 inch (12.7 mm)
3/4 inch (19 mm)
1 1/8 inch (28.6 mm)

20.
What is the purpose of the "Placement Link" on a hand tube bender.
Answer:
21.
a.
b.
c.
d.

What is the bending "gain" of a 314 inch (19 mm) tube bent 90 degrees?
2.15 inch (54.6 mm)
1.62 inch (41.2 mm)
1.08 inch (27.4 mm)
.50 inch (16.5 mm)

SECTION
THREE
VALVES

VALVES
Basic Valve Types
There are numerous valve types, styles,
sizes, and shapes available for use in
indus try. Even though there are dozens of
valve varieties to choose from, the
primary pur pose of valves remains the
same; that is to stop or start flow, orto
regulate flow.
Regulation of flow includes: throttling, pre
vention of flow reversa!, and relieving or
reg ulating pressure within a system.
Selection of valves for a system is based
on the valve's intended service and
design function. There are eight basic
valve designs available:
Gate
Globe
Check
Diaphragm
Ball
Butterfly
Plug
Relief

Valve Types/Gate Valves


Gate
Valves
Gate va/ves are used for on-off service
and are designed to operate ful/y open
or ful/y c/osed.
Because of excessive vibration and wear
created in partially closed gates, the valves
are not intended for throttling or flow regu
lation. Gate valves are available in salid
wedge, flexible wedge, split wedge and
dou ble disc styles. A typical gate valve
and its majar parts are shown in illustration
# 24.
See tables #32 and #34 through #37 of this
section for sizes and dimensions.
Wedge type gate va/ves have a tapered
wedge that wedges between two tapered
seats when the valve is closed. The salid
wedge design (shown in illustration # 25) is
widely used and is suitable for air, gas, oil,
steam, and water service. Flexible wedge
gate valves are used in services that have
a tendency to bind the salid wedge design
due
to
excessive
variations
in
temperatures.

s-Gate Va/ves

q;:g

VALVES

Gate Valves
@>

Gland
Flange

Handwheel

p::: (18l ll

Packing

Yoke Sleeve
Retaining Nut
Stem

Yoke Sleeve
Integral Yoke
and Bonnet

Bonnet
Bushing
Gland Eye
Bolts

Hoodwh"I
Nut

Solid Wedge
Seat

Groove
Pin
Stem Disc
Connection
Flexible Disc

lllustration #25 - Solid Wedge Gate


Valve

lllustration #24 - Gate


Valve

The design of the flexible wedge (shown in


illustration #26) provides good seating char
acteristics (opening and closing) for a wide
range of temperatures while providing posi
tive shutoff.

VALVES

Gate Valves

Gafe Va/ves
SIDE
VIEW

TOP
VIEW

lllustration #26 - Flexible Wedge Disc

Wedge Shape
with
Center Hub
connecting the
two halves
of the disc

Guidas
are used
on larger sizes
to preven!
chattering

Split wedge and double disc gafe va/ves


have discs or wedges that are made of
two pieces. In the split wedge design,
(shown in illustration #27) the last turn of
the hand wheel forces the two discs
against the tapered seats. The double
disc gate valve has parallel discs and
seats. Closure of the double disc is
accomplished by a spreader or wedge
which forces the parallel discs against
the seats. The double disc gate valve is
shown in illustration #28.
Friction, which causes wear on seats and
discs, is kept to a minimum in both the
split wedge and double disc gate valves
because the seat and disc are in contact
only on clos ing the valve.
When installing either the splif wedge or
double disc gate va/ve, the stem of the
va/ve must be vertical (va/ve upright)
which insures the discs do not jam
apart before c/osing.

VALVES

Gate/Globe Valves
Globe Valves

Gafe
Va/ves

Rising
Stem

119

Gland Flange
Packing Gland
Packing
Gland Eye Bolts
----_ Groove Pin
Bonnet Nuts
Bonnet

lllustration #27 - Split Wedge Gate Valve

Disc Stem Ring


Stem
Disc Washer

Stem

Bonnet Gasket
D1sc
Spreader ----t--IWTI

Ring

Seat
lllustration #28 - Double Disc Gate
Valve

Body
lllustration#29-GlobeValve

VALVES
Globe Valves
Globe valves, unlike gate valves, are used
i'! applications requiring frequent opera
t1on and/or throttlmg of flow. The design
of the globe valve (shown in illustration
#29) keeps seat erosion to a minimum
while making it an easy valve to service.
Wh'en flow begins in the globe valve
design, the disc moves completely away
from the seat thus minimizing erosion and
wire drawing.
See tables #33 and #38 through #41 of this
section for sizes and dimensons.
Globe valves are available in three body
styles:
angle
body
Y-pattern
T-pattern body or straightway style (most
common)
All three body_ styles are suited for
throttling, but each has 1ts own flow
characteristic and service applicability.
Angle body valves provide for a 90 degree
ch ngE'. of direc ion (see illustrations #30)
wh1ch_ m sorne mstallations saves space,
""tnn? 1

and inst llatiori ti111q.

Globe Valves
The inner design of the angle body valve
offers less flow restriction than the
conven tional T-pattern, but more than the
Y-pattern globe valve.
Y-pattern globe valves, because of the
angle of the stem (45 or 60 degrees from
the run), give very little flow restriction.
lllustra tion #31 shows a typical Y-pattern
globe va ve. The Y-pattern globe valve is
ideally suited for applications requiring
almost full flow in a valve, but still has the
characteris tics of a globe valve.
Applications far the Y-pattern globe
valve include boiler blow-offs and
services where mud, grit and/or viscous
fluids may be encountered.
The main types of globe valves according to
their seat arrangements are:
conventional
disc
plug
disc
composition
disc
needle
valve

VAL VES

Globe Valves

Globe Valves

Bonnet
Conventional
Disc
Seat Ring
Body
Composition
Disc

lllustration #32 - Plug Disc Globe


Valve
lllustration #30 - Angle Globe
Valve
(Composition Disc)

Packing
Disc Holder

lllustration #31 - Y Pattern Globe Valve (Composition Disc)

Conventional disc globe va/ves use a short


tapered disc which fits into a matched
tapered seat for closure and throttling
(shown in illustration #32). When flow
conditions have a tendency to deposit or
coke on valve seats, the conventional
design disc valve is often preferred. The
narrow disc used in the conventional disc
will usually break through deposits, giving
positive seating, rather than packing the
deposits.

VALVES
Globe
Valves
The plug disc differs from the conventional
disc in that the plug disc and seat arrange
ment are longer and more tapered. The
longer area of the plug and seat give the
plug valve maximum resistance to flow
induced erosion. An example of a plug
globe valve is shown in illustration #33.
The composition disc globe valve has a
flat composition disc that fits flat against a
seat rather than into a seat. This arrange
ment can be seen in illustration #34.

lllustration #33 - Plug Disc Globe


Valve

Globe Valves
Various composition materials can be
used in the disc holder depending on
the intended service of the valve. By
chang ing the
composition
disc
material, the valve can be changed from
one service to another. Because of the
softer nature of certain compositions
used in the disc, foreign matter usual/y
inbeds in the disc rather than causing
leakage or scoring of the seat.
The needle valve is another type of globe
valve which is used for accurate throttling
in high pressure and/or high temperature
service.
Needle va/ves are designed for small
diameter lines requiring fine throttling of
gases, steam, ol, water, or any other
light liquid.
The valve consists of a sharp pointed
(needle shaped) stem that controls flow
through the seat. lllustration #35 shows a
typical needle valve.

VALVES

Globe/Check Valves

Globe Valves

Check Valves

lllustration #34 - Composition Disc Globe Valve


Stem
Disc Holder
Composition
Disc

Packing Nut
Bonnet
Needle
Shaped Disc

lllustration #35 - Needle Valve

Check va/ves are used to prevent flow


reverse in piping systems and connected
equipment. The two most common design
forms of check va/ves are:
swing
check
lift
check
The swing check (shown in illustration #36)
consists of a hinged disc that swings open
when flow starts in the desired direction
and swings closed in flow reversa!
situations. Because of this swinging action
of the disc, it is important to install all swing
check valves so that the disc clases
positively by gravity. When fully open, the
swing check offers less flow resistance
than the lift check valve design.
In flow situations where shock closure
andlor disc chatter are encountered,
other varieties of swing check va/ves
can be used to help minimize the
problems.
See tables #38 through #41 of this section
for sizes and dimensions.

Check Valves

1241 VALVES
Check Valves

Disc Hinge
Disc

Disc

':\!. . . . . . . . ... . . w

Body Seat
Ring

..

fn1 Seat
Body

Body

lllustration #37A- Lever & Weight Swing Check Valve

lllustration
Valve

#36

Swing

Check

Swing check valves with outside lever and


weight arrangements (shown in illustration
#37A) or spring loaded discs can facilitate
immediate closure in flow reverse. This
immediate closure minimizes the possible
damages of shock and disc chatter in sys
tems. The tilting disc swing check valve is
another type of swing check valve that is
used to help prevent slamming (see
illustra tion #378).

NORMAL
FLOW

lllustration #378 - Tilting Check


Valve

Disc hinge
location
provides
lmmediate
closure
when flow
reversas

VALVES

Check/By-Pass Valves

Check
Va/ves
The lift check va/ve design (shown in illus
tration #38A) is used in line situations
where pressure drop is not considered
critica!. The flow pattern through the valve
corresponds
to that of the globe valve. Lift check valves
are available in horizontal and vertical
designs.
Vertical design check va/ves (shown in
illustration #388) are for use in up-feed
ver tical lines only and will not work in the
inverted or in the horizontal position. lt is
important when installing any lift check
valve that the disc or ball lifts vertically
when in operation.

By-Pass Valves
In larger valving situations where high
pressure and/or high temperatures are
encountered, a smaller by-pass va/ve is
often installed to equalize pressure and/
or to al/ow the pipe down stream to
warm up befare the /arger va/ve is
opened. 11/us tration #39A shows a
typical by-pass arrangement, while
i//ustration #398 gives standard by-pass
and auxiliary connec tion locations and
sizes.

l f---ttJlffm--- Body Seat


Ring

'-&JJ...L_J'"'--.J..IU._

---

Body

lllustration #38A - Horizontal Lift Check Valve

Disc Holder

...J
LL

...J

<

:::?
a:

o
z

lllustration #388 - Vertical Lift Check Valve

Composition
Disc
Disk Guide
Nut
Body

126

VALVES

By-Pass/Diaphragm Valves
Diaphragm Valves

By-Pass Va/ves

Typical
by-pass valve
used on high
pressure
and/or high
temperature
service with
stems of both
valves parallel

lllustration #39A - By-Pass Valve

Diaphragm va/ves (sometimes referred to


as saunders va/ves) are designed to con
trol flow in corrosive services where line
content could adversely affect va/ve com
ponents. Other applications for dia
phragm va/ves are in services where
contamination from outside sources can
not be tolerated, for example, the phar
maceutical and food industry.
The diaphragm valves differ from other
valves in that the body of the valve and line
content is sealed off from ali moving parts of
the valve by a flexible diaphragm. This flex
ible diaphragm seal prevents stem packing
leakage of line content and flow contamina
tion by packing lubricants.
Even though there are many variations in
diaphragm valve design, most can be
class ified as either:
weir type
straightway type.

VALVES

By-Pass Valves

By-Pass Va/ves

ANGLE
VALVES

Tapped
locations
shown
thus:

-@

CHECK VALVES

Recommended Sizes of By-Pass Valve Piping


Main
Valve
By-Pass

2
4
1/2"
15mm

5-8"
1253/4"
20mm

1024"
2501"
25mm

lllustration #398 - Bv-Pass & Auxiliarv Connections

VALVES
Diaphragm Va/ves
Weir type diaphragm va/ves are the most
common type of diaphragm valve used.
lllustration #40A shows a typical weir valve
along with its majar components. The weir
diaphragm incorporates a raised section
(weir) half way through the valve which
acts as a closure point far the flexible
diaphragm. Because of the way the weir is
formed in the body diaphragm, movement
is shortened, which in turn prolongs
diaphragm lite and reduces overall
maintenance.
Straightway diaphragm va/ves, have no
weir incorporated in the valve design. lllus
tration #408 shows a typical straightway
valve. This design gives the valve an unin
terrupted passageway suited far flows
which are viscous or contain solids.
There are many types of diaphragm mate
rials available (see table #29) depending
on service and temperature conditions.

Diaphragm Valves
Because of longer diaphragm movement
needed in the straightway valve compared
to the weir type, material selection is
limited far the straightway type.

Compressor
Diaphram
& Backing

Valve Liner
Valve Body

lllustration #40A - Weir Type Diaphragm


Valve

VALVES

Diaphragm/Pinch Valves
Pinch
Valves

Diaphragm
Va/ves

Diaphragm

The pinch valve, like the diaphragm valve,


uses a flexible diaphragm in the closing
and opening of the valve. Pinch valves
use a flexible hollow sleeve which is
pinched closed to stop flow by manual
or power methods. A simple air operated
pinch valve is shown in illustration #41.
Pinch valves are ideally suited in services
which carry suspended matter, slurries and
solid powder flows.
Flexible
Hollow
Sleeve

Valva
OPEN

Pinchadalva
CLOSED

Air Tap
lllustration #408 - Straightway Type Diaphragm
Valve

lllustration #41 - Air Operated Pinch Valve

VALVES

Diaphragm Valve Materials

COMMON MATERIALS USED FOR DIAPHRAGMS IN DIAPHRAGM VALVES


Temperature Range
Service Application

Material

water systems
chemical, air, & oil
oxidizing services
food & beverage
fatty acids, chemical, & gases
chemical, air, & oil

Natural Rubber
Neoprene
Hypalon
White chlorinated butyl
Black chlorinated butyl
Buna N

Temp.
F Min

30
10
1
0
Note: Full valve body liners of plastic are often used in diaphragm valves to enhance
ali
resist- anee. The most common plastic lining materials are:
polypropylene (PP)
polyvinylidene fluoride
(PVDF)
fluorinated ethylene propylene
(FEP) ethylene tetrafluorethylene
(ETFE) perfluoro

Table #29 - Diaphragm Material

Temp.
C Min

18
20
0
34
20
23
0
18
12
0
around
chemical

82
93
93
93
93
82

VALVES
Ball Valves
The ball valve, as the name indicates, con
tains a ball shaped plug within a valve
body which regulates flow. The ball has a
circular
hole or flow way through its center and
when
turned one quarter turn, the flow stops. Ball
valves come in three general patterns:
venturi port
full port
reduced
port
design
(sometimes
referred
to as regular port).
The port patterns indicate the inside
diame ter of the ball flow-way.
Ba.11 va/ves may a/so be classified by
their body style. Body styles come in one
piece and multi-piece bodies.
A typical reduced (regular) port ball valve
with a multi-piece body is shown in
illustration
#42.

Ball Valves
Reduced Port Ball Va/ve
Handle
----'........._-

Assembly
lndicator Plate

Gland

-=':rr----..(:5C----lr--l!f:r----

Gland Packing
St m
Ball

Body
/Connector
/

--;:::=-11 :_
r

. Seat Ring and


Housing
Body
Connector Bolt
Body
Connector
Seal
Valve Body

lllustration #42 - Reduced Port Ball Valve

VALVES
Butterfly Valves
The butterfly valve offers a simple design
that is
lightweight,
compact,
and
inexpensive, particularly in larger valve
sizes.lt consists ot a tlat circular disc
hinged in its center, which closes or tully
opens with a quarter turn. Seating tor the
disc is supplied by metal seats or resilient
types ot material like elas tomer and
plastics. Because of the advances in
seating material, butterfly va/ves have
found general acceptance in the oil, gas,
chemical, water, and process fields. The
va/ve is often used in place of a gate
va/ve, but has the added advantage of
flow regulation.
Buttertly valves are available in two basic
bodytypes:
watertype
double
tlanged
type
The water type (shown in illustration
#43) is mounted between two f/anges
and is held in place by flange bolts.

Butterfly Valves
In situati ns where dismantling ot equip
ment or lmes may require disconnecting ot
one ot the holdi'ng tlanges, a lug water but
terfly valve can be used. The lug water
but tertly valve (shown in illustration #44)
has tapped lugs through which the tlange
bolts are screwed and hold the valve in
place, even when one tlange is removed.
In most water buttertly valves, the
elastomer seal also acts as its own tlange
gasket.
TOP
VIEW
Body
Disc
Resilient
Seat

Mounting Holes
(used on largar sizes)

lllustration #43 - Water Type Butterfly


Valve

VALVES

Butterfly Valves

Butterfly Va/ves

Stem

i._--- Shaft

TOP
VIEW

Gland

Body

Gland Packing

Disc Pin
Body
;;J....--fTt" ;:::::::::::-- Flange Bolts
Connecting Lugs

lllustration #44 Valve

Lug-Wafer Butterfly

The double f/anged butterfly (shown in


illustration #45) incorporates two flange ends
which are bolted individually into the pipe
work or equipment flanges. Gaskets are
used between the valve ends and connect
ing flanges.

'---t_........,..,,----.r-

lllustration#45-DoubleFlangedButterflyValve

Connecting
Flange

VAL VES

Plug Valves

Plug Valves
Plug valves (also known as cocks) consist of
a tapered or parallel sided plug which can
be rotated a quarter turn within a valve
body. The quarter turn gives full closure
or fully open operation of the valve. There
are two
basic types of plug valves available:
lubricated plug
non-lubricated plug
One variation of the lubricated plug is
shown in illustration #46.
The lubricated plug differs from the non
lubricated plug in that it provides a means
to lubricate the seating surfaces of the
valve. This lubrication helps to eliminate
valve seizing while still providing a
positive seal. Lubricated plugs should not
be used if flow contamination may be a
problem.
The plug valve design also lends itself to
multiport valve arrangements as shown in
illustration #47.

=--------

Lubrican! Screw

.-----Stem
----Gland
Cover Plate
lll+--+--F==t--- Gland Packing
Lubrica ni
Grooves
Flow way

k----r---

Plug

/Valve Body

lllustration #46 - Lubricated Plug Valve

VAL VES

Plug/Relief & Safety Valves

Plug Va/ves (Multi-port)

3-WAY 2-PORT

3-WAY
3-PORT

4-WAY 4-PORT

Relief and Safety Valves


These va/ves automatically relieve
excess pressure in pressure vessels or
piping systems. 11/ustrations #48 and
#49 show a relief va/ve and a safety
valve (often referred to as a pop-safety
va/ve).
The relief valve is used in applications where
full discharge of pressure is not required to
relieve pressure excesses_
The opening of the valve is proportional to
the increase of pressure above the valve's
set point. Usually, relief valves are
specified
in
services
where
non
compressible fluids are used and no
likelihood of explosion will be encountered
by overpressure.

135

VALVES

Relief & Safety Valves

Relief & Satety Va/ves


Safety valves, on the other hand, are used
for relief of compressible fluids and gases
which may cause an explosion when over
pressured.

Safety valves or pop safety valves relieve


pressure by fully opening (popping full
open), giving full flow through the valve.
Cap
Stem Nut

Cap-----1

Levar Pin

Spring Adjusting
Screw
Spring

Seal

-----.t.!2:::::::Jll

Body-

Valva
Valva Stem

Lifting Lever

?G

Adjusting Screw
Lock Nut

Discharge-

Disc Seat

Valva Stem

Disc Guida

Guida

lnlet

lllustration #48 - Relief


Valve

lllustration #49 - Safety (Pop) Valve

VALVES
Variations in General Features of
Valves

Valve Feature Variations

l 137

The teatures ot most valves vary in:


specific end connections
bonnet assembly methods
stem design selections

e. Flared End - used in connecting to


tub ing systems under 2 inches (50
mm).
f. Solder End - tound on copper and
cop per alloy low pressure valves.
g. Hub End - used on cast iron valves for
water supply and sewage sytems.

End Connections

Bonnet Assembly Methods

The principal end connections for valves are:


a. Threaded End - usually a temale
tapered
pipe thread used on valves under 6
inches (150 mm).
b. Welded End - used primarily on steel
and steel alloy valves and can be either
socket
or butt welded. Socket welding is
usually limited to valve sizes 2 inches
(50 mm)
and smaller. Typical valve socket weld
depths and diameters are given in table
#30.
c. Flanged End - tound on larger valves
with
the most common flange end connec
tions being the flat tace, raised tace
and
ring type.
d. Compression End- used for connecting
to tubing and smaller sizes of pipe.

The primary tunction ot a valve bonnet is


to provide
tor
a
pressure
tight transition assembly trom the valve
body to the valve stem.
The
tour
most common bonnet assemblies are:
1. threaded (illustration #50)
2. union (illustration #51)
3. bolted (illustration #52)
4. pressure seal type (illustration #53)
Two less common bonnet types are:
5. Welded bonnet, used in high tempera
ture and pressure applications (illustra
tion #54)
6. Clip type bonnet, a utility valve which is
easy to dismantle and reassemble
(illus tration #55)

VALVES

Valve Socket Dimensions


SOCKET WELD DIMENSION

Socket

----r

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Not
e:

.V4

Bore
1

,,,,:

NOMIN
AL
PIPESI mm
lnch

1. Socket
wel

Millimetres

SOCKET
DEPTH
lnchMin. mm

Max
.
0.56

Min
.
0.55

Max
.
14.3

Min
.
14.1

5
0.69
0
1.06
5
1.33

5
17.7
8
21.9
7
27.3
0
34.0

0
17.5
3
21.7
2
27.0
5
33.7

.0.3
8
0.3
8
0.3
8
0.5
0
0.5

9.6

2
0
2

5
0.70
0
0.86
5
1.07
5
1.34

1V4
11/2

5
3
2
4

0
1.68
5
1.92

0
1.67
5
1.91

4
42.8
0
48.9

8
42.5
4
48.6

0
0.5
0
0.5

12.7
12.7

50

2.41
6

2.40
6

61.3
7

61.1
1

0.6
2

15.8

3/e

Soc
ket
De
pth

SOCKET BORE DIA.


lnches

3/4

10
15

d dimension based on ANSI 816.11

Table #30 - Socket Weld Dimensions

9.6
9.6
12.7
12.7

VALVES

Bonnet Assemblies

Bonnet Assembly Methods


lllustration #52 - Bolted Bonnet

lllustration #50 -

(Male/Female)

moo Bottod
Types:

""""'
- Flat Face
- Male/Female
- Ring Type

lllustrottoo #
Pressure Seal Bonnet
lllustratlon #51
- Union
Bonnet

Seal Ring
Stem
Interna! Pressure Forces
Seal Ring Tight

Bonnet Assemblies

1401 VALVES
Bonnet Assembly Methods

lllustration #54 - Welded


Bonnet

Hex Nut

lllustration #55 - Clip Bonnet

Special Bonnet Design Valves:

Bellows sealed valves are used in


situations where no stem leakage can
be allowed
because of the hazardous nature of the
sub
stance being conveyed. The valve
consists
of a flexible metal bellows which is welded
to the stem on one end and the valve
casing
or bonnet on the opposite
end.
Three methods of attaching the bellows to
the valve are shown in illustration #56A. To
prevent damage to the bellows, anti-stem
rotation devices are used in the valves to
inhibit torque or twisting of the bellows by
the stem.
Extended bonnet valves are used when
temperatura extremes could affect the
stem packing of the valve. The bonnet of
the valve is extended with the stuffing box
and pack ing placed on top of the bonnet
well away from the extreme temperatura
zone of the valve.
lllustration #568 shows an example of a
cry ogenic gate valve which is suited for
liqui fied air, oxygen or other cold
temperatura service.

VALVES

Bonnets/Stem Design

Special Bonnet Design Va/ves


Three typical locations for welding the
bellows to stem & bonnet of a valva

lllustration #56A Bellows Seal


Attachment
Packing located
away from frost area

lllustration #568 Cryogenic Service Bonnet Gate Valve

Stem Design
There are four basic stem mechanism
designs available for valves:
1. inside screw rising stem (illustration
#57)
2. inside screw non-rising stem (illustra
tiuon #58)
3. outside screw rising stem (illustration
#59)
4. quick opening sliding stem (illustration
#60)
The outside screw and rising stem design
is often referred to asan OS&Y valve
(outside screw and yoke).

VALVES

Stem Mechanism Designs

Stem Designs
lllustration #59 Outside Screw and
Yoke

lllustration#57-

Handwheel

lnside Screw Rising


Stem

Yoke
Packing Gland

Stem Nut

Wedge
Body
lllustration #58 lnside Screw Non-Rising Stem

lllustration #60 Quick Opening Sliding


Stem

VALVES

Valve Marking/Symbols

Valve ldentification, Marking


& Symbols
Because valves are available in a
multitude of styles, sizes, materials, and
rating desig nations, it is important to be
able to distin guish between specific
valve
categories.
Most
valve
manufacturers mark their valve bodies
and/or use an identification tag or plate,
to assist in proper identification of
valves. Va/ve identification may inc/ude ali
or part of the following information
(depending on va/ve classification). The
Manufacturers Standardization Society of
the Va/ve and Fittings lndustry (MSS)
specify the fol/owing marking require
ments for va/ves:
Manufacturer Name, Trademark, or
Symbol:
Rating Designation: this may include
appropriate pressure rating class desig
nations or specific maximum pressure/
temperature designations of the va/ve.

The following letters and designations


cor respond to Cold Working Pressure,
(CWP)
under
normal
ambient
temperaturas rang ing between - 20 to
1OOF ( - 29 to 36C):
a. WO
Water & Oil Pressure
b. OWG
Oil, Water & Gas Pressure
c. WOG
Water, Oil & Gas Pressure
d. GLP
Gas & Liquid Pressure
e. WWP
Working Water Pressure
f. W
Water Pressure
The following letters and designations cor
respond to Steam Working Pressure (SWP):
a. S
= Steam
b. SP
=
Steam
Pressure
c. WSP
=
Working Steam
Pressure
Example of va/ve designation rating:
Maximum
200
psig
(SWP) service'
Steam
200 - s
400 - WOG
Maximum400 s
(CWP) service
Gas

WaterOil
and

VALVES
Va/ve ldentification, Marking & Symbols
NOTE:
1. when SI (metric) units are required,
pressure is given in "Bar" units
(1 bar = 100 000 Newtons per square
metre, or 1 bar = 14.5 psi.
2. when SI (metric) units are required, tem
perature is given in degrees Celcius
(C).

Material Designation: materials used in


the construction of the body and bonnet
of the va/ve are identified. Forged and
tabri cated va/ves are usual/y identified
with ASTM specification numbers and
grade identification symbo/s. Table #31
gives common symbo/s for meta/le and
non metallic materials used in va/ve
construc tion.
Melt ldentification: cast va/ves are
marked with the melt numbers or melt
identification symbo/s.

Valve Marking/Symbols
Va/ve Trim ldentification: when stem
disc (includes plug, ball, and gate) or
seat tace material differs from body
material, it
is identified.
S ze Designation: given in nominal pipe
S/Ze.

ldentification of Threaded End: when the


threaded end connection of a va/ve is
other than American National, Standard
Pipe Thread or American National
Standard Hose Thread, it is identified by
the type of thread used.
ldentification of Ring-Joint Face:
stand ard ring joints complying with
ANSI stand ard B 16.20 or API standard
6A are marked with an "R".
Speciat Function Requirements: manu
facturers may place catalog numbers,
dates, reference numbers or any addi
tional marking to distinguish the product.

<

)>

<m
en

SYMBOLS USED FOR METALLIC


ANO NON-METALLIC MATERIALS

METALLIC SYMBOLS
All lron
Aluminum
Brass
Bronze
Carbon Steel
Casi lron
Chromium
Copper-Nickel
Ductile lron
Forged Steel
Hardfacing
Integral Seat
Malleable lron

Al
AL
BRS
BRZ

Molybdenum
Monel Metal
Nickel-Copper
Nickel-lron

MO
M
NICU
NI

CI
CA
CUN
DI
FS
HF
INT
MI

Soft Metal
Stainless Steel
Steel, 13 Chromium
Steel, 18 Chromium
Steel, 28 Chromium
Steel, 18-8
Steel, 18-8 Molybdenum
Steel, 18:8 Columbium
Surface Hardened

SM
SS
CR13
CR18
CR28
18-8
18-8SMO
18-8SCB
SH

es

<
Q)

<CD

:s::

Q)
""I

Asbestos
Butadiene Rubber
Butyl Rubber
Chlorinated polyvinyl
chloride Chloroprene or
Chlorosulfonated
Neoprene
Polyethylene
Chlorotrifluoreoethylene
Ethylene-Propylene Rubber
Fluorocarbon or Vitan
Rubber
Fluorinated Ethylene
Propylene
lsoprene Rubber
Natural Rubber

ASB
BR
HA
CP
VC
CSM
CA
CIFE
EPA
FPM
FEP
IR
NA

Nitrile or Buna N
Nylon
Polyacrylic
Rubber
Poly
Vinyl
Chloride
Polyvinylidene
Polypropylene
Silicone Rubt;er
Styrene
Butadiene
Tetrafluoroethylen
e
Teflon
Thermoplastic
Thermosetting

-25:
::s

NON-METALLIC SYMBOLS
NBR
NYL
ACM
PVC

pp

e.e

en '< 3

C"

oen

PVDF
SI
SBR
TFE
TEF
T-PLAS
T-SET

......
.s : i.

c .n

VALVES
Valve lnstallation

1. Follow manufacturers specification for


any specific installation procedures
that may be required with the valve.
2. Check the valve specifications and/or
ID to ensure they match with the
valve needed in a specific application.
3. Make sure pipe sea/e, metal
chips, welding s/ag and any other
foreign materials are removed from
the pip ing system or equipment
befare
installing
the
va/ve.
4. lf foreign particles (especially abra
sives) may be present in the line,
install
a strainer upstream from the valve.
5. Check valve operation befare installing
the valve, making sure any packing or
shipping
material
is
removed.
6. Insta// va/ve in correct position.
The va/ve stem should be in the
vertical
position with the stem of the va/ve
pointin_g up. This is particular/y
true for sp/1t wedge and double disc
gate va/ves. See illustration #61.

Valve lnstallation

7. When installing check va/ves, make


sure that discs or balls in lift checks
lift vertical/y, and that in swing check
va/ves the disc e/oses positively
with gravity.
8. Va/ve f/ow direction design must
cor respond
to
system
flow
direction. Follow flow direction
arrows or in/et! out/et stampings on
va/ves when installing.
stem up
ALWAYS BEST
stem horizontal

stem down
NOT RECOMMENDED

lllustration #61 - Correct Valve Positions

VALVES

Valve lnstallation
1O. Flanges, piping, and equipment must
line up square and true with the valve
without putting undue stress on valve.
See illustration #63.

Va/ve lnstallation
9. Ensure adequate space is available so
that the valve can be operated and
maintained. See illustration #62.

NOTES

Valvas in this area should be


chain operated or have access provided

if railing is usad

Dimensions to center of valva


handwheel for vertical valvas,
stem center line for horizontal
valvas.

HIGH

Use chain operators on valva


sizes ovar 1 1/2 in. (40 mm)
located 6'-6" to 20' (2 to 6 m)
above platforms or floors
Chains should extend to within
3' (1 m) from !loor level

11 a railing is present,
horizontal valvas should be
placed 5' to 5'-6" (1.5 to 1.7 m)
above the !loor

6'-6"
(2 m)

4'-6"
(1.4 m)

MAXIMUM 1'-6" (0.5 m)

3._ 6

(1.1 m)

2'-0"
(0.6 m)

LOW

Provide leg protection


in this area

lllustration #62 - Valve Locations

148

VALVES

Valve

lnstallation

Valve lnstallation
lncorrect alignment
transfers stress to valve

lmproper thread length


and/or improper
tightening cause
valve distortion

Correct alignment
and support
prevents stress from
being transmitted
to valve

lllustration #63 - Align Piplng and Valve

11. Appropriate space must be provided


for the valve to ensure the valve fits
into the piping when installed.
Standard valve dimensions are given
in tables #32 through #42.
12. Do not over tighten or extend pipe
threads too far into a valve because of
the possibility of damage and distortion
of valve or parts. See illustration #64.
13. Use proper flange make-up procedure
by tightening flange bolts in cross over
arder. See illustration #65.

lllustration #64 - Valve Distortion

14. Wrench placement should be posi


tioned on the end of the valve nearest
to the joint being made up. See
illustration
#66.
15. Do not place valvas in locations where
they may be subject to accidental dam
age or mistreatment.
16. Valvas must be properly supported to
prevent the weight of the valve from
being transferred to piping or equip
ment. See Appendices for hangar
infor mation.

VALVES

Valve lnstallation

149

Va/ve lnstallation

lncorrect
wrench
placement
transfers
unnecessary
stress to

NOTE: Numbers indicate tightening


sequence lllustration #65 - Valve Flange
Tightening

lllustration #66 - Proper Wrench Placement

150

VALVES

Valve Tables/Cast lron Gate


Cast lron Gate Valves/Dimensions Given in lnches and Millimetres (mm) taken
from Faceto Face of the Valve
CAST IRON GATE VALVES/ ANSI CLASS 125, 250 & 800
Raised Face/Class 250

Flat Face/Class 125


Nominal

PipeSize
lnch
es

"" "
'
'h

l
f
2

31
4
5
6

8
1
0
1
2
1
4
181
2
0
22
24
2
6
3
2
3
4
3

m
m8
1
0
1
5

2
0

5
2
0
6
8
10
0
0
1
25
0
2
3
5
3
5
4
0
5
0
5
0
0
5
5
8
0
8

S
oli
d
lnch
es -

7.
00
7.
50
8.
00
9.
00
10.
10.
50
11.
50
13.
00
14.
00
15.
00
17
16.
.0
0
18.0
0

20.0
0 -

Double
Disc

m
m-

loch
es

1
7
19
0.
20
3.
22
8.
6
26
6.
29
2.
3
3
5
3
8
1.
4
3
1.
8
4
5
7.
2-

7.
00
7.
50
8.
00
9.
00
10.
10.
50
11.
50
13.
14.
00
00 -

m
m-

loch
es

1
7
1
9
2
0
2
2
8.
26
6.
2
9
3
35
3
5. -

S
oli
d

8.
50
9.
50
11.
12
12.
00
15.
15.
88
16.
50
18.
00
19.
75
22.
50
24.
26.
00
28.
00
31.
00

m
m-

Do
u
bl

21
5.
24
1.
28
2.
30
4.
8
40
3.
41
9.
45
7.
50
1.
5
7
1.
6
6
0.
4
7
1
1.
2

m
m-

loch
es

8.
50
9.
11.
50
12
12.
00
15.
15.

88
16.
50
18.
00
19.
75
22.
50
24.
26.
00
28.
00
31.
00

21
5.
24
1.
28
2.
30
4.
8
40
3.
41
9.
45
7.
5
0
5
7
1.
66
0.
4
71
1.
2

78
9
7.
6
0
Note: 1. (-) mdicates valva size is not shown in ASME/ANSI standards but, may be commerc1ally ava1\able.

Raised Face/Class 800


S
oli
d

loch
es

11.
50
13.
00
14.
00
17.00

22.
00
26.
00
31.
00
33.
00 -

Double

Flat Face

Oisc

m
m-

29
2.
33
0.
35
5.
43
1.
8
55
8.
66
0.
78
7.
8
3-

m
m-

lnch
es

11.
50
13.
00
14.
00
17.00

22.
00
26.
00
31.
00
33.
00 -

7
8
7.
4

2. M1llimetre dimensions are rounded-off to tirst decimal point.


3. D1mensions basad on ASME/ANSI 816.10 Slandard.

Table #32 - Cast lron Gate Valve

--1'

_/"

29
2.
33
0.
35
5.
43
1.
8
558.
66
0.
78
7.
83
8. -

Faca
Dimension
to Faca

-+ y-

Raised Faca

_/"

Fac.e to Face
D1mens1on

VALVES

Valve Tables/Cast lron Globe

151

Cast lron Globe Valves/Dimensions Given in lnches and Millimetres (mm) taken from
Faceto Face for Straightway Valves and Center to Face for Angle Valves
CAST IRON GLOBE VALVES/ANSI CLASS 125 & 250
Flat Face/Class 125
Nominal
Slze
lnches

v.

Stralghtway
Globe

mm

lnches

mm

Angle
Globe
lnches

Control-Style
Globe

mm

Flat Face

Raised Face/Class 250

lnches

mm

Stralghtway
Globe
lnches

mm

Angle
Globe
lnches

Control-Style
Globe

mm

lnches

mm

111..

8
10
15
20
25
32

1'h
2

50

8.00

203.2

4.00

101.6

8.75
10.00

222.3
254.0

10.50

266.7

5.25

133.4

9.25
10.50

235.0
266.7

65

8.50
9.50

215.9
241.3

4.25
4.75

107.0
120.7

10.88
11.75

276.4
298.5

11.50
12.50

292.1
317.5

5.75
6.25

146.1
158.8

11.50
12.50

292.1
317.5

11.50 292.1
13.00 330.2
14.00 355.6
19.50 495.3
24.50 522.3
27.50 698.5
787.4
31.00
36.00 914.4

5.75
6.50
7.00
9.75
12.25
13.75
15.50
18.00

146.1
165.1
177.8
247.7
311.1
349.3
393.7
457.2

13.88

352.6

14.00
15.75
17.50
21.00
24.50
28.00

355.6
400.1
444.5
533.4
622.3
711.2

7.00
7.88
8.75
10.50
12.25
14.00

177.8
200.2
222.3
266.7
311.2
355.6

14.50

368.3

18.62
22.38
27.88
30.50
36.50
41.62

473.0
568.5
708.2

'111
'h

:v.

2 1h
3

40
80

4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30

100
125
150
200
250

32

800

34
36

300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750

7.25

190.5

17.75 450.9
21.38 543.1
26.50 673.1
29.00 736.6
35.00 889.0
40.00 1016.0

7.50
7.62
7.75

190.5
193.5
196.9

1(

Face to Face
Dimension

,
Raised Faca

Fac.e to ace
D1mens1on
Flat Face

n4.7

927.1
1057.2

Raised Face

'"'"
,

to Face
Dimension

850

900

Note: 1. (-) indicates valve size is not shown in ASME/ANSI standards but, may be commercially available.
2. Millimetre dimensions are rounded-off to the first decimal point.
3. Dimensions basad on ASME/ANSI 816.10 Standards.
4. Dimensions for standard straighway lift and swing check valves are interchangeable with straightway Globe valve dimensions (excluding 16" (400 mm) vertical swing
checks).
S. Dimens1ons for standard angle lift check valves are interchangeable with angle globe valve dimensions.

Table #33 - Cast lron Globe Valve

Valve Tables/Steel Gate

VALVES

Steel Gate Valves/Dimensions Given in lnches & Millimetres


(mm) taken from Faceto Face and End to End of
Valves
STEEL GATE
VALVES I ANSI CLASS 150 & 300
Nom
inal
lncPlpe m
he v
m8
.
1
1
'
5
:h
2

""

1
1
1
2
2'
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
1
1
186
2
02
2
4
2
28
3
320
3
43
6

2
5
3
4
5
0

10
0
1
1
2
0
2
3
03
4
0
4
5
5
0
5
6

6
7
0
0
8
0
8
5
9
0

Ralsed Face/Class
150
Solid
Double
Wedge
Dlsc
lnc
m
lnc
m
he4
he4
m
10
1m
.
1.
.
0
4
10
4
1
4
1
4
1
.4
0
.4
0
11
1
5
.
5
6
7
.
08
9
1.
1
1
1.
1
1
1
1
6.
1
7
1

1
2
1
3
1
1
7
7.
20
3.
22
8.
25
2
6
2
9
3
3
3
4
0
4
3
4

5
.
5
.
6
7
.
08
.
9
1.
1
0.
1
1
1
1
1
6.
1
7.
1

2
0.
2
2
4.
0
-

5
0
5
6
0
9.-

2
0.
2
2
4.
0
-

1
2
1
3
1
1
7
27.
2
2
2
6
2
3
3
3
4
0
4
34
5
5
0
5
6
0
9
-

2
8

7
1

2
8

7
1

Beveled End/Class
150
S
Do
oll
u
lnc d
lnc bl m
m
hes
hes
m
m
4
10
4
10
1.
.
1.
.
4
10
4
10
4
1
4
10
.
0
.
8.
4
11
4
11
.5
7.
1
5
12
.
2
.
7.
5
1
5
13
.
3
.
9.
6
1
6
16
8
2
8
21
.
1
.
5.
5
5.
5
9
1
2
1
28
1.
1
3
1
30
2.
0
2.
4.
1
3
1
38
5.
8
5.
1
4
1
40
5.
0
5.
3.
1
4
1
41
6.
1
1
4
1
45
1
5
1
5
2
5
5
2
2
6
6
2
4.
0
0
4.
6
2
6
2
6
6.
67
6.
2
7
2
1
8.
1
7
3
7
3
6
0.
6
0.
8
8
3
3
1
2.- 1 - 3
2.
8
6
9
- 3
1
6.
4.
0
3
9

8.
4
0.
4
0

6
10
16.
10
16.

Beveled End/Class 300


S
Do
oli
u
lnc d
lnc bl m
m
m - hes- m - he - m 5
1
.
3
1
6
5
- 6
1
6
1
- .7
71
.
1
7
1
7
9
9
.8
21
8
21
29
5.
.
5.
.
1
92
5
9
5
5.
1
1
28
2
1.
8
1.
2.
8
30
1
3
3
1
4.
2.
0
0
2.
1
1
3
3
38
5.
5.
84
40
4
1
1
3.
0
5.
5.
0
4
1
41
1
4
1
6.
9.
6.
1
4
4
4
1
1
5
5
1
5
1
0
9.
07
7
3
7
3
3
8
3
8
8
3.
3
3.
3
3
3
9
9
3
9
6.
1
1
6.
1
9
3
9
3
9
9
9.
9
9.
10
4
10
4
10
92.
3.
92
3.
92
11
4
11
4
11
43.
5.
43
5.
43
12
4
12
4
12
13
5
13
5
13
46
3.
46
3.
46
.2
0
.2
0
.2
15
6
15
6
15
24
0.
24
0.
24
16
6
16
6
16
25
4.
25
4.
25
17
17
6
17
6
27
27
8
27
8.

Raised Face/Class 300


Do
So
lid
u
We
lnc bl m
lnc
m
hes-

5
.
6
6
.
7
.7
8
.
115
.1
1
2.
1
5.
1
5.
1
6.
1
1
9.
3
3
3.
3
6.
3
9.
4
3.
4
5.
4
9.
5
3.
0
6
0.
6
4.
6
8.

m - he -

1
3
1
1
6
1
7
1
29
1
5.
2
8
3
0
3
8
4
04
1
4
5
0
7
8
3
9
19
9
10
92
11
43.
12
44.
13
46
.2
15
24
16
25
17
27

7
.8
.
15
1.
1
2.
1
5.
1
5.
1
1
1
3
3
3.
3
6.
3
9.
4
3.
4
5.
4
5
3
6.
0
6
46
8

Table #34 - Steel Gate Valve (150 & 300)

Face to Face

VALVES

Valve Tables/Steel Gate

153

Steel Gate Valves/Dimensions Given in lnches & Millimetres


(mm) taken from Faceto Face and End to End of
Valves
STEEL GATE VALVES I ANSI CLASS 400 & 600
Nom
inal
Plpe
lnc
hes'

:h

1
1
v
1'
2 1:
2
3 1:
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
3
3
6

m
m1

5
2
2
5
3
2
4
0
5
0
6
8
10
0
1
2
1
5
2
2
5
3
0
3
4
0
4
5
5
6

6
7
7
8
8
9
0

Raised Face
S
oli
d
lnch
m
es6.
1m
5
6
7.
1
8.
21
5
5.
9.
2
0
9.
2
5
4
11.
2
50
13.
3
00
14.
3
00
5
4
16.
0
00
18.
4
00
5
4
19.
95
50
23.
9
26.
6
50
7
30.
6
8
32.
2
9
35.
0
38.
9
41.
10
45.
11
48.
12

/ Class 400
Oouble
Oisc

lnch
es 8.
5
9.
0
9.
11.
13.
14.
00
16.
00
18.
19.
50
23.
26.
50
30.
00
32.
50
35.
50
38.
50
41
45.
48
51
55
.0
60

70
.0
74
.0

m
m21
5.
22
8.
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
9
5
6
7
6
8
9
0
9
7
10
11
43.
12
13
08.
13
97
15
16
17
78
18
79

Beveled End J Class 400


S
Oouble
Disc
oli
d
Inc
lnc
m
m
hes
hes6.
1m
5
6
7.
1
21
8.
21
8.
5.9
5
5.
5
22
9.
2
9.
8.6
0
0
9.
2
9.
24
5
4
5
1.3
29
11.
2
11.
2.1
13.
3
13.
33
14.
3
14.
35
00
5
00
5.
16.
4
16.
40
00
0
00
6.4
4
18.
45
18.
5
00
7.
19.
4
19.
49
50
9
50
5.
23.
5
23.
59
26.
6
26.
67
50
7
50
3.
30.
30.
76
6
00
2.
8
32.
82
32.
2
50
5.
35.
9
35.
90
50
0
50
1.
38.
9
38.
97
7
50
7.
41.
105
41.
10
50
4.1
114
11
45.
45
3.0
43
00
48.
123
48
12
50
1.9
51
130
.5
8.1
55
13
- .0
97.
60
15
.0
24.
16
65
51.
.0
70
17
.0
78.
74
18
.0
79.

Raised Face / Class 600


S
Double
olid
Disc
We
lnch
lnch
m
m
es6.
es m
m16
50
5.
7.
19
50
8.
21
21
8.
50
5.
5.
5
9.
22
22
9.
00
8.
8.
9.
24
.0
24
5
1.
1.
11.
29
29
11.
50
2.
13.
33
33
13.
00
0.
14.
35
14.
35
00
5.
00
5.
17.
43
17.
43
00
1.
00
1.
20.
50
50
20.
00
8.
55
55
22.
22.
8.
8.
00
00
66
66
26.
26.
0.
0.
31.
78
31.
78
00
7.
00
7.
33.
83
33.
83
00
8.
00
8.
88
35.
88
35.
9.
00
9.
39.
99
39.
99
00
0.
00
0.
10
43.
43.
109
92.
00
00
2.2
119
47.
119
47.
3.8
00
3.8
12
51.
12
51.
95.
00
95.
00
13
55.
13
55.
97.
00
97.
00
14
14
57.
57
47.
47.
00
.0
15
61
15
61.
49.
.0
49.
00
65
16
65.
.0
51.
00 70
17
.0
78.
76
19
.0
30.
82
20
.0
82.

Table #35 - Steel Gate Valve (400 & 600)

S
oli
d
lnc
hes
6.
5
7.
8.
5
9.
0
9.
5
11.
50
13.
00
14.
00
17.
00
20.
00
22.
00
26.
00
31.
00
33.
00
35.
00
39.
00
43.
00
47.
00
51
.0
55
.0
57
.0
61
.0
65
.0 -

Beveled End J Class 600


Double
Disc

m
16
5.
19
21
5.
22
8.
24
29
33
35
5.
43
1.
50
55
8.
66
78
7.
83
8.
88
9.
99
0.
109
2.2
119
3.8
129
5.4
13
97.
14
47.
15
49.
16
51.
-

lnch
es 8.
5
9.
0
9.
11.
13.
14.
00
17.
00
20.
22.
00
26.
31.
00
33.
00
35.
00
39.
00
43.
00
47.
00
51.
00
55.
00
57.
00
61.
00
65.
00
70.
00
76.
00
82
.0

m
m21
5.
22
8.6
24
1.
29
33
35
5.
43
1.
50
55
8.
66
78
7.
83
8.
88
9.
99
0.
109
2.2
119
3.8
12
95.
13
97.
14
47.
154
9.4
16
51.
17
78.
19
30.
20
82.

Sh
ort
Pat
lnc
hes-

5.
2
5.
7
6.
0
7.
0
8.
5
10.
00
12.
00
15.
00
18.
00
23.
28.
00
32.
00
35.
00
39.
00
43.
00
47.
00 55.
00 -

mm

13
3.4
14
6.1
15
2.4
17
7.8
21
5.9
25
4.0
30
4.8
38
1.0
45
7.2
58
4.2
71
1.2
81
2.8
88
9.0
99
0.6
109
2.2
119
3.8 139
7.0 -

VALVES

154

Valve Tables/Steel Gate


Steel Gate Valves/Dimensions Given in lnches & Millimetres
(mm) taken from Faceto Face and End to End of
Valves
STEEL GATE VALVES/ ANSI CLASS 900 & 1500

Nom
inal
Pipe
lnc
he '
1
l
'

2
3
4
5
6
8
1
0
1
1
4
16
1
2
2
2
4

m
2
0
2
3
4
5
6
8
1
1
2
1
5
2
0
2
5
3
3
5
4
4
5
5
5
6
0

Raisea Face I Class


900
Double
S
Oisc
oli
d
Inc
lnc
m
m
he - he 10
00
11
.0
12
14
50
16
.5
15
.0
18
22
24
.0
29
.0
33
.0
3
40
50
44
.5
48
52

61
00

2
5
2
7
3
0
3
6
4
1
3
8
4
5
5
6
7
3
8
3
9
6
10
28.
11
30.
12
19
13

15
49

14
.5
16
.5
15
.0
18
.0
22
24
.0
29
.0
33
.0
38
.0
40
50
44
50
4
8
52

61
00

S
oli
d

tnc
he -

10
00
11
00
12

3
4
1
3
8
4
5
6
7
3
8
3
9
6
10
28.
11
30
12
19
13

14
.5
16
15
18
22
24
.0
29
00
33
00
3
8
40
50
44
50
48
00
52

15
49

61
00

Beveled End I Class 900


Do
Short
u
Pattern
bl
lnc
lnc
m
m
m
he - hes2
5
1
5
.
3
2
6
1
7
.7
6
3
1
0
.
7
14
3
3
8
21
.5
6
6
.
5.
4
41
16
10
25
1
9
.5
.0
4.
3
3
15
12
30
8
8
.0
.0
4.
4
18
4
14
35
5
.0
5
00
5
17
43
5
2
5
00
1
50
6
24
6
20
00
0
7
2
7
26
66
3
9
3
00
0.
31
7
8
33
8
.0
8
3
00
3
9
9
38
9
36
1
6
.0
6
.0
10
9
10
40
39
28
28.
9
11
43
10
11
44
30.
.0
92.
30
.5
48
12
12
.0
19
19.
13
13
52
20
- 20.
15
49.

61
00

15
49

Raised Face I Class 1500


S
Double
Oisc
oli
d
lnc
lnc
m
m
hes- hes10
00
11
00
12
.0
14
.5
16
.5
18
.5
21
50
26
27.
75
32.
75
39.
00
44.
50
49
50
54.
50
60
50
65

76
50

25
4.
27
9.
3
0
3
6
41
9
4
6
5
4
6
7
7
0
8
3
9
9
11
30.
12
57
13
84
15
36.
16
63.
-

14
.5
16
.5
18
.5
2
1
26
.5
27
75
32
.7
39
.0
44
.5
49
.5
54
50
60
50
65
50-

19
43

76
50

S
oli
d
lnc
he -

Beveled End I Class 1500


Oo
Short
Pattern
u
bl
lnc
lnc
m
m
m
- hes- hes-

3
6
4
1
4
6
5
4
6
7
7
0
8
3
9
9
11
30
12
57.
13
84
15
36
16
63
-

10
.0
11
00
12
00
14
.5
16
.5
1
8.
21
.5
26
.5
27
75
32
.7
39
.0
44
.5
49
.5
54
50
60
50
65
50-

2
5
2
7
3
0
3
6
4
1
4
6
5
4
6
7
7
0
8
3
9
9
11
30.
12
57.
13
84
15
36.
16
63
-

14
.5
16
.5
18
.5
21
.5
26
.5
27
.7
32
.7
39
.0
44
.5
49
.5
54
50
60
50
65
.5 -

9
11
30.
12
57
13
84
15
36.
16
63.
-

19
43.

7
6.

19
43

76
50

19
43.

Table #36 - Steel Gate Valve (900 & 1500)

3
6
4
1
4
6
5
4
6
7
7
0
8
3
9

13
9.
16
5.
17
7.
21
5.
25

5
.
6
.7
0
8
1.
0
12
.0
16
.0
19
.0
22
.0
28
.0
34
.0
39
00
42
.0
47
00
5
3
58
.0 -

30
4.
40
6.
48
2.
55
8.
71
1.
86
3.
99
0.
10
66.
119
38
134
62
147
32

VALVES

Valve Tables/Steel Gate

155

Steel Gate Valves/Dimensions Given in lnches & Millimetres


(mm) taken from Faceto Face and End to End of
ValvesSTEEL GATE VALVES I ANSI CLASS 2500
Nomi
nal
Pipe
Inches
'h
3/4

1
1 1/4

1112
2
2'h
3
4
5
6
8
1
120
1
164
18

mm
15
20
25
32
40
50
65
80
100
125
150
200
250
300
350
400
450

So
lid
We
lnches
10.38
10.75
12.12
13.75
15.12
17.75
20.00
22.75
26.50
31.25
3600
40.25
50.00
56.00
-

Raised Face/Class 2500


Oo
ubl
lnches e
mm
263.7
273.1
307.9
349.
3
384.
1
450.
17.75
9
508.
20.00
0
577.
22.75
9
673.
26.50
1
793.
31.25
8
914.
36.00
4
1022.
40.25
4
1270.
50.00
0
1422.
56.00
4 -

mm

So
lid
We
lnches

450.
9
508.
0
577.
9
673.
1
793.
8
914.
4
1022.
4
1270.
0
1422.
4 -

10.38
10.75
12.12
13.75
15.12
17.75
20.00
22.75
26.50
31.25
36.00
40.25
50.00
56.00

Beveled End Class/2500


Oo
ubl
lnches e
mm

mm
2
6
2
7
307.9
349.3
384.1
450.9
508.0
577.9
673.1
793.8
914.4
1022.4
1270.0
1422.4

Note:
1 (-) indicates valve size is not shown in ASME/ANSI standards, but may be commercially available.
2. millimetre dimensions are rounded off to the first decimal point.
3. d1mensions based on ASMEIANSI 816.10 standard.
4. Short pattern dimensions apply to pressure seal or flange less bonnet valves (option on bolted bonnets).

Table #37 - Steel Gate Valve (2500)

17.75
20.00
22.75
26.50
31.25
36.00
40.25
50.00
56.00

450.
9
508.
0
577.
9
673.
1
793.
8
914.
4
1022.
4
1270.
0
1422.
4 -

Sho
rt
lnches Patt

mm

7.31
9.12
9.12
11.00
13.00
14.50
18.00
21.00
24.00
30.00
36.00
41.00
44.00
49.00
55.00

185.7
231.7
231.7
279.4
330.2
368.3
457.2
533.4
609.6
762.0
914.4
1041.4
1117.6
1244.6
1397.0

156

VALVES

Valve Tables/Steel Globe/Check

Steel Globe and Check Valves/Dimensions Given in lnches and Millimetres (mm) taken from
Faceto Face and End to End for Straightway Valves and Center to Face and Center to End for Angle Valves
STEEL GLOBE ANO CHECK VALVES/ANSI CLASS 150 & 300
Raised Face and Beveled End/Class 150
No
min
al
lnc
hes

,
',
I

1
2 1

2 11
32
4
5
6
8
10
1
2
1
4
1
6
1
28
6
2
8
3
0
3

Straightway
Globe
m
m
8

1
0
1
5
2
40
0
5
0
86
10
0
10
25
20
3
0
0
3
5
0
4
06
5
0
7
0
0
7

lnc
hes
4
0
0
4
0
0
6.
58
.
90
.
11
50
14
16
00
19
.5
24
2
7
5
0
31
00
3
6 -

m
m
1
0
1
6
10
1
1
6
20
3
2
24
1.
29
2.
1
40
649
65.
698.
5
787.
4
914
4
-

A
n
lnchesg
2
00
2
00
2.2
5
3.2
45
00
42
575
75
87
9.7
5
12
1325
75
1
5
5
0
1
8

m
m5
0
.
8
5
0
8
12
0
11.
12
4
6.
20
24
7.
31
31
4
9
3
3
9
3
7-

YPa
lnc tte
hes-

5
.
5
0
8
9.
.
0
12
.5
14.
50
18.5
23
.5
26
30.
50
-

m
m
13
9.
7
15
20
3
22
8.
631
7.
36
8.
3
46
9.
5
9
67
774.3
7
-

Control
Valve
lnc Globe m
hes
m

7
2
8
1.
0
01
13.81.
8
-1
7.
21
.3
2
29.0
0
35.
00
40.
00
-

Raised Face and Beveled End/Class 300

184
.2
222.
25
4.
0
29
8.
352
.6
4554
3
67
736.
6
889.
0
101
6.0
-

S
wi
ng
lnc
hes4
.
0
0
4
.
6
8.
.
0
9
11
.5
01
14.
29.
2
7.
5
0
3
1.
5
5
1.
0
0
5
7.
0

m
m
10
1.
6
10
1.
6
16
5.
20
3.
224
1.
29
2
1
40
49
5.
6
69
8.
5
7
8
7.
4
129
54
1447
.8
1524
.0
-

Straig
hw
lnc ay
hes

m
m

A
n
lnchesg

6.
00
7.
00
89
.
10
.5
01
12.
4.
10
7.
2
24
28.
00
-

1
5
2.
4
22
8.
26
6.
73
31
5
45.
45
65
711.
2
-

Note: 1 Control valve d1mensions pertain to raised tace flange valves only.

Table #38 - Steel Globe/Check Valve (150 & 300)

3
.
0
0
34.5
05.2
5
5.7
6.2
5
7.0
0
7.8
8.7
11.0
0
12.2
14.00
-

m
m76
.2
88
.9
11
4.
1
3
13.
15
7
27.
2
37
3
5
5.
6
-

Control
Valve
lnc Globe m
hesm-

7.
50
7.
62
79
.
10
.5
0
12
.5
1
4.
51
22
2
30.5
0
36.5
0
41.6
2
-

190
.5
1
9
3.
23
26
6.
732
1.
36
8.
3
47
5
7
774.
7
927.
1
105
7.2
-

Swing
Check
Inc
hes-

8.
50
9
10
.5
01
12.
4.
10
7.
21
.0
24
28
.0
0
3
3.
0
0
5
3.
0
0
5
9.
0

m
m-

2
1
5.
241
.3
266
.7
292
317
.5
355
.6
400
444
.5
533
.4
622
711
.2
838
.2
863
.6
977
134
6.2
149
8.6
159
3.9

VALVES

157

Valve Tables/Steel Globe/Check

Steel Globe and Check Valves/Dimensions Given in lnches and Millimetres (mm) taken from
Face to Face and End to End for Straightway Valves and Center to Face and Center to End for Angle Valves
Ralsed Face and Beveled End/Class 400
Nominal
Pipe Slze
lnches
'h

Straightway
Globe

mm
15

lnches

Angle
Globe

mm

lnches

Swing
Check

mm

165.1

3.25

82.6

20
25

6.50
7.50
8.50

190.5
215.9

3.75
4.25

3
4
5
6

32
40
50
65
80
100
125
150

9.00
9.50
11 50
13.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
19.50

228.6
241 3
292.1
330.2
355.6
406.4
457.2
495.3

8
10
12
14
16

200
250
300
350
400

23.50
26.50
30 00

596.9
673.1
762

4.50
4.75
5.75
6.50
7.00
8 00
9 00
9.75
11.75
13.25
15.00

18
20

450
500

22
24
26
28
30
32

34

550
600
650
700
750
800
850

36

900

'I

1 1/4

l'h

21h

114.3
120.7
146.1
165.1
177.8
203.2
228.6
247.7

9.00
9.50
11.50
13.00
14 00
16.00
18.00
19.50

228.6
241.3
292.1
330.2
355 6
406.4
457.2
495.3

298.5
336.6
381.0

23.50
26 50
30.00
35.00
35.50

596.9
673.1
762.0
889.0
901.7
1016
1054.1
1143.0
1397.0
1397.0
1600.2
1651.0

lnches

95.3
108.0

mm
165.1
190.5
215.9

40.00
41.50

45.00
55.00
55.00
63 00
65.00

Short Pattern
Beveled End/Class 600

Straightway
Globe

6.50
7.50
8.50

tnches

Long Pattern

Raised Face and Beveled End/Class 600

82.00 2082.8

6.50
7.50
8.50

Angle
Globe

mm
165.1
190.5
215.9

9.00 228.6
9.50 241.3
11.50 292.1
13.00 330.2
14.00 355.6
17.00 431.8
20.00 508.0
22.00 558.8
26.00 660.4
31.00 787.4
33.00 838.2

lnches
3.25
3.75
4.25

Swing
Check

mm
82.6
95.3
108.0

4.50 114.3
4.75 120.7
5.75 146.1
6.50 165.1
7.00
177.8
8.50 215.9
10.00 254.0
11.00 279.4
13.00 330.2
15.50 393.7
16.50 419.1

lnches
6.50
7.50
8.50

Straightway
Globe

mm

lnches

165.1
190.5
215.9

9.00 228.6
9.50 241.3
11.50 292.1
13.00 330.2
14.00 355.6
17.00 431.8
20.00 508.0
22.00 558.8
26.00
31.00
33.00
35.00
39.00
43.00
47.00
51.00
55.00
57.00
63.00
65.00

660.4
787.4
838.2
889.0
990.6
1092.2
1193.8
1295.4
1397.0
1447.8
1600.2
1651.0

82.00 2082.8

mm

5.25

Angle
Globe
lnches

133.4

5.75 146 1
6.00 152.4
7.00
177.8
8.50 215.9
10.00 254.0
12.00 304.8
15.00 381
18.00 457.2
23.00 584.2
28.00 711 2
32.00 812.8

Table #39- Steel Globe/Check Valve (400 & 600)

Swlng
Check

mm

lnches
-

5.25

4.25
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.50
1000

108.0
127.0
152.4
177.8
215.9
254.0

Control Valve
Globe

mm

133.4

5.75 146.1
6.00 152.4
7.00 177.8
8.50 215.9
1000 254.0
12.00 304.8
15.00 381.0
18.00 457.2
23.00 584.2
28.00 711.2
32.00 812.2

lnches

203.2
206.3
209.6

9.88
11.25
12.25
13.25
15.50

251.0
285.8
311.2
336.6
393.7

508.0
609.6
752.4
819.2
971.6
1108.0

20.00
24.00
29.62
32.25
38.25
43.62

mm

8.00
8.12
8.25

158

VALVES

Valve Tables/Steel Globe/Check

Steel Globe and Check Valves/Dimensions Given in lnches and Millimetres (mm) taken from
Faceto Face and End to End for Straightway Valves and Center to Face and Center to End for Angle
Valves
STEEL GLOBE ANO CHECK VALVES/ANSI CLASS 900 ANO 1500
Short Pattern

Long Pattern

No
min
al
lnch
es
'
h
>

1
1
21/'1

3
4
5
6
8
1
10
21
164
1
8
20
2
2

m
m1
5
2
0
2
5
36
5
18
01
21
25
20
53
30
54
0
0
4
5
0

Raised Face and Beveled End/Class


900
Straigh
A
S
lwa
n
w
g
i
y
Inc
m
Inc
m
lnc
m
he
he
he
m
m
-m
2
11
4
9
9
2
2
.
4
.
.
2
8.
5
3
8.
0
0
6
0
6
0
0
1
5
2
2
2
1
1
5
5
7.
0.
0.
4
4
1
8
2
1
1
1
6
0
6.
9
9
.1
2
9.
5
4
9
1
4
2
5
8.
5
2
28
1.
2
1
2
65
2
37
6
07
07
24
12
30
24.
9.
14
46
39
83
83
3
6
1
3
1
4
3
93
93
9
8
8.
84
6
106
5
4
2
10
28
1
0.
0
0
28
66
2
4
11
0
6
4
30
4
0
5
.3
0
0
7
12
3
2
4
19
6
9
8
2

Long Pattern

Beveled End/Class 900


Straighl
way
Glo
lnc
m
he
- m-

1
0.
01
4.
1
27
20.
36.
13
36.
9
43
00
-

2
5
4.
3
45
35
60
76
98
19
9
10
92.
2

A
n
g

lnc
he
-

Swing
Check

m
-m

lnc
he

m
m

- -

6
.7
.8
1.
10
13
51
81
9
-

15
2.41
27
21
35
33
94
54
-9
-

1
0.
01
4.
1
27
20.
36.
1.
3
6.
3
9
43
00

2
5
43
54
53
60
76
89
91
9
10
92
2
-

lnc
he
8
.
5
0
9
.
0
1
6.
25

lwa
y

m
m
2
1
5.
9
2
2
8
4
1
9.
5

lnc
he
4
.
2
5
4
.
5
8
.
12

1.
2
26.
7.
3
32.
9.
4
4.
4
9.
-

64
77
08
93
9
11
30
12
57
-

01
1
13
16
29
2
4
-

n
g

Table #40 - Steel Globe/Check Valve (900 & 1500)


-

Short Pattern

Raised Face and Beveled End/Class


1500
Straigh
A
Swing
Check

m
1m

lnc
he

0
8.
0
1
1
4.
2
0
29.
73
3
45
14
59
6
2
-

m
-m

9
.
0
0
1
0.
1
6
2.

2
2
8.
6
2
5
4
1
95

1.
2
2
37
32
49
4
59
4.
5
0
6
0.

64
7
80
93
9
11
30
12
57
13
84
.3
15
36
.7

Beveled End/Class
1500
Slraigh
Swing
twa
y

Check

m
m-

m
m-

lnc
he

8
1.
0.
0
1
6.
1
2
2
8.
3
4.
3
49.
2.
47.
00
-

21
5.
2
5
44.
04
8
5
5
7
81
6
9
9
10
11
93.
8

lnc
he

8
1.
0.
01
16
2
22.
8.
3
4
3
49
2.
47.
00

21
5.
2
5
44.
04
58
57
81
96
9
10
66
11
93.
8
-

VALVES

Valve Tables/Steel Globe/Check


Steel Globe and Check Valves/Dimensions Given in lnches and Millimetres
(mm) taken from Face to Face and End to End for Straightway Valves
and Center to Face and Center to End for Angle Valves
STEEL GLOBE ANO CHECK VAlVES/ ANSI CLASS 2500
Long Pattern

Short Pattern

Raised Face and Beveled End/Class 2500


Nom
inal
lnc Pipe
hes
'
3/4h
1
,1/4
1
2 1/
2
311
4
5
6
8
1
0
1
2
14
16
18

Note: 1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.

m
m

Straight
way
lnch Glob m
es
m

An
gl
lnch e
es

m
m

Sw
ing
lnche Ch
s

Beveled End/Class 2500

Straight
way
Inch Glob m
es
m

S
wi
lnch ng
es

mm

m
1
131
10.38
10.3
263
5.1
263
5
.8
8
.7
9
.7
10.75
10.7
273
136
2
5.3
273
5
.1
.7
0
8
.1
12.12
12.1
307
153
2
6.0
307
13.75
2
.9
.9
5
6
.9
4
15.1
384
7.5
192
15.12
384
0
2
.0
6
.0
.0
17.7
450
8.8
17.75
450
11.0
5
225
279
11.0
279.
5
.9
8
.9
0
0
.6
.4
0
4
20.0
6
508
10.0
254
20.00
508
13.0
330
13.0
330.
0
5
.0
0
.0
.0
0
.2
0
22.7
2
577
11.3
289
22.75
8
577
14.5
368
14.5
368.
5
.9
8
.1
0
.9
0
.3
0
3
10
26.5
673
13.2
26.50
673
336
18.0
457
18.0
457.
0
0
.1
5
.1
.6
0
.2
0
2
12
31.2
793
31.25
15.6
396
793
21.0
533
21.0
533.
5
5
.8
2
.8
.8
0
.4
0
36.0
4
15
914
18.0
457
36.00
914
24.0
609
24.0
609.
0
0
.4
0
.2
.4
0
.6
40.2
0
6
20
1022
20.1
511
40.25
102
30.0
762
762
30.0
5
0
.4
2
.1
2.4
0
.0
.0
0
22
50.0
1270
25.0
50.00
127
63
36.0
914
36.0
914
5
0
.0
0
0.0
5.0
0
.0
56.0
0
.4
1422
30
711
56.00
41.0
28.0
142
104
1041
41.0
0
.4
0
.2
0
1.4
0
.4
0
- 2.4
35
0
40
(-) indicates valve size is not shown in ASME/ANSI standards but, may be commercially available.
Millimetre dimensions are rounded-off to the first decimal point.
Dimensions based on ASME/ANSI 816.10 standards.
Standard straightway lift check valve dimensions are interchangeable with straightway globe valve dimensions
given in tables.
Angle lift check valve dimensions are interchangeable with angle globe valve dimensions given in tables.
Short pattern dimensions apply to pressure seal or flangeless bonnet valves (option on bolted bonnets).

Table #41 - Steel Globe/Check Valve (2500)

159

160

VALVES

Valve Tables

ADDED DIMENSIONS USED TO ESTABLISH END TO END DIMENSIONS OF RING JOINT FLANGES
Nominal
PipeSize
lnches
1,

3/4
1
11/4
11/2

2
21/2

3
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36

mm
15
20
25
32
40
50
65
80
100
125
150
200
250
300
350
400
450

soo
sso

600

6SO
700
7SO
800
8SO
900

Class

150
lnches

0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50

o.so
0.50
-

mm

12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
-

Class

Class

300

400

lnches
0.44
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.62
0.7S
0.88
0.88
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.12
1.12
1.12

Class

600

Class

Class

900

1500

Class

2500

mm

Inches

mm

lnches

mm

lnches

11.2
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
15.7
15.7
15.7
15.7
15.7
15.7
15.7
15.7
15.7
15.7
15.7
1S.7
19.1
22.4
22.4
25.4
2S.4
25.4
28.4
28.4

-0.06

-1.5 -0.06

-1.5

o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o

0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.2S
0.38
0.38
O.SO
O.SO
O.SO
0.62
0.62

0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.38
0.38
O.SO
0.50

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
9.7
9.7
12.7
12.7

0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.75
0.88
0.88
0.88

3.0
30
3.0
3.0
3.0
6.4
9.7
9.7
15.8
19.1
22.4
22.4
22.4
28.4
-

28.4

0.62

1S.7

o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0

0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12

3.0
3.0
6.4
9.7
9.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
1S.7
1S.7

0.12
0.12
0.25
0.38
0.38

0.12
0.12

o.so
O.SO

o.so
0.62
0.62
0.62

o
o
o
o

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
6.4
9.7
9.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
1S.7
1S.7
1S.7

mm

Inches

0.7S
-

19.1

1.12
-

Table #42 - Ring Joint Flanges

mm

lnches

mm

o
o
o

o
o
o

0.12
0.12
0.12
0.25
0.25
0.38
0.50
0.50
0.62
0.88
0.88
-

3.0
3.0
3.0
6.4
6.4
9.7
12.7
12.7
15.7
22.4
22.4
-

Note:
1. To establish a ring joint
flange dimension add the
appropriate dimension
from this table to the
raised face steel flange
dimension given in either
table 1.6A or 1.68.
2 To establish a dimension
for an angle globe or
angle lift check valve use
one hall of the dimensions
given in this table.
3. Millimetre dimensions are
rounded off to the first
decimal point.

SECTION THREE QUESTIONS


VALVES
1.
1.
2.
2.

State the two principal functions or reasons for the use of va/ves:

List the eight basic types of va/ves available:

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

3.
Describe where a globe va/ve would be used as compared to that of a gate va/ve.
Answer:

a.

b.

4.

Explain why gate va/ves should not be used in the partially open or closed
position.
Answer:

5.

A flexible wedge gate va/ve is used in situations where a so/id wedge might jam due
to temperature variation.
a.
true
b.
false
6.
Why is friction wear reduced on a split wedge and/or double disc va/ve.
Answer:
7.
a.
b.
c.
d.

The stem of an operational split wedge gate va/ve must be in the:


vertical up position
vertical down position
horizontal position
any position

8.
Name the tour main globe va/ve types according to seat arrangements or
disc style:
1.
2.
3.
4.
9.
Angle body globe va/ves provide for directional piping changes of
----.....,....-- degrees without the addition of extra fittings or joints.
a.
360 degrees
b.
180 degrees
c.
90 degrees
d.
30 degrees

1O.
Y Pattern globe va/ves can
because of the flow restriction.
a.
true
b.
false
11.

not be used for such services

as boiler blow-off

Explain why conventional disc g/obe va/ves are often used in service situations where
the product flow Jeaves a deposit.
Answer:

12.

How can a composition disc g/obe va/ve be interchanged from one type of
service to another?
Answer:
13.
Why must a check va/ve be properly installed in a piping system?
Answer:
14.
What is the advantage of an outside Jever and weight type of check va/ve?
Answer:

15.

A vertical design check va/ve can not be used in the inverted or horizontal
position:
a.
true
b.
false

16.

Explain why by-pass va/ves are often installed in conjunction with Jarge size va/ves
that are used with high pressure and/or temperature service.
Answer:

17.
a.
b.
c.
d.

What type of va/ve is used in the food industry to avoid product contamination?
safety valve
diaphragm valve
composition disc globe valve
none of the above

18.
1.
2.

What are the two general classifications of diaphragm va/ves?

19.
Which type of diaphragm va/ve is best suited for products containing solids or
visease fluids?
Answer:
20.
What aspect of a pinch va/ve makes it similar to a diaphragm va/ve?
Answer:
21 .
1.
2.
3.

What are the three general types of ports used in ball va/ves?

22.

A butterfly va/ve is similar to a gate va/ve in that it cannot be used for flow
regulation?
a.
true
b.
false
23.

1.
2.
24.

What are the two general types of butterfly va/ves?

Describe the benefit(s) of using a lubricated plug va/ve overa non-lubricated plug.
Answer:
25.
What is the main difference between a relief va/ve anda safety va/ve?
Answer:

26.

There are only three types of va/ve end connections; these are: welded end,
threaded end, flanged end.
a.
true
b.
false

27.
1.
2.
3.
4.

List tour types of va/ve bonnet assemblies.

28.
1.
2.
3.

List three types of va/ve stem mechanisms.

29.

When identifying a va/ve, what do the letters OWG mean?


Answer:

30.

lf

there is a possibility of foreign material in a fine, where should a strainer be


positioned?

a.
upstream from the valve
b.
downstream from the valve
31.
a.

b.

When installing a va/ve:


the valve will work the same as it does not matter
about flow direction in the line
the valve direction arrow must correspond to the
direction of flow in the line

32.
a.
b.
c.
d.

What is the usual suggested location for a horizontal va/ve stem?


knee height
waist height
chest height
head height

33.
a.
b.

A screwed va/ve may be damaged if the pipe is screwed in too tightly.


true
false

34.
a.
b.

When using two pipe wrenches to attach a va/ve to a screwed pipe:


the wrench is placed on the valve end closest the pipe
the wrench is placed on the valve end farthest from the pipe

SECTION
FOUR
FITTINGS

FITTINGS

Pipe Fittings/Elbows

Pipe Fitting Types


Pipe fittings are the joining components
that make possible the assembly of
equipment,
valves,
and
pipe
into
functioning piping sys tems. Fittings are
manufactured to perform one or more of
the following functions:
Change direction of piping in system.
Connect or ioin piping and/or equipment.
Provide for branches, access, take-offs or
auxiliary connections.
Block or regulate flow within piping or
equipment.
Fittings are specified or identified by:
Nominal pipe size or tube size that the
fit ting is manufactured to fit.
Type or description of the fitting. For
example, tees, wyes, elbows, crosses,
couplings, etc.

Joining or connecting method of the fit


ting. For example, threaded, soldered,
welded, etc.
Material that the fitting is manufactured
from. For example, copper, cast iron,
steel, plastic, etc.
Pressure temperature rating or class designation.
Example: 2" class 3000 carbon steel (ASTM
105) threaded
straight
tee.

Elbows
Fittings that change direction in a p1pmg
system are generally referred to as
elbows. Elbows are designated or
described by the amount of directional
change they make in a piping system.
This directional change is given in
degrees or fractions of a circ/e. Most
e/bows use degree designations, such
as: 22V2, 45, 60, or 90 degrees for
classifying their change of direction.

FITTINGS

Elbows

Elbows
Cast iron soil fittings on the other hand,
are referred to in fractions of a circle,
such as: 1/4 bend, 1/a bend and 1/16 bend
etc. See illustration #67 for e/bow
directional
change
classifications.
Elbows are designated by the angle or
degree of change they make relative to

Cast iron bend designations are deter


mined by dividing the e/bow fitting
angle by 360 (degrees in a circle).
Cast iron designations are expressed as
a fraction.
Example for cast
iron:
Be d = Elbow Fitting
Angle n
360
45

circle. Angles for elbows range


from 111/4 through 180 degrees.

Bend

360

Bend
90

1/8
60

45

22 1/2

11 1/4
180

lllustration #67 - Elbow Fitting Angles

Elbows/End To Center

1641 FITTINGS
Elbows
The distance from the end to center for
various types of welded elbows can
be
calculated quickly sing figures given in
il/ustration #68.
Easy Calculation Methods For Determin
ing Elbow End To Center Measurements
(dimension A):

90 Long Radius Elbow

-r
l_
A

'

I
1

'

---:;--/

/
1 ,

Long Radius Return Bend

90 long radius elbow = 1112 x NPS


Red_ucing
= 111 x2 largest
NPS rad1uslong
elbow
Long radius return bend = 3 x NPS
90 short radius elbow = 1 x NPS
45 long radius elbow = S/s x NPS

45 long radius elbow alternative


V2

'

Note: To use a Metric


calculation on the 45
elbow,
find the
answer in
the
nominal
Imperial

size, then multiply by


25.4 mm: (eg: 2.5 in. x
25.4 mm = 63.5 mm)

/,

---1''---'1

',

'

1..---A

Reducing Elbow

90 Short Radius Elbow


the NPS three times and add the first
f.---- A ----j
and last answers
'
Example: 4 inch (100 mm) 45 degree elbow
a. 4 in. (100 mm))
2 in.+ Y2 in. = 21/2 in.
1---,,.-,-;;b. 2 n. (50 mm)
end to center
c. 1 m. (25 mm)
(2.5 in. x 25.4 mm
;/
A
d. 1/2 in. (15 mm)
= 63.5 mm)
'!
L
Note: Calculations for 45 elbows are
accurate between sizes 4" to 20" (100
lllustration #68 - Welded Elbow Measurements
mm
to 500 mm).

;-A--1

i----

lJ

FITTINGS
Unions
Couplings and unions are used to connect
or join together pipe and equipment in pip
ing systems. Even though joining by weld
ing
is
used
extensively
in
the
petrochemical and power generation field,
couplings and unions are also common.
Unions are used to make joining or
dismantling of piping and/ or equipment
easier and quicker.
Unions are available in many styles but
gen erally are classified as either ground
joint or gasket types. Both types of unions
are shown in illustrations #69A and #698.
Gasket unions require a gasket or washer
to seal between the two union parts.
Gasket mate rial for the union is available
in various mate rials depending on
intended service.
Ground joint unions rely on a ground
metal joint to seal between the two union
parts. Common seats on the ground joint
unions include:

Unions
Steel to steel, bronze to steel, stainless
steel to steel, iron to iron, and copper or
copper alloy to iron.
.-----,----------- Hexagon Nut
Gasket or Washer
Provides for Union Sea!

Lips Keep Gasket


"" in Proper Positions
Threaded Pipe Connectors
on Both Sides of Union

lllustration #69A - Gasket Type Threaded Union

Socket Weld Pipe


Connectors Both Sides
of Union
lllustration #698 - Socket Weld Union

FITTINGS
Couplings
Couplings are used to join two pieces of pipe
(the same size or different sizes) together in
a straight line. Threaded couplings, as a
rule, are supplied with
right
handed
threads on
both
ends.
However, couplings can be supplied with
special right/left hand threads. Right/left
couplings can be used instead of unions,
but
remember that threads on one end of the
pipe must be cutwith a special left hand
die.
Threaded and non-threaded couplings are
supplied in both straight and reducing styles.
Straight couplings are used to join pipe of
the same size, and reducing couplings are
used to join two lines of unequal size.
Reduc ing couplings are manufactured in
either the concentric or eccentric
configuration. These two coupling styles are
displayed in illustra
tion #70A and #708. The concentric cau
pling is used in lines where it is important to
keep a constant center line. Eccentric cou
plings are used where either the top or bot
tom of a line must remain level.

Couplings

--t---Centerline Remains Constan!


with Concentric Reducer

lllustration #70A - Concentric Reducer

-(?:-----

--t:--

Centerline of Eccentric Reducer Offsets.


This Offset Equals 1/2 x (Largest l.D. - Smallest l.D.)

lllustration #708 - Eccentric Reducer

FITTINGS

Tees/Wyes/Crosses

Tees,Wyes,Crosses
These fittings provide for branches, take-offs
and/or auxiliary connections within a piping
system.
When ordering or identifying tees, wyes and
crosses, the size of the run is referred to first
(largest opening first), followed by the
branch outlet(s). lf the fitting is a cross, the
largest branch outlet is given after the run
size, fol lowed by the smaller cross branch
outlet. The method of size designation for
various fittings is given in illustration #71A#710.

NOTES: This method of designating or naming straight


and reducing fittings applies to ali fittings including:
threaded, welded, soldered & flanged.
Straight fittings (with 'no reduction) are designated or
named: size x description e.g. 4" (200 mm) Tee, 4" (200
mm) 90' Elbow, 4" (200 mm) Cross etc.
On a side outlet fitting the side outlet is always
designated last

" /6]J
2

Left

Hand

Side Outlet Tees with One End of Run


and Outlets Reduced (2x1x1x1 Tee)

DJ{[J},CnH n,cn,
Tee ali Outlets
Sama Size
(1x1x1 Tee or 1-Tee)

Tee with
Reduced Outlet
(2x2x1 Tee)

Tee with One End Tee with One End


Tee (Bull Head)
Service Tee/Street Tee
of Run Reduced of Run and Outlet Both Ends of Run
Reduced
(2x 1x2 Tee)
Reduced
Reduced
on Male End Only
(2x1x1 Tee)
(1x1x2 Tee)
(2x1x2 Tee)

lllustration #71A - Designation & Naming of Tees

Wyes/Crosses

FITTINGS

Cross ali Outlets


Same Size
(1x1x1x1 Cross
or 1-Cross)

Cross Reducing
on One Outlet Only
(2x2x2x1 Cross)

Cross Reducing on
One End of Run
and on One Outlet
(2x1x2x1 Cross)

Cross Reducing
on Both Outlets
(2x2x1
x1
Cross)

Cross Reducing on
One End of Run
and Both Outlets
(2x1x1x1 Cross)

lllustration #718 - Designation & Naming of Crosses

A
Y - Branch all Outlets
the Same Size
(1x1x1 Wye or 1-Wye)

2
45' Y - Branch (Lateral)
Reducing on Outlet Only
(2x2x1 Wye)

lllustration #71C - Designation & Naming of Wyes

2
45' Y - Branch (Lateral)
Reduc1ng on Run and Outlet
(2x1x1 Wye)

2
Tnue "Y"
(2x2x2 Wye)

FITTINGS

Elbows/Copper Solder Fittings

169

" ," , T l B
Q n , ,Q ,
90'

90 Elbow

90' Elb

ow

Stree

@
lbow

Doubl

ide

outl

et 90'

e Branch Elb

Elbo

ow

ws

(1x1 90 Elbow
or 1-90' Elbow)

(2x1 Elbow)

(
2

Elbow)

(2x1x1
Elbow)

Left
Hand
lllustration #710 - Designation & Naming of Elbows

Copper Solder Joint Fittings

2
Right Hand

(1x1
x2

Elb
ow)

Dimensions far common cast copper alloy


Both wrought copper and cast copper alloy
solder joints are given in table #44. The
term solder joint pressure fittings are produced
"laying length" in reference to
copper sol- tar use with copper water tube. Pressure and der fittings refers to the
distance from the temperature ratings for the fittings are equal
center of the fitting to
the shoulder or stop at to that of type L copper tube. However, in the bottom end of the
socket. American most cases the solder used to join the tube
National Standards
lnstitute (ANSI 816.22- and fitting will determine the safe working 1980) has established
laying length and pressure and temperature of the system.
sizing designations far
cast fittings only. lt Recommended solder joint pressure and
should be noted that
because of the various temperature ratings are given in table #43. forming methods, no
standardized dimen
sions are established for wrought copper
solder fittings.

170 1

FITTINGS

Copper Solder Fittings

RATEO PRESSURE / TEMPERATURE FOR SOLOER ANO BRAZEO JOINTS


Copper Tube Nominal Sizes, lnches & Millimetres
Sold
eror
Braz
ing
50-50
TinLead
Solde
r
95-5
TinAntimony
Solder

Wor
kin
g

1/8" thru

1"

l1/4' thru 2"

6 mm thru 25

21/2"thru 4"

5" thru 8"

10" thru 12"

125 mm thru 200


250 mm thru 300
32 mm thru 50
65 mm thru 100
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
KPa
P
KPa
P
KPa
P
'C
P
kPa
KPa
P
'F
SI
SI
SI
SI
SI
1
1
1034.
1
930.
689.
1379.
1206.
1
1
3
2
0
7
2
3
8
5
0
6
5
0
8
0
0
5
5
0
0
0
861.
620.
482.
6
1034.
689.
8
7
1
9
5
6
1
6
1
2
1
5
2
0
0
5
0
5
344.
620.
517.
482.
9
689.
2
1034.
1
3
5
3447.
4
2758.
2068.
1861.
1
3
7
2
0
8
0
5
0
0
5
6
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2413.
1723.
6
1896.
1034.
2758.
4
2
7
2
1
6
3
1
2
1
2
0
0
7
5
5
5
5
1723.
1241.
9
2068.
1379.
965.
Brazing
2
1
2068.
2
1447
1
1172.
1
1034.
1034.
3
1
5
2
5
1
.9
7
1
5
2
2
0
5
Alloys
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1034.
1861.
1310
1034.
1034.
Melting at
3
1
1
2
6
1
.0
2
2
2
1
1
or Above
5
7
5
9
7
5
5
1000F/54
No
1. The pressure unit of 1 bar is equal to 14.5 PSI or 100000 Newtons per square meter.
te:
2. Saturated steam at 15 PSI (103.4 KPa) is produced at 250F (121.1C).
3. Saturated steam at 120 PSI (827.4 KPa) is produced at 350F (176.7C).
4. Brazing Alloys are recommended for low temperature service between OF to -100F ( -18C to - 73C).

Table #43 - Pressure & Temperature for Solder & Brazed Joints

Satur
ated
P Ste KPa
SI

1
5

1
5

1
2
0

103.
4

103.
4

827.
4

FITTINGS
90

45 Elbow

ex e

Copper Solder Fittings

90 Drop Elbow

1
H
J

x1

Key:

A, B, , D, E, , G, H, 1, J see
dimensions in the attached table
C = Female end connection (fits
copper tube diameter)
FTG = Male connection (diameter
same as copper tube)
F = Female thread (National Pipe
Thread Interna! - NPTI)
M = Male thread (National Pipe
Thread Externa! - NPTE)

- -45' Elbow

FTG x

Adapter

ex

I
Tee

ex ex e
t

_.._

Socket
Depth

Tee
X

X F

Adapter
ex F

Copper Solder Fittings

FITTINGS

DIMENSIONS FOR COMMON CAST COPPER ALLOY SOLDER FITTINGS


(Given in lnches and Millimetres)
Tube
Siz

Dimensions - lnches
A

Tube
A
Siz
e

Dimensions - Millimetres
B

14
7.8
0.
- 0.
0.
0.
0.
8
6
- 19
9
16
- 0.
75
38
.5
7
25
56
62
31
.
.0
.
.0
3/e 0.
0.
5
19
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
1
8
22
11
17
16
9.6
19
.
.0
31
88
75
44
69
62
38
0
.
.0
.0
.5
.0
5
5
22
18
12.7
0.
0.
1.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
1
11
28
14
22
.
.0
.0
0
44
19
12
88
56
88
75
50
5
.0
.5
.5
.0
1.
0.
14
6
38
25
19.0
0.
0.
1.
1.
0.
0.
2
30
17
22
00
75
.5
.
.0
.5
5
56
25
50
19
69
88
0
.0
.5
.0
8
0.
1.
0.
1.
0.
2
19
47
33
32
23.1
1
0.
1.
1.
22
25
.
75
84
88
25
91
5
.0
.0
.5
.0
1
31
31
00
.0
.5
1
1.
1.
11
38
24.6
0.
0.
2.
1.
1.
0.
3
22
51
39
25
27
56
50
.0
.0
4
44
03
00
06
97
2
.0
.5
.5
.5
.0
'l1' 88
1.
4
25
12
0.
2.
1.
1.
1.
1.
58
44
28
41
27
27.6
1.
12
0
.5
.5
50
28
75
62
06
09
.0
.5
.5
.5
.0
9
/2
0
0.
1.
1.
32
14
1.
2.
2.
1.
1.
5
70
54
35
49
28
34.0
2
56
9
3
.0
.5
2
78
12
38
12
0
.5
.0
.0
.0
.5
4
Note: 1. Dimensions apply to cast fittings only. Dimensions for wrought fittings have not been standardized.
2. Dimension for table based on fittings manufactured to ANSI standards.
3. Tube size dimensions are nominal sizes.

'

Table #44 - Cast Copper Alloy Solder Fittings

FITTINGS
Malleable lron Threaded Fittings
Malleable iron fittings are manufactured in
two general designations or classes: Class
150 and Class 300. Both classes of fittings
can be supplied in either black or galva
nized finishes. Pressure and temperature
ratings for each class is given in table #45.

Malleable lron FitUngs


Malleable Couplings
Ribs or bars running along the length of
malleable couplings are often used as
thread type identification marks. A
malleable cou pling having 2 ribs or bars
identifies the cou pling as being a standard
right hand thread. Right/left-hand threaded
couplings have 4 or more ribs unless the
left-hand opening is clearly marked with
an "L" for identifica tion. Established
ANSl/ASME 816.3 fitting dimensions for
Class 150 are given in tables
#46 and #47.

FITTINGS

Malleable lron Fittings


PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE RATINGS FOR CLASS 150 &
300 MALLEABLE IRON FITTINGS

CLASS 150

- 150 PSI (1034.25 KPa) SATURATEO STEAM


-

300 PSI (2068.50 KPa) LIOUIO ANO GAS NON-SHOCK

SEAVICE AT MAX. 150 OEG. F (66 DEG. C)

CLASS300
-

300 PSI (2068.5 KPa) SATURATEO STEAM


1/4

TO 1 INCH (8 TO 25mm) 2000 PSI (13790.0 KPa)

- 1'/4 TO 2 INCH (32 TO 50mm) 1500 PSI (10342.5 KPa)


- 2'12 TO 3 INCH (65 TO 80mm) 1000 PSI ( 6895.0 KPa)
-

LIQUIO ANO GAS NON-SHOCK SERVICE AT MAX. 150 OEG. F


(66 OEG. C)

NOTE: At high temperatures the allowable pressure rating is lower


than stated.
Table #45 - Pressure & Temperature for 150/300 Malleable lron Fittings

Malleable lron Fittings

FITTINGS

Street Elbow

Elbow

45 Elbow
B

,/
1

B
Tee

v,,

lGj

.-c_j

,/ 1

Wye
Cross
1

-t -'r---_,

,.,

----1

Straight Coupling

Street Tee

Ti -1----

- -

A A-1

Concentic Coupling
Reducing

A --F

Cap
1

fcGJ

r---r
1

1_

Fitted Thread Length

Table #46, 47 Diagrams - Dimensions for Malleable lron


Fittings

1761

FITTINGS

Malleable lron Fittings


DIMENSIONS FOR MALLEABLE IRON FITTINGS (CLASS 150)

NOMIN
AL
PIPESI
ZE

DIMENSIONS - INCHES

0.6
0.2
1.0
9
6
0
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.9
1.1
0.4
1.1
'/4
1
3
3
4
9
0
9
3/8
0.9
0.4
0.8
1.4
0.8
1.0
1.4
5
1
0
4
0
3
4
1/2
1.1
1.1
1.6
0.5
0.8
1.6
0.8
2
5
3
3
8
3
8
3/4
1.3
0.9
1.8
0.9
1.2
1.8
0.5
1
8
9
8
9
9
5
1.5
1.1
1.1
2.1
1
2.1
1.4
0.6
0
2
2
4
4
7
8
1
1.7
1.2
1.2
1.7
2.4
0.7
2.4
1 /4
5
9
9
1
5
1
5
1.9
2.6
1.4
1.4
1.8
0.7
2.6
1'/2
4
9
3
3
8
2
9
2.2
1.6
3.2
0.7
2
3.2
1.6
2.2
5
8
6
6
6
8
2
2.7
1.9
1.9
2.5
1.1
3.8
2'/2
0
5
5
7
4
6
3.0
2.1
4.5
2.1
3.0
1.2
3
8
7
1
7
0
0
3.4
2.3
31/2
2
9
3.7
4
2.6
5.6
2.6
3.7
1.3
5.6
9
1
9
1
0
0
9
4.5
3.0
1.
6.8
5
0
5
41
6
5.1
3.4
8.0
1.
6
3
6
3
51
NOTE: Dimensions far table are based on fittings manufactured to

'fa

0.5
0.9
3
6
0.6
1.0
1.0
3
6
0
0.7
1.1
1.9
1.1
4
6
3
3
2.3
0.8
1.3
1.2
2
7
4
5
1.5
1.4
0.9
2.7
2
4
7
7
1.1
1.6
1.6
3.2
6
7
9
8
1.2
1.9
2.0
3.9
8
3
6
4
1.3
2.1
2.3
4.3
3
5
1
8
1.4
2.8
2.5
5.1
5
1
3
7
1.7
2.8
3.2
6.2
0
8
5
5
1.8
7.2
3.1
3.6
0
6
8
9
1.9
0
2.0
3.6
8.9
4.3
8
9
8
8
2.3
2
2.5
5
ANSl/ASME 816.3 Standard.

Table#46-MalleablelronFittings(150)Imperial
,
(

0.25

0.32

1.4
3
1.7
1
2.0
5
2.4
3
2.9
2
3.2
8
3.9
3
4.7
3
5.5
5

0.36

6.9
7

0.43
0.50
0.58
0.6
7
0.70
0.75
0.92
0.9
8
1.0
3
1.0
8
1.1
8
1.2
8

FITTINGS

Malleable lron Fittings


DIMENSIONS FOR MALLEABLE IRON FITTING$ (CLASS 150)

NOMINAL
PIPESIZE
MILLIMET
RES
6

DIMENSIONS - MILLIMETRES
A

17.
5
20.
6
10
24.
1
15
28.
5
20
33
.3
25
38
.1
32
44.
5
40
49
.3
50
57
.2
68
65
.6
78
80
.2
90
86
.9
100
96
.3
125
114
.3
150
130
.3
NOTE: Dimensions
8

25.
4
30.
2
36.
6
41.
2
48.
0
54.
4
62.
2
68
.3
82
.8
98
.0
114
.6

18.
18.
5
5
20.
20.
3
3
22.
22.
4
4
24.
24.
9
9
28.
28.
5
5
32.
32.
8
8
36.
36.
3
3
42.
42.
7
7
49.
49.
5
5
55.
55.
1
1
60.
7
144
66.
66.
.5
3
3
174
77
.2
.5
204
87.
.0
9
for table are based on

23.
9
26.
2
29.
2
32.
8
37.
3
43.
4
47.
8
56.
4
65.
3
76.
2

25.
4
30.
2
36.
6
41.
2
48.
0
54
.4
62
.2
68
.3
82
.8
98
.0
114
.6

G
6.
70
10.
20
10.
36
13.
56
13.
86
17.
34
17.
94
18.
38
19.
22
28.
96
30.
48

144
33.
.5
02
174
35.
.2
72
38.
204
42
.0
fittings manufactured

Table #47 - Malleable lron Fittings (150) Metric

94.
0

13.
24.
5
4
26.
16.
25.
9
0
4
29.
28.
18.
49.
5
7
8
0
22.
34.
31.
58.
1
0
8
9
38.
24.
36.
70
6
6
6
.4
42.
29.
42.
83.
4
5
9
3
32.
49.
52.
100
5
0
3
.1
33.
54.
58
111.
8
6
.7
3
36.
64.
71
131
8
3
.4
.3
43.
73.
158
82
2
2
.8
.6
80.
45.
93
184
8
7
.7
.4
48.
3
111.
52.
93.
228
3
8
7
.1
58.
9
64.
8
to ANSl/ASME 816.3 Standard.

l
-

36.
3
43.
4
52.
1
61.
7
74.
2
83
.3
99
.8
120
.1
141
.0

177
.0

6.
4
8.
1
9.
1
10.
9
12.
7
14.
7
17.
0
17.
8
19.
1
23.
4
24.
9
26.
2
27.
4
30.
0
32.
5

178

FITTINGS

For ed Steel/Cast lron Threaded


Cast lron Threaded Fittings

Forged Steel Threaded Fittings


Threaded steel fittings are produced in
three pressure designations:
Class 2000
Class 3000
Class 6000
Pressure and temperature ratings for each
of the pressure class fittings are taken to
be equivalent to the following pipe wall
thick ness designations.
FITTING
SCHEDULE
CLASS
NO.
WEIGHT
2000
3000
6000

80
160

xs
xxs

Common forged steel threaded fitting


dimensions for all classes are given in
tables
#48 and #49.

Cast iron threaded fittings are available in


classes 125 and 250. Maximum pressure/
temperature ratings for each class are
given in table #50.
Cast iron fittings can be distinguished from
malleable fittings by the larger surrounding
bands placed at the end of fittings which
inter-join to each other. Refer to illustration
#72A and #728 for a comparison between
both fittings. Another unique feature of cast
iron screwed fittings is that (when
necessary)
they can be removed by breaking the fitting
with a sharp blow from a hammer.

FITTINGS
o

Forged Steel Threaded Fittings

T@90

Elbow

Coupling

A ,

1--c-J

Cros s

1
e
i

_L

Coupling

1-G

Tee

r--A--1 .

r
L
Hall

1i
---

A:

r ---H+-1

[iJ
Cap

1--G

L_

e
Table #48, 49 Diagrams - Dimensions for Forged Steel Threaded Fittings

.E-3

Fitted Thread Length

k-r

179

180

Forged Steel Threaded Fittings

FITTINGS

DIMENSIONS FOR FORGED STEEL THREADED FITTINGS (CLASSES 2000, 3000 & 6000)
DIMENSIONS - INCHES
NOMIN
AL
PIPESI
ZE

'la
'/4
3/
8

'12
3/4

1
1'/
1

'
/
2

Jl
B

C-+

+
o

20
00
0.
81

30
00
0.
81

60
00
0.
97

20
00
0.
69

30
00
0.
69

60
00
0.
75

20
00
0.
88

30
00
0.
88

60
00
1.
00

300
0/
60
1.2
5

0.
81

0.
97

1.
12

0.
69

0.
75

0.
88

0.
88

1.
00

1.
31

0.
97

1.
12

1.
31

0.
75

0.
88

1.
00

1.
00

1.
31

1.
12

1.
31

1.
5
0

0.
88

1.
00

1.
12

1.
31

1.
50

1.
31

1.
50

1.
50

1.
75

1.
75

2.
00

1.
7
5
2.
00

+
E

F-+

300
0/
60
0.6
3

30
00
0.
75

1.
38

0.6
9

1.
00

1.
50

1.
50

0.7
5

1.
00

1.
81

1.
88

0.
94

1.
25

1.
00

1.
12

1.
31

1.
50

1.
81

2.
19

2.
00

1.
00

1.
44

1.
12

1.
31

1.
38

1.
81

2.
19

2.
44

2.
38

1.
19

1.
62

1.
31

1.
38

1.
69

2.
19

2.
44

2.
97

2.
62

1.
31

1.
75

60
00
1.
06
1.
06
1.
31
1.
50
1.
69
1.
81

1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
3.
1.
1.
2.
3.
1.
8
1.
38
2'12
00
72
97
38
12
69
56
38
44
31
75
8
NOTE: Dimensions for table are based on fittings manufactured to ANSI B16.11 Standard.
2

Table #48 - Forged Steel Threaded Fittings (Imperial)

G-+
30
00
0.
62

60
00
0.
88

0.
75

1.
00

0.
88

1.
25

1.
12

1.
50

1.
38

1.
75

1.
75

2.
25

2.
25

2.
50

2.
50

3.
00

+-T+ALL
CLASS
ES

0.26
0.40
0.41
0.53
0.55
0.68
0.71
0.7
2
0.7
6
1.1
4

Forged Steel Threaded Fittings

FITTINGS

DIMENSIONS FOR FORGED STEEL THREADED FITTINGS (CLASSES 2000, 3000 & 6000)
NOMINAL
PIPESIZE
MILLIMETR
ES

+--20
00

30
00

----+- +---

2
2
12
21
12
5
2
5
9
2
3
9
3
20
3
3
3
8
2
3
4
5
8
4
3
4
5
24
4
16
5
0
1
0
6
5
6
4
06
0
7
8
6
580
3
8
9
6
1
1
15
0
0
NOTE: Dimensions1 for
6
8
1
0
15

60
00

2
5
2
9
3
3
3
8
4
4
5
16
0
6
4
8
3
9
15
0
1
1
table

20
00
1
7
1

7
1
9
2
2
2
5
2
9
3
3
3
5
4
53
2
6
4
7
9
are

30
00

DIMENSIONS - MILLIMETRES

----+- +--- e ----+60


00

20
00

30
00

60
00

1
1
2
2
2
7
9
2
2
5
1
2
2
2
3
9
2
2
5
3
2
2
2
3
3
5
5
2
3
8
4
2
2
3
3
6
5
9
3
8
4
2
3
3
5
6
9
3
8
6
4
5
6
3
3
6
6
2
5
3
7
4
5
6
3
5
3
6
2
5
7
4
6
8
4
5
4
2
4
3
8
1
7
4
5
0
5
5
2
14
9
1
5
6
0
2
21
2
4
1
6
7
1
21
4
4
9
1
7
7
1
1
5
9
9
4
5
based on fittings manufactured

Table #49 - Forged Steel Threaded Fittings (Metric)

+o++E++-

300
0/
60
00

300
0/
60
00

30
00

F .. +-G_.. +-T-+
60
00

16
1
3
.0
9
2
17
2
2
3
.5
5
7
5
19
2
3
2
.0
7
8
5
4
24
3
3
8
.0
2
3
5
25
3
3
1
.5
7
8
4
4
6
30
1
3
0
.0
4
6
33
4
6
7
.5
4
7
4
4
39
9
4
8
.5
4
8
43
5
8
6
.0
1
9
46
6
6
2
.0
0
4
1
54
6
6
0
.0
5
8
12
6
7
60
1
8
5
.5
to ANSI 816.11 Standard.

30
00

1
6
1
9
2
2
2
9
3
5
4
4
5
7
6
4
7
6
9
12
0
1
4

60
00

2
2
2
5
3
2
3
8
4
4
5
7
6
4
7
6
9
12
0
1
2
1
5

ALL
CLASSE
S

6.
5
10.0
10.5
13.
5
14.
017.
518.
018.
5
19.
0
29.
030.
533.
0

181

182

FITTINGS

Cast lron Threaded Fittings

PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE
RATINGS FOR CLASS 125 & 250
CAST IRON THREADED FITTINGS

Class 125 Casi lron


Threaded Tee
Bands lnter-join

CLASS 125
-

125 PSI (861.88 KPa) SATURATEO STEAM


175 PSI (1206.63 KPa) LIOUID AND
GAS NON-SHOCK
SERVICE AT MAX. 150 DEG. F (66 DEG. C)
CLASS250

- 2 PSI (1723.75 KPa) SATURATED STEAM


5
- 4
PSI (2758 KPa) LIQUID AND GAS
N
-SHOCK
0
O NVICE AT MAX. 150 DEG. F (66 DEG. C)
S
E
Table #50 - Pressure & Temperature for Cast lron Threaded
Fittings

lllustration #72A - Cast lron Fitting

"""

Larger Bands

Class 150 Malleable lron


Threaded Tee
Bands Do Not
lnter-join

Smaller Band Width


lllustration #728 - Malleable lron Fitting

FITTINGS
Cast lron Threaded
Drainage Fittings
Cast iron threaded drainage fittings are
designed for use in gravity flow drainage
systems and not intended for pressurized
applications. The fitting has an inside
shoul der making a smooth, flush
connection when a pipe is scr wed into the
fitting. lllustration
#73A and #738 shows a typical inside drain
age fitting design. This joining design pre
vents material in the drainage system from
catching on the fitting or pipe and thus pos
sibly blocking the drainage flow. Fittings with
openings of 90 degrees from the vertical are
tapped to provide 1/4 in. per ft. (21 mm/m)
pitch for proper grade on drainage lines.

183
l.D. of Pipe & Fitting
Remain Uneven

Fitting

lllustration #73A - Standard Threaded Fitting

l.D. of Pipe & Fitting


Remain Flush

lllustration #738 - Cast lron Drainage Fitting

FITTINGS
Welded Fittings

Welded Fittings

1841

Fittings are available for welded joints in


either socket welded style or butt welded
style. Typical cross sections of both socket
and butt welded joints are displayed in illus
tration #74A and #748.
Fillet Weld

SOCKET WELD
Socket Weld
Fittings

or to Weld W1thdraw Pipe


1/16" (1 6 mm) to Help Preven!
Problems o! Cracking in Filie! Weld

Straight Face or Land


o! 1/16" "! 1/32"
_j
(1.6mm -r o.amm) ,

LSpace or Gap
1116" to 118"

'f2mmJ

BUTT WELD

Welded Ends Beveled /


37 1/2 degrees "! 2 1/2 degrees

lllustration #74A, B-Typical Socket & Butt Weld Fittings

Socket Weld Fittings


Socket weld fittings are used to join smaller
sizes of pipe (usually 2 in. (50 mm) and
under) which require the strength and
security of a welded joint. Pressuretemperature ratings for socket weld fittings
are taken to be equiv alent to the following
pipe wall thickness designations:
SCHEDULE
FITIING

CLASS
3000
6000
9000

NO.
80
1
6

WEIGHT

xs
xxs

The socket welded joint is made by fitting


pipe into the socket of the fitting and fillet
welding around the pipe and the top of fit
ting. Dimensions for standard forged steel
socket welded fittings, pressure classes
3000, 6000 and 9000 are given in tables #51
and
#52.

FITTINGS

Socket Weld Fittings

e --

l
Coupling

Half Coupling

45 Elbow

General
Socket Diameter & Depth
Ali Classes

Table#51,52Diagrams-DimensionsforForgedSteelSocketWeldFittings

186

FITTINGS

STANDARD FORGED STEEL SOCKET WELDED FITTINGS

+--A

Nominal

PipeSize

3000 9000
6000

Inches

1/
e
1/
4

3/
e

1/
2

J
.

11
1.
11/
2
21/
2

4
Note:

0.
8
0.
8
0
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
2
.
2
.
2
.
3
.

0.
8
0.
9
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
2
.
2
.

DIMENSIONS - INCHES
+-- 8-+--C-+D++E++F++G+i+--HAH

3000

6000

9000

3000

0.
4
0.
4
0.
5
0.
6
0
.
0
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
2
.
2
.

0
.
0
.
0
.
0
.
0
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.

0
.
0
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
2
.
2
.
3
.

9000

Ciasses

1.0
1
1.
01
1.
01
1.1
4
1.
38
1.
50
1.
50
1.
50
1.
99
1.
99
1.
99
2.
25

AH
Classes

AH
Classes

1.0
0.2
0
5
1.
0.2
00
5
1.
0.
07
25
1
1.
1
1
0.
.
26
.
.
38
1
1
1
1.4
0.
.
.
.
4
38
1
1
2
0.
1.
.
.
.
50
62
1
1
2
1.
0.
.
.
.
69
50
2
1
1.
0.
2
.
.
75
50
.
2
2
3
2.2
0.
.
.
.
4
75
2.3
- 0.
1
75
2.
0.
37
75
2.
0.
- 63
75
1. Dimensions for table are based on fittings manufactured to ANSI B16.11 Standard.

0
.
0
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
2
.
2
.
2
.
3
.
4
.
5
.

6000

AH
Classes

0.6
2
0.6
2
0.6
9
0.
88
0.9
4
1.
12
1.
19
1.
25
1.
62
1.
69
1.
75
1.
88

3000

0
.
0
.
0
.
0
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
2
.

6000

0
.
0
.
0
.
0
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.

1-+- J-+ +K+

9000

1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.

3000

0.
3
0.
3
0.
3
0.
4
0.
5
0
.
0
.
0.
8
1
.
1
.
1
.
1
.

0
.
0
.
0
.
0
.
0
.
0
.
0
.
1
.
1
.

0
.
0
.
0
.
0
.
1
.
1
.

2. Slight variations between inch and millimetre dimensions are dueto rounding tactors and permitted tolerances in standard.

Table #51 - Socket Weld Fittings (Imperial)

9000

6000

0.
43
0.
56
0.
70
0.
86
1.
0
1.
3
1.
6
1.
9
2.
41
2.
7
3.
5
4.
5

Mu.

Min.

0.
42
0.
55
0.
69
0.
8
1.
0
1.
3
1.
6
1.
9
2.
4
2.
9
3.
5
4.
5

Min.

0.
38
0.
38
0.
38
0.
38
0.
50
0.
50
0.
50
0.
50
0.
62
0.
62
0.
62
0.
75

FITTINGS

Socket Weld Fittin s Metric

187

STANDARD FORGED STEEL SOCKET WELDED FITTINGS


DIMENSIONS - MILLIMETRES
+--A

Nomin
al Pipe
Sin
Mll

6
8
1
0
1
5
20
25
32
4
0

---+
3
0
2
0.
8
3
2
0.
8
3
2
3.
1
1
2
5.
4
0

6
0
20.
83
23.
11

9
0

2
5.
4
0

3
5.
0
5

2
8.
7
0

4
1.
1
5

3
5.
0
5

4
4.
4
5

+--

+-- e

8---+

---+

6
0

3
0
1
1.
1
8

1
1.
1
8

1
1.
1
8

1
3.
4
6

1
3.
4
6

1
5.
7
5

1
5.
7
5

1
9.
0
5

9
0

2
5.
4
0
2
8.
4
5
3
1.
7
5

30
00

6
0

1
7.
2
7

1
8.
8
0

2
1.
8
4

23.
37

2
5.
6
5
3
1.
2
4

2
7.
6
9
3
3.
7
8

9
0

4
0.
6
4
4
6.
7
4
5
6.
6
4

+
o
All

+
E
All

+
FAll

+
G
Ali

Class
es

Class
es

25.
65

Cls
25.
4

6.
35

Class
es
15.
75

25.
65

25.
4

6.
35

15.
75

25.
65

27.
18

6.
35

17.
53

28.
96

32.
00

9.
65

22.
35

35.
05

36.
58

9.
65

23.
88

38.
10

41.
15

12.
70

28.
45

38.
10

42.
93

12.
70

30.
23

-H+
6
0

3
0
1
8.
0
0

1
8.
0
0

1
8.
0
0

1
8.
0
0

1
8.
0
0

2
1.
5
0

2
1.
5
0

2
2.
5
0

9
0

3
0

2
5.
5
0
3
2.
0
0
3
4.
0
0

6
0

8
.
0
0

8
.
0
0

8
.
0
0

8
.
0
0

8
.
0
0

1
1.
5
0

1
1.
5
0

1
2.
5
0

4
1.
6
3
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
2
31.
44.
12.
38.
3
4
3
6
3
5
1.
9.
7.
5
2.
4
2.
7.
5.
75
45
70
10
5.
7.
5.
7.
Note: 1. Dimensions lor table are based on fittings manulactured to ANSI 816.11 Standard.
2. Slight variations between inch and millimetre dimensions are dueto rounding tactors and permitted tolerances in standard.
50

Table #52 - Socket Weld Fittings (Metric)

1-+ J-+
9
0

1
5
.
5
0
1
9
.
0
0
2
1
.
0

M
ax

M
ln

1
0
.
9
0

1
0
.
6
5

1
4
.
3
5

1
4
.
1
0

1
7
.
8
0

1
7
.
5
5

2
1
.
9

2
1
.
7

Ml
n.

10
10
10
10
13
.
13
13
13
1
6
1
6
16

1ss

FITTINGS

Butt Weld Fittings


Butt Weld Fittings

The most common style of welded fitting


used in welded pipe systems (primarily in
pipe sizes over 2 inches (50 mm) is the
butt weld fitting.

ABC

Manufacturers Name
or Trade Mark
Size

6" STD

WPB

14N2

Melt ldentification or
Lab. Control Number
Material Designation
Schedule Number or
Wall Thickness

lllustratlon #75 - Butt Weld Fitting ldentification

lllustration #75 shows a typical butt weld


fit ting and explains the identification
markings required on fittings.
Pressureltemperature ratings for the fit
tings duplicate that of seamless pipe of
the same material, size, and wall thick
ness. Standard sizes for butt weld
fittings are available in wall thickness
and sched ule numbers paral/eling that
of steel pipe.
Specific dimensions for butt welded fittings
that are displayed in illustration #76 are
pro vided in tables #53, #54, #55, #56.

FITTINGS

Butt Weld Fittings

90 Long Radius
Elbow

Straight Tee

45 Elbow

Straight Cross

:.--A
1

90 Long Radius
90

ri f :
--

E
Short Radius Return Bend
1

ed

ucin

r-

83-

Long Radius Return Bend

Concentric
Reducer

Short Radius Elbow

j
Eccentric

_L_I

'

lbow

Reducing Outlet Cross

lJ :

Q
Cap

Reducing Outlet Tee


'.. i_

'--G :-G1

lllustration #76 - Butt Weld Fittings

190

FITTINGS
NOMI
NA
L
PIP
E
'h

,,.

1v..

1'h
2
21/2

3
3 /2
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34

36
38
40
42
44
46
48

90DEG.
LONGRAD
IUS
ELBOWS
1.50
1
1.
.
1.88
2.25
3
3.
.
4.50
5.25
6.00
7.50
9.00
12
.0
15
18
.0
2
1.
2
4.
2
7.
30.00
33
.0
36.00
39
.0
4
4
4
51.00
54.00
57.00
6000
63.00
66.00
69.00
72 00

-e---

-G-

Butt Weld Fittings (Imperial

DIMENSIONS FOR BUTT WELD FITTING - INCHES


45DEG.
ELBOWS
0.62
0.44
0.88
1
1.
.
1.38
1.75
2
.
2.25
2.50
3
3.
5
6.
7
8.75
1000
11.25
12.50
13.50
15.00
16.00
17.25
18.50
19.75
21.00
22.25
23.62
24.88
26.00
27.38
28.62
29.88

TEES
&

CROS

1
1
1.
1
.
2.25
2.50
3.00
3.38
3
4.12
4
5.
7
.
8.50
1000
11.00
12.00
13.50
15.00
16.50
17.00
19.50
20.50
22.00
23.50
25.00
26.50
28 00
29.50
30.00
32.00
33.50
35.00

Table #53 - Butt Weld Fittings (Imperial)

REDUCI
NG
COUPLI

1.50
2
2
2.
3
3.
3
4.
4
.5.00
5.50
6.00
7
8.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
2800
28.00

CAPS
1.00
1.00
1
1
.1.50
1.50
1.50
2
2.
2.50
3
3.
4.00
5.00
6.00
6.50
7.00
8.00
9.00
10 00
10.50
10.50
10.50
10.50
10.50
10.50
10.50
12.00
12 00
12.00
13.50
13.50
13.50

REDUC
ING
90DEG.
ELBO

-F-

3
3.
4
5.
6
7.
9.
12.00
15.00
18.00
21.00
24.00
27.00
30.00
36.00
-

SHORT
RADIUS
90DEG.
ELBOWS
1
1
.
1.50
2
2.
3
3.
4.00
5.00
6
8.00
10 00
12.00
14.00
1
1

22.00
20
24.00

LONGRADI
US
RETURN
BENDS
1.88
1.69
2
2.75
3.25
4
.
5.19
6
7.
8.
1
0.
1
1
6.
20
24
2
32
36
4
0.
4
4.
4
8.-

SHORT
RADIUS
RETURN
BENOS

-J-

1.62
2
2.
3.19
3.94
4.75
5.5
0
6
7.
.
9.3
12
.3
15
18.38
2
1.
2
4.
27
.0
30.00

36
.0-

.-

FITTINGS

-e---

Butt Weld Fittin s (Metric)

191

DIMENSIONS FOR BUTT WELD FITTING - MILLIMETRES


NOMI
NA
L
PIP
E 15
20
25
32
40
50
65
80
90
100
125
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200

90DEG.
LONGRAD
IUS
ELBOWS
3
8
2
3
4
5
7
95
114
1
3
152
190
2
3
0
3
8
45
75
63
6
7
83
914
9
9
1067
1143
1219
1295
1
3
1448
1
5
1600
1
6
1723
1829

45DEG.
ELBOWS
16
11
22
25
2
35
4
54
15
7
6
4
7
99
1
2
1
51
29
2
.254
2
3
13
4
381
406
438
4
75
50
5
6
632
6
6
97
72
5

TEES
&

CROSSES

Table #54 - Butt Weld Fittings (Metric)

25
2
38
4
5
64
76
8
956
1
124
1
1
7
216
2
5
2
7
305
3
3
4
14
34
59
25
55
9
635
6
7
1
749
7
68
81
58
8

REDUCI
NG
COUPLI

3
51
5
1
64
76
8
9
8
9
102
102
1
1
152
178
203
3
3
356
381
5
5
5
610
6
6
1
610
6
6
6
6
1
6
1
6
71
1
711

CAPS

2
52
3
3
3
3
3
5
1
6
4
6
7
89
1
0
1
1
5
1
6
178
2
2
2
267
2
6
2
2
6
2
6
2
2
3
3
3
0
3
4
343
34
3

SHORT
RADIUS
90DEG.
ELBOWS
-G--

-F REDUC
ING
90DEG.
ELBO

76
9
5
114
133
1
190
229
3
30
4
55
63
686
762
9
1-

25
3
38
51
6
764
89
102
1
2
1
2
0
254
3
3
5
4
4
5
559
6
1-

LONGRAD
IUS
RETURN
BENDS
48
4
5
7
83
1
1
3
1
5
184
210
262
313
4
1
518
6
7
11
8
9
1016
1118
1119

SHORT
RADIUS
RETURN
-J--

4
5
6
8
1
1
1
4
1
1
2
3
31
4
5
63
6
762

DIMENSIONS FOR REDUCING OUTLET TEES


& CROSSES - INCHES
NOMI
NAL
PIPESI
ZE

112 X 1/2 X 3/e


112 X 112 X 1/4
3/4 X 3/4 X 1/2
3/4 X 3/4 X 3/e

AUN
+H-+

1.00
1.00
1.12
1.12

OUTLET

NOMIN
AL
PIPES
IZE

+-1+ 1.00

4x4x11/2
5x5x4
5 X 5 X 31/2
5x5x3
5 X 5 X 2112
5x5x2

1.00
1.12
1.12

1x1x3/4
1x1x112

1.50
1.50

1.50
1.50

11/4x11/4x1
11/4X11/4 X 3/4
11/4X11f4x112

1.88
1.88
1.88

1.88
1.88
1.88

11/2X1112X11/
1112x1112x1
4
11/2X11/2 X 3/4
1112X1112X1/2

2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25

2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25

2x2x11/2
2x2x11/4
2x2x1
2x2x3/4

2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

2.38
2.25
2.00
1.75

2112 X 2112 X 2
21/2 X 21/2 X
21/2 X 2112 X
2112 X 2112 X 1

3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

2.75
2.62
2.50
2.25

3X 3 X 2112
3x3x2
3x3x11/2
3x3x11/4

3.38
3.38
3.38
3.38

3.25
3.00
2.88
2.75

31/2 X 3112 X 3
31/2 X 31/2 X
3112 X 31/2 X 2
31/2 X 31/2 X

3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75

3.62
3.50
3.25
3.12

4x4x34
4x4x3
4 X 4 X 21/2
4x4x2

4.12
4.12
4.12
4.12

4.00
3.88
3.75
3.50

6x6x5
6x6x4
6 X 6 X 31/2
6x6x3
6 X 6 X 21/2
8x8x6
8x8x5
8x8x4
8 X 8 X 31/2
10x10x8
10x10x6
10x10x5
10x10x4
12x12x10
12x12x8
12x12x6
12x12x5
14x14x12
14x14x10
14x14x8
14x14x6
16x16x14
16x16x12
16x16x10
16x16x8
16x16x6
18x18x16

AUN
+-

4.1
2
4.8
8
4.8
8
4.8
8
4.8
8
4.8
8
5.6
2
5.6
2
5.6
2
5.6
2
5.6
2
7.0
0
7.0
0
7.0
0
7.0
0
8.5
0
8.5
0
8.5
0
8.5
0
10.0
0
10.0
0
10.0
0
10.0
0
11.0
0
11.0
0
11.0
0
11.0
0
12.0
0
12.0
0
12.0
0
12.0
0
12.0
0
13.5
0

OUTLE
T
+-1-

3.38

.,,
-z-4
C>
CJ)

4.62
4.50
4.38
4.25
4.12
5.38
5.12
5.00
4.88
4.75
6.62
6.38
6.12
6.00
8.00
7.62
7.50
7.25
9.50
9.00
8.62
8.50
10.62
10.12
9.75
9.38
12.00
11.62
11.12
10.75
10.38
13.00

CJ

e:

"C

. .Si'.

C'D

..:::

"T1

=t

DIMENSIONS FOR REDUCING OUTLET TEES


& CROSSES - INCHES
NOMINAL
PIPESIZE
INCHES

RUN
+-H-+

OUTLET

+-1

18x18x14
18x18x12
18x18x10
18x18x8

13.50
13.50
13.50
13.50

13.00
12.62
12.12
11.75

20 X 20 X 18
20 X 20 X 16
20 X 20 X 14
20 X 20 X 12
20 X 20 X 10
20 X 20 X 8

15.00
15.00
15.00
15.00
15.00
15.00

14.50
14.00
14.00
13.62
13.12
12.75

22 X 22 X 20
22 X 22 X 18
22 X 22 X 16
22 X 22 X 14
22 X 22 X 12
22 X 22 X 10

16.50
16.50
16.50
16.50
16.50
16.50

16.00
15.50
15.00
15.00
14.62
14.12

24 X 24 X 22
24 X 24 X 20
24 X 24 X 18
24 X 24 X 16
24 X 24 X 14
24 X 24 X 12
24 X 24 X 10

17.00
17.00
17.00
17.00
17.00
17.00
17.00

17.00
17.00
16.50
16.00
16.00
15.62
15.12

26 X 26 X 24
26 X 26 X 22
26 X 26 X 20
26 X 26 X 18
26 X 26 X 16
26 X 26 X 14
26 X 26 X 12

19.50
19.50
19.50
19.50
19.50
19.50
19.50

19.00
18.50
18.00
17.50
17.00
17.00
16.62

28 X 28 X 26
28 X 28 X 24
28 X 28 X 22
28 X 28 X 20
28 X 28 X 18
28 X 28 X 16

20.50
20.50
20.50
20.50
20.50
20.50

20.50
20.00
19.50
19.00
18.50
18.00

,.

NOMINAL
PIPESIZE
INCHES

RUN

z
OUTLET

C)

+-H-+

+-1--.

28 X 28 X 14
28 X 28 X 12

20.50
20.50

18.00
17.62

30 X 30 X 28
30 X 30 X 26
30 X 30 X 24
30 X 30 X 22
30 X 30 X 20
30x30x18
30 X 30 X 16
30 X 30 X 14
30x30x12
30x30x10

22.00
22.00
22.00
22.00
22.00
22.00
22.00
22.00
22.00
22.00

21.50
21.50
21.00
20.50
20.00
19.50
19.00
19.00
18.62
18.12

32 X 32 X 30
32 X 32 X 28
32 X 32 X 26
32 X 32 X 24
32 X 32 X 22
32 X 32 X 20
32 X 32 X 18
32 X 32 X 16
32 X 32 X 14

23.50
23.50
23.50
23.50
23.50
23.50
23.50
23.50
23.50

23.00
22.50
22.50
22.00
21.50
21.00
20.50
20.00
20.00

34 X 34 X 32
34 X 34 X 30
34 X 34 X 28
34 x34 X 26
34 X 34 X 24
34 X 34 X 22
34 X 34 X 20
34x34x18
34 X 34 X 16

25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00

24.50
24.00
23.50
23.50
23.00
22.50
22.00
21.50
21.00

36 X 36 X
36 X 36 X
36 X 36 X
36 X 36 X
36 X 36 X
36 X 36 X
36 X 36 X

26.50
26.50
26.50
26.50
26.50
26.50
26.50

26.00
25.50
25.00
24.50
24.50
24.00
23.50

34
32
30
28
26
24
22

en

-aJ

:E

(1)

a.
"T1
::l

(Q
rJ)

"C
(1)

:::!.
D>

..:::::

ot

CT

10

'(*J(J1
*1'

()
1

:o

(!)

a.
e:
5

()
(O

o
s.

pi

(!)

IJ>

go

()

IJ>
IJ>

(!)

IJ>

NOMIN
AL
PIPE
SIZE

AUN

+-

36 X 36 X 20
36 X 36 X 18
36 X 36 X 16
38 X 38 X 36
38 X 38 X 34
38 X 38 X 32
38 X 38 X 30
38 X 38 X 28
38 X 38 X 26
38 X 38 X 24
38 X 38 X 22
38 X 38 X 20
38 X 38 X 18
40 X 40 X
40 X 40 X
40 X 40 X
40 X 40 X
40 X 40 X
40 X 40 X
40 X 40 X
40 X 40 X
40 X 40 X
40 X 40 X
40 X 40 X

48
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
18

42 X 42 X 40
42 X 42 X 38
42 X 42 X 36
42 X 42 X 34
42 X 42 X 32
42 X 42 X 30
42 X 42 X 28
42 X 42 X 26
42 X 42 X 24
42 X 42 X 22
42 X 42 X 20
42 X 42 X 18
42 X 42 X 16

H--+
26.5

26.5
0
26.5
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
29.5
0
29.5
0
29.5
0
29.5
0
29.5
0
29.5
0
29.5
0
29.5
0
29.5
0
29.5
0
29.5
0
30.0
0
30.0
0
30.0
0
30.0
0
30.0
0
30.0
0
30.0
0
30.0
0
30.0
0
30.0
0
30.0
0
30.0
0
30.0
0

OUTL
ET
+1--.
23.0

22.5
0
22.0
0
28.0
0
27.5
0
27.0
0
26.5
0
25.5
0
25.5
0
25.0
0
24.5
0
24.0
0
23.5
0
29.5
0
29.0
0
28.5
0
28.0
0
27.5
0
26.5
0
26.5
0
26.0
0
25.5
0
25.0
0
24.5
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
28.0
0
27.5
0
27.5
0
26.0
0
26.0
0
26.0
0
25.5
0
25.0
0

NOMIN
AL
PIPESI
ZE

44 X
44 X
44 X
44 X
44 X
44 X
44 X
44 X
44 X
44 X
44 X
44 X

44 X 42
44 X 40
44 X 38
44 X 36
44 X 34
44 X 32
44 X 30
44 X 28
44 X 26
44 X 24
44 X 22
44 X 20

46 X 46 X 44
46 X 46 X 42
46 X 46 X 40
46 X 46 X 38
46 X 46 X 36
46 X 46 X 34
46 X 46 X 32
46 X 46 X 30
46 X 46 X 28
46 X 46 X 26
46 X 46 X 24
46 X 46 X 22
48 X 48 X 46
48 X 48 X 44
48 X 48 X 42
48 X 48 X 40
48 X 48 X 38
48 X 48 X 36
48 X 48 X 34
48 X 48 X 32
48 X 48 X 30
48 X 48 X 28
48 X 48 X 26
48 X 48 X 24
48 X 48 X 22

AUN

+-

32.0
32.0
0
0
32.0
0
32.0
0
32.0
0
32.0
0
32.0
0
32.0
0
32.0
0
32.0
0
32.0
0
32.0
0
33.5
0
33.5
0
33.5
0
33.5
0
33.5
0
33.5
0
33.5
0
33.5
0
33.5
0
33.5
0
33.5
0
33.5
0
35.0
0
35.0
0
35.0
0
35.0
0
35.0
0
35.0
0
35.0
0
35.0
0
35.0
0
35.0
0
35.0
0
35.0
0
35.0
0

-zC
"T1

DIMENSIONS FOR REDUCING OUTLET TEES


& CROSSES - INCHES

-f
f

OUTLE
T
+-

30.00
29.50
29.00
28.50
28.50
28.00
28.00
27.50
27.50
27.50
27.00
27.00
31.50
31.00
30.50
30.00
30.00
29.50
29.50
29.00
29.00
29.00
28.50
28.50
33.00
33.00
32.00
32.00
32.00
31.00
31.00
31.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
29.00
29.00

>e

CJ

e:

:E
tD

c.
"T1

tD
::!.

-D>

.,,

DIMENSIONS FOR REDUCING OUTLET TEES


& CROSSES - MILLIMETRES
NOMINAL
PIPESIZE
MILLIMET
RES

15x15x10
15x 15x8
20 X 20 X 15
20x20x10
25 X 25 X 20
25 X 25 X 15
32 X 32 X 25
32 X 22 X 20
32 X 32 X 15
40 X 40 X 32
40 X 40 X 25
40x40x20
40x40x15
50x50x40
50 X 50 X 32
50 X 50 X 25
50 X 50 X 20
65 X 65 X
65 X 65 X
65 X 65 X
65 X 65 X

50
40
32
25

80 X 80 X 65
80 X 80 X 50
80 X 80 X 40
80 X 80 X 32
90x 90x80
90 X 90 X 65
90 X 90 X 50
90 X 90 X 40
100x100x90
100 X 100 X
80
100x100x65
100x100x50

RU

+H-+
2
5
2
5
2
9
2
9
3
8
3
8
4
8
4
8
4
8
5
7
5
7
5
7
5
7
6
4
6
4
6
4
6
4
7
6
7
6

.--1-.
OUTLE
T

25
25
29
29
38
38
48
48
48
57
57
57
57
60
57
51
44
70
67
64
57
83
76
73
70
92
89
83
79
102
98
95
89

NOMINAL
PIPESIZE
MILLIMET
RES

RU

+-N

100X100 X 40
125 X
100
125 X
125 X
125 X
125 X
150 X
125
150 X
100
150 X
150 X
150 X

125 X
125 X
125 X
125 X
125 X

90
80
65
50

150 X
150 X
150 X 90
150 X 80
150 X 65

10
5
12
4
12
4
12
4
12
4
12
4

200 X 200 X
150
200 X 200 X
125
200 X 200 X
100
200 X200 X 90

14
3
14
3
14
3
14
3
14
3

250 X
200
250 X
150
250 X
125
250 X
100

17
8
17
8
17
8
17
8

250 X
250 X
250 X
250 X

300 X 300 X
250
300 X 300 X
200
300 X 300 X
150
300X 300 X 125
350 X 350 X

21
6
21
6
21
6
21
6

OUTLE

T
.--

:
:

86
1
1
7
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
0
8
1
0
5
1
3
7
1
3
0
1
2
7
1
2
4
1
2
1
1
6
8
1
6
2
1
5
6
1

CD

::::J

en

:::!.

(")

.....
CD

(J1

DIMENSIONS FOR REDUCING OUTLET TEES


& CROSSES - MILLIMETRES
NOMINAL
PIPESIZE
MILLIMETA
ES

450 X 450 X
450 X 450 X
300 X 450 X
450
250 X 450 X
450
200
500 X 500 X
500 X 500 X
500 X 500 X
500 X 500 X
500 X 500 X
500 X 500 X

AU
+-N

H-+
34

650 X 650 X
650 X 650 X
650 X 650 X
650 X 650 X
650 X 650 X
650 X 650 X
650 X 650 X

34
34
3
3
34
3
38
38
1
38
38
138
1
38
1
41
9
41
9
41
9
41
9
41
9
41
9
43
43
43
2
43
2
43
43
243
2
49
49
5
49
49
549
49
5
49

700 X 700 X
700 X 700 X
700 X 700 X
700 X 700 X
700 X 700 X
700 X 700 X
400

52
1
52
1
52
1
52
52
52
1

550 X 550 X
550
500 X 550 X
550 X 550 X
550 X 550 X
550 X 550 X
550 X 550 X
600 X 600 X
600 X 600 X
600 X 600 X
600 X 600 X
600
400 X 600 X
600 X 600 X
600 X 600 X

OUTLE
T1-

+330
321
308
298

368
356
356
346
333
324
406
394
381
381
371
359
432
432
419
406
406
397
384
483
470
457
444
432
432
422
521
508
495
483
470
457

NOMINAL
PIPESIZE
MILLIMETA
ES

700 X 700 X
700 X 700 X
300
750 X 750 X
700 X 750 X
750
650 X 750 X
750
750
600 X 750 X
550
750 X 705 X
500 X 750 X
750
450 X 750 X
750
400 X 750 X
750
350 X 750 X
750
300
750 X 750 X
250
800 X 800 X
750 X 800 X
800
700 X 800 X
800
650 X 800 X
800
600 X 800 X
800
550 X 800 X
800
500
800 X 800 X
450 X 800 X
800
400 X 800 X
800
350
850 X 850 X
800 X 850 X
850
750 X 850 X
850
700 X 850 X
850
650 X 850 X
850
600 X 850 X
850
550
850 X 850 X
500
850 X 850 X
450 X 850 X
850
400
900 X 900 X
900 X 900 X
800 X 900 X
900
750 X 900 X
900
700 X 900 X
900
650 X 900 X
900
600 X 900 X
900
550

AU

OUTLE
T1-

52
52
1
55
9
55
9
55
55
9
9
55
9
55
9
55
9
55
9
55
9
55
9
59
7
59
7
59
7
59
7
59
7
59
7
59
7
59
7
59
7
63
5
63
5
63
5
63
5
63
5
63
5
63
5
63
5
63
5
67
3
67
3
67
3
67
3
67
3
67
3
67
3

457
448

+-N

.,,
:::
-ze;,-t
en

546
546
533
521
508
495
483
483
473
460
584
572
572
559
546
533
521
508
508
622
610
597
597
584
572
559
546
433
660
648
635
622
622
610
597

-:e
aJ

e:
Q

.,,

'::s

t/)

-s::
(')

"T1

-z

DIMENSIONS FOR REDUCING OUTLET TEES


& CROSSES - MILLIMETRES
NOMINAL
PIPESIZE
MILLIMET
RES

900 X 900 X 500


900 X 900 X 450
900 X 900 X 400
950 X 950 X
950 X 950 X
950 X 950 X
950 X 950 X
950 X 950 X
950 X 950 X
950 X 950 X
950 X 950 X
950 X 950 X
950 X 950 X
1000 X
950
1000 X
900 X
1000
850 X
1000
800 X
1000
750
1000 X
700 X
1000
650 X
1000
600
1000 X
550 X
1000
500
1000 X
450
1050 X
1000 X
1050
950 X
1050
900 X
1050
850 X
1050
800
1050 X
750 X
1050
700 X
1050
650 X
1050
600
1050 X
550 X
1050
500
1050 X
450 X
1050
400

900
850
800
750
700
650
600
550
500
450

1000 X
1000 X
1000 X
1000 X
1000 X
1000 X
1000 X
1000 X
1000 X
1000 X
1000 X
1050 X
1050 X
1050 X
1050 X
1050 X
1050 X
1050 X
1050 X
1050 X
1050 X
1050 X
1050 X
1050 X

RU
N
H

-+
67
67
3
67
3
71
1
71
1
71
1
71
1
71
1
71
1
711
711
711
71
1
74
9
74
9
74
9
74
9
74
9
74
9
74
9
74
9
74
9
74
9
74
9
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2
76
2

OUTL
ET
+-

1584
572
559

711
698
686
673
648
648
635
622
610
597
749
737
724
711
698
673
673
660
648
635
622
711
711
711
711
711
711
698
698
660
660
660
648
635

NOMINAL
PIPESIZE
MILLIMET
RES

1100 X 1100 X
1100x1100x10
1050
00 X 1100 X
1100
950
1100 X 1100 X
900 X 1100 X
1100
850 X 1100 X
1100
800
1100X1100
X
750
1100 X 1100 X
700 X 1100 X
1100
650
1100x1100x60
0
1100
X 1100 X
550 X 1100 X
1100
500
1150 X 1150 X
1100
1150 X 1150 X
1050 X 1150 X
1150
1000 X 1150 X
1150
950 X 1150 X
1150
900 X 1150 X
1150
850 X 1150 X
1150
800 X 1150 X
1150
750 X 1150 X
1150
700 X 1150 X
1150
650
1150x1150x60
0
1150
X 1150 X
550
1200 X 1200 X
1150 X 1200 X
1200
1100 X 1200 X
1200
1050 X 1200 X
1200
1000
1200 X 1200 X
950 X 1200 X
1200
900
1200X1200 X
850 X 1200 X
1200
800
1200X1200 X
750 X 1200 X
1200
700
1200X1200 X
650 X 1200 X
1200
600
1200 X 1200 X
550

C)

RU
N
H

OUTLE
T
+-

81
3
81
3
81
3
81
3
81
3
81
3
81
3
81
3
81
3
81
3
81
3
81
3
85
1
85
1
85
1
85
1
85
1
85
1
85
1
85
1
85
1
85
1
85
1
85
1
88
9
88
9
88
9
88
9
88
9
88
9
88
9
88
9
88
9
88
9
88
9
88
9
88
9

762
749
737
724
724
711
711
698
698
698
686
686
800
787
775
762
762
749
749
737
737
737
724
724
838
838
813
813
813
787
787
787
762
762
762
737
737

en

-m

:E
CD

c.
"T1

;::;:

:::s

en

s::
CD

:::!.

(")

198

Weld Outlets/Grooved Joints

FITTINGS
Weld Outlets
When outlets or branch connections are
required on a run of pipe, weld outlet
fittings are often used. Weld outlet fittings
provide branch connections that are
considerably stronger than welding a pipe
directly into the run (stub in connection).
The outlets are made for threaded,
socket weld, and butt weld branch
connections. These connec tions are
available in a wide variety of styles
including: elbow outlets, lateral outlets, flat
surface outlets, nipple outlets and
standard
beveled
outlets.
Nominal
dimensions for weld outlet fittings are
provided in tables #57 and #58.

Grooved
Joints

G!ooves are either cut or rolled into the


pipe,
w1th
matching
surfaces
manufactured into the design of the
grooved fittings. A cross sectional view of
a grooved joint is displayed in illustration
#77. lt is important when installing
grooved fittings that the elastomer gaskets
supplied are checked to be certain they
are suitable for the services intended.

Elastomer
Gasket

Fitting

oining of p_ipe and/or grooved end fittings


1s accomphshed by the use of special
grooved pipe couplings. These couplings
use an elastomer gasket seal and a bolted
split metallic collar held in place by grooves
made into the pipe.

lllustration #n- Cut & Rolled Grooved Joints

FITTINGS

Weld Outlets (Imperial)


WELD OUTLET FITTINGS -INCHES

Nominal
Pipe Size
lnches

'12

P/4
2

3/4
1
111.
11/2
2
2 1/2
3
31/2
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24

Buttweld Outlet
Standard

Threaded Outlet

Extra
Heavy
3/4

3/4

1/a
11/15
11/4

1/a

15/ 15
1112
15/e
13 /
2
4
2
21/ 21/15
e23/
2e3/
341/
33/
15
3e1/
231
41/16
4 5/
315/15
e53/
41/e
e

.
.

11f 1s
1
115/16
11/2
15/e

..

2
31/15

60001b.

30001b.

6000 lb.

11/4

1
11/15
15f1s
15/15

1
11/1s
15/15
15/15

11/2
113/16
2
2'/e
211.

11/2

Pla

11/2
113/15
2
21/e
211.

17/15
19/15
1
5
1111,6
21/16

P/8

r
37/e
31/2

47/16
411116
5
5'/2

.
.

NOTE: indicates dimensions may vary with branch size.


Table #57 - Weld Outlet Fittings (Imperial)

3000lb.
11
1115
/1
15/15

Socket Weld Outlet

Nominal Pipe Size

il

- -

P/a

FITTINGS

Weld Outlets (Metric)


WELD OUTLET FITTING$ - MILLIMETRES

Nominal
Pipe Size
lnches

200
250

15
20
25
3
2
4
0
50
65
80
90
100
125
150
300
350
400
450
500
600

Buttweld Outlet
Standard

Extra Heavy

19
22
27
32
33
38
41
44
5
511
5
4
60
70
78
86
90
94
103*
117*
137*

19
22
2
7
32
33
3
8
41
44
51*
51
52*
78
98
89*
100*
105*
113.
119*
127*
140

NOTE: indicates dimensions may vary with branch size.


Table #58 - Weld Outlet Fittings (Metric)

Threaded Outlet

Socket Weld Outlet

3000 lb.

6000 lb.

3000 lb.

6000 lb.

25
27
33
33
3
35
8
46
50
54
5
7

32
37
41
43
52

25
27
33
3
3
5
38
46
50
5
4
57

25
27
3
3
3
35
38
46

81,
Nominal Pipe
Siz

FITTINGS
General Assembly and Disassembly
Procedure for Grooved Fittings
and Pipe

1. Check gasket for service suitability and


apply lubricant to gasket if required by
manufacturer.
2. lnspect pipe end for indents, dirt, rust and
generally for anything that may interfere
with a leak tight gasket seal.
3. lnspect groove for proper dimensions
(most manufacturers will supply an
inspection gage or groove specification
chart to check dimensions).
4. Pull elastomer gasket completely over
pipe or fitting leaving the end of the pipe
or fitting extending out slightly ..
5. Align the pipe or fitting to be joined
together and position the gasket evenly
between
the
two
pieces.

Grooved Fitting Assembly


6. Place both ends of the split coupling over
the gasket keeping the coupling in the
same plane as any others in the
assem bly.
7. lnstall coupling bolts and nuts finger
tight, making sure metal coupling lips
engage fully into the groove.
8. Tighten nuts uniformly until coupling
halves (metal to metal) firmly touch.
9. To disassemble, follow procedure in
reverse.
Note: Befare disassembly, ali pressure
must be relieved from system.
lllustration #78 displays the procedures in
assembling grooved joints.

202 I

FITTINGS

1. Examine and Lubricate Gasket

4. Align Connection and Slide


Gasket into Cantar Position

Grooved Fitting Assembly

2. Check Pipe and Groove Dimensions

5. Jnstall Housing and Bohs

Jllustration #78 - Assembling Grooved Joints

3. Position Gasket Ovar


Pipe or Fitting End

6. Ttghten Nuts

SECTION FOUR QUESTIONS


FITTINGS
1.

Beside each of the butt welded elbows state the formula used to ca/cu/ate the end to
center measurement of the fitting:
a.
90 degree long radius elbow =
b.
reducing 90 degree long radius elbow =
c.
long radius return bend =
d. 90 degree short radius elbow =
e.
45 degree long radius elbow =

2.

Explain how the alternative method is used to find the end to center
measurement for a 45 degree long radius butt welded elbow.
Answer:

3.

Using the alternative method ca/cu/ate the distance (end to center) far an B inch (200
mm) long radius 45 degree elbow.
a.
6 inches (150 mm)
b.
5 5/16 inches (135 mm)
c.
5 inches (127 mm)
d.
3 inches (76.2 mm)

4.
a.
b.

Al/ unions require a gasket to ensure a tight sea/:


true
false

5.
How is the offset distance calculated on an eccentric reducer?
Answer:
6.
a.
b.
c.

In a 2 x 2 x 1 tee, the 1 will refer to:


the smaller run opening
the branch opening
the offset opening

7.
a.
b.

On a 2 x 1 x 2 x 1 cross:
the run ends will both be 2
one run end will be 2 and the other will be 1

8.
1.
2.

Name the two general classes malleable iron fitting are available in:

9.
a.
b.
c.

A malleable iron coupling with 4 ribs is identified as:


right/left hand threads
right hand thread only
left hand thread only

1O.
On a 2 inch (50 mm) malleable iron screwed tee, what is the branch tace
to centerline distance?
a.
2 inches (50.8 mm)
b.
2 1/4 inches (57.2 mm)
c.
3 1/4 inches (82.6 mm)
d.
5 1/8 inches (30.18 mm)
11.

A class 6000 steel threaded coupling is taken to be equivalent to a steel pipe


classification of:
a.
standard
b.
schedule 80

c.

d.
12.

xs
xxs

lf a pipe wil/ not unscrew from a cast iron fitting, what is a unique way of
removing the pipe?
Answer:
13.
What is the purpose of cast iron drainage fittings?
Answer:
14.
a.
b.

A socket weld fitting has two weld locations, one inside and one outside.
true
false

15.
Why are weld outlets used?
Answer:
16.

How are grooved pipe couplings held together'?


Answer:

17.

A grooved pipe coupling has only one type of gasket and therefore is limited in use:
a.
true
b.
false

SECTION
FIVE
GASKETED JOINTS

GASKETED JOINTS
Flanges
Flanges connect piping and components
together in a system by the use of bolted
connections. This type of connection
eases the disassembling and separation of
piping, and equipment for repair and
regular main tenance.
lllustrations #79 through #87 display the dif
ferent types of flange styles that are avail
able. The following gives a brief description
of each.
Welding-neck
Flange
This flange type is designed to be con
nected by butt-welding the protruding neck
of the flange to either a fitting, pipe, or
equipment requiring a flanged joint. Weld
ing-neck flanges provide good service
under a wide range of temperature and
pressure conditions in both static or
intermittent flows (lllustration #79).
Slip-on
Flange
The slip-on flange is designed to slip over
the end of the pipe. lt allows easy position
ing befare welding.

Flange Types
Both the inside and outside of the flange is
fillet welded to the pipe. The inside weld is
accomplished by pulling the pipe back
(approximately the wall thickness of the
pipe) from the end of the flange and
welding the end of the pipe to the inside
of the flange (lllustration #80).

lllustration #79 - Weld-neck Flange


lllustration #80 - Slip-on Flange

GASKETED JOINTS
Lap-joint (Van Stone Flange)
This flange arrangement consists of both a
stub end anda flange. The flange itself is
not
welded but slips over the stub end which is
butt welded to the fitting, pipe or equip

alignment in conditions where non-align


ment may cause problems. Because the
flange is not in contact with line fluids, it
may be made from less costly carbon
steel. The stub end is made from the
pipe material (lllustration #81).
Reducing
Flange
This flange changes the line size without
adding an extra fitting. The reducing flange
changes the line size abruptly. lt is not rec
ommended where flow disturbance or
turbulent conditions will cause problems
(lllustration #82).

Flange Types

/Stub End

-.' -- '

lllustration #81 - Lap-joint (Van Stone Flange)

6"
(150
mm) NPS

(100 mm)
NPS

lllustration #82 - Reducing Flange

2os

GASKETED JOINTS

Socket Welding F/ange


This flange is joined to pipe the same as
socket welded fittings. lt is used primarily on
small piping and low pressure applications
(lllustration #83).
Blind F/ange
The blind flange is basically a solid flange
plate used to close-off the end of pipe, fit
tings, valves,- and/or equipment (lllustration
#84).
Spectacle Blinds
Spectacle and line blinds are similar to a
blind flange, but differ in that they fit
between two flange connections. Spectacle
blinds get their name from their similarity
to a pair of
eyeglasses or spectacles. One side of the
spectacle blind is fully closed for 100%
flow
shut-off, while the other side of the specta
cle is open for full flow. By being con
structed in this fashion, the blind can be
rotated without leaving a space when
the blind is taken out of the line.
Another
advantage of the spectacle construction
is that it can be seen ata glance if the
line is open or closed off (11/ustration
#85).

Flange Types

lllustration #83 - Socket Weld


Flange

lllustration #84
- Blind Flange

Screws

lllustration #85 - Line and Spectacle Blinds

GASKETED JOINTS
Screwed
Flange
The screwed or threaded flange is otten
used in flanging applications where
welding is not practica! or desired. lt is
mostly used in com mercial applications
on low pressure and small piping
(lllustration #86).
Orifice
Flanges
Orifice flanges (always used in pairs) are
used in conjunction with an orifice plate for
measuring flow of liquids and gases within
a piping system. They differ from other
flanges in that they are pre-drilled with
tapped holes made in the flange rims to
accomodate metering piping. The flanges
that
make
up the orifice flange
arrangement are usually of the weldingneck end connection type. Slip on and
threaded types of end connections are
sometimes used, but the pipe must be
drilled to accommodate the tapped holes
through which the pressure is sensed
(lllus tration #87).

Flange Types

lllustration #86 - Screwed Flange

----Pressure

Tappings
for Flow lnstrument
Connections

Flange Jack
Screw for Plate
Removal

lllustration #87 - Orifice Flanae

2oal

GASKETED JOINTS

The various types ot tlanges are manutac


tured with a variety ot tace types.These var
ious tace types are shown in illustrations #88
through #96. Even though there are many
tace types available, the most commonly
used are:
Raised
tace
Flat
tace
Lap joint (Van Stone
tlange)
Ring
joint.
The tlange tace type should not be
contused with tlange "finish", which
indicates the surtace contact finish applied
to the actual tace ot the tlange. The major
types of flange tace finishes available are:
1. Smooth
finish
2. Serrated
finish
a) serrated concentric grooves
b) serrated spiral grooves

Flange Faces
Flange Faces
Note: Both serrated tinishes have
grooves 1116 (1.6 mm) deep with 24 to
40 grooves per inch (25.4 mm). F/ange
tace tinishes other than these may be
turnished as determined by end user.
Raised
tace:
Used in the majority of tlange applications
for pressures up to 900 psi (6200 Kpa).
Face heights ot 1/16" (1.6 mm) are used
tor tlange classes 150, 250 and 300.
Higher number tlange classes use the V4"
(6.35 mm) raised tace (lllustration #88).
Large
Male
and
Fema/e:
This tace design provides ample gasket
sealing area while still giving good gasket
support (lllustration #89).

r.
1,.

(
1

"

GASKETED JOINTS

Flange Faces

Gasket

=_ _.'J[_
1/4" (6.35mm)
Classes 400, 600,
900, 1500 & 2500
lllustration #88 - Raised Face Flange

-t)4" (6.35mm)

Gasket3/16" (4.8mm)
lllustration #89 - Large Male and Female Flange

Large Tangue and Graave:


The small contact sealing area in this design
contributes to good gasket compression
under low bolt loading. The grooved slot also
provides excellent gasket containment under
high pressure service (lllustration #90).
Flat Face:
Used commonly on cast iron tlanges and as
mating tlanges to pumps and valves in low
pressure
applications
(lllustration
#91).
Ring
Jaint:
This tlange tace design consists ot a
grooved slot in which a metal ring gasket is
used far
sealing. The metal ring sealing tace makes
it an ideal flange tace far corrosive and high
pressure/temperature applications (lllustra
tion #92).
Lap
Jaint:
Similar tace area design to that ot the
raised tace tlange, but differs in that the
stub end makes up the sealing tace
(lllustration #93).
Small
Tangue
and
Graave:
Same usage as the large version, but the
smaller sealing tace gives better gasket
compression under lower bolt loading
(lllus
tration #94).

GASKETED JOINTS

Flange Types

lllustratlon #90 - Large Tongue and Groove Flange

lllustration #93 - Lap-joint (Van Stone) Flange

)Sm m )
1/4

lllustration #91 - Flat Face


Flange

:16"

Gasket

(4.8 mm)

lllustration #94 - Small Tongue and Groove Flange

lllustration #92 - Ring Joint Flange

"

GASKETED JOINTS
Small Male and Fema/e:
Same general usage as the large version,
but gasket is contained in a smaller
groove area giving better retention and
gasket compression (lllustration #95).
Small Male and
Female/Threaded PipeEnd:
The sealing area of the tlange tace is
made by projecting one end ot threaded
pipe trom one tlange tace into the
recessed end of another threaded tlange.
Care should be taken to ensure that pipe
thickness is sutti cient to prevent crushing
gaskets (lllustra tion #96).

Flange Types
1/4"

-1)
:16"

(6.35 mm)

(4.8 mm)

lllustration #95 - Small Male and Female Flange

lllustration #96 - Small Male and Female (Threaded)

212

GASKETED JOINTS

ASME/ANSI Flanges/Markin s

ASME/ ANSI Flanges


Most standard steel and alloy flanges are
covered under ASME/ANSI specification
B16.5 far flange pressure classes of: 150,
300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500.
Cast iron flange classes and specifications
are described under ASME/ANSI 816.1
standard. These flanges (cast iron) are
available in classes: 25, 125, 250, and 800.
Cast iron pipe flanges are usually threaded
connections; with class 25 and 125 having
flat faces, and class 250 and 800 having
raised faces of 1/16 inch and 1/4
inch
(1.6 mm and 6.35 mm) respectively.
The American Petroleum lnstitute (API)
a/so
designates
flange
standards.
Flanges manufactured to API standard
are used primarily for the oil industry.
They are rated for higher pressure
applications and are usual/y used with
high strength API tubu lar products.

Even though the dimensions of ASME/


ANSI and API flanges are similar, they
should not be interconnected because
of the alternate pressure ratings.

Flange
Markings
ASME/ANSI standards require flanges to be
stamped or marked with the following infor
mation:
Manufacturer's
name
or
trademark.
Nominal pipe size.
Rating designation.
Material designation.
Melt code identification.
Ring joint groove number
(when applicable).
A typical example of flange marking is given
in illustration #97.

GASKETED JOINTS

ASME/ ANSI Flanges


O.O. of Flan e
Trade Mark or
Company
Name

r;iBolt Hole Diameter

Nominal Pipe Size


Length
Though
Hub

Class 300
Pressure Rating
-Material Designation
Melt Code

ABC
1

4"

'

300

A105

Bolt Circle Diameter

UK4
1

Len th of Stud Bolt


- Raised Face
- Ring Joint

lllustration #97 - Flange ldentification and Marking Example

Specific pipe flange and bolt dimensions


far cast iron and steel flanges
corresponding to ASME/ANSI standards
are given in table
#59A-G

NOTE: see page 220 for Flange


Notes Table #59A - #59G

214

GASKETED JOINTS

Flan e Table (Class 150/125)

Flange and Bolt Dimensions - Class 150 Steel and Class 125 Cast lron
Nominal
Pipe
Size
O.D.Fla
nge
BoltCi
rcle
Diam
No of
Bolts B

olt
Diame
Bolt
Length
Raised
Bolt
Lengt
h
Bolt
Hole
Diam
Welding
Neck
Le
Sli
p-en
and
Socket

in

V2

m
m
in

1
5

2
0

m
m
in
m
m

1
2
5

1
V4

1
1

3
2

2
%
6

2
5
0

3
.
8

3
.
9

4
10.

4
.
11

5
.
12

6
15.

7
.
17

8.

7.

7.

2.

0.

2
.
6

2
.
6

3
.
7

3
.
8

3
.
9

4
.
12

3
8
0

7.

812
.8

13
9.

15
2.

19
0.

21
5.

24
1.

29
8.

36
2.

43
1.

47
6.

53
9.

57
7.

63
5.

74
9.3

2
5

2
5

2
9

2
9

3
2.

m
m
in

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
6

1
6

m
m
in

5
7

6
3

6
3

6
9

6
9

8.
2

m
m
in

N
!

N
!

3
.
9

8
8

4
10.

4
.
10

1.

1.

m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m

2
.
N
/

2
.
N
/

0
.
1

0
.
1

2
.

3
7.
0
.
1

2
.

3
8.
0
1.

2
.

3
8.
0
1.

0
.
1

3
.

0
.
1

11
.7
8

14
.2
1
21/

2
3

8
8

8
8

4
.
10

9
5

4
.
10

10
1.

10.
8.

11.
4.

12
0.

13
3.

13
3.

14.
6.

15.
8.

17
1.5

1.

8.

4.

0.

3.

6.

6.

8.

1.

.2

3
.

0
.
1

0
.
1

3
.

0
.
2

4
.

4
.
11
0
.
2

4
.
12
0
.
2

5
.
1
1
2.

3
7.

3
8.

4
1.

4
1.

3
.

2
10

2
0

2
6.

2
10

29.
50

2
0

2
6.

1
16

25
.0

2
0

2
6.
1
.
2

1
16

22
.7

2
6.
0
.
2

1
12

21
.2

2
.
5
0
.
2

1
21/

18
.7

/
1a
5

2
5.
0
.
1

17
.0

/
1a
5

2
5.
0
.
1

9
.

1
4.
0
1.

32.
00

69
8.

2
4

.0
63
5.

27
.5

6
0

59
6.

8
.

25

2
0

5
0

53
3.

23
.5

1
8

4
5

19

V2

21
.0

1
46
0

.0
48
2.

in

1
4

3
5

16

4
%

1
2

3
0

.0
40
6.

13
.5

2
5

34
2.

2
0

27
9.

11
.0

1
0

.0
25
4.

7
.

10

1
5

22
8.

6
.

9
.

1
2

19.
0.

5
.

1
0

1
.
2

1
.
3

1
.
3

3
.
8

1
.
3

1
.
3

1
.
4
4

1
4.
9

2
3

4
.

5
13.
1
2.

4
.
11
4.

2
.
5
5

5
.

5
.
14
1
2.

5
.

5
14.
1
2.

5
12.

5
12.

7.

7.

2
.
5
7

2
.
6
3

6
15.
1
3.

6
17.
1
3.

6.
7

7.
2
184
1.
33
5.

5
.
13

5
.
14

6.
0
152

9.

4.

.4

2
.
6
8

2
.
7
3

3.
2

8
2.

Table #59A- Flange and Bolt Dimensions (Class 150/125)

GASKETED JOINTS

Flan e Table (Class 300/250)

215

Flange and Bolt Dimensions - Class 300 Steel or Class 250 Cast lron Flanges
Nominal
Pipe
Size
O.D.Fla
nge
BoltCi
rcle
Diam
Noof
Bolts B

olt
Diam
Bolt
Length
Raised
Bolt
Lengt
h
Bolt
Hole
Diam
Welding
Neck
Le
Sli
p-on
and
Socket

in

V2

m
min

1
5

2
0

m
min
m
m
in

m
min
m
min
m
min
m
min
m
min
m
m

1
%
3

1
2
5

1
V4
0

2
%
6

2
5
0

3
8
0

1
0

1
2

6
1
5

1
0

8
2
0

2
5

1
2

3
0

1
4

3
5

46
0

48
5

50
0

2
4

6
0

3
9.

4
11.

4
.
12

5
.
13

6
15.

6
16.

7
19.

8
10.

10
.0
25

11
.0
27

15
.0
38

17
.5
44

20
.5
52

23
.0
58

25
.5
64

28
.0
71

30
.5
77

36
.0
91

7.

4.

3.

12
.5
31

5.

5.

0.

9.

4.

9.

7.

1.

4.

0.

4.

7.

1.

24
.7
62

4.

27
.0
68

4.4

4.

7.

9.

8.

0.

5.

9.

0.

7.

0.

1.

8.

5.

1
%2

2
0

2
0

2
3

2
5

2
9

3
2

2
.
6
4
y,

1
2

3
.
8
4

''

1
5

2
6.

3
.
7

3
.
7
6

0
1.
6

3
.
8
4

''

1
5

''

1
5

''

1
9

5
.
12
8

''

1
6

5
.
14
8

''

2
0

6
16.
8

7
20.
8

'
2
0

''

2
0

9
.
23
8

10
.6
26

13
.0
33
1
2''

1
16

17
.7
45
1
61
1

20
.2
51
4.

2
9

2
01
1

22
.5
57
2
01
'
3

2
14

2
14

32
.0
81
2.

2
14

3
.
8

3
.
9

4
.
10

4
.
10

4
11.

4
12.

4
12.

5
.
14

6
.
15

6
17.

7
17.

7
19.

7
19.

3
2

8
20.

3
8

1.

8.

4.

0.

0.

0.

8.

1.

7.

0.

0
.
1
9

3
.
9

4
.
10

4
10.

1.

1.

0
1.
9

0
.
2
2

2
6.

0
.
1

4
11.
4.

0
.
2

4
12.
0.

0
.
2

5
12.
7.

0
.
2

5
.
13
3.

0
.
2

5
14.
0.

0
.
2

6
15.
2.

1
.
2

4
11.

3
9.

1.

2
.
6

3
.
7

3
.
7

3
8.

3
.
9

2
5.

2
5.

2
6.

2
6.

1
2.

1
2.

1
2.

1
.
3

1
.
3

1
3.

1
.
4

1
.
4

2
.
5

2
2
.
5. . 6 2

0
.
2

15
.2
38

3
.
8

3
.
8

4
.
11

3
.
7

3
.
8
0
.
1

3
.
9

6
17.
1.

1
.
2
9

4
11.
7.

2
.
6
6

7
18.
4.

1
.
3
2

7
19.
0.

1
.
3
2

8
.
20

6.

8
.
20

3.

22.
8.

3.

9.

22
2.

.0
25
4.

3
5

4.
2

1
.
3
5

1
.

3
5

8
.
1
.

10
1

5
1.

5
14.

5
1.

6
1.

6
1.

6
16.

2.

8.

2
.
7
3

3
.
7
6

3
.
8
2

3
.
8
8

3
.
9
5

4
10.
6.

Table #598 - Flange and Bolt Dimensions (Class 300/250)

216

GASKETED JOINTS

Flange Table (Class 400)

Flange and Bolt Dimensions - Class 400 Steel and Alloy Flanges
Nominal
Pipe
Size
O.D.Fla
nge
Bolt
Circl
e
Noof
Bolts B

ol!
Diam
Bolt
Length
Raised
Bol!
Length
Ring
Bolt
Hole
Diam
Welding
Neck
Le
Sli
p-en
and
Socket

Y2

i
n

m
min
m
min
m
m

1
5

%
2
0

r
n
3

1
2
5

1
Y
4
0

8
0

1
0

1
2

1
5

2
0

1
20
5

1
4
3

1
32
0

1
46
0

1
48
5

2
50
0

24
600

4
.
12

5
13.

6
.
15

6
16.

7
.
19

8
.
20

10
.0
25

11
.0
27

12
.5
31

15
.0
38

17
.5
44

20
.5
52

23
.0
58

25
.5
64

28
.0
71

30
.5
77

7.

4.

3.

5.

5.

0.

9.

4.

9.

7.

1.

4.

0.

4.

7.

1.

4.

27

32.00
812.8

8.

.0
68
5.

2
6.

3
8.

3
8.

3
9.

4
11.

in

Y2

m
min

1
2

i
1s

i
1s

i
1s

m
min

7
6

8
8

8
8

9
5

1
0

m
min

m
m

4
.
11

m
inm

5
0

2
Y6

3
.
9

m
min

3
.

3
.
7
0
1.

3
.

3
.
8
0
1.

3
.

3
.
8
0
1.

2
.
5

2
.
6

2
6.

1
2.
8

1
3.
1

4.

3
.

3
.
9
0
1.
2
.
7
2

'
1
9

4
.

4
.
1
0
2.
2

3
.
7
6

5
14.
9.

7.

5
.
12

i
1s
4
.

1
0

4
.
1
0

0
1.
9

3
.
7
9

8.l

'

'

7
20.
0.

9
23.
5.

10
.6
26
9.

1
27i

i
2s

i
2s

2s
3

12.
7.

1.
3

1.
4

15.
2.

7.

9.

6
.
16

2
0

4
.
1
4
.
1
0
.
2
2

3
.
8
5

2
0

5
.
12
0
.
2
3
.
8
8

1
3.

1
3.

1
.
3

1
.
4

1
4.

2
.
5

5
13.
1
.
2

5
.
1
1
.
2
6

6
.
1
1
.
2
6

13
.0
33
0.

1
12

15
.2
38
7.

1
61

17
.7
45
0.

1
61

20
.2
51

22
.5
57

4.

1.

2
01

24
.7
62
2
01

2
41

2
14

36.00
914.4

24
13i.

2
5

2'
9

3'
2

3'
2

3'
5

3'
5

3
8

10.50

20
3.

20.
9.

22.
2.

22.
8.

24.
1.

266.7

1.

19.
0.

0.

3.

9.

2.

8.

7.

6
.
17
6
.
1
1
.
2
9

7
.
19
1
.
3
2

8
.

8
.
20
1
.
3
5

8
.
20
1
.
3

8
.
22
1
.
3

9
22.
1
.
3

9
.
24
1
.
4

45.0

11.00
279.4

1.88
47.8

3
.
9

4
1.

4
10.

4
1.

5
1.

5
1.

6
1.

6
1.

6
.
1

6
1.

9.

4.75
120.7

1.
0

2
5.
7

2
6.
0

2
6.
3

2
7.
4

3
7.
9

3
.
8
5

3
9.
0

3
1.
0

4
1.

Table #59C Flange and Bolt Dimensions (Class 400)

7.13
181.1

GASKETED JOINTS

Flange Table (Class 600)

Flange and Bolt Dimensions - Class 600 Steel and Alloy Flanges
Nominal
Pipe
Size
O.D.Fla
nge
Bol!
Circle
Diame
No of
Bolts B
ol!
Diam
Bolt
Length
Raised
Bol!
Lengt
h
Bolt
Hole
Diam
Welding
Neck
Le
Sli
p-on
and
Socket

y,

in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m

in

m
m
in
m
m

3j.
,

r
n
3

3
.
9

4
.
JJ

2
45
12.

5
13.

7.

4.

3.

1
5

2
6.
6

2
0

3
8.
2

3
8.
8

3
9.
8

3
.
7

3
8.

3
.
8

3
.
9

1
2

3
.
7
6

0
1.
6

5.

4
JJ.

2
Y6

7
.
19

8
.
20

10
.7
27

13
.0
33

14
.0
35

16
.5
41

20
.0
50

22
.0
55

23
.7
60

27
.0
68

29
.2
74

32
.0
81

37.
00
939

0.

9.

3.

0.

5.

9.

8.

8.

3.

5.

3.

2.

.8

00
838
.2

2
6
16.

5
0

5.

5
12.
7.

5
14.
9.

'l

'l

'l

'

'l

'

1a
5

1a
5

1a
5

1l
9

1a
6

2l
0

3
8.
8

0
1.
9

3
8.
8

0
1.
9

3
.
9
5

0
1.
9

2
6.

2
6.

2
7.

4
0

2
5.
1
2.

6
.
15

4.

4
.
y

1
Y

1
3.
1

4
8
0

6
16.
8.

1
0

8
21.
5.

10
.5
26
6.

8
'l

8
1

2a
2

2
5

'

2I
0

1
2

6
1
5

11
.5
29
2.l

1
12

2
5

8
2
0

13
.7
34
9.

2
9

1
21
1

1
20
5

17
.0
43
1.

1
61

3'
2

1
32
0

19
.2
48
9.

2
01

3'
2

1
6
4

1
34
5

20
.7
52
7.l

2
01

3'
5

1
48
5

2
50
0

23
.7
60

25
.7
65

3.

4.l

4.

4
2

2
10

3
8

2
01
4'

28
.5
72
2
41
5

2
4
6
0

33.
2
14
7

4
8.

4
10.

4
.
JO

8.

4
.
1

5
12.

5
14.

6
16.

6
.
17

7
.
19

8
21.

8
22.

9
23.

1
0.
27

11
.2
28

B.

1
0.
25

13.
00
33

7.

6.

5.

1.

0.

6.

2.

5.

4.

3.

5.

0.2

2.

25
33
6.6

4
.
1
0

0
2.
2

3
7.
6

4
10.
8.

0
1.
9

3
7.
9

1
3.

1
3.

1
3.

1
4.

4
1.
2

0
2.
2

3
8.
5

5
1.
2

0
2.
2

5
.
1
4

1
2.
6

6
16.
5.

1
2.
9

6
17.
1.

1
2.
9

7
19.
6.

1
3.
2

8
21.
6.

1
3.
5

8
22.
2.

1
3.
5

9
23.
5.

1
3.
8

1
0.
25

1
0.
27

4.

3.

1
4.

1
4.

3
8.

4
1.

4
12.

4
1.

5
1.

6
1.

6
1.

6
1.

7
1.

7
1.

0.

1
4.

2
5.

2
6.
0

2
66.

2
7.
2

3
8.
2

3
9.
2

3
9.
8

3
1.

4
l . .

1.
8 2

1
1.
29
1

13.
2.

4.
5

50
1.

1.
9

202
9.6

1.
3

147
6.l

7
5

Table #590 - Flange and Bolt Dimensions (Class 600)

8.
5.

2181 GASKETED JOINTS

Flange Table (Class 900)

Flange and Bolt Dimensions - Class 900 Steel and Alloy Flanges
Nominal
Pipe
Size
O.D.Fla
nge
Bol!
Circl
e
No of
Bolts B

ol!
Diam
Bolt
Length
Raised
Bol!
Lengt
h
Bol!
Hole
Diam
Welding
Neck
Len
Sli
p-on
and
Socket

in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m
in
m
m

V2
1
5

r
n3

3j.,

2
0

2
5

4
.
12

5
.
13

5
.
14

6
.
15

0.

0.

9.

8.
2

8
8

10.
1.

3
.

'/
1,

'/
1,

4
0

29

35.50

19.
0.

19.
0.

23.
5.

1.
27
9.

2.
31
7.

.5
39
3.

.5
46
9.

.0
53
3.

.0
55
8.

.2
61
6.

.0
68
5.

.5
74
9.

901.7

3
5

3
8

4'
2

2
2

1
,

4
1

2
5

'

8
1

2!
3

2
5

9.

8.

3
.
7
6

3
.
7
9

5
12.
7.

1
2.
6

3
.
7

5
13.
9.

1
2.
9

5
1.
4

1
2.

8.

1
.
2

5
14.
6.

5
14.
6.

1
2.

6
.
17
1.

6
17.
1.

1
.
3

1
12
'
2

1
12
3
3

1
61
'

2
10
3
3

2
10

24
2
01

27

4
8

2
01
'

2
20

5
0

7
1.

7
19.

8
22.

9
23.

1
0.
25

1
0.
27

11
.2
28

1
2.
32

13
.7
34

0.

2.

5.

4.

3.

5.

3.

9.

7
1.
9

1
.
3

1
.
3

2.

1
.
3

5.

1
.
3

4.

1
3.

9.

1
4.

2.

1
4.

1
3.
33

1
4.
36

6.

2.

5
4

2
5.

2
.

438.2

18.00
457.2

2.62
67.0

8
.
20

8
21.

8
22.

11.75

1.

6.

9.

2.

0.
25
4.

298.5

23.
5.

4.

2
6.
0

3
7.
6

3
8.
5

3
9.
2

4
1.

4
11.

4
1.

11
.5
29

7
1.

2
6.

1
1.
27

6
1.

2
6.

1
0.
25

5
1.

2
5.

9
23.

5
1.

8
22.

64.0

17.25

4
1.

1
4.

7
1.

20
2'/,

4
1.

8
1
3'

22

4
11.

1
4.

8
1
'
2

21

4
1.

1
4.

2
3

1
,

18

1041

3
.
8

1
3.

6
15.

15

31
.0

41.00

16.
5.

24
.0

33
.7

12.
4.

7.

2
.
6

24
600

11.
1.

7.

2
50
0

8.

4.

1
2.

1
48
5

85
7.

8.

1
46
0

78
7.

6
.
15

0
2.

1
34
5

27

21

1
32
0

.7
70
4.

5
.
1

4.

18
.5

1
0

2
5

25

5
13.

0
2.

2
0

.2
64
1.

5
12.

8.

15
.0

60
9.

5
12.
5
1.

1
5

.5
54
6.l

1
3.

46
9.

4
.
11
4
11.

1
2

38
1.

11
.5

34
9.

1
0

29
2.

4
.
10
4
.
10

8
0

24.
1.

9
.

6
5

24
4.

8
.

2
V

21
5.

7
.

5
0

17
7.

'
2!
2

1
1

5
1.

5
1.

6
1.

6
1.

Table #59E - Flange and Bolt Dimensions (Class 900)

8.25
209.6

GASKETED JOINTS

219

Flange Table (Class 1500)

Flange and Bolt Dimensions - Class 1500 Steel and Alloy Flanges
Nominal
Pipe
Size
O.D.Fla
nge
Bol!
Circl
e
No of
Bolts B
ol!
Diam
Bol!
Length
Raised
Bol!
Lengt
h
Bol!
Hole
Diam
Welding
Neck
Le
Slip
-on
and
Socket

in

y,

3,4

m
m

1
5

2
0

in

m
m

in

m
m

in

m
m

in

m
m

in

m
m

5
0

2
Y6

4
8
0

1
0

1
2

1
5

2
0

6
15.

7
17.

8
21.

9
24.

10
.5
26

12
.2
31

14
.7
37

15
.5
39

0.

0.

9.

8.

7.

5.

4.

6.

1.

4.

3.

1.

1.

4.

5.

0.

3.

1.

2.

7.

3
8.
4

1
9

m
m

5
14.

m
m

in

1
Y4

5
.
13

'

m
m

2
5

4
.
12

in
in

r
n
3

3
8.
4

4
10.
4

31
1.

'l
a
2

4
.
11
4

'l
2a
2

4
12.
4
1
2
5

6
16.
8

'l
a
2
3

7
.
19
8
1

2
5

8
.
20
8

9
24.
8

'

2
9

11
.5
29

3
2

1
3'
8

4
10.

4
11.

5
12.

5
12.

5
.
13

5
1.

6
15.

7
17.

7
19.

9
.
24

8.

4.

7.

7.

9.

8.

7.

6.

7.

4
10.

4
11.

5
12.

5
12.

8.

4.

7.

7.

0
2.
2
6.

0
2.
3
7.

1
3.

1
4.

1
.
2
3
.
7

1
2.
3
.
7

1
4.

1
4.

5
13.
9.

1
2.
9

5
1.
4

1
.
2
6

6
15.
8.

1
.
2
9

3
8.

4
1.

4
.
11

1.

2
.
5
0

2
.
6
3

2
6.
9

7
17.

7
19.

9
24.

12
.5
31

3
5

1
21
3

26
.5
67

29
.5
74

2.

4.

3.

22
.5
57

9.

25
.0
63

2.

1.

5.

15
.5
39
3.

4
2

1
21
5

19
.0
48
1
2,
7
4
8

1
26

5
0

1
26

5
4

1
6

4
0

32
.5
82
5.

27
.7
70
4.

1
62

6'
4

1
8

4
5

36
.0
91
4.

30
.5
77
4.

1
62

7'
0

2
0

5
0

38
.7
98
4.

2
4

6
0

46
.0
1
1

32
.7
83

39
.0
99

1.

0.

1
36
7
6

1
36
8'
9

10
.2
26

1
1.
29

13
.2
33

1
4.
37

16
.0
40

1
7.
44

19
.5
49

21
.2
53

24
.2
61

0.

2.

6.

4.

6.

4.

5.

9.

6.

5.

.5
64
7.

1
0.
26

1
2.
32

7.

6.

3.

1
4.

1
4

3
5

23
.0
58

6.

1
.
3

1
2

3
0

19
.0
48

7.

1
.
3

1
0

2
5

1
3.

1
4.

13
.5
34
2.

2
5.
2

1
5.
38
7.

2
5.
4

1
6.
42

1
8.
46

5.

2
6.
1

9.

2
6.
7

20
.7
52
7.

2
7.
4

22
.2
56
3
8.
0

25
3
9.
2

4
1.

5
1.

6
1.

7
.
17

8
21.

1
0.
26

1
1.
28

1
2.
30

12
.5
31

1
3.
33

1
4.
36

1
6.
41

7.

9.

0.

8.

4.

7.

3.

2.

2.

3
7.
9

3
.
9
6

4
.
11
1.

4
.
12
5.

5
1.
4

6
1.
6

7
1.
8

N
I

N
I

N
I

N
I

N
/

N
I

N
I

N
I

Table #59F - Flange and Bolt Dimensions (Class 1500)

N
I

N
I

220

GASKETED JOINTS

Flange Table (Class 2500)

Flange and Bolt Dimensions - Class 2500 Steel and Alloy Flanges
Nominal Pipe
Size
O.D.Flange

in

y,

1'/.

1V2

2V2

10

12

mm

15

20

25

32

40

50

65

80

100

125

150

200

250

300

in

5.25

5.50

6.25

7.25

8.00

9.25 10.50 12.00 14.00 16.50 19.00 21.75 26.50 30.00

mm 133.4 139.7 158.8 184.2 203.2 235.0 266.7 304.8 355.6 419./ 482.6 552.5 673./ 762.0
BoltCircle
Diameter

in 3.50 3.75 4.25 5.12 5.75 6.75 7.75 9.00 10.75 12.75 14.50 17.25 21.25 24.38 Flange Dimension Notes:
mm 88.9 95.3 108.0 130.0 146./ 171.5 196.9 228.6 273./ 323.9 368.3 438.2 539.8 619.3 1. Dimensions based on
ASME/ANSI pipe flanges.
Noof Bolts
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
12
12
12 2. Dimensions for flange
Bol!
Diameter

in
mm

,,, '!,

19.I

''

19.I

1
25.4

11/s
28.6

1'/s

1'/,

1'/,

1'/,

2 1/2

25.0

29.0

32.0

38.0

45.0

50.0

50.0

64.0

2'/,

length thru hub include 0.06

in. (1.5mm) raised lace


70.0 lor Classes 150 and 300.

22.2

Bol! Length
in 4.75 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.75 7.00 7.75 8.75 10.00 11.75 13.50 15.00 19.25 21.25 3. Dimensions lor llange
Raised Face mm 120.7 127.0 139.7 152.4 171.5 177.8 196.9 222.3 254.0 298.5 342.9 381.0 489.0 539.8 length thru hub include 0.25
in. (6.4mm) raised lace for
Bolt
in 4.75 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.75 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.25 12.25 14.00 15.50 20.00 22.00 Classes 400 and higher.
RingLength
Joint
mm 120.7 127.0 139.7 152.4 171.5 177.8 203.2 228.6 260.4 3//.2 355.6 393.7 508.0 558.8 4. Threaded, Slip-on, or
Socket llange styles may not
Bolt Hole in 0.88 0.88 1.00 1.12 1.25 1.12 1.25 1.38 1.62 1.88 2.12 2.12 2.62 2.88 be commercially available in
Diameter
mm 22.0 22.0 26.0 29.0 32.0 29.0 32.0 35.0 42.0 48.0 54.0 54.0 67.0 74.0 all sizes stated.
Welding Neck
Length

in

3.13

3.37

3.75

mm

79.5

85.6

95.3 101.6 //7.6 133.4 149.I 174.5 196.9 235.0 279.4 323.9 425.5 469.9

4.00

4.63

5.25

5.87

6.87

7.75

Slip-on
in 1.81
and Socket
mm 46.0
Length

1.94

2.13

2.31

2.63

3.00

3.37

3.87

49.3

54./

57.9

66.8

76.2

85.6

98.3 //4.3 136.4 158.8 184.2 235.0 260.4

4.50

9.25 11.00 12.75 16.75 18.50


5.37

6.25

7.25

9.25 10.25

Table #59G Flange and Bolt Dimensions (Class 2500)

2
2

GASKETED JOINTS
Flange Gaskets
Pipe flange gaskets are used to
provide a leak tight seal between two
flange faces. In arder to provide this
sea/ the gasket must be able to flow
or form under bolt compression to fil/
ali irregularities in the flange sealing
tace. The gaskets must a/so withstand
possible high service temper atures,
and corrosive products while a/so
tem pressure from blowing it out. Gaskets
are generally available in the following
three flange tace types:
Full tace gasket - covers the full face or
area of the flange.
Flat ring gasket - covers only the
sealing area or raised face of the flange.
Metallic ring gasket - designed to fit
between the U-shaped machined grooves
of ring type flanges.
An example of each of these three flange
styles are shown in illustration #98.

FLAT RING

METALLIC RING
lllustration #98 - Gasket Face Types

Metallic Ring Gaskets


The metallic ring gasket is generally made
from a soft iron ora softer grade of the
same metal type as the joining flange. The
cross sectional shapes of both the oval
and octag onal rings are displayed in
illustration #99 along with ANSI material
identification markings.

GASKETED JOINTS

Flange Gaskets/Ring

Metallic
Ring
Gasket
The ring gasket is considered one of the
best gasket types for corrosive process,
and high pressure and temperature
service.

Manufacturer's Trademark

When disassembling ring tace flanges it


should be remembered they can only be
separated in a straight line pul/ directly
opposite to each other as shown in il/us
tration #1 OO. This is because of the way
the flange groove fits over the U-shaped
seal of the gasket. lt does not allow lateral
move ment.

--- I

"R" = Ring Gasket ------Groove Number


--------D
- Solt lron
S
- Low Carbon Steel

Material Type:

S 41O - Type 41o Stainless Steel


S 304 - Type 304 Stainless Steel
S 316 - Type 316 Stainless Steel
lllustration #99 - Oval and Octagonal Gaskets with ANSI
Markings

Ring Joint Facing can only be Disassembled


in the Axial Direction as shown by the Arrows

lllustration #100 - Metal Ring Joint Flange Disassembly

GASKETED JOINTS
Full Face and Flat Ring Gaskets
Both tull tace and tlat ring gaskets are
designed tor use with flat tace and raised
tace tlanges respectively. A variety ot
mate rial can be used tor each type ot
gasket depending on intended service.
Con:imon gasket materials include: syn
thet1c rubber, asbestos composition, Tetlon,
metals and various metal non-metal combi
nations.
General/y, synthetic rubber gaskets are
used for /ow pressure and temperature
water service [maximum 250F (120C)].

Flan e Gaskets/Full Face


Asbestos compositions and Teflon gas
kets are utilized for intermediate pressure
and temperature services [Asbestos to a
maximum 750F (500C) and Teflon to
400F (260C)]. High pressure and tem
perature [11OOF (593C)] service usual/y
require metal-asbestos spiral wound gas
kets.
Note: See asbestos note on table #608.
Reter to table #60 tor specific intormation
on
m ximum t mperatures and service prop
ert1es ot vanous gasket materials.

223

GASKETED JOINTS

Gasket Materials
GASKET MATERIAL SELECTION

MATERIAL

MAX. TEMP.
(C)

SERVICE PROPERTIES

Acrylic

450

(232

Moderate heat resistance but, peor cold handling capability. Good resistance to oils,
aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Peor resistance to water, alkalies and sorne acids.

Asbestos:
Compressed asbestos
and composites

750

(398
)

Best general gasket material but, because of its low strength and high porosity, pure
asbestos is seldom used. lt is usually mixed with plastic or rubber to form
compressed
asbestos
libre (CAF). Large number of combinations available; properties vary
widely
depending on materials used w h asbestos. CAUTION: See note at end of table #608.

Asbestos-TFE (Teflon)

500

(260
)

Combines heat resistance and sealing properties of asbestos with the chemical inertness of Teflon.

Butyl

300

(148
)

Good resistance to water, alkalies and dilute acids. Peor resistance to oils, gasolina
most solvents.
and

Cellulose libre

300

(148
)

Cork compositions surfaces

250

(121
)

Moisture and humidity changes the physical dimensions and hardness and softness
the
of gasket. Generally good resistance to chemicals, except strong acids.
Conforms well to irregular flange.
High resistance to oils, water, and many chemicals. Should not be used with
acids, alkalies, oxidizing solutions, and live steam.
inorganic

Cork rubber

300

(148
)

Good conformability and resistance to fatigue under belting. Chemical inertness of gasket depends on rubber type used.

Neoprene

250

(121
)

One of the most common gasket materials with excellent mechanical properties. lt has
good resistance to water, alkalies, most oil, and solvents (except aromatic,
chlorinated,
or ketone types).

Nitrile

300

(148
)

Good resistance to water, oils, gasolina, and dilute acids.

Metal:
Aluminum

800
600
500

(426
)
(315
)(260
)

High corrosion resistance but, may be slightly attacked by strong acids and alkalies.

Copper
Brass

Table #60A - Gasket Material Selection

Both copper and brass offer good corrosion resistance at moderate temperaturas.

GASKETED JOINTS

Gasket Materials
GASKET MATERIAL SELECTION - Cont'd

MATERIAL
lnconel
Lead

MAX. TEMP.
F
(C)
2000
500

(1093
) (260)

SERVICE PROPERTIES
Excellent heat and oxidation resistance.
Good chemical resistance and the best conformability o! all metal gaskets.

Monel

150
0

(815)

High corrosion resistance against most acids and alkalies. Attacked by strong
hydrochloric and strong oxidizing acids.

Nickel

140
0

(760
)

Generally high temperature and corrosion resistance.

1150
100
0
100
0
120
0
140
0

(621
)(537
)(537
)(648
)
(760
)

Stainless steels in general are highly corrosion resistan! to most chemicals.


Unsatisfactory
for wet chlorine gas and liquid, chlorides and sorne acids.

Rubber natural

225

(107
)

Good mechanical properties but, poor weathering and aging properties. lmpervious
to
air and water. Fair to good resistance to acids and alkalies. Unsuitable for oils
and
gasoline.

Silicon

60
0

(315
)

Good heat resistance properties but, poor resistance to high pressure steam. Fair
to
average resistance to water, acids and alkalies. Poor resistance to oil and solvents.

Styrene-butadiene

25
0

(121
)

Similar to natural rubber, but better water resistance properties. Fair to good
resistance to acids and alkalies. Unsuitable for oils, gasoline and solvents.

Teflon (TEF)

50
0

(260
)

Is resistan! to almost all chemicals and solvents. Good heat resistance and
sealing properties at low temperatures.

Viton and Fluorel

45
0

(232
)

Resistan! to fuels, oils, lubricants. and hydraulic fluids. Good resistance to ozone
and
weather.ing
combined with good mechanical properties.

Stainless steel:
302
304
316
410
430
(Metal composites)

Many metal and non-metal combinations are available; properties vary widely
depend- ing on materials used. Non-metallic material inserted with metal gaskets
or metal combinations
may affect the gasket's temperature limit.

NOTE: Asbestos libres are considered to be a health hazard and care must be taken when cutting or grinding asbestos gasket material.
Do not cut or grind any gasket material belore knowing the composition o! the material. 11 uncertain about the gasket material to be
labricated, simply don't until all safety concerns can be accurately answered.
Table #608 - Gasket Material Selection

225

GASKETED JOINTS
Gasket Design Configurations
The basic design of a flange gasket must
conform to the round physical design of
the flange faceto which it must seal.
However, this basic geometric circle
design can have various cross sectional
and structural con figurations. lllustrations
#101 through #107 display common
gasket configurations. The following gives
a brief description of each gasket.
Flat
Gaskets
The flat gasket design uses both metallic
and non metallic gasket material in its
construc tion. Thickness varies from 1/64
to 1/8 of an inch (0.4 to 3.18 mm)
depending on material and intended
service.
Metallic material
includes: aluminum, soft copper, iron, and
stainless steel. Non metallic material
includes: compressed asbestos, elasto
mers, rubber, Teflon, and paper. Combina
tions of metallic and non-metallic materials
are also common (lllustration #101).

Gasket Designs
Reinforced and Multi-Ply Gaskets
Wire or fabric insertions are used in rein
forced gaskets to give better torque reten
tion and blow-out resistance to nonmetallic flat gaskets. Layers of reinforced
material may also be bonded together to
form thicker double and triple ply gaskets
(lllustration
#102).

lllustration #101
-- Flat Gasket

Fabric or Metal
Reinforcement

Two-Ply Gasket with or


wiihout Reinforcement

lllustration #102 - Reinforced and Multi-ply Gaskets

GASKETED JOINTS
Gasket Design Configurations
Corrugated
Metal
Gaskets
Corrugated gaskets are used for moderate
temperature and pressure service [maxi
mum 1150F (621C); 600 p.s.i. (4137 kPa)].
The gasket may be all metal construction or
metal with asbestos filler between the
grooves or an asbestos jacket over the
metal grooves (lllustration #103).
Spiral-Wound
Gasket
(Flexatallic)
This gasket consists of spiral wound metal
strips (stainless steel, carbon steel or monel,
etc.) with an asbestos or other non-metal
filler between the metal spirals. Metal inner
and outer rings are often used far centering
the gasket and far compression control.
They are excellent far high temperature
service on raised tace and male and
female flanges (lllustration #104).

Gasket Designs
All Metal
Corrugated

Asbestos Jacketed

Asbestos lnserts
lllustration #103 - Corrugated Metal
Gaskets Salid Compression
Limiting Ring

Metal Strips with Filler Material


lllustration #104 - Spiral Wound Gaskets

GASKETED JOINTS
Gasket Design Configurations
Metal Jacketed Gasket
In this gasket design, a filler material of
asbestos or other non-metal is wrapped in a
metal jacket. The metal jacket provides pro
tection to the filler material, and in higher
temperature service, non-metal filler can be
replaced with metal filler (lllustration #105).
Serrated
Gasket

Serrated gaskets are all metal gaskets with


V-grooves machined into the tace area to
provide for multiple sealing surfaces with low
bolt loading. They are available in raised
tace, male/female and tangue and groove,
but are preferably used with smooth fin
ished flanges (lllustration #106).
Metal Ring Gasket
This gasket is used extensively in the oil
and petrochemical industry in corrosive
services where other gasket materials are
not suita ble. lt is constructed from all
metal in both
oval and octagonal cross sections (lllustra
tion #107).

Gasket Designs
Filler

Material

lllustration #105 - Metal Jacketed Gasket

lllustration #106 - Serrated Gasket

c---.L.. J

), 1

-------'t
i

eJ
J

Oval

...( ) Octagonal

lllustration #107 - Metal Ring Gaskets

GASKETED JOINTS
Cutting Non-Metallic Gaskets
Gaskets can be purchased either ready
made or in large material sheets that need
to be cut to suit particular flange faces.
Fab rication of gaskets from sheet
material is usually accomplished by either:
trace
and
tap
method
layout and cut method
Trace
and
Tap
Method
When using the trace and tap method of
gasket fabrication, the sheet of gasket
material is placed over the flange requiring
the gasket. The flange is used as the
tracing pattern for the gasket. A sott tace
hammer is then used to light/y tap the
gasket material around the O.D. and /.D.
edges ot the f/ange. Bolt hales are tormed
in the gasket material by using the peen
end ot a bal/ peen hammer in the same
manner as the sott tace hammer was
used.
Note: Care should be taken to ensure
hammering does not damage the
f/ange tace.

Cutting Gaskets
This method of fabrication is displayed in
illustration #108.
lf the gasket material is too thick or
resilient, the hammer tap method may be
used to trace the needed pattern onto the
gasket mate rial. The pattern (depending
on material thickness and type) is then
cut out using scissors, snips ora utility
knife.
Gasket hole punches can be used to cut
smooth round bolt holes in the traced
gasket material.
Solt Face

Ball Peen Hammer


used for Bolt Holes

lllustration #108 - Gasket Fabrication (Trace and Tap)

230 1

GASKETED JOINTS

Layout
and
Cut
Method
The needed pattern for a gasket can be
laid out directly on the material sheets by
the use of a compass, divider or gasket
cutter. These methods are presentad in
illustration #109. In arder to layout the
gasket, the /.D. and
O.D. of the needed gasket must be
deter mined. The /.D. of gasket should
equal the outside diameter of the pipe
for ful/ and raised tace flanges. The
O.D. for a ful/ tace gasket equals the
outside diameter of the flange. The O.D.
for raised tace flanges should equal
the diameter extending across the
inside edge of the bolt hales.
l.D and O.D. Gasket Diameters
a. 1.0. of full and flat ring gaskets =
outside diameter of pipe.
b. 1.0. of large male and female gaskets
=

Cutting

e. O.O.
=

Gaskets

of large male and female gaskets

outside diameter of male flange face.


Note: l.D. and O.D. of gaskets for other
flange faces should equal the flange's
sea/ surface.
GASKET CUTTER FOR USE WITH A POWER ORILL
OR ORILL PRESS
--Chuck of Orill
---- fits onto this
Shank
O.O.
Gasket
Blade

1.0. Gasket
Blade

COMPASS ANO DIVIDER MARKING METHODS


Setting a compass to
the correct dimension
for a gasket layout

outside diameter of pipe.


c. O.O. of full face gaskets = outside
diam eter of flange.
d. O.O. of flat ring gaskets = diameter of
inside edge of flange bolt holes.
lllustration #109 - Gasket Fabrication (Layout Method)

GASKETED JOINTS
Bolt
Hole
Layout
When using sheet gasket material to fabri
cate full tace gaskets the bolt holes must
also be laid out and cut.Bolt holes are laid
out
by first
drawing
the center
circumference of the bolt holes around the
gasket. The location for the bolt holes
along
the
circumference
line
is
determined by either the angle or chord
method.
Angle or Degree Method of
Bolt Hale Layout
The angle method uses degrees to divide the
bolt hole circle into equal parts. Angles are
measured in degrees, and for more accu
rate layout and measurement, can further be
divided into minutes and seconds. The rela
tionship between degrees, minutes and
seconds are denoted in table #61. Bolt hole
angles or degrees can be found by dividing
360 degrees (one complete circle) by the
number of bolts in the flange.

Bolt Hole Layout


Bolt Angle = 360 degrees divided by
num ber of bolts.
Asan example, a flange with 8 bolts will
have an angle between the bolts of 45
degrees.
(360 degrees divided by 8 bolts = 45
degrees).
Commonly used flanges and the degrees
between bolt holes are provided in table
#62.
OEGREES, MINUTES ANO
SECONOS ANGLES ANO CIRCLES

One complete circle = 360 (degree)


1 degree
1
minute
1
second
1
minute

60' (minutes) 1degree = 1/360 circle


60"
90
= 1/4 circle
(seconds)
= 1/60 (minute)
180
= 1/2 circle

= 3/4
= 1/60 (degree)
circle
270
= full

Table #61 - Oegrees, Minutes, Seconds

232 t

GASKETED JOINTS

Bolt Hole Layout

After the top half of the bolts are marked, the gasket can be rotated to mark the remaining half.

No
.of

COMMONLY USED ANGLES


FOR FLANGE BOLT
HOLES
Degree of Spacing

4
90
45
8
36
10
1
30
2
16
221/2
20
1
8 Angles
1
Table24
#62 - Common Flange Bolt Hole
510
36

The protractor shown in illustration #11O is


one instrument that can be used in laying
out angles. lt is used by placing the base
line and 90 degree marks on the horizontal
and
vertical
gasket
center
lines
respectively. Angles can be measured
clockwise (outer degree numbers) or
counter clockwise (using the inner degree
numbers).

1.1. of Flange
Bolt Hole Circumference
lllustration #110 - Laying Out 8 Hole Gasket With Protractor

GASKETED JOINTS

Bolt Hole layout

lllustration #111 - Flange Holes Straddling Centerlines

Note: ASME/ANSI flange bolt holes


increase by mu/tiples of tour and are
equally spaced in pairs between the cen
ter Unes of the flange. See i/lustration
#111.
Chord Chart Method for Bolt Hole Layout
The chord chart method for layout of flange
bolt hales uses the chord of a circle to
deter mine the location of bolt hales.

lllustration #112 displays the basic parts that


make up a circle.
To find the desired chord length, the bolt
hole diameter for a selected flange (the
measure ment extending from one bolt
hole center through the center of the flange
to the oppo site bolt hole center) is
multiplied by the chord factor (length)
taken from the chord chart table #63.

GASKETED JOINTS
Chord length = bolt hole diameter x
chord factor.
Example: a flange with 8 bolts and a bolt
circle diameter of 7.5 inches (228.6 mm)
would have chord distance of 2.87 inches
(72.9 mm) between bolt hole
centers.
Bolt hole diameter = 7.5 inches (228.6
mm) x chord factor 0.382683 = 2.87
inches
(72.9 mm) chord distance between bolt
hole centers.
This calculated chord distance is the
straight line measurement between each
succes sive bolt hole. The measurement
can be transferred to a compass or divider
which is then used to intersect each
consecutiva bolt hole center.

Bolt Hole Layout

Chord: A straight line of length shorter


than the diameter, from point to point on
the circumference.
Are: Any portion of the circumference.
Sector: A portion of a circle bounded by
an are and two radii.
Segment: A portion of a circle bounded
by an are anda chord.
Are

Chord
Diameter

Circle
Components

Circumference: The boundary line or


dis tance around a circle.
Radius: Any straight line extending from
the center to the circumference.
Diameter: A straight line extending from
one side to the other through the center
of the circle.

Circumference
lllustration #112 - Basic Parts of Circle

GASKETED JOINTS

Bolt Hole Layout {Chord Chart


CHORDCHART

No.of
Ch
No.
ord
of
spaces
Fac
spac
3
0.866025
44
48
4
0.707106
0.587785
5
5
0.500000
2
6
5
0.382683
60
6
8
0.309017
1
64
0
0.258819
12
68
1
0.222520
72
4
0.195090
7
16
0.173648
18
6
80
0.156434
8
2
4
0.130526
2
88
0
4
2
0.111964
92
8
0.098017
3
96
0.087155
36
2
100
0.078459
104
4
0 - Chord Chart for Hole to Hole Spacing
Table #63

Ch
ord
Fac
0.071339
0.065403
0.060378
0.056070
0.052336
0.049067
0.046183
0.043619
0.041324
0.039259
0.037391
0.035692
0.034141
0.032719
0.031410
0.030202

No.
of
spac
1
112
1
1
2
124
128
1
3
1
3
140
144
148
1
5
1
160
5
164
168

Ch
ord
Fac
0.029084
0.028046
0.027079
0.026176
0.025332
0.024541
0.023797
0.023097
0.022438
0.021814
0.021225
0.020666
0.020137
0.019663
0.019154
0.018698

235

236

GASKETED JOINTS

Flan e Bolting S ecifications

There are two basic types of bolts used in


making flange connections: a machina bolt
that uses one nut, and the more commonly
used stud bolt which uses two nuts. Both
types are displayed in illustration #113.
The most common thread classification
used for flange bolts and nuts is the
Unified Screw Thread Standard.
The Unified Screw Thread Standard is
used in Canada, the United States, and
Great Britain to classify bolts and nuts.
F/ange balts and nuts are classified
under this standard as: UNC (Unified
Caarse) class 2, (medium fit) A far balts
and B far nuts.
ASTM
Material
Balt
Specificatians
ASME/ANSI standard 816.5 categorize
ASTM flange bolting materials into the fol
lowing groups:
High Strength Bolting
lntermediate Strength Bolting
Low
Strength
Bolting
Nickel and Special Alloy
Bolting

( ]

Flange
Bolting

Length

achine

Bolt with Hex Head and Nut

Stud Bolt with Two Hex Nuts

NOTES:
Length of machine bolt is measured from base of bolt
head to end point
Length of stud bolt is measured without point height
Bolt diameter "D" equals heavy hex nut thickness

lllustration #113- Machine Bolt and Stud Bolt

High Strength Bolting materials can be for


use in any flange jointing application with
ali listed materials and gaskets within the
standard.

GASKETED JOINTS
ASTM Material Bolt Specitications
lntermediate Strength 8olting material is
also used for any flange jointing
applications, but the end user must verify
the soundness of the flange joint under
operating tempera tura and pressure.
Low Strength 8olting materials is limitad to
flange classes 150 and 300.
Nickel and Special Alloy 8olting is used
with comparable nickel and special alloy
flange material.
The following listing gives the ASTM stan
dards which are applicable under each
strength grouping.
High
Strength
Bolting
A 193/A 193M: Grades 87 and 816.
Allay Steel and Stainless Steel 8alting
Material tor High Temperatura Service.
A 320/A 320M: Grades L7, L7A, L78,
L7C,
and L43. Alloy Steel 8olting Materials far
Law-Temperature Service. (Use of A 194
Grade 4 or Grade 7 nuts is recam
mended).

A 354: Grades 8C and 80. Quenched


and Tempered Alloy Steel 8olts, Studs,
and
Other
Externally
Threaded
Fasteners.
A 540: Grades 821, 822, 823, and 824.
Allay Steel 8alting Materials far Special
Applicatians.
lntermediate Strength Bolts
A 193/A 193M: Grades 85, 86, 86X,
87M, 88 Cl.2, 88C Cl.2, 88M Cl.2,
and 88T
Cl.2. Allay Steel and Stainless Steel
8olt ing Material for High Temperatura
Serv ice. (Use af A 194 nuts of
corresponding material recommended).
A 320/A 320M: Grades 88 Cl.2, 88C
Cl.2,
B8F Cl.2, B8M Cl.2, and 88T Cl.2. Alloy
Steel Bolting Materials for Law Tempera
ture Service. (Use af A 194 nuts of carre
spanding
material
recommended).
A 449: Quenched and Temperad Steel
Bolts and Studs. (Use of A 194 nuts
Grades 2 and 2H recommended).

237

238

GASKETED JOINTS
lntermediate Strength Bolts
A 453/A 453M, Grades: 651 and 660.
Bolting Materials, High-Temperature, 50
to 120 psi (345 to 827 MPa) Yield
Strength, with Expansion Coefficients
Comparable to Austenitic Steels.
Low
Strength
Bolting
A 193/A 193M, Grades: 88 Cl.1, B8C
Cl.1, B8M Cl.1, B8T Cl.1, B8A, B8CA,
B8MA,
and B8TA. Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel
Bolting Material for High Temperature
Service. (Use of A 194 nuts of corre
sponding
material
recommended).
A 307, Grade B. Carbon Steel Bolts and
Studs, 60 000 psi Tensile Strength.
A 320/A 320, Grades: 88 Cl.1, B8C Cl.1,
B8M Cl.1, and B8T Cl.1. Alloy Steel Bolt
ing Materials for Low Temperature Serv
ice.
Nickel and Special Alloy Bolting
B 164 Nickel-Copper Alloy. (Nuts may
conform to ASTM A 194), (Max. Temp.
500 degrees F/260 degrees C).

Flan e Belting Specifications


B 166 Nickel-Chromium-lron Alloys. (Nuts
may conform to ASTM A 194), (Max.
temp. 500 degrees F/260 degrees C).
B 355, Grade N10665, Nickel-Molybde
num Alloy. (Nuts may conform to ASTM
A 194).
B 408 Nickel-lron-Chromium Alloy. (Nuts
may conform to ASTM A 194), (Max.
temp. 500 degrees F/260 degrees C).
B 473,
Grades:
UNS
N08020,
UNS
N08026, and UNS N08024. Nickel Alloy.
(Nuts may conform to ASTM A 194).
B 574, Grade N10276. Nickel-Molybde
num-Chromium Alloy. (Nut may conform
to ASTM A 194).

Bolting of Cast lron and


Steel Flanges
When it is necessary to bolt together a
cast iron flange to a steel flange, the
information in table #64 will help to
prevent any possible damage or breakage
to the cast iron flange.

GASKETED JOINTS

Cast lron & Steel/Sizin

239

BOLTING TOGETHER OF CAST IRON ANO STEEL FLANGES


FLANGE
BOLTING
COMBINATION
ST
Class 125
Cast lron to
Class
150
Class 250
Cast lron to
Class 300
Steel

GASKET
FACETYPE
1 /16"

(1.6 mm) raised face on steel


flange must be removed.

TYPE
Ring Type
Full Face

No change in raised face is necessary.


Ring Type
lf faces are removed anda full face
Full Face
gasket is used lnter. or High strength
bolting may be used.

RENGTH

MATERIAL
r
- Low Strength
- Low, lnter., o h
High
- Low Strength
- Low, lnter., or
High Strength

Table #64 - Bolting Steel and Cast lron

Size Diameter and Length


lt is standard practice to furnish machine
and stud bolts with heavy hexagon nuts.
The heavy hex nut can be used as an easy
way to determine the size or diameter of
the stud or machine bolt being used. The
thickness of the heavy hex nut equals the
bolt diame ter. For example a 3/4 inch (19
mm) diameter machine bolt will have a
heavy hex nut that is 3/4 of an inch (19 mm)
thick.

Stud bolt length is measured from end to


end, not including the point or crowned
ends. Machine bolts are measured from
the base of the head to end of the point or
crown. Both machine and stud bolt
lengths are meas ured to the nearest 1/4
inch (6.35 mm). lllus tration #113
demonstrates the methods of sizing
diameters and lengths far flange bolts and
nuts.

240

GASKETED JOINTS
Flange
Tightening

Bolt

When tightening flange bolts, the flange


faces must first align properly to provide
even contact on the gasket surface.
Before installing stud bolts, apply thread
lubricant to each bolt. The lubricant makes
tightening and future dismantling easier.
Bolts should be installed hand tight and
then evenly tight ened in a crisscross
pattern.
Note: See illustration #65 in Section
Three, Va/ves, for bolt tightening
sequence of flanges.
The proper wrench size for Imperial heavy
hex nuts can be calculated by:
Wrench size
= (1 V2 x Bolt
Diameter)
+ Va'' (Imperial sizes only).
Example: find the wrench size far a heavy
hex nut used with a stud bolt diameter of
11/4 inches.
Wrench size = (1 1/2 x 11/4) +
1/a
= (3/2 X s/4) + 1/a
= 17/8 + 1/8
= 2inches

Bolt Tightenin /Wrench Size

Table #65 provides standard wrench sizes


for heavy hex nuts used with stud bolts in
both metric and inch sizes.
WRENCH SIZES FOR HEAVY HEX NUTS USED
ON FLANGE STUD BOLTS
Stud
Size
lnch

Wrench
Size
lnches

5/8
3/ 4

1'/16
111.
F/16

'/2

'la
1
1'/9
111.
1'/2
15/8

P/4
F/a
2
211.

2'12
23/.
3

3'12

'la

P
l1'3/16
2
23/a
29/16
23/.
21s16
3'/a
31/2

3
41
4'

3/9
5s

Stud
Size
Millimet

M12
M14
M16
M20
M22
M24
M27
M30
M36
M42
M48
M56
M64
M72
M80
M90
M100

Table #65 - Wrench Sizes on Stud


Bolts

Wrench
Size
Millimetr

21
24
27
34
3
6
41

4
6
50
60
7
0
80
90
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
5

SECTION FIVE QUESTIONS


Gasketed Joints
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Which type of flange is welded to the pipe in two places?


weld neck flange
lap-joint flange
socket-weld flange
slip-on flange

2.
Briefly describe how a slip-on flange is assembled.
Answer:
3.
A Van Stone flange is another name for
Answer:

4.
1.
2.

5.

a:

What are two advantages of a Jap-joint flange?

What is the primary problem with using a reducing flange?


Answer:

6.
1.
2.

What are two advantages of a spectacle blind overa fine blind?

7.

A screwed flange would be found on an 8 inch (200 mm), 900 lb. (6200 Kpa) joint.
a.
true
b.
false

8.

Welding neck flanges are usual/y used far orfice flanges however, slip on and
threaded flange connections can be used providing:
Answer:
9.
a.
b.
c.

A 600 pound flange would have a tace which is raised:


1/16 inch (1.6 mm)
1/4 inch (6.3 mm)
1/2inch(12.7mm)

1O.
a.
b.

Al/ flanges with a serrated or grooved finish will use a spiral grooving design.
true
false

11.

Which of the following has the best sealing surface for corrosive and high
pressure/temperature flanged joints?
a.
raised tace
b.
large tangue and groove
c.
ring joint
d.
large male and female
12.
Why is bolting together of ASMEIANSI flanges to API flanges not recommended?
Answer:
13.
Cast iron flanges are available in al/ pressure ratings of 150, 300, 400, 600, 900,
1500, 2500.
a.
true
b.
false

14.
What size and how many studs are required for bolting a 12 inch (300 mm)
600 class flange joint?
a.
1 1/4 inch - 16 (32 mm)
b.
1 1/4 inch - 20 (32 mm)
c.
1 3/8 inch - 20 (35 mm)
d.
1 1/2 inch - 24 (38 mm)

15.
1.
2.
3.

What are the three basic tlange tace types of gaskets?

16.
a.
b.
c.

A metallic ring gasket is usual/y made from a product which is:


harder than the flange material
softer than the flange material
equal to the flange material

17.
What type ot gasketed joint can only be separated by an axial pul/?
Answer:
18.
Which type ot gasket material requires extreme caution while cutting or handling.
Answer:
19.
1.
2.

What two tools are needed to make a gasket using the trace and tap method?

20.
The O.O. ot a flat ring gasket is:
Answer:

21.
a.
b.
c.
d.

What is the bolt angle of a flange with 16 bolt holes?


11 1/4 degrees
22 1/2 degrees
30 degrees
45 degrees

22.
a.
b.

Ali ASME!ANSI flanges will have bolt holes straddling both centerlines.
true
false

23.

Using the chord chart on page 235, what is the hole center to center distance for 12
bolt holes on a 1O inch (254 mm) bolt circle diametet?
Answer:

24.

Ali f/ange studs are manufactured to the same standard, therefore any stud of the
proper diameter and length will be satisfactory for ali flanges.
a.
true
b.
false
25.
What size wrench is used for a 1 718 inch diameter stud?
Answer:

SECTION
SIX
PIPE OFFSETS

PIPE OFFSETS

lntroduction
In most piping systems, it is impossible to
run pipe in a straight line without making
off sets. Offsets can be made easily with
90 degree elbows, but because of high
friction loss and installation costs, most
offsets are made with lesser degree
elbows. However, these lesser degree
elbow offsets (e.g. 111/4, 22 1/2 and 45
degrees) require a more complex method
of calculating pipe length for the offsets.
lllustration #114 displays a typical 45
degree offset and the piping terms used to
describe the various parts of the offset.
Offset: Sometimes referred to as set, is
the perpendicular distance between the
center lines of two parallel running pipes.
Rise: The vertical distance between the
centers of bend of two parallel vertical run
ning pipes.
Run: The horizontal distance between the
centers of bend of two parallel horizontal
running pipes.

Offset Terms
Travel: The diagonal distance between the
center lines of two parallel running ptpes.

U)

:i=

J_-----,.........
Ruc---

lllustration #114 - Typical Offset Terminology

Offset Methods/Constant Multiplier

PIPE OFFSETS

Offset
Methods

Calculation

The various pipe lengths and distances


that make up offsets can be calculated by
one of the following methods:
Pythagorean
Theorem
Trigonometry
Constant Multiplier
Additional information on Pythagorean
Theorem and Trigonometry used in solv
ing offset problems can be found in Sec
tion Seven on Trigonometry Functions.
In most offsets, the necessary offset
lengths can be calculated simply by
multiplying a known side in the offset by a
ratio number called a constant. The
constants and for mulas for various fitting
angles used in com mon offsets are shown
in table #66.
Table #66 can be used for any size or
mater ial of pipe as long as the offset
matches the elbow fitting angle in the
table.

243

Table
#66
Use
(Calculating
Offsets)
In the formula column of the table, find the
particular offset part whose length is
unknown and must be determined. Match
the required part with the known
component of the offset in the same
column. Across the top of the table find
the elbow fitting angle used in the offset.
Multiply the constant number found under
the elbow fitting angle with the formula that
intersects it.
Example:
Find the travel length far a 22 1/2 degree
off set given a run distance of 12 in. (304.8
mm).
Solution
Steps:
1. Under the formula column, "travel = "run x
"constant in table" is selected as the
needed formula.
2. In the formula column, continue across
the table horizontally to the constant num
ber under the 221/2 degree elbow column.
3. Multiply the known run length of 12 in.
(304.8 mm) by the constant number found
under the 22 1/2 elbow fitting angle.

244

PIPE OFFSETS

Offset Methods/Constant Multi lier

Imperial Calculations:
Travel = 12 inches x 1.082
12.984 inches (1 ft. 1 in.)

"' "'

Metric Calculations:
Travel = 304.8 mm x 1.082
= 329.8mm

Constants and Formulas for Calculating Common Offsets

.....

>,.

'

'

_l_

Run

"' -

'

--

Formula

ELBOW FITTING ANGLES


72
Elbow

6
0

45

Elbow

1.05
2
3.236

1.15
5
2.00

1.41
41.41

0.32
5
0.309

0
0.57
7
0.50

4
1.00
0
0.70

Offset == Travel x

0.951

Offset == Run or Rise x

3.07
8

0
0.86
61.73

7
0.70
71.00

Travel == Offset x
Travel == Run or Rise x
Run or Rise == Offset x
Run or Rise == Travel x

Table #66 - Common Offset Constants and Formulas

30

Elbow

2.000
1.15
5
1.73

22Y2

11Y4

5%

Etbow

Elbow

Elbow

2.61
31.08

5.12
61.01

10.18
71.00

2
2.414

9
5.02
7
0.98

4
10.15
80.99

0
0.19
5
0.19

5
0.09
8
0.09

2
0.86
6
0.500

0.92
4
0.38

0.57
7

3
0.41
4

PIPE OFFSETS

onometry Table/Fitting Allowance

Finding Specific
Constants For Offsets
Using The _ Trigonometry
Table

lf the angle and constant for a particular


bend is not found in table #66, the
constant or ratio for the offset formula
can be found in the Trigonometry Table,
Section Seven. In the Trigonometry
Table,
bend The known
used inthe
theangle
offsetofisthe
located.
side
of
the offset is then multiplied by the
sary trigonometry
ratio found alongside the angle.
neces
The following gives the applicable formula and
trigonometry ratio to use for finding the length of
the unknown side:
Travel
= Offset x Cosecant
Travel
Aun or Aise
Aun or Aise
Offset
Offset

Aun Or Aise x Secant


Offset x Cotangent

Travel x Cosine

Travel x Sine

Aun Or Aise x Tangent

Fitting Allowance
The calculated travel length for an offset
is given as a center to center
To determine the actual length of the
pipe
needed for the travel, subtract the
allow ance for each fitting used in the
offset from
theActual
center
toLength
center=measurement
Pipe
Center To Center
Offset - (minus) 2 Fitting Allowances
The methods of determining fitting allowance
for typical welded and threaded fittings are
shown in illustration #115.
Specific fitting allowance dimensions can
be found in Section Four - Fittings of this
book.

Calculating 45 Degree Offsets


The travel length for 45 degree offsets

can be found easily by multiplying the

offset needed by the constant 1.414.


This con stant is used extensively in
pipefitting calculations and should be
noted and memorized.

245

246

PIPE OFFSETS

Calculatin 45 Offsets

Examples for both vertical and horizontal


45 degree offsets are displayed in
illustration
#116.

This example should be used as a


reference for calculating other fitting
angles and their constants provided in
table #66.

Risa

Offset

/
A = Throw of Fitting
B = Thread Engagement
C = Fitting Allowance
C=A-8

A = End to Center Allowance


C = Fitting Allowance
C=A

lllustratlon #115 - Threaded and Welding Fitting


Allowance

45
Offset

Vertical

lllustration #116 - 45 Degree Offsets

Aun
Horizontal

PIPE OFFSETS

Calculatin

Rise, Run, Travel

Vertical Layout Measurements


Travel (45 degrees)
Travel = 1.414 x Rise
Travel = 1.414 x Offset
Rise
Rise = O.707 x Travel
Rise = Offset
Offset
Offset = O.707 x Travel
Offset = Rise

Horizontal Layout
Measurements
Travel (45 degrees)
Travel = 1.414 x Aun
Travel = 1.414 x Offset
Run
Run = O.707 x Travel
Run =Offset
Offset
Offset = 0.707 x Travel
Offset = Run

Example:
Find the travel length for the horizontal
45 degree offset shown in illustration #117
which has an offset of 15 inches (381 mm).
Solution Steps:
Imperial
Calculations:
1. Offset= 15 in.
2. Travel = 1.414 x
Offset
= 1.414 X 15 in.
= 21.21 inches.
3. The decimal of an inch can be changad
to a fraction of an inch by:
Nearest Sixteenth: .21 in. x 16 = 3.36 =
3.36/16 = 3/16 inches (rounded off).
4. Travel = 21 3/16 inches

Note: Decimals of an inch and fractional


equivalents can be found in the Equiva
lent Chart in the Appendices.

247

248

PIPE OFFSETS

Calculatin Travel/2 Pi e Offsets


Equal Spread Two Pipe Offsets

Find Travel Length


Metric Calculation:
1. Offset = 381 mm.

2. Travel

When two or more pipes running parallel


are required to change route, it is normally
accomplished by using equal spread off
sets. Equal spread offsets provide far
orderly and
space
saving
turns.
lllustration #118 displays a typical equal
spread offset.

= 1.414 x Offset
= 1.414 x 381
mm
= 538.7 mm

r
1

Difference in Length

...-.+-----.

'-3"l

/
/
/

lt-

381 m Otfset

/ -/ _
Aun

---1

lllustration #117 - Travel Length


Example

.l_

lllustration#118-Typical45EqualSpreadOffset

PIPE OFFSETS
Equal Spread Offsets

2
Pi

The spread length between the lines is

Travel lengths for parallel offsets are equal


and are calculated the same as any single
offset. The major difference between an
equal spread offset and a single offset is
the distance where the offset starts and
ends on each line. This difference in length
is calcu lated by using the spread or
distance between the parallel lines.

multiplied by a constant number for the


par
ticular angle of the elbow or bend used
inthe
offset:
Difference
In Length
= Spread x Constant
Table #67 gives the constant numbers
needed for various equal spread offset
angles.

Equal Spread Offset Constants For Finding,


Starting and Ending Length Differences
FORMULA

Difference
in Length

Difference in
Length
= Spread x

Table #67 - Constants for Finding Length Differences

OFFSET ANGLES

90

12

60

45

30

22Y2 111.4

Offset Offset Offset Offset Offset Offset Offset

1.000 0.727 0.577

0.414

0.268 0.199

0.098

249

250

PIPE OFFSETS

Calculating
Common
Equal
Spread Offset Lengths (Refer to
Table #66 and #67 for Constants)
(lllustration
#119)
Formulas Used In Calculating 22 112

Degree Equal Spread Offset Lengths:


Difference
in Length = Spread x Constant
Difference in Length = Spread x 0.199
Aun
=
Offset
x
Constant
Aun = Offset x
2.414
Travel 1 & 2 = Offset x
Constant
Travel 1 & 2 = Offset x
2.613
Offset = Aun x Constant
Offset = Aun x 0.414
Note: Refer to table #66 for travel con
stants and table #67 for length
difference constants.

Difference in
Length

Difference in
Length

lllustration #119 - 22 1/2 Two Pipe Equal Spread Offset

PIPE OFFSETS

2 Pipe Offsets (Equal Spread)

Formulas Used In Calculating 45 Degree


Equal Spread Offset Lengths: (lllustration
#120)
Difference
in Length
= Spread x Constant
Difference in Length = Spread x 0.414
Run = Offset x Constant
Run = Offset x 1
Travel 1 & 2 = Offset x Constant
Travel 1 & 2 =Offset x 1.414
Offset = Run x Constant
Offset = Run x 1
Formulas Used In Calculating 60 Degree
Equal Spread Offset Lengths: (lllustration
#121)
Difference
in Length
= Spread x Constant
Difference in Length = Spread x 0.577
Run = Offset x Constant
Run = Offset x 0.577
Travel 1 & 2 = Offset x Constant
Travel 1 & 2 = Offset x 1.155
Offset = Run x Constant
Offset = Run x 1.732

Difference in
Length

Difference in
Length

lllustration #120 - 45 Two Pipe Equal Spread Offset

251

PIPE OFFSETS

2 Pipe Offsets (Equal Spread)

Formulas Used In Calculating 60 Degree


Equal Spread Offset Lengths: (11/ustration
#121)
Example:
Difference in

Find the difference in length for the two


pipe
60 degree equal spread offset shown in
illustration #121.
The spread distance in the offset is 1O
inches (254 mm) center to center between
the two pipes.
Solution Steps:
Imperial
Calcu/ations:
Difference in length = spread x
0.577
= 10 in. X 0.577
= 5.77 (53/4) inches
Metric
Ca/culations:
Difference in length = spread x
0.577
=

254 mm x 0.577

= 146.558 mm

.>.---{lf---

Length

a;
Vl

5
Difference in
Length

lllustration #121 - 60 Two Pipe Equal Spread Offset

PIPE OFFSETS
Equal Spread Offsets/Length Difference 253
Finding The Difference In Length
For Starting Equal Spread Offsets
Using Tangents
lf the angle and constant for equal spread
offsets are not found in table #67, the con
stant or ratio for the offset formula can be
found in the Trigonometry Table, Section
Seven. Multiply the tangent of half the
fit ting angle times the spread length to
get the difference in the length of the
next pipe.
Difference in Length = Spread Length x
Tangent of Angle A
Angle A = 1/2 Offset
Angle

" "" t - Spr

ea

d #

----

Length #1
Length #2

=
=

Spread #1 x Tangent of Angle A


Spread #1 + Spread #2 x Tangen! of Angle A

lllustration #122 - Using Tangent to Determine


Offset Starting Point

254

PIPE OFFSETS

Equal S read Offsets/90 Turn

Example:
Find the difference in length and the travel
lengths for a two pipe equal spread 45
Equal spread offsets using 45 degree
degree offset which has a spread of 8
elbows are often used to make 90 degree
inches
direc tional changes in parallel piping runs. mm) and an offset of 1O inches (254 mm).
A typical 90 degree turn using equal
spread 45 degree offsets is displayed in
illustration
#123
.
In this type of piping offset, the piping run
/
nearest to the turning point has the
shortest travel length, while the run
farthest from the turning point has the
longest travel. The dis tance where the
Difference in
offset starts and ends on each line is
Length
calculated as other 45 degree equal
spread offsets:
Difference in Length = Spread x 0.414
Offset
The travel distance calculation for each pipe
in the offset differs from other offsets. The
method of calculating each travel distance
is as follows:
1. Shortest travel = 1.414 x Offset
lllustration #123 - Offset Forming 90
Turn
2. Each following travel length = previous
shortest travel + (2 x difference in length)

90 Degree Turn Using Equal


Spread 45 Degree Offsets

PIPE OFFSETS
Equal Spread 90 Degree Turn
Soluton Steps:
Imperial
Calculatons:
1. Difference in length = spread x 0.414
= 8 in. X 0.414
= 3.312 inches

Rolling Offsets

Equal Spread Offsets/90 Turn/Rolling


2. Travel #1 = 1.414 x offset
=1.414x10in.
= 14.14(141/a)inches
3. Travel #2 = shorter travel +
(2 x difference.)
= 14.14in. + (2 x 3.312in.)
= 14.14 in. + 6.624 in.
= 20.764 (205/a) inches
Metrc Calculatons:
1. Difference in length = spread x 0.414
= 203.2 X 0.414
= 84.12 mm
2. Travel #1 = 1.414 x offset
= 1.414 x 254 mm
= 359.16 mm

3. Travel #2 = shorter travel +


(2 x difference.)
= 359.16 mm+ (2 x 84.12 mm)
= 359.16 mm + 168.24 mm)
= 527.4 mm
/

lllustration #124 - Rolling Offset


Terminology

Rolling Offsets

PIPE OFFSETS

Rolling Offsets
When calculating rolling pipe offsets, it is
helpful to visualiza the piping offset within a
three dimensional box. The pipe enters the
box at a lower comer and anglas diagonally
across the box exiting from the opposite
upper comer. lllustration #124 displays a
typical rolling offset arrangement and the
terminology used to describe the various
parts of the rolling offset. A rolling offset
can be made with any two fittings having
the same fitting angle.

Rolling
Offset
Ca/culation
To calculate the travel in a rolling offset,
the offset is multiplied by a constant:
Travel = Offset x Constant
The constants for typical fitting anglas
used in rolling offsets are given in table
#68.
The offset length can be determinad by
using either the formula method or by the
simpler steel square layout method shown
in illus tration #125.
Offset

=.J Rolf + Rise

Constants and Formulas for Calculating Common Rolling Offsets


ELBOW FITTING ANGLE
FORMULA

90

72

60

45

30

22Y2

111A

Travel = Offset x

1.00
0

1.052

1.15
5
0.577

1.41
4
1.000

2.000

2.613

5.126

1.73
2

2.414

5.027

Run = Offset x

0.325

Table #68 - Rolllng Offset Constants and Formulas

PIPE OFFSETS
Rolling Offset Calculation

Rolling Offset
Metric Calculation:
Offset = v R-0-121-+-R-is-e2 -

Example:
Offset = ..J 292.1 mm2 + 393.7 mm2
Find the travel and run for a 45 degree
Offset= ..J85322.41 mm + 154999.69 mm
roll ing offset with a roll of 11.5 inches
Offset
= ..J 240322.1
(292.1 mm) and a rise of 15.5 inches (393.7
mm).
mm Offset = 490.23
Solution Steps:
mm
1. Use These Formulas:
4. Select the travel formula and constant for
a. Travel = offset x constant
a 45 degree elbow from table #68:
b. Run = offset x constant
Imperial Calculation:
2. Determine the offset by using the steel
Travel = offset x constant = 19.3 in. x
square or formula method.
1.414 = 27.29 inches
3. The formula method for finding the offset is
Metric Calculation:
as follows:
Travel = offset x constant = 490.23 mm
x 1.414 = 693.2 mm
Imperial Calculation:
5. Select the run formula and constant for a
45 degree elbow from table #68:
Offset = ..J Roll2 + Rise2
Imperial Calculation:
2
Offset = ....f 11.5 in.2 + 15.5 in.
Run = offset x constant = 19.3 in. x 1 =
Offset = ..J 132.25 in. + 240.25
19.3 inches
in. Offset = ..J372.5 in.
Metric Calculation:
Offset = 19.3(19 5/16) inches
Run = offset x constant = 490.23 x 1 =
490.23 mm

258 PIPE OFFSETS


Steel Square Method For Offsets
When using the steel square method,
small offsets can be found by laying out
the offset directly on the square.

r
l

<D

o"c'

90 Right
Angla

!+------ Roll ---+I

A. Direct Layout Method

B. Triangle Layout Method

lllustration #125 - Rolling Offset Using Steel


Square

Offsets/Steel S uare/Trian le
Inthis method, the rise length of the offset
is
usually located on the blade side of the
square and the roll on the tangue side.
The distance measured diagonally across
these two points establishes the offset.
This method of establishing an offset is
dis
played
in
illustration
#125A.

Triangle
Offsets

Method

For

For larger offsets that do not fit on a steel


square, a triangle can be laid out using the
square to ensure a right angle. The rise
dimension is placed on one side of the tri
angle and the roll on the other side. The
travel is measured diagonally across
these two points, see illustration #1258.
Note: The formula method gives a
slightly more accurate calculation than
does the use of a steel square.
However, the square method is simpler
and often more practi
ca/ on job situations because it
requires no involved math ca/culations.

PIPE OFFSETS

Offsets
259

Around

Obects

(S

uare

Piping Offsets Around


Square
Corners
The starting point must be determinad
when making a 45 degree offset around a
square obstruction of any type. The
starting point is the distance from the
obstruction to the cen
ter of fitting making the offset, see illustra
tion #126. This point provides for an
orderly pipe tum that does not run into,
or over protrude the comer, thereby
becoming an obstruction in itself. The
starting point of the elbow is calculated by
the following formula:
Starting Point =A + ( B x 1.414)
A = Distance from the center of straight
run of pipe to end of wall
B = Distance perpendicular from the
center of the piping offset to comer
Example:
Find the starting point distance for a
45 degree offset from a square obstruction
given A = 15 inches ( 381 mm) and B = 4
inches (101.6 mm).

Startingl
Point

'

lllustration #126 Offset


1 Around Square Comer

Solution Steps:
Use the formula:
Starting point = A + ( B x 1.414)
Imperial Calculation:
Startingpoint = 15in. + (4in. x 1.414)
Starting point = 20.656 (205/a) inches
Metric Calculation:
Starting point = 381 mm + (101.6 mm x
1.414)
Startina ooint = 524.66 mm

260

PIPE OFFSETS

Offsets/S

Equal Spacing Of Pipe


Around Circular Objects
In order to provide for equal side spacing
distance for a pipe offset around circular
objects, the starting locations of the offset
must be determinad.
This method of equal side spacing of a
pipe offset is shown in illustration #127.
The starting location is calculated using
the following formula and constant from
table #69:
Starting Point "A" = Distance From
Pipe Center to Object Center x
Constant

Constants for Calculating Starting


Point Distance Around Circular
Objects
FITTING
or
BEND
ANGLES

Constants
Tabl #6Q

60

0.57
73

45

30

0.41
42

0.26
79

22

0.198
9

uare & Circular Ob"ects

The distance from the pipe center to the


cir cul r object center can be determinad
by addmg the radius of the object to the
required side spacing distance between
the pipe and the object:
Pipe Center To Object Center =
Radius Of Object + Required Side
Spacing
Example:
Find the starting point length "A", for a
45 degree offset requiring equal side
spac ing around a circular object. The
diameter of the circular object is 28
inches (711.2 mm) and the required
equal side spacing dis tance between the
pipe and object is 6 inches
(152.4
mm).

PIPE OFFSETS

Offsets Around Circular Ob"ects

Equal Spacing Of Pipe


Around Circular Objects
Solution Steps:
Use the formula:
1. Starting point "A" = distance from
pipe center to object center x constant
2. Calculate the distance from pipe certer
to object center:

Imperial Calculation:
Starting point = 20 in. x .4142
= 8.284 (8 5/16) inches
Metric Calculation:
Starting point = 508 mm x.4142
= 210.4 mm

3. Pipe center to object center "B" =


radius of object + required side spacing
Imperial Calculation:
"B" = 14 in.+ 6 in.
"B" = 20 inches
Metric Calculation:
"B" = 355.6 mm + 152.4
mm "B" = 508 mm

Where
A = Starting Point
Distance
B = Distance From Pipe Center
to Object Center
C = Sida Spacing
R = Radius of

.;<-----------"-

'

Note: Radius = Diameter Divided by 2


4. Select the constant for a 45 degree
elbow from table #69:
Constant = O.4142
5. Calculate starting point "A"

261

Object lllustration #127 - Offset Around Circular

Object

PIPE OFFSETS
Calculating Pipe Runs lnside And
Outside Of Circular Tanks

Circular Piping (Tanks)

The piping arrangement radius is deter


minad by:
a. Piping Runs lnside Tank = Tank
Radius
- Distance Between Tank and Piping
b. Piping Runs Outside Tank = Tank
Radius + Distance Between Tank
and
Piping
Note: The radius measurement is to
the center of the fitting.
Constant numbers for common fitting
angles used for calculating center to
center piping runs that follow the contour
of circular tanks are given in table #70.

Piping is often required to be installed so


that it follows the contour of a circular tank
using standard degree bends or fittings.
lllustra tion #128 shows a typical
example.
The
center
to
center
measurement between each bend or
fitting can be calculated using the
following formula:
Center To Center Measurement =
Piping Arrangement Radius x
Constant

Constants for Calculating Pipe Runs lnside and Outside of Circular Tanks
FITTING or
BEND
ANGLES

Constants

90

1.414
2

Numberof
Pipe
4
Sections
Table
#70 - Circular Tank Piping Constants

60

45

30

22Y2

11V4

1.000
0

0.765
3

0.517
6

0.390
2

0.196
0

12

16

32

55/a

0.0981
6
4

PIPE OFFSETS
Piping
Tanks

lnside

Circular Piping (Tanks)


and

Outside

Example:
Find the center to center measurements
for piping runs to be installed following the
inside and outside contour of a circular
tank. The following information applies to
this instal lation:
a. Tank diameter = 250 in. (6350
mm).
b. Distance (inside and out) between tank
wall and piping = 1O in. (254 mm).
c. 45 degree elbows are to be
used.
Solution
Steps:
1. Change diameter of tank to
radius:
Imperial
Calculations:
Radius = diameter +
2
=

250 in.+ 2

125 inches

Metric Calculations:
Radius = diameter + 2
= 6350mm + 2
=

3175mm
-Tank Dia.
, Tank
rRadius

Distance From Outside


Piping to Tank Wall

Pipe
14- Outside
Radius
lllustration #128 - Contour Piping For Circular Tank

2641

PIPE OFFSETS

Circular Piping (Tanks}

Piping lnside and Outside Tanks


2. Calculate inside and outside piping
6. Determine the center to center measure
ments for the inside and outside piping
arrangement radius:
sec tions using the preceding calculated
3. Piping inside radius = tank radius information and the following formula:
distance between tank and piping
Center To Center Measurement =
Imperial
Piping Arrangement Radius x
Calculations:
Constant
Piping inside radius = 125 in. - 10
7. lnside piping sectional center to center
in.
measurements (C to C)
= 115 inches
Imperial Calculations:
Metric
C to C measurement = 115 in. X .
Calculations:
7653
Piping inside radius = 3175 mm - 254
= 88inches
mm
Metric
= 2921 mm
Calculations:
4. Piping outside radius = tank radius +
C to C measurement = 2921 mm x .
distance between tank and
7653
piping
= 2235.44 mm
Imperial
8. Outside piping sectional center to center
Calculations:
measurements (C to C)
Piping outside radius = 125 in. + 1O
Imperial
in.
Ca/culations:
= 135 inches
C to C measurement = 135 in. x .7653
Metric
= 103.32 (103 5/16)
inches
Calculations:
Piping outside radius = 3175 mm + 254
Metric
mm
Calculations:
= 3429mm
C to C measurement = 3429 mm x .
7653
5. Select the constant for a 45 degree elbow
and the number of pipes required to make
= 2624.21 mm
the piping arrangement from table #70:
Constant for 45 degrees =
O. 7653 Number of pipes
required = 8

SECTION SIX QUESTIONS


PIPE OFFSETS
.

1.

The diagonal distance between the centerlines of two para/le/ running pipes is
known as:
a.
offset
b.
run
c.
travel

2.

The perpendicular distance between the centerlines of two para/le/ running pipes is
known as:
a.
offset
b.
rise
c.
travel

3.

The vertical distance between the centers of bend of two para/le/ vertical running pipes
is known as:
a.
offset
b.
rise
c.
run

4.
Find the "run" and "offset" distances of a 30 degree offset system with a travel
length of 20 inches (508 mm), using the constants from Table #66.
Answer:

5.

Fil/ in the blanks for the specific Trigonometric function used to ca/cu/ate a travel, run, or
offset.
a.
travel =
offset x

b.

run

c.

offset =

travel x
run

6.

Using the Section Seven Trigonometry Table #73, what is the travel length of a system
with an offset angle of 50 degrees andan offset height of 20 inches (508 mm).
Answer:

7.

The travel lengths given in any of the formula methods are the true lengths of pipe
to be cut.
a.
true
b.
false

8.

One of the most commonly used angles in any piping system is 45 degrees. What
is the standard constant far calculating travel lengths far 45 degree bends?
a.
45
b.
2
c.
1.414
d.
.866

9.

Find the run length of a 45 degree offset which has a travel of 40


inches (1016 mm).
Answer:

1O. Find the difference in length far a two pipe 30 degrees equal spread offset
given a spread distance of 12 inches (304.8 mm)
Answer:

11.

Find the difference in length, offset, and travel for a 45 degree equal spread offset
given a run of 32 inches (813 mm) anda spread distance of 8 inches (203 mm).
=
a.
difference in
length
offset
b.
=
c.
12.

a.
b.
c.
d.
13.

travel

On a typical 60 degree horizontal offset system, the offset will be


the run.
-:...,.longer than
shorter than
equal to
could be any of the above

When using trigonometry to ca/cu/ate the difference in length of an equal spread offset,
the tangent angle used is:
a.
1/2 the offset angle
b.
equal to the offset angle
c.
double the offset angle

14.

State the formula required to find the largest difference in length for a 3 pipe equal
spread offset.
Answer:

15.

When calculating the difference in length for a 90 degree equal spread 45 degree tum,
the same formula is used as with other 45 degree equal spread offsets.
a.
true
b.
false

16.
State the two formulas used in calculating travel distances for a 90 degree tum
using equal spread 45 degree offsets.
Answer:
1. shortest travel
=
2.
longest travel
=
17.

A rolling offset is best visualized as a pipe entering a box at a lower comer, then
angling up and over to exit at the upper, opposite comer.
a.
true
b.
false

18.
State the formula used to find the offset lengths of a rolling offset system.
Answer:
19.
What is the practica/ simplified method for finding offset lengths and explain how
it is used.
Answer:

20.

Why is it necessary to establish a starting point for a 45 degree offset around a


square object?
Answer:
21.

Ca/cu/ate the starting point of a 45 degree offset around a square comer if the
measurements given are: A = 20 inches
(508 mm) and 8 = 8 inches (203 mm). Refer to illustration #126.
Answer:

22.

Ca/cu/ate the starting location around a circular object far a 45 degree equal spaced
piping offset. The object diameter is 24 inches (610 mm) and the pipe center to object
distance is 1O inches (254 mm).
Answer:

23.

State the formula needed to ca/cu/ate center to center distance of fittings when
making up a piping system which wll go around a tank.
Answer:
24.
a.
b.
c.
d.

The constant number referred to in #23 wll depend upan.


size of pipe
diameter of tank
degree angle of fitting
all of the above

SECTION
SEVEN
TRIGONOMETRY

266

TRIGONOMETRY
Pythagorean Theorum
In any right-angle triangle, the square of
the hypotenuse equals the sum of the
squares of the other two sides. This is
shown in the formula in illustration
#129.

lt follows that if the hypotenuse and


either side of a right-angle triangle is
known, the other unknown side's length
can be found
by
transposing
the
Pythagorean
formula. This method of finding the
unknown side is shown in the following:
c2

2 + b2

or
Hypotenuse =

"2 + b2
Aight Angle

lllustration
Theorum

#129

Pythagoras

c2 = a2 + b2 )
a 2 = c2 - b 2
b2 = c2 - a2
Example#1:

orean Theorum

OR

e = ..J 2 +
b2 a= ..Jc2 b2 b = ..Jc2 2

Find the hypotenuse length C, for a rightangle triangle, sidea = 16inches(406.4mm),


and side b = 30 inches (762 mm).
Example
#
1
Solution
Hypotenuse (e) =
..J a2 +2
b
= ..J162 + 302
= ..J(16X16) + (30 X 30)
= ..J256 + 900
= ..J1156
= 34 in. or 2 ft. 10 in.
Hypotenuse (e) = ..J a2 +
b2
= ..J 406.42 + 7622
= ..J (406.4 X 406.4) + (762 X 762)
= ..J165160.95 + 580644
= ..J745804.96
= 863.6mm

TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometry

Right Angle Triangles

The solution to a great many piping prob


lems can be solved using trigonometry.
Trigonometry is the study of triangle meas
urements and angles. Most piping offsets
are actually triangle type
layouts,
especially right-angle triangles. Rightangle triangles consist of three sides and
three angles (one angle being 90
degrees) formed by these sides.
Finding Angles For Right Angle Triangles
lf any one side and any two parts (sides or
angles) of the triangle are known, the other
three parts of the triangle can be deter
minad. Assuming two angles of a triangle
are known, the third angle can be deter
mir.ed by the fact that the angles of a tri
angle ALWA YS equals 180 degrees.
Angles A
Degrees

+ B + C

Right
Angle
Triangle
Example:
Angle C = 90 Degrees
Angle A + B = 90 Degrees
Angle A = C (90 Degrees) - Angle
B Angle B = C (90 Degrees) Angle A

In illustration #130 the parts of a rightangle triangle are labeled:


Letters A and B, are the acute angles
(anglas of less than 90 degrees). Letter C
indicate the right angle (90 degree angle).
Small let ters "a", "b", and "c" indicate
the sides OPPOSITE the angles (side a
is opposite angle A etc.).

180
a

One angle of a right angle triangle will


always be 90 degrees.

ldentification:
A = acute angle
B = acule angle
C = right angle
a = side or leg
b = side or leg
e = hypotenuse

lllustration #130 - Angles and Sides of Right Angle Triangle

268

TRIGONOMETRY
Right Angle Triangle Ratios
OrFunctions

Sine A - lf the length of side ''a'' is


divided
by the length of side "e" the ratio
obtained is called the sine of angle A.
Cosine A - lf the length of side "b"
is
divided by the length of side "e" the
ratio
is called the cosine of angle A.
Tangent A - lf the length of side "a"
is
divided by the length of side "b" the
ratio
is called the tangent of angle A.
These ratios between the sides are the
same for all right angle triangles which
have the same acute angles,. regardless of
the lengths of the sides. Ratios can be
used to find the length of sides of any
other right angle tri angle with the same
acute angle, as long as the length of one of
its sides is known.
In defining these ratios, the legs or sides
of the triangle are usually referred to as
either "opposite" the acute angle, or
"adjacent" to the angle.

Opposite side is located directly opposite the


acute angle. Adjacent side is positioned next
to or adjacent to the acute angle. The
"hypotenuse" is always labeled the same
(see illustration #131) and is positioned
directly across from the 90 degree angle.

8.

a.

E
u

<

ca
'O
<(

Opposite

lllustration #131 - Opposite and Adjacent


Sides

TRIGONOMETRY
Right Angle Triangle Ratios
or Functions

Right Angle Trian le Ratios

269

Solution Steps:
For each of the acute angles we can com 1. select relevant formula given information
pute six ratios or functions. The six ratios
known:
are given in table #71. Of the six angle
side "a" is known = 1O inches (254
func tions, sine, cosine and tangent are
mm) angle "A" is known = 30
the fun damental ones needed in right
angle triangle calculations.
degrees
Ratios of these sides make it possible to
find any unknown angle or side. The
information and formulas needed to find 2. from table #72, a formula is found:
side "e" = side "a" -7- sine A
unknown angles or sides for right-angle
triangles are given in table#72.
The calculated ratios or trigonometric 3. from table #73, the sine for a 30 degree
func tions are listed in table# 73.
angle = .50000
4. Imperial

Metric

Example #2:
In illustration #132, calculate the length of
the hypotenuse needed to connect two pipes

" "

"e" =

that are running parallel 1O inches (254


mm)
apart using 30 degree elbows.

"e"=

10
.5000

20inches
"e" = 1 ft. 8 in.

"e"

254
.5000
508 mm

270

TRIGONOMETRY

Right Angle Triangle Ratios

10 inches
(254 mm)

_L _

90

-----b

lllustratlon #132 - Example to Flnd Side "b" and


Hypotenuse

Example #3:
In illustration #132, calculate the length
of side "b" in the pipe offset.
Solution Steps:
1. select relevant formula given information
known:
side "a" is known = 1O inches (254
mm)
angle "A" is known = 30
degrees

2. from table #72, a formula is found:


side "b" = side "a" -:-- tangent A
3. from table #73, the tangent for a 30
degree angle = .57735

4. Imperial

Metric

"b"

"b" =

_1_0_
.57735

"b" = 17.32
inches
"b" = 1 ft. 55/ in.
16

"b"

254
.57735

= 439.9 mm

TRIGONOMETRY

Tri onometric Functions

271

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
B
e
a

icl
Ratios
Sine
Cosine

Tangent

=
=

Abbreviation
Opposite Side
Hypotenuse
Adjaeent Side
Hypotenuse
Opposite Side
Adjaeent Side

Cotangent

Adjaeent Side
Opposite Side

Seeant

Cosecant

=
=

A
b

Hypotenuse
Adjaeent Side
Hypotenuse
Opposite Side

Table #71 - Trigonometric Functions

sin=
eos =

tan=

Opp
Hyp
Adj
Hyp
Opp

ForAngleA
sin A=-

eosA =

e
b

ForAngleB
b
-

sin B =

e
a

eosB =

tan A=

e
a

b
b

tan B =-

eot =

Adj
Adj

see =

Opp
Hyp

ese

Adj
Hyp

b
e
ese A= -

a
ese B =- e

Opp

eotA =

seeA =-

a
e

eotB =

a
a
-

see B =

b
e

272

Tri onometry Formulas

TRIGONOMETRY

TRIGONOMETRY FORMULAS FOR FINDING


UNKNOWN SIDES ANO ANGLES OF RIGHT ANGLE
TRIANGLES

c
a

1lcl

lnformation
Known Sides
and Angles

Side c and Angle A


Side c and Angle B

Formulas to Find Unknown Sides and Angles


Sides

a= c x sin A
a= c x cos B

Angles

b = C X COSA
b = c x sin B

B = 90 degree - A
A = 90 degree - B

Side a and Angle A

c =

Side a and Angle B

c=

b =a x tan B

A= 90degree - B

Side b and Angle A

C=

a = b x tan A

B = 90degree - A

Side b and Angle B

b
c=
sin B

Table #72 - Trigonometry Formulas

B = 90 degree - A

b =

a=

A = 90 degree - B
b

TRIGONOMETRY

Trigonometry Table
TRIGONOMETRY TABLE

Deo.

1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15

Min.

00
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

Table #73A - Trigonometry Table

Sine

.00000
.01745
.02618
.03490
.04362
.05234
.06105
.06976
.07846
.08715
.09584
.10453
.11320
.12187
.13053
.13917
.14781
.15643
.16505
.17365
.18223
.19081
.19937
.20791
.21644
.22495
.23344
.24192
.25038
.25882

Cosine

1.00000
.99985
.99966
.99939
.99905
.99863
.99813
.9975G
.99692
.99619
.99540
.99452
.99357
.99255
.99144
.99027
.98901
.98679
.98628
.98481
.98325
.98163
.97972
.97815
.97630
.97437
.97237
.97029
.96815
.96592

Tanaent

.00000
.01745
.02618
.03492
.04366
.05241
.06116
.06993
.07870
.08749
.09629
.10510
.11393
.12278
.13165
.14054
.14945
.15838
.16734
.17633
.18534
.19438
.20345
.21256
.22169
.23087
.24008
.24933
.25862
.26795

Cotangent

lnfi
nite
57.
290
38.188
28.636
22.904
19.081
16.350
14.301
12.706
11.430
10.385
9.5144
8.7769
8.1443
7.5957
7.1154
6.6911
6.3137
5.9758
5.6713
5.3955
5.1445
4.9151
4.7046
4.5170
4.3315
4.1653
4.0108
3.8667

Secant

1.0000
1.0001
1.0003
1.0006
1.0009
1.0014
1.0019
1.0024
1.0031
1.0038
1.0046
1.0055
1.0065
1.0075
1.0086
1.0098
1.0111
1.0125
1.0139
1.0154
1.0170
1.0187
1.0205
1.0223
1.0243
1.0263
1.0284
1.0306
1.0329
1.0353

Cosecant

lnfi
nite
57.
299
38.201
28.654
22.925
19.107
16.380
14.335
12.745
11.474
10.433
9.5668
8.8337
8.2055
7.6613
7.1853
6.7655
6.3924
6.0538
5.7588
5.4874
5.2408
5.0158
4.8097
4.6201
4.4454
4.2836
4.1336
3.9939

2.741

TRIGONOMETRY

Trigonometry Table
TRIGONOMETRY TABLE (Cont'd)

Deo.

1
5
16
1
6
17
17
18
1
8
1
9
1
9
20
20
21
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
25
25
26
26
27
27
28
28
29
29
30

Min.

30

Sine

.26724
.27564
30
.28401
.29237
30
.30070
.30902
30
.31730
.32557
30
.33381
.34202
30
.35031
.35837
30
.36650
.37461
30
.38268
.39073
30
.39875
.40674
30
.41469
.42262
30
.43051
.43837
30
.44620
.45399
30
.46175
.46947
30
.47716
.48481
30
.49242
.50000
Table #738 - Trigonometry Table

Cosine

.96363
.96126
.95882
.95630
.95372
.95106
.94832
.94552
.94264
.93969
.93667
.93358
.93042
.92718
.92388
.92050
.91706
.91354
.90996
.90631
.90258
.89879
.89493
.89101
.88701
.88295
.87882
.87462
.87035
.86603

Tangent

.
.28674
277
.
296
.30573
.
315
.32492
.
.
.
.
.
.38386
373
.
393
.40403
.
414
.42447
.43481
.
.445
455
.
.
476
.487
.498
509
52
.
.
.
.
.
577

Cotangent

3.6059
3.4874
3.3759
3.2708
3.17
3.0777
16
2.9887
2.9042
2.8239
2.7475
2.6746
2.6051
2.5386
2.4751
2.4142
2.3558
2.2998
2.24
2.19
60
43
2.1445
2.09
2.05
2.00
57
1.9
626
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.7
675
1.7
320

Secant

1.0377
1.0403
1.0429
1.0457
1.0485
1.0515
1.0545
3.1515
1.0576
1.0608
2.9957
1.0642
2.9238
1.0676
1.0711
1.0748
1.0785
1.0824
1.0864
1.0904
1.09
46
1.09
89
1.10
34
1.10
1.11
1.11
74
1.12
23
1.12
1.13
26
1.13
1.14
33
1.14
1.15
47

Cosecant

2.45
86
2.41
14
2.36
62
2.32
2.28
2.24
11
2.20
27
2.13
2.09
2.06
2.0
2.00
00

TRIGONOMETRY
Oeg.

30
31
31
32
32
33
33

34

TRIGONOMETRY TABLE (Cont'd)


Min.

30
30
30
30

34
35
35
36
36
37
37
38
38
39
39
40
40
41
41
42
42

30

43
44
44
45

3
0
3
0

43

Trigonometry Table

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

Sine

.50754
.51504
.52250
.52992
.53730
.54464
.55191
.55919
.56641
.57358
.58070
.58778
.59482
.60181
.60876
.61566
.62251
62932
.63608
.64279
.64945
.65606
.66262
.66913
.67559
.68200
.68835
.69466
.70091
.70711

Table#73C-TrigonometryTable

Cosine

.86163
.85717
.85264
.84805
.84339
.83867
.83388
.82904
.82413
.81915
.81411
.80902
.80386
79863
.79335
.78801
78261
.77715
.77162
.76604
.76041
.75471
.74895
.74314
.73728
.73135
.72357
.71934
.71325
.70711

Tangen!

.58904
.60086
.61280
.62487
.63707
.64941
.66188
.67451
.68728
.70021
.71329
.72654
.73996
.75355
.76733
.78128
.79543
80978
.82434
.83910
.85408
.86929
.88472
.90040
.91633
.93251
.94896
.96569
.98270
1 00000

Cotangent

1.6977
1.6643
1.6318
1.6003
1.5697
1.5399
1.5108
1.4826
1.4550
1.4281
1.4019
1.3764
1.3514
1.3270
1.3032
1 2799
1.2572
1.2349
1.2131
1.1917
1 1708
1.1504
1.1303
1.1106
1 0913
1.0724
1.0538
1.0355
1.0176
1.0000

Secan!

1.1606
1.1666
1.1728
1.1792
1.1857
1.1924
1.1992
1.2062
1.2134
1.2208
1.2283
1.2361
1.2442
1.2521
1.2605
1.2690
1.2778
1.2867
1.2960
1.3054
1.3151
1.3250
1.3352
1.3456
1.3563
1.3673
1.3786
1.3902
1.4020
1.4142

Cosecant

1.9703
1.9416
1.9139
1.8871
1.8611
1.8361
1.8118
1.7883
1.7655
1.7434
1.7220
1.7013
1.6812
1.6616
1.6427
1.6243
1.6064
1.5890
1.5721
1.5557
1.5398
1.5242
1.5092
1.4945
1.4802
1.4663
1.45
27
1.43
95
1.42
1.41
42

2761

TRIGONOMETRY
Dea.
45
46
46
47
47
48
48
49
49
50
50
51
51
52
52
53
53

54
54
55
55
56
56
57
57
58
58
59
59
60

Trigonometry Table
TRIGONOMETRY TABLE (Cont'd)

Min.

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

Sine

.71325
.71934
.72357
.73135
.73728
.74314
.74895
.75471
.76041
.76604
.77162
.77715
.78261
.78801
.79335
.79863
.80386
.80902
.81411
.81915
.82413
.82904
.83388
83867
.84339
.84805
.85264
.85717
.86163
.86603

Table #730 - Trigonometry Table

Cosine

.70091
.69466
.68835
.68200
.67559
.66913
.66262
.65606
.64945
.64279
.63608
.62932
.62251
.61566
.60876
.60181
.59482
.58778
.58070
.57358
.56641
.55919
.55191
.54464
53730
.52992
.52250
51504
50754
.50000

Tangen!

1.0176
1.0355
1.0538
1.0724
1.0913
1.1106
1.1303
1.1504
1.1708
1.1917
1.2131
1.2349
1.2572
1.2799
1.3032
1.3270
1.3514
1.3764
1.4019
1.4281
1.4550
1.4826
1.5108
1.5399
1.5697
1.6003
1.6318
1.6643
1.6977
1.7320

Cotangent

.98270
.96569
.94896
.93251
.91633
.90040
.88472
.86929
.85408
.83910
.82434
.80978
.79543
.78128
.76733
.75355
.73996
.72654
71329
.70021
.68728
.67451
.66188
.64941
.63707
.62487
.61280
.60086
.58904
.57735

Secant

1.4267
1.4395
1.4527
1.4663
1.4802
1.4945
1.5092
1.5242
1.5398
1.5557
1.5721
1.5890
1.6064
1.6243
1.6427
1.6616
1.6812
1.7013
1.7220
1.7434
1.7655
1.7883
1.8118
1.8361
1.8611
1.8871
1.9139
1.9416
1.9703
2.0000

Cosecant

1.4020
1.3902
1.3786
1.3673
1.3563
1.3456
1.3352
1.3250
1.3151
1.3054
1.2960
1.2867
1.2778
1.2690
1.2605
1.2521
1.2442
1.23
1.22
1.22
1.21
1.20
1.19
92
1.19
24
1.18
1.17
1.17
28
1.16
66
1.16
1.15
47

TRIGONOMETRY

Trigonometry

Table

TRIGONOMETRY TABLE (Cont'd)


Min.

Dea.

1.7675

60
61
61
62
62
63
63
64
64
65
65
66
66
67
67
68
68
69
69
70
70
71
71
72
72
73
73
74
74
75

3
0
3
0
30
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

Sine

.87035
.87462
.87882
.88295
.88701
.89101
.89493
.89879
.90258
.90631
.90996
.91354
.91706
.92050
.92388
.92718
.93042
.93358
.93667
.93969
.94264
.94552
.94832
.95106
.95372
.95630
.95882
.96126
.96363
.96592

Table #73E - Trlgonometry Table

Cosine

.
.
484
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.342
.
.
.317
.
309
.
.
.
.
.
258

Tanaent

1.8040
1.8418
1.8807
1.9210
1.9626
2.0057
2.0503
2.0965
2.1445
2.1943
2.2460
2.2998
2.3558
2.4142
2.4751
2.5386
2.6051
2.6746
2.7475
2.8239
2.9042
2.9887
3.0777
3.1716
3.2708
3.3759
3.4874
3.6059
3.7320

Cotangent

.56577
.55431
.54295
.53171
.52057
.50952
.49858
.48773
.47697
.46631
.45573
.44523
.43481
.42447
.41421
.40403
.39391
.38386
.37388
.36397
.35412
.34433
.33459
.32492
.31530
.30573
.29621
.28674
.27732
.26795

Secant

2.0308
2.0627
2.0957
2.1300
2.1657
2.2027
2.2411
2.2812
2.3228
2.3662
2.4114
2.4586
2.5078
2.5593
2.6131
2.6695
2.7285
2.7904
2.8554
2.9238
2.9957
3.0715
3.1515
3.2361
3.3255
3.4203
3.5209
3.6279
3.7420
3.8637

Cosecant

1.1489
1.1433
1.1379
1.1326
1.1274
1.1223
1.1174
1.1126
1.1079
1.1034
1.0989
1.0946
1.0904
1.0864
1.0824
1.0785
1.0748
1.0711
1.0676
1.0642
1.0608
1.0576
1.0545
1.0515
1.0485
1.0457
1.0429
1.0403
1.0377
1.0353

2781

TRIGONOMETRY

Trigonometry Table
TRIGONOMETRY TABLE (Cont'd)

Deg.

75
76
76
77
77
78
78
79
79
80
80
81
81
82
82
83
83
84
84
85
85
86
86
87
87
88
88
89
90

Min.

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

Sine

.96815
.97029
.97237
.97437
.97630
.97815
.97972
.98163
.98325
.98481
.98628
.98769
.98901
.99027
.99144
.99255
.99357
.99452
.99540
.99619
.99692
.99756
.99813
.99863
.99905
.99939
.99966
.99985
1.00000

Table #73F - Trigonometry Table

Cosine

.25038
.24192
.23344
.22495
.21644
.20791
.19937
.19081
.18223
.17365
.16505
.15643
.14781
.13917
.13053
.12187
.11320
.10453
.09584
.08715
.07846
.06976
.06105
.05234
.04362
.03490
.02618
.01745
.00000

Tangent

3.8667
4.0108
4.1653
4.3315
4.5170
4.7046
4.9151
5.1445
5.3955
5.6713
5.9758
6.3137
6.6911
7.1154
7.5957
8.1443
8.7769
9.5144
10.385
11.430
12.706
14.301
16.350
19.081
22.904
28.636
38.188
57.290
lnfinite

Cotangent

.25862
.24933
.24008
.23087
.22169
.21256
.20345
.19438
.18534
.17633
.16734
.15838
.14945
.14054
.13165
.12278
.11393
.10510
.09629
.08749
.07870
.06993
.06116
.05241
.04366
.03492
.02618
.01745
.00000

Secant

3.9939
4.1336
4.2836
4.4454
4.6201
4.8097
5.0158
5.2408
5.4874
5.7588
6.0538
6.3924
6.7655
7.1853
7.6613
8.2055
8.8337
9.5668
10.433
11.474
12.745
14.335
16.380
19.107
22.925
28.654
38.201
57.299
lnfinite

Cosecant

1.0329
1.0306
1.0284
1.0263
1.0243
1.0223
1.0205
1.0187
1.0170
1.0154
1.0139
1.0125
1.0111
1.0098
1.0086
1.0075
1.0065
1.0055
1.0046
1.0038
1.0031
1.0024
1.0019
1.0014
1.0009
1.0006
1.0003
1.0001
1.0000

SECTION SEVEN QUESTIONS


TRIGONOMETRY
1.

In arder to use the Pythagorean Theorum to ca/cu/ate the unknown side of a right

angle triangle, what information must be known?

Answer:
2.

Using the Pythagorean Theorum, ca/cu/ate the run length needed in a piping offset with
a travel length of 50 inches (1270 mm) andan offset of 40 inches (1016 mm).

a.

20 inches (508 mm)

b.
c.
d.

25 inches (635 mm)


30 inches (762 mm)
35 inches (889 mm)

3.

The angles of a triangle will always add up to:

Answer:
4.

lf one angle of a right angle triangle equals 37 degrees, what will each of the other
two ang/es be?
Answer:

5.
a.
b.
c.

In a right angle triang/e, side "a" will be in what position in relation to angle '?

adjacent to "A"
opposite to "A"
will be the hypotenuse

7.

6.

What are the trigonometric ratios or functions of the following:

a.

opposite/hypotenuse

b.

adjacent/hypotenuse

c.

opposite/adjacent

lf one angle and one side, or any two sides of a right angle triangle are known, the
missing angles and sides can be calculated.

a.
b.

true
false

8.

A pipe run has to make a 37 degree offset. The run length (side b) is 36 inches

(914.4 mm). What is the offset height (side a) and the travel length (side e)?
a.
the offset height is:
_

b.

the travel length is: ---------------

9.

A pipe run has an 18 inch (457 mm) offset (side a) anda 44 inch (1117.6 mm) travel
/ength (side e). What is angle B, and what is the run length (side b)?

a.

angle B is:

b.

the run length is:

SECTION
EIGHT
PIPE LAYOUT

PIPE LAYOUT
Layout Of Fabricated Fittings
There are two basic fitting types that are
used in the installation of a butt welded
piping system. These two categories of
fittings can be classified as either:
Factory Manufactured Fittings
Job Fabricated Fittings
Job
Fabricated
Fittings
Fabricated fittings are classified as fittings
that are made up on the job site or in fabri
cation shops. These fittings are used in cir
cumstances where achieving the same
results with a manufacturad fitting is diffi
cult, or impossible. The two methods of
lay ing out pipe for making job fabricated
fittings are:
template development
direct
pipe
layout
Template Development Method - A full
sized drawing or template is developed for
the required fabricated shape. The
template is wrapped around the pipe and
the pattern is traced on the pipe surface.

Fabricated Fittings
The pipe is then cut, usually with an oxy
acetylene torch, following the scribed
marks produced by tracing the template.
Direct Layout Method - The pattern for
the fabricated fitting is drawn directly on the
pipe from which the fitting is to be made.
Sorne of the more common methods of
direct pipe layout and marking are
explained in this section followed by
detailed specific fitting fabrication methods.

Cutting Odd Angle Elbows


From Manufactured Elbows
Factory manufactured butt welded elbows
usually provide for standard turns of 45
and 90 degrees. These elbows and their
dimen sions are discussed in full in the
Fittings Section of this book. Sorne job
situations require welded elbow angles
that are not available. The required elbow
may be cut from a standard stock elbow
using the pro cedure and layout
dimensions given in illus tration #133 and
table #74.

PIPE LAYOUT

Fabricated Fittings

Cutting Odd Angle Elbows

o
O>

-------------- ---

Mark Off Outside Are


Distanee on Baek of
Elbow
lllustration #133 - Cutting Odd Angle Elbows

Mark Off lnside Are


Distanee on Front of
Elbow

Mark Cut Line on Elbow


Using Wrap Around or Tape Measure

PIPE LAYOUT

Fabricated Fittings
ELBOWS FABRICATED FROM 90 L.R. ELBOWS

Nominal
PipeSlze
lnches

2
21/2
3
31/2

Outslde Are Distance for


Required Elbow Degree

5/64
3/32

3/8

23/32

7/16
911s
5/8
23/32
29/32
11116

29/32

1/64

1/8
9/64
3116

7/32

8
10
12
14
16
18
20

22
24
26

30
34

36
42

10

1118
19/32
F/1s
125/32
25/32

9/32
11/32
7f1s

Ff1s
125/32
21/5

22132

1/2

27/15
213116
31/5
31/2

418

9/16
5/8
11/1s
3/4
27/32
29/32
11/32
15/32
F/32
F/15

32132
43/16
417/32
51/4

39116
41/4
519/32
69/32
7
711/16
83/5
93/32

529/32
61/4

1015/32
112132
121132

75/16

145/5

15

lnslde Are Distance for


Required Elbow Degree

371/2

45

12132
21/32

23/4
33/5

39/32
41/1s

1/32

5/32
3/16

215/32
227/32

43/32
43/4

429 /32
511/16

31/4
41/32
427/32

513/32
623/32
81/1s

615/32
81/16

613/32

1011/15

92132
1213/15

8
99/15

131132
1531/32

16
195/32

75/16
83/5
97/15

11
129/15
141/5

185/16
2015/16
239/15

22
251/5
289/32

1015/32
1117/32

1523/32

263/15
2813116

31 13/32
349/16

3113/32
341/32

3711/15
4027/32
471/5

P/32
111/32
15/5
129/32
25/32
211/16
37/32
49/32
511/32
63/5

129/16
135/5
153/4

221/2

1"'/9/32
1827/32
2013/32

(Imperial)

239/15
391/4
1713116 2623/32 44 17/32
47
187/5
287/32
22
3231/32 5431/32

3/64
3/64
1/15
1/1s

1/4
9/32

5/64

5/16
13/32

3/32
1/8
5/32

1/2
1111s
27/32

10

15

5/1s
13/32
1/2

15/32

9/16
21/32
13/16

1/32

1
111/32
111/1s
21/32

1/4

F/32
113/32
19/16

27/16
213116
31/8

13/4
129/32

31/2
32132

23/32
29/32
25/5

43/16

9/32
1s
11/32

5f

3fs
13/32
15/32
17/32

533/5
5617/32

5/8

231/32
213/16

651511s

23/32

32132

19/32

Table #74A - Elbows Fabrlcated From 90 Degree L.R. Elbows (Imperial)

19/32
23/32
27/32
31/32
11/4
11/2
2
21132

31/15
321/32
43/15
423/32
51/4
53/4

41132

69/32
613116

51/4
529/32
61/4

7718
829/32
97/15

?5/1s

1019/32

221/2

23/32
29/32

371/2

45

Pf1s
11/2

F/1s
113116

13/32
19/32

113/1s
21/5

l5/32

115/32
127/32

27/16
33/32

29/16
215/1s
323/32

27/32
31/32
. 325/32
49/16

323/32
51/32

415/32
61/32

65/16
719/32

"'!9/1s
91/8

51/2
69/32
71/16

95/32
1015/32
1125/32

727/32 133/32
85/5
97/16
107/32
1125/32

143fs
1511/16
171/32

133/5
141/5
16112

229/32
235/5
263/5

195/5

11
125/5
141/5
1511116
1"'/9/32
1827/32
2013/32
239/16
2611/15
281/4
3231/32

PIPE LAYOUT

Fabricated Fittings
ELBOWS FABRICATED FROM 90 L.R. ELBOWS (Metric)

Nomi
nal
Plpe
Size

5
0
6

1
.
2

9
.
11

5
8
0
9

.2
.3

.1
14
.3
15

10
0
1
2
1
5
20
0
25
03

.3
.4
.5
.7

.9
18
.3
23

0
3
5
4
0
4
5
5

.8
.
11
.1
12
.7
1
4.
1
5.
17

0
5
5
6

.5
19
.1
21

0
6
5
7
5
8

.4
23
.0
26

.5
45
.2
54
.0
61
.9
71
.4
79
.4
88
.9
9
7.
10
6.4
11

.2
29
5
.4
3
9
1.
0
10
3
50
6. Table #748

.0
27
.0
36

10

18
.3
23
.0
28
.6
32
.5
36
.5
45
.2
54
.8
72
.2
90
.5
108
.0
123
.8
142
.1
159
.5
17
7.8
19
5.3
212
.7
231
.0
265

Outside Are
Distanee for
Requlred Elbow 1
15
22 /
2

27
.8
34

42
.1
51

.1
41
.3
48
.4
54

.6
62
.7
72

.8
68
.3
81
.8
108
.7
135
.7
161
.9
185
.7
212
.7
239
.7
265
.9
292
.9
319
.1
346
.1
400
.1
452

.2
82
.6
102
.4
123
.0
162
.7
203
.2
242
.9
279
.4
319

.1
358
.8
39
9.3
438
.9
478
.6
518
5.1
.3
59
13
.9
8.5
3.4
67
300
15
.4
8.7
.8
0.0
71
31
479
15
6.8
8.3
.4
8.8
7
55
83
185.7
1.
8.8
7.4
Elbows Fabricated From 90 Degree

371/2

69
.9
85
.7
104
.0
120
.7
137
.3
170

.7
204
.8
271
.5
338
.9
405
.6
465
.1
531

45

83
.3
103

0.
81.

.2
124
.6
144
.5
164

2
1.
2
1.

.3
204
.8
245
.3
325
.4
406
.4
486.
6558
.8
638
.2
718
.3
797

6
1
.1
.
2.
4
3.
2
4.
0
5.
6
6.
4
7.

.8
1
598
7
.5
.8
665
.2
.7
.9
731
877
.8
.9
.
797
951
10
.7
.3
.3
864
1037
11
.4
.4
.9
997
1197
13
.0
.0
.5
113
1355
15
1.1
.7
.1
119
1435
15
3.8
.9
.9
167
139
18
4.8
6.2
.3
L.R. Elbows (Metric)

4
.
4
.6
.7
.7
.
10
.3
12
.7
17
.5
21
.4
25

lnside Are Distanee


for Required Elbow
Degree
10
15
22 1/
2

7
.9

11
.9
15

.
12
.7
14
.3
16
.7
20

.1
18
.3
21

18
.3
23
.0
27
.8
32

.4
24
.6
31
.8
38

.5
37
.3
46
.8
56

.1
50
.8
64
.3
77
.8
92

.4
77
.0
96

.6
25
.4
34
.1
42
.9
51

.4
31
.0
35

.6
61
.9
71

.7
39
.7
44

.4
79
.4
88
.9
97
.6
106
.4
115
.1
133
.4
150
.0
15
8.8
18
5.7

.5
48
.4
53
.2
57
.9
66
.7
75
.4
71
.4
92
.9

.9
106
.4
119
.9
133
.4
146
.1
15
9.5
173
.0
200
.0
226
.2
239
.7
269
.1

.0
115
.9
139
.7
159
.5
179
.4
199
.2
219
.1
239
.7
259
.6
299
.2
339
.7
358
.8
419
.1

371/
2

30
.2
38
.1
46
.0
54
.0
61
.9
78

.6
94
.5
127
.8
160
.3
192
.9
232
.6
265
.9
299
.2
332
.6
365
.1
398
.5
432
.6
498
.5
565
.9
600
.1
669
.9

45

36.
5
46.
0
54.
8
65.
1
74.
6
94.
5
113.
5
153.
2
192.
1
231.
8
279.
4
320.
7
358.
8
398.
5
438.
9
478.
6
518.
3
598.
5
601.
7
717.
6
tl37.
4

284

PIPE LAYOUT

Establish Pi e Layout Lines

Establishing Centerlines On Pipe


With
Square
And
Leve/
Top, bottom and side center layout lines
can be located on horizontal pipe by the
use of a steel framing square. The square
is leveled on the pipe with both inside
edges of the square touching the pipe
surface. Horizon
tal and vertiGal pipe division centerlines
are located and marked off by measuring
from the square's inside edges. The
distance for each center line from the
square's edge
equals half of the outside diameter of the
pipe. This procedure is shown in
illustration
#134.
With Plumb Bob And Tape
Measure
On larger pipe, the top and bottom center
division lines can be located by the use of
a plumb bob and a tape measure. A
tape measure is placed across the
horizontal center section of the pipe and a
plumb bob is positioned over the top of the
pipe.

Reference Pints BA = AC = Pipe O.O.

2
lllustration#134-UseSquaretoEstablishCenterlines

The top of the plumb bob line is moved


until the center of the line crosses the tape
at a distance corresponding to half of the
pipe's outside diameter. After this is
completad, the pipe is marked at the top
and bottom inter sections of the plumb
bob, see illustration
#135. Far side or horizontal centerlines the
pipe may be rotated 1/4 turn and marked
in
the same manner.

PIPE LAYOUT

Pipe Layout Lines

Pipe
Centerlines

lt is important that the angle iron be held


squarely and solidly in place without
move ment. This procedure will ensure
accurate parallel lines extending along the
length of the pipe from each center division
line or ref erence point. This method of line
extension is shown in illustration #136.

Top lntersection
1/2 O.O. Pipe

Tape Measure

Marking Edge
Plumb Bob

lllustration #135 - Use Plumb Bob for Centerlines

Extending Straight Lines On


Pipe
Straight lines along the length of pipe can
be easily extended from established center
division lines by the use of angle iron. A
piece of angle iron is placed on the pipe
and is used as a straight edge fer
extending the center lines along the
outside length of the pipe.

lllustration #136 - Use Angle lron for Straight Edge

2.86

PIPE LAYOUT
Wrap-around For
Circumference Line Layout
Circumference lines can be easily and pre
cisely marked on pipe by the use of a
''wrap around". A wrap-around is a
flexible wrap made from gasket like
material which is used as a guide for
marking pipe. The wrap around is placed
around the pipe and pulled tight to-ensure
complete surface contact with the pipe. lt
is wrapped around the pipe, overlapping
by at least 1/4 of the pipe cir cumference.
This
overlapping
provides
for
a
circumference line perpendicular to the
pipe centerlines. When the wrap-around is
positioned correctly, the square edge of
the wrap-around is used as the guide for
mark ing. lllustration #137 shows the
placement of a wrap-around on a pipe for
marking a cir cumference line.
Sectoring
Pipe
lnto
Equal
Divisions
Pipe may be divided into tour equal parts
by the square and level method described
pre viously, or on smaller pipe sizes by the
paper folding method.

Pi e Layout Lines/Sectorin
In the paper folding method, a strip of
paper or similar material is securely
wrapped around the piece of pipe that is to
be divided. The overlapping end of the
paper is cut so that both ends of the paper
are just touching each other. The paper is
folded in half. The two halves are then
folded in half again. See illustration #138.
These folded creases and paper ends,
when placed on the pipe, pro yide the
location points for marking the pipe into
quarters.
Over1apping a Mnimum
of 1/4 Pipe Circumference

Wrap Around

Marking Edge
lllustration #137 - Wrap-Around for Circumference
Line

PIPE LAYOUT

287

Sectoring Pipe lnto Divisions


End Fold

Center

Fold

The sectors or divisions are then laid out


by wrapping the tape measure around the
pipe and marking off the calculated
division points. This procedure is shown in
illustra tion #139.
Note: For accuracy, use a flexible tape
measure.
Marking of Sector or Division Points
Using a Tape Measure

End Fold
4 Division Pipe Fold
lllustration #138
Centerlines

Folded

Paper

for

Sectoring Pipe With a Tape


Measure
A tape measure can be used to divide pipe
into any number of equal sectors. The first
step is to find the pipe circumference. This
may be done by multiplying the pipe's out
side diameter x 3.1416(7r) or by directly
measuring the circumference of the pipe
with a tape measure. The circumference
is divided by the number of sectors
needed.

Distance for Sectors

Circumference
Number or Sectors

lllustration #139 - Sectoring Pipe With Tape Measure

PIPE LAYOUT

Mitered Turns/Cut Angle

Mitered Turns - 2 Piece


In order to fabricate a simple two piece
miter turn, the following information is
needed:
1. Cut Angle of Miter
2. Factor of the Cut Angle
3. Cut Back Distance
Cut Angla of Miter
A

el

...ngle
Cut Line

Center Line
lllustration #140A - Cut Angle of
Mitre

Cut Back Dimension of Miter


B

1A
Line

CCut

I<
Center Line

=71

A = Cut Back
Ar Dimension of Miter

ltlustration#1408-CutBackDistance

Cut
Angle
Of
Miter
The cut angle of a miter turn is the angle
to which each piece of pipe in the turn
must be cut, see illustration #140A. For a
two piece miter turn, the cut angle can be
found by dividing the angle of the turn by
2.
Cut Angle = Angle Of Turn _,_ 2
Factor Of The Cut
Angle
Factor numbers are used in the miter cal
culations for determining the cut back dis
tance of the miter turn. Factors for the
various cut angles are found in table #75.
Cut
Back
Distance
The cut back measurement sets the dis
tance on each side of the center line to start
and end the miter cut, see illustration #1408.
Cut back distance is determined by multi
plying the pipe O.O. times the factor of the
cut
dividing
2: Angle Factor--:- 2
Cut angle
Back =and
Pipe
O.D. xbyCut
Common angles for two piece miter turns
are shown in illustration #141, along with
the
appropriate cut angle and factor.

PIPE LAYOUT
Cut Angle Factors

Mitered Turns/Cut An le Factors


CUT ANGLE FACTORS

Cut
Angle

Factor

5
.09629
3

0'
.10510
6
6
.11393
3
0
7
.12278
7
.13165
3
0
8
.14054
8
3
.14945
0
9
.15838
9
3
.16734
0
1
.17633
0
1
.18534
3
0
0
1
.19438
1
.20345
3
0
1
.21256
2
1
.22169
3
2
0
1
.23087
3
1
.24008
3
3
0
1
.24933
4
1
.25862
3
4
0
1
.26795
5
Table #75 - Cut Angle Factors

Cut
Angle

15
16
16
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
23
2
3
2
4
2
4
2
5

Factor

30
'
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0

.22732
.28674
29621
.30573
.31530
.32492
.33459
.34433
.35412
.36397
.37388
.38386
.39391
.40403
.41421
.42447
.43481
.44523
.45573
.46631

Cut
Angle

25
2
6
2
6
2
7
2
7
2
8
2
8
2
9
2
9
3
0
3
0
3
1
3
1
3
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
4
3
34
5

3
0'
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0

Factor

.46797
.48773
.49858
.50952
.52057
.53171
.54295
.55431
.56577
.57735
.58904
.60086
.61280
.62487
.63707
.64941
.66188
.67451
.68728
.70021

Cut
Angle

35
36
36
37
37
38
38
39
39
40
40
41
41
42
42
43
43
44
44
45

3
0'
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3

Factor

.
7132
.
.7265
.7399
7535
.
.7673
.7812
.7954
.8097
8242
.
.8391
.8540
8692
.
884
.
9004
.
9163
.
9325
.
9489
.
9658
.
9828
1.00
00

289

290

PIPE LAYOUT

Mitered Turns

Common Two Piece Miters


90 Degree Turn

45 Degree Turn

60 Degree Turn

30 Degree Turn

6'o.

22 1/2 Degree Turn

-B----&-- -ib- Eb-- o

Cut Angla =
90

Cut Angla

Cut Angla =
45 Factor = 1

60

lllustration #141 - Common Two Piece Mitre Turns

Cut Angle = 30

Cut Angla = 22 30'

Cut Angla = 22
30' Factor =
0.41421
Pipe O.D. x Factor

Cut Angle = 15
Factor = 0.26795

Cut Angla= 1115'


Factor = 0.20345

Cut Angla = 30
Factor = 0.57735

Cut Back

Cut Angla = 45

PIPE LAYOUT
1. Using a wrap-around as a guide, draw a
straight line around the circumference
of
the pipe. See illustration #142A. This
line
will
become
the
center
circumference line of the fitting.
2. Divide the center circumference line
into
4 equal sections. Label these section
lines 1, 2, 3, 4, starting at the top of the
pipe and working clockwise, as shown
in illus tration #142A.

2 Piece Miter Layout


Two Piece Miter Layout

3. Find the cut angle of the miter and cal


culate the cut back distance needed.
4. Layout the calculated cut back distance
on each side of the center circumference
line, as shown in illustration #1428.
5. Position a wrap-around so that it forms
an are that just touches the starting cut
line at the top of the pipe on division #1.

B. Layout Cut Back Dimension On Pipe

A. Layout of Pipe Center Line and Division Lines


Center Line

Start Cut Line

Division Line
4

A = Cut Back Dimension


Points 1 to 4 Represent Division Lines
lllustration #142A - Layout Pipe
Centerlines

1
1

1 "'

End Cut Line

lllustration #1428 - Layout Cut Back Dimension

PIPE LAYOUT

2 Piece Miter Layout

2 Piece Miter Layout


6. The two side sleeves of the wraparound are placed so they intersect with
the side
division lines #2 and #4 on the middle
cir cumference line. lllustration #142C
shows the placement of the wraparound on these lines. Trace the
curvature made by the wrap-around
with chalk or a soap stone.

7. Reverse the wrap-around connecting


the middle division lines #2 and #4 with
the ending cut line at the bottom
division line
#3, once again tracing the curvature
made by the wrap-around.
8. lf cutting the miter with an oxy-acetylene
torch, the entire cut should be made in
the same plane, see illustration #143.
This mitering cut is then followed by the
sec ond beveling cut.

C. Placement of Wrap Around


Cut Back

Division 1
on Cut Back
Starting Point
for Wrap Around

------------------------------4
Wrap Around lntersecting
with Division Line 2
lllustration #142C - Placement of Wrap-Around

lllustration #143 - Cutting Mitre With Torch

::

PIPE LAYOUT
Multi Piece 90 Degree Miter Turns
(Elbows)
Most multi-piece miter turns consist of
either three-piece or four-piece sectional
turns, but in fact, any number of sections
can be used in a miter turn. Three-piece
and four-piece 90 degree miter turns are
shown in illustra tion #144. The information
needed to calcu late any multi-piece turn is
basically the same as that needed for
simple two piece miter turns. However, the
length of the pieces that make-up the miter
turns must also be cal culated. The
following is the information needed to
fabricate multi-piece 90 degree turns:
a. Cut Angle of Miter
b. Factor of the Cut
Angle
c. Cut
Back
Distance
d. Length of Sectional Pieces

Note: An ideal method of cutting miters


is with a power band saw.

Multi Piece 90 Turns (Elbows)

r-A

1--

------1

Radius

Four Piece 90 Miter Tum

Radius
Three Piece 90 Miter
Tum
lllustration #144 - Multi-Piece Mitre Turns

294

PIPE LAYOUT
Cut
Angle
Of
Miter
The cut angle for a multi-piece turn can be
found by dividing the angle of the turn by
the number of welds needed in the
fabrication times 2.
Angle of Turn
1
Cut
2 Ang e = No. of we/ds x
Note: Number of welds = number of miter
pieces minus 1.
Example 1: Determine the cut ang/e for a 4
inch (100 mm), 4 piece 90 degree mitered
elbow.
1. Number of welds = number of pieces
in
miter minus 1 = 4 - 1 = 3 welds.
C A I
90 Elbow
90
2 ut ng e = Number of Welds x 2 _3_x_2
3. Cut Angle

15 Degrees

Factor of the Cut Angle


The factor number for each cut angle is found
in table #75.

Multi Piece Miters (Elbows


Cut Back Distance
The O.O. of the pipe x factor number
divided by 2, sets the distance on each
side of the center line to start and end the
miter cut. Cut Back = Pipe O.O. x Factor
Of The Cut Angle + 2
Example 2: Layout the cut back distance for
a 4 inch (100 mm) 4 piece 90 degree
miter elbow. Given a cut angle of 15
degrees (determined in example 1).
1. In example 1, the cut angle was deter
mined to be 15 degrees. The factor
num
ber for this cut angle is obtained from
table #75. The factor number using
table

#75 = .26795.

2. Cut B

k
ac

O.O. of Pipe

x Cut Angle Factor


2

4.5 inches (114.3 mm)

.26795

PIPE LAYOUT
Cut
Back
Distance
3. Cut Back = 0.6" or 5/8 inches (15.3
mm).
The calculated distance (cut back
distance) is then marked-off on each side
of the center line.
Length Of Sectional Pieces
The lengths of the pieces that make up
multi piece miter turns are calculated by
the fol lowing method:
Length A (end pieces) = radius x factor
of cut angle
Length B (middle piece(s)) = Length A x
2
Example 3: Find the Jength needed for the
end and middle pieces of a 4 inch (100
mm), 4 piece 90 degree miter e/bow, given
a miter radius of 24 inches (609.6 mm).
1. Find Length A for the end sections of
the miter:
Length A (end pieces) = radius x factor
of cut angle = 24 inches (609.6 mm) x .
26795
= 6.43 or 63/s inches (163.3
mm).

Multi Piece Miters Elbows

Note: Cut angle and factor were used


from example 1 and example 2.
2. Find Length B for the middle sections of
the miter:
Length B (middle pieces) = Length A x
2 = 6.43 (163.3 mm) x 2 = 12.86 or 12'l's
inches (326.6 mm).

24

lnches

(609.6 mm)

lllustration #145 - Determining Section Lengths

295

PIPE LAYOUT
Large
Lines

Diameter

Ordinate Lines
Pipe

Cut

Layout of the cut lne on larger diameter


pipe requires additional divisional and
ordinate lines for accuracy.The following
gives the recommended number of
divisional lines for larger diameter pipe:
Max. Pipe
Size 4"
(100
mm)
1O" (250
mm)
24" (600
mm)
42" (1050
mm)

Min. # of
Divisions
4
8
16
32

The starting and ending points of the cut


back line (ordinate line #1) for any number
of divisions is first calculated using the fol
lowing formula:
O.O.
Angle
Factor Ordinate Une #1
= of Pipe x Cut
2

To find the length of the remaining ordinate


lines from the center line, use one of the fol
lowing formulas:
Division Of
8:
Ordinate line #2 = Ordinate line #1 x .707

Ordinate Lines

Each divisional line length is then


calculated to provide for a guideline or
ordinate mark for positioning the cut line.

Numbers 1 to 3 lndicate Division and Ordinate Length Lines


lllustration #146 - 8 Division Ordinate Unes

PIPE LAYOUT

Ordinate Lines

Mu/tiple Ordinate Lines


Division Of 16:
Ordinate lines #2 = Ordinate line #1 x .
924
Ordinate lines #3 = Ordinate line #1 x .
707
Ordinate lines #4
383

= Ordinate line #1 x

Ordinate lines #4 = Ordinate line #1 x .831


Ordinate lines #5 = Ordinate line #1 x .707
Ordinate lines #6 = Ordinate line #1 x .558
Ordinate lines #7 = Ordinate line #1 x .383
Ordinate lines #8

= Ordinate line #1 x

.
Division Unes
2 1 2
Cut Une

Ordinate Unes
#1

Division Of 32:
Ordinate lines #2 = Ordinate line #1 x .
978
Ordinate lines #3 = Ordinate line #1 x .
924

_3

------------------

lllustration #147 - 16 Divlslon Ordinate Llnes

.200

2981 PIPING LAYOUT


Multiple
Unes

Ordinate Lines

Ordinate

Example 4: Layout the cut fine for a 12 inch


(300 mm) pipe which is to be mitered for
the fabrication of a two piece 90 degree
elbow.
1. Find the cut angle needed for the miter
turn:

eut A ng1e
=

90
degrees
2

= 45
degrees

2. Determine the factor number from


table #75:
Factor Number Using Table #75 = 1
3. Calculate the first ordinate line
#1: Ordinate Une #1 =
p1pe0..
D X Cut Angle Factor
2
12.75 in. (324 mm) x 1

= 6.375 in. (63/8 in.) (162 mm)


4. Number Of Divisions Needed = 16

5. Determine the length of ordinate line #2,


#3, #4. The layout for these lines is
shown in illustration #147.

Ordinate Unes #2 = Ordinate Line #1 x .924


= 6.375 lnches (162 mm) x .924 = 5.9 in.
(59/16 in.) lnches (150 mm)
Ordinate Unes #3 = Ordinate Line #1 x .707
= 6.375 lnches (162 mm) x .707 = 4.5 in.
(41/2 in.) (114.5 mm)

Ordinate Lines #4 = Ordinate Une #1 x .382


= 6.375 lnches (162 mm) x .382 = 2.435 in.
(27/16 in.) (62 mm)
Ordinate Une #5 = Center Line Of Fitting

Layout For 16 Division Two Piece Miter:


1. Using a wrap-around, draw a line around
the circumference of the pipe. This line
will become the center line of the fitting.
2. Divide the center circumference line into
16 equal parts using one of the methods
described previously. Draw the division
lines on both sides of the center line
along
the length of the
pipe.

PIPE LAYOUT

16 Division Two Piece Miter

Layout For 16 Division Two Piece Miter:


3. Label these division lines 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
starting at the top ot the pipe and work
down in both directions to the middle ot
the pipe. Rotate the pipe 180 degrees
and label the bottom section division
lines in the same manner. See
illustration #147.
4. Layout the calculated distance tor the
starting and ending point of the cut line
(ordinate lines #1) trom the center line.
5. Layout the calculated distance tor ordi
nate lines #2, #3, #4, trom the center
cir
cumference line. Ordinate line #5 is
located on the center circumference
line and has no length. See illustration
#147.
6. Position the wrap-around so that it
forms an are that just touches the
starting cut
line at the top ot ordinate #1. The two
sides ot the wrap-around are placed
intersecting along the ordinate lines #2,
#3,
#4,
#5.
7. Trace the curvature made by the wrap
around with chalk ora soapstone onto
the
pipe.

8. Reverse the wrap-around or rotate the


pipe, connecting the opposite ordinate
lines with the ending cut line at the bot
tom section, ordinate line #1, once
again tracing the curvature made by the
wrap around intersecting with the
ordinate lines.
9. lf cutting the miter with an oxy-acetylene
torch, the entire cut should be made in
the same plane. Refer back to
illustration
#143. This mitering cut is then tollowed
by the second beveling cut.
A. Saddle On Method

B. Saddle In Method

lllustration #148 - Tee Branch Connections

299

aool

PIPE LAYOUT

Tee Layout
(Equa/
Size
Header)

Tee Layout (Saddle In)

Branch

And

The fabrication of a tee with the same


branch and header size consists of two
direct pipe layouts. The first layout
establishes the con tour line required on
the branch piping in order to mate with
the header surface. The second layout
establishes the opening in the header
n_ecessary to receive the shaped branch
p1ece. The tee fabrications can be laid out
with either the branch sitting on the header
(Saddle on
Method, illustration
#148A) or with the branch projecting inside
of the header (Saddle In Method,
illustration
#1488). Both methods of layout are
explained
in
the
following
procedures.

1. Measure and mark a distance equal to


one half of the pipe's inside diameter
from the end of the pipe. Using a wraparound as a guide, draw a straight line
around the circumference of the pipe at
this point. This line becomes the base
line for measurements.
2. Divide the center circumference line
into tour equal parts.
3. Number the four division lines: #1 for the
top and bottom and #2 for each of the
side
division lines, see illustration #149A.

'"'"

Li

2
A 112 1.D. ol p;pe

Tee Layout Procedure (Saddle In


Method)
}hi m_ethod applies to the branch project
ing 1ns1de of the header with the outside of
the branch fitting to the outside of the header
wall.

N ,

282

B = 2 x Wall Thickness

lllustration #149A - Tee Branch Layout

PIPE LAYOUT

Tee Layout (Saddle In)

Tee Layout (Saddle In)


4. From the center circumference line
around the pipe, continua both #2 divi
sion lines out to the end of the
pipe.
5. Position a wrap-around so that it forms
a
U-shaped are that just touches division
line #1 on the center circumference line
and the two sides are placed so they
intersect with the side division lines #2
at the end of the pipe. Trace the
curvatura made by the wrap-around
with chalk ora
soapstone.
6. Reverse the wrap-around or rotate the
pipe and connect the bottom division
line
#1, located on the center circumference
line, with the side division lines #2,
located
at the end of the pipe. Once again,
trace the curvatura made by the wraparound.
7. The point formed at the intersection of
the
wrap-around on division lines #2 can
be
rounded out by drawing a freehand
curve.

Note: The curve should start ata location


approximately two times the pipe wall
thickness up from the end of the pipe,
see illustration #149A.
8. When cutting the branch piece, a radial
cut is made, giving a square cut edge
to the pipe.
Tee Header Layout Procdure
An easy way of establishing the opening in
the header for a full size tee is to use the
preparad branch piece as the template for
the opening. The cut branch piece is
placed over the header and the header
opening is traced using the branch piece
as the guide, see illustration #1498.
When cutting the opening in the
header, it is important to make a radial
cut, that is, the cutting tip is held
perpendicular to the center of the pipe,
see illustration #150 . The header
opening is beveled after the radial cut
is made.

PIPE LAYOUT
Soapstone

Tee Header (Saddle In)


/Branch
Header

lllustration #1498 - Tee Header Layout

lllustration #150 - Radial Torch Cutting

Alternate Tee Header Layout


The cut line for the header may also be
laid out using the following procedure.
1. Using a wrap-around as a guide, draw a
straight line around the circumference
of the pipe at the center of branch take
off.
2. Divide the center circumference line
into tour equal parts and number the
tour divi sion lines as #1 for the top
and bottom lines and #2 for each of the
side division lines. See illustration #151.
3. Measure and mark off a distance equal
to one half of the branch's outside diam
eter to each side of the top division line
#1. Use a piece of angle iron ora
straight edge to extend the division line
#1 to the marked off distances. Label
these marked off distances as points
A and B inter
sects.
4. At the intersection of the center circum
ference line and the side division lines
#2, label as point C.

PIPE LAYOUT
(Saddle In)
Alternate Tee Header Layout
5. Position a wrap-around so that it forms
a U-shaped are that just touches point
A on
division line #1. The two sides of the
wrap around are placed to intersect with
points e on the side division lines #2.
6. Trace the curvatura made by the wrap
around with chalk or a soapstone con
necting point A with the two side points

Tee Header

laoa
9. When cutting the opening in the header,
it is important to make a radial cut, that
is, the cutting tip is held perpendicular
to the
center of the pipe, see
illustration
#150. The header opening is beveled after
the radial cut is made.
1/2 Branch O.O.

7. Reposition the wrap-around connecting


point B with the two side points C and
trace the curvatura in the same manner.
See illustration #151.
8. The point formed at the intersection of the
wrap-around at point C can be rounded
out by drawing a freehand curve. The
curve should start at a location approxi
mately two times the pipe wall
thickness up from point e, see
illustration #151.

\i44

Point A

c.

2 x Wall Thickness

w-

p0;m 8

Point C

lllustration #151 - Header Layout

Header

304

PIPE LAVOUT
Reducing Tee Layout (Saddle On)
This method of layout applies to the
branch of the tee sitting on the header with
the inside
of the branch aligning with the outside of
the
header wall.
1. Measure and mark a distance equal to
approximately one-half the pipe's inside
diameter from the end of the pipe.
Using
a wrap-around as a guide, draw a
straight line around the circumference
of the pipe
at this point.
2. Divide the center circumference line
into
eight equal parts. Pipe sizes under 4
inches (100 mm) may use four division
lines.
3. Number the division lines as shown in
illustration #152.
4. From table #76, select the branch size
and corresponding header size for the
fabricated tee needed. The figures
given in the intersecting column in the
table are measured and marked off
from the cen
ter circumference line along each of the
numbered division lines.

Reducin Tee (Saddle On)


5. Position a wrap-around so that it forms
a U-shaped are that just touches the
top division line #1 on the center
circumfer ence line. The two sides of
the
wrap
around
are
placed
intersecting along the end point of the
ordinate lines #2 and #3.
6. Trace the curvature made by the wrap
around with chalk ora soapstone onto the
pipe. This line becomes the cut line for
the branch.
7. Reverse the wrap-around or rotate the
pipe, connecting the opposite ordinate
lines with the bottom section, ordinate
line
#1 located on the center circumference
line, once again tracing the curvature
made by the wrap-around intersecting
with the ordinate lines.
8. When cutting the branch piece, a radial
cut is made giving a square cut edge to
the pipe. A bevel cut is then made on the
branch after the header marking.

PIPE LAYOUT

Reducing Tee (Saddle On)

Reducing Tee (Saddle On)

Ordinate Line Distances

Center
Circumference
Line

End of Pipe
lllustration #152 - Division Une
Layout

Table #76 - Ordinate Une Distances for Tee Connections

305

PIPE LAYOUT

Ordinate Line Table


ORDINATE UNE DISTANCE FOR TEE CONNECTIONS (lnches)
Header Pipe Size lnches

Bra
nc
h

'l
.
911

'Is

'le

5116

'I.

316
716

'
I
.

'11
6
311
3116
316

'
1
,

511
6
"1
31.
1 '5116

8
10

'12
1 11.
-

1
0

'13
2
'1,

12

'13
2
'11
313
2
'11

'Is

'Is

'l.

3116

'I.

3116
316

'Is

711
6
151
131
16
Pl
1 'l
.
371,

3
1
6
"1
16
Fl1
1'11
6
2111

'12
911
6
1'l
1

'116
2"1

5116

Table #76A - Ordinate Dlstances for Tee Connections (Imperial)

14

Une
16

18

313
2
'1,

'
I
s
316

'
I
s
5116

"116

516

516
11 1.
1

2'1s

91,
6
1'11
716
Pl4

'11
6
311
'
l
.
'12
15116
314
29116

20

22

24

'1,
6
311
'l.
'12
11,6
71B
"1
16
Pl6

'116

'
I

'1,
6
311
31,
6
111
316
31.

3116
316

316
314

516

9116

1'Is

1 'Is

3
3
3

PIPE LAYOUT

Ordinate Line Table


ORDINATE UNE DISTANCE FOR TEE CONNECTIONS

Bra
nc
h

5
0
8
0
10
0
15
0
20
0
25
0

(Millimetres)

Header Pipe Size Millimetres


50

6
1
4

80

3
8
1
0

10
0

3
6

6
1
6
1
3
3

15
0

2
5

5
1
0
8
1
8
1
9
4

20
0

2
3

25
0

1
2

30
0

1
2

35
0

Line

40
0
-

45
0
-

50
0
-

55
0
-

60
0

2
3

3
6

3
5

2
2

2
2

2
3

6
1
3
1
4
3
2
7
6

5
1
0
1
1
2
2
1
4
3
2
8

3
8

3
6

3
6

2
5

2
5

2
5

2
3

2
3

8
1
6
1
4
2
2
2
4

6
1
3
1
3
2
1
9
6

6
1
3
1
1
2
1
8
3

5
1
1

5
1
0
1
0
1
1
4
2

Table #768 - Ordinate Dlstances for Tee Connections (Metric)

1
0
1
1
8
3
2
7
6

1
0
1
1
6
3
2
5
5

1
0

1
1
6
2

2
3
2
3
2
3

3081

Reducing Tee (Saddle)

PIPE LAYOUT

Reducing Tee Header (Saddle On)


The method used for establishing the
open ing in the header is to use the
preparad
branch piece as the template for the open
ing. The cut branch piece is placed over
the
header and the opening for the header is
traced using the branch piece as the guide.
This is shown in illustration #153.
Note: When radial cutting the opening in
the header, make the cut inside the cut
line. This ensures that the hole in the
header is not too large.

Reducing Tee Quick Layout Method


1
1

1
1

/Soapstone

A
Line #1 Branch
Circumference Traced
Line #2 Actual Cut Line
on Sida of Header

Branch

Line #1

B
Soapstone Tracing
------ Branch Curvatura
onto Header

- ---t
---1'-\

\- ---Line #2

Notes:
X ;Pipe Wall Thickness
Line #2 Tapers to Meet Line #1 on Top of Header
lllustration #153 - Use Branch as
Template

lllustration #154A,B - Header Layout

PIPE LAYOUT
Reducing Tee Quick Layout Method
A quick method of laying out both the
header and branch connection for a
reducing tee is displayed in illustration
#154. The cut lines for the branch and
header are traced using the actual profile
of the tee joint. The follow ing are the steps
needed in the layout for the header and
branch.
1. Set the branch pipe squarely on the
header and if necessary, hold it in place

with a metal brace tacked to both


branch
and header.
2. Using a long sharpened soapstone held
against the branch, smoothly trace the
outline of the branch circumference onto
the header, see illustration #154A.
3. A distance equal to the wall thickness of
the pipe is measured and marked off
from
the traced circumference line at the
sides of the header. The circumference
line on the top of the pipe remains in
the same position.

Reducing Tee (Quick)


4. A new curved line is drawn starting at
outside mark at the side and smoothly
tapering to meet the top circumference
line. This new line is the cut line for the
header opening, see illustration #1548.
Reducing Tee Branch

Branch

Curvature
of Header

Straightedge

..
X

--'t

lllustratlon #155 - Branch Layout

Point A Place Marker ar


Soapstone Here

31O

PIPE LAYOUT
Reducing Tee Branch
An easy method of marking the cut line for
the branch is to slip the branch into the
header opening and trace the cut line
onto the branch.
Alternate
Method
1. With the branch still tacked in position,
establish distance X (the distance
between the end of the branch pipe and
the header wall). This distance is estab
lished so that when tracing the curve
cut
line onto the branch, it will not go off
the pipe end.
2. Lay a small straight edge flat alongside
the branch with the end just touching
the header. Hold a marker or
soapstone at point A on the straight
edge and move the straight edge
accurately around the branch, see
illustration #155. The end of
the straight edge must be kept against
the header while tracing.
3. The established cut line on the branch
is
then radial cut with no bevel needed.

Reducin Tee/Lateral (Quick}


Lateral
Layout
This method of layout establishes a full
size drawing to determine the cut lines
needed far lateral fabrication.

----

----

B
A

lllustration
Lateral

#156A,B

Layout

_
for

]'o.o. ot

].Pipe

PIPE LAYOUT

Lateral Layout _

Lateral Layout
1. Layout the two center lines for the branch
and header of the lateral needed on a
flat sheet or surface. The branch center
line is taken off from the header center
line using the desired angle for the
lateral. The intersection between these
two lines is marked C, see illustration
#156A.
2. Draw in the outside line of pipe around
the center lines. The distance on each
side of the center line equals 1/2 of the
O.O. of the pipe, see illustration
#1568.

3. Label the intersecting points of the


branch with the header as point A at the
back of the lateral and point B at the
front of the lateral.
4. Connect point A to point C and point B
to
point e with straight lines on the
drawing,
see illustration #156C.
5. On the actual laterarheader pipe, draw a
center circumference line at the location
of the branch take off. Divide the pipe
into tour equal parts and extend these
divi
sion lines to both sides of the center line
on the pipe.
Distance

Distance

#2

#2

rn'ta#" 1

'I
A

G2
1

'3

Center Circumference Line


lllustration #156C,D - Layout for
Lateral

312

PIPE LAYOUT
Lateral Layout
6. Measure the distance horizontally from
point A and from point B to the inter
secting center point C of the branch
on the drawing. These two distances
are referred to as distance #1 and #2.
7. The two distances are marked off from
the center circumference line on the
actual pipe header. The distances are
located along the top division line on
the
pipe, see illustration #1560.
8. Point C is located and marked off on
the two side division lines of the actual
pipe.
9. A wrap-around is used to connect
point A on the top division line to the
side divi sion lines point C. The
curvatura made by the wrap-around is
traced onto the pipe.
1O. Point B and points C are marked and
traced in the same manner.
11. This marked curvature line becomes the
cut line for the header opening.

Lateral Layout (Quick Method


Lateral Branch Layout
1. Divide the branch pipe into four equal
sections near the pipe end.
2. Draw a right angle line at point B on the
layout drawing to be used as a base line.
Measure the distance between intersec
tion point e and the base line, see illus
tration #157A.
3. On the actual branch pipe, mark off the
distance determined in step 2 from the
end of the pipe. Draw in a center
circum
ference line at this point, which
becomes the base line of the pipe.
4. Measure the distance from point A on the
drawing to the base line. Mark off this dis
tance on the top division line from the
base line on the pipe, see ill_ustration
#1578.
5. A wrap-around is used to connect point
A to the center division lines C at the end
of
the pipe. The curvature made by the wrap
around is traced onto the pipe.

(.

(; -.

i.

\., _,

'(

PIPE LAYOUT
Lateral Branch Layout
6. Use a wrap-around to connect point B
on the bottom division line and the
center
points at the end of the pipe.
7. When cutting both the header and

bev e l c
0, ,'
a

us e a

ch

, fi

rs

Lateral Layout
Quick Method For Reducing Laterals
A quick method of laying out both the
header and branch connection for a
reducing lateral
is displayed in illustration #158A & B. In
this method, the cut lines for the branch
and
header are traced using the actual profile of
the lateral
The following
arethe
theheader
steps
in joint.
the layout
method for

m iter cut followed by a

Base Une or
Center Circumference Une

'
'3

lllustration #157A,B - Branch


Layout

needed
and branch.
1. Establish the correct angle for the
branch pipe on the header and secure
in place
with a metal brace tacked to both the
header and branch.
2. Using a long sharpened soapstone held
against the branch, smoothly trace the
header opening cut line using the
branch
pipe as the guide.
3. With the branch still tacked in position,
establish distance D on both the top
and bottom of the branch pipe. This will
locate
the starting and stopping distance so that
point A will not go off the pipe end when
tracing the curve cut line onto the
branch.

314

PIPE LAYOUT

Lateral (Quick /Oran e Peel

Reducing Lateral Quick Method


4. Lay a small straight edge alongside the
branch with the end just touching the
header. Hold a marker or soapstone at
point A on the straight edge and move
the straight edge accurately around the
branch, keeping the end against the
header.
5. Cutting should be radial, followed by a
beveling cut for the header hole.
Soapstone

Place Marker or Soapstone


at Point A

lllustration
(Quick)

#1588

Branch

Layout

Orange Peel Layout

lllustration #158A - Header Layout (Quick)

A method of capping off a pipe end by cut


ting and welding the pipe end, when a
man ufacturad cap is not available is
referred to as the orange peel method.
The number of peel back sections for the
layout is deter minad from table #77.
1. Divide the end of the pipe needing the
cap into the number of sections or
peels determinad from table #77.
Extend the division lines lengthwise
along the pipe.

PIPE LAYOUT

Orange Peel Layout

Orange Pee/ Layout


2. Find distance X in table #77 and mark this
distance off from the end of the pipe.
Place a wrap-around on the mark and
draw in a center circumference line at
this point.
3. A template is developed for one section
of the layout using dimensions given in
table #77, see illustration #159.
4. The template is aligned on each
division line and traced onto the pipe
surface.
5. Cut the pipe along the trace line, heat
each section cherry red and bend the
peels into the desired shape. Weld
each section of the orange peel cap.
Pip
e
Sizei
n

2
4
6
8
10
12

ORANGEPEELLAYOUTDAT
A Num
X
o
ber
of
Secti

4
4
5
5
7
8

in
lnc
he
1118

3112
51/4
63/4
81/2
10

in
lnches
1118

ORANGEPEELLAYOUTDATA
Number

P
i
p
e

'

Sections

50
100
150
200

250
300

4
4
5
5
7
8

_X

rn

Millimet
res

47.6
89.0
133.
4
171.
5
216.0
254.0

in
Millimetr
es

47.6
89.7
104.
8
136.
5
122.
2
127.
0

317/32
418
53/9
413/15
5

Table #77A - Orange Peel Data (Imperial)

158
3116
35/9
43/4
41/4
438

_B

Millimet
res

Millimetr
es

41.3
77.8
92.1
120.
7
108.
0
111.1

rn

24.0
44.5
52.4
68.3
60.3
63.5

Welded
Cap

B
in
lnches

15/16
13/4
21116
211/15
23/8
2 1/2

_e

rn

Table #778 - Orange Peel Data (Metrlc)

(lnches)
in
lnche
s

(Millimetres)

Template

lllustration #159 - Orange Peel


Layout

3161

PIPE LAYOUT
True Wye (V) Equal Diameters
This method of layout establishes a full
size drawing to determine the cut lines
needed tor the true wye fabrication.
Header
Layout
1. Layout the center lines for the wye
angle needed on a flat surface. The
intersec
tion point between the header nd bra
ch lines is marked point D, see
1llustrat1on
#160A. The angle here is 45 degrees,
but any angle can be used.
2. Draw in the outside line of pipe around
the center lines. The distance on each
side of the center line equals 112 of
the
O.O. of the pipe, see illustration
#1608.
3. Label the intersecting points of
the
branches with the header as point A
and point 8. The intersecting point
between the two branches is point C,
see illustra tion #1608.
4. With straight lines, connect points A to
D, 8 to D and C to D, see illustration
#160C.

TrueWye
5. At point C, draw two base lines at right
angles to the branch connections.
Draw another base line connecting
point A and point 8, see illustration
#1600.
.
6. Measure the distance E on the drawmg
from point D to the base line, see
illustra
tion #1600.
7. On the actual wye header pipe, draw a
center circumference line at a point
from the end of the pipe equal to
distance E. Divide the pipe into tour
equal parts and extend these division
lines from the end of the pipe to the
center circumferen e line. Number
these lines as shown m illustration
#161.
8. Label the location where division lines
#2 contact the end of the pipe as point
D. Label the location where the top
division line #1 contacts the center
circumfer ence line as point A and
where the bot tom division line #1
contacts the center circumference line
as point 8, see illus tration #161.

TrueWye

PIPE LAYOUT
True Wye (Header) Layou qzi<)
o

45145

'f'

Branc'tl-'

'>j/

,ranch

'\.

'\.,
'\.

'\.,,/

'1
Header

12

-'(f}

21

/
1

Base Une or
Center Circumference
B

e
lllustration #160 - True Wye Layout

lllustration #161 - Wye Header Layout

TrueWye

3-181 PIPE LAYOUT


True Wye (Header) Layout
9. A wrap-around is used to connect
point
A on the top division line to the side
divi sion lines point D. The curvature
made by the wrap-around is traced
onto the pipe, see illustration #161.
1O. The wrap-around is repositioned to
con nect point B on the bottom
division line
and the center points D at the end of
the pipe. Point B and points D are
marked and traced in the same
manner.
11. This marked curvature line becomes the
cut line for the header of the wye.

True Wye Branch Layout


1. Measure the distance X on the drawing
from point D to the branch base line,
see illustration #162A.
2. On the actual branch pipes, draw a cen
ter circumference line at a point from
the
end of the pipe equal to distance X.
Divide the pipe into tour equal parts and
extend these division lines from the
end of the pipe to the center
circumference line. Number these lines
as shown in illustra tion #1628.

/
/

A
lllustration #162 - Wye Branch Layout

Base Line or
Center Circumference

PIPE LAYOUT
True Wye Branch Layout
. . .
.
3. Label the location where d1v1s1on lmes
#2
contact the end of the pipe as point D.
Label the location where the top
division
line #1 contacts the center circumfer
ence line as point C, see illustration
#1628.
4. Measure distance Z on the drawing
from point A to the branch base line,
see illus tration # 162A.
5. On the actual branch pipes, mark off dis
tance Z from the base line along the bot
tom division line #1. This mark becomes
point A on the pipe.
.
6. A wrap-around is used to connect_pom <;;
on the top division line #1 to the s1de d1v1sion lines at point D. The curvature made
by the wrap-around is traced onto the
pipe, see illustration #1628.
7. The wrap-around is repositio e.d _to c
m nect point A on the bottom d1v1s1on
lme and the center points D at the end of
the pipe. Point 8 and points D are
marked and traced in the same manner.
8. The branches and header pieces are
miter cut and then beveled.

True Wye/Templates
Template Development
lf a piece of pipe was cut lengthwise and
unfolded outwards until it was straight, it
would take the shape of a flat piece of
metal. The same piece of pipe marked far
a miter cut and scribed with parallel lines
evenly spaced would be projected in the
flat as shown in illustration #163.

Miter
Cut
Line

Pipe Circumference

Laid Out
Flat lllustration #163 - Parallel Line
Development

320

PIPE LAYOUT
Template Development
By using this parallel line and projection
principie, flat templates can be developed
for field fabrication of various fittings.
!emplates are usually developed by draw
mg corresponding end and side views of
the needed miter or fitting and
projecting selected segments on to a flat
surface. This flat surface then becomes
the wrap around template needed to trace
the fitting contour onto the pipe's surface.
The template devel opments are generally
produced on draw ing paper and then
transferred to thin gasket material or thin
sheet metal for durability.

Development Of Miter Turn


Templates
Any angle of miter turn can have a
template developed for tracing and
marking the con tour of the cut line onto
the pipe. The miter angle used in this
example is 45 degrees.

Tem late Development/Miters


1. On a flat piece of paper draw a circle with
the diameter equal to the outside diame
ter of the pipe, see illustration #164A.
2. Directly below the circle, draw a side
view of the pipe showing the miter
angle
needed.
3. Divide the top circle into 12 equal parts
and number each dividing line as indi
cated.
4. Extend the division lines from the bottom
half of the circle down onto the side view
drawin f the pipe and miter angle, as
shown m 1llustration #1648.
5. To one side of the drawing, establish a
straight line equal to the circumference
of the O.D. of the pipe. Divide this line
into 12 equal spaces and number
each division line, as shown in
illustration
#164C.

,.

PIPE LAYOUT

Tem late Development/Miters

Miter Turn Template

6. From the miter angle, extend each division line horizontally until it is directly
over the corresponding number on the
cir cumference line. Extend the
eorrespond
ing circumference division line up

Pipe 0.D.

'
I

9
8

.J.
1

'10

-1. .!

11

1
1

---- ,--12

vertically until it now intersects with the


horizontal division line.

"""-

7. Draw a smooth connecting curvebetween


all of the intersection points on the flat
development.

"'5 l4
7

3/

-r
1
1

5"'-i

4"'
1

1
1

1
1

"

321

//

1
1

lllustration #164 - Mitre Turn


Layout

1""-

8
Pipe Circumference

>I

PIPE LAYOUT
45 Degree Lateral Template (Equal)

1. Draw an end and side view of the


lateral joint
required,
using
the
actual pipe
dimensions. The two drawings should
be directly across from each other on
the same center line plane. A line
equal to
the pipe's wall thickness is placed
above
the center line which is the lowest
projec tion point for the development.
2. Draw semi-circles above both the side
and end view drawings. Divide each
semi circle drawing into 8 equal parts
and number each division line, as
shown in illustration #165A and #1658.
3. Lines are extended down from the divi
sion lines on the end view drawing,
stop ping as they contact the round
circle shaped header. These lines are
then extended diagonally across onto
the side drawing, see illustration #1658.

45 Lateral Template
4. Lines are extended down from the semi
circle division points on the side view
until
they
intersect
with
the
corresponding line from the end view.
5. The intersection points are joined
together with a curved line. This curved
line represents the contour of the
branch pipe, see illustration #165A.
6. The flat development for the branch is
drawn from the side view. The length of
development equals the circumference of
the branch pipe.
7. Divide the flat development circumfer
ence into sixteen equal parts and num
ber each division line.
8. Extend lines from the points located on
the contour of the side view drawing
until
they
intersect
with
the
corresponding numbers on the flat
drawing, see illustra tion #1650.
9. Draw a smooth, curvad line on the flat
development
connecting
the
intersection points of the division lines.

PIPE LAYOUT
45 Degree Lateral Template (Equal)

45 Lateral Template

B. End View

A. Side View

----------------t
Pipe Wall Thickness

o.o.

<:i._

C. Header
Development

'1t- ---.f.-....._-+--++---<1
----.f.-....._-+--++---<2

tt- -4++-.f.-....._-+--++---<3
C D

oe:

t- -fl+-+--+---t--tt - -14

.!!!
E
::::J

t- ---+--+-.-.....-++---<6
t- ----+--+--+ - - - - - -47
t+--+--+-_.._--48
t- ....-..+--+--+ ---- -47

i:3
C D

a .

a:

1-

-!----=' -+--H---15

t- --*"+--+-_,_... ---;6

1-- t--:::;;.,;.c- ---jS


1-

ttt-

--==-

.._

--14

---i3
---i2
---l1

--'O

lllustration #165 - 45 Degree Lateral Layout (Equal)

'?>

'>

D. Branch
Development

"'"
'b'\

e,

'
>

'?>

'l-

... (:)

PIPE LAYOUT
45 Degree Lateral Template (Equal)
1O. The flat development for the header
opening is projected directly below the
side view drawing. The length of the
flat header development should also
equal the circumference of the
header, see illustration #165C.
11. Divide the header development into
six teen equal parts and number each
divi sion as shown. Extend lines down
from the side view contour points
stopping at the corresponding number
on the flat drawing.
12. Connect the intersection points on the
flat development to form the template
opening for the header.

45 Lateral Template
45 Degree Lateral Template
(Unequal)
When developing lateral intersection tem
plates with a branch connection smaller
than that of the header, the same basic
develop ment procedure is used as in
equal diame ter laterals.
lllustration #166 shows a typical example of
unequal diameter lateral development. The
only difference between lateral develop
ment of equal and unequal diameters is in
the header hole development.
In unequal diameter laterals, the distances
between the actual flat development hole
division lines are taken from measuring
between the divis-ional lines along the cir
cumference of the header circle. In most
developments, the chord distance between
the division lines is sufficient for layout,
rather than the actual curvature distance.

PIPE LAYOUT

45 Lateral Template

45 Degree Lateral Template (Unequal)

A. Side View

C. Header
Development

lllustration #166 - 45 Degree Lateral Layout (Unequal)

B. End View

D. Branch

326

PIPE LAVOUT

Tee Development Template (Equal)


Branch and Header
1. Oraw an end and side view of the tee
con
nection using the actual pipe dimension.
The two drawings should be directly
across from each other on the same
cen
ter line plane, see illustration #167.
2. Semi-circles are drawn above the
branch connections on both the side
and end view drawings. Divide the
semi-circles into 8 equal parts and
number each divi sion lineas shown in
illustration #167.
3. Unes are extended down from the semi
circle division points on the end view
drawing until they contact the round cir
cle shaped header. lt should be noted
that the lowest projection line should
remain off the center line by a distance
equal to 2 times the pipe wall thickness.
4. The division lines are then extended
diagonally across onto the side view
drawing.

Tee Development Tem late


5. Unes are extended down from the
semi circle on the side view, until they
inter sect with the corresponding
lines brought across from the end view
draw ing, see illustration #167A.
6. The intersecting points of the division
lines are joined together with a solid
line that represents the contour line of
the branch pipe.
7. The flat development pattern for the
branch is drawn from the end view.
The length of the flat development
equals the circumference of the
branch pipe, see illustration #1670.
8. Divide the flat development into sixteen
equal parts and n_umber each division
lineas shown.
9. Extend lines from the intersecting
points, located on the contour of the
side view, until they intersect with the
corre sponding numbers on the flat
develop ment drawing, see illustration
#1670.
1O: Draw a curved line connecting the
inter section points of the divisional
lines on
the flat branch development.

PIPE LAYOUT

s}g

Tee Development Template (Equal)

A. Side

View

7 't--

[L.)7

View

" l/v s

B. End

6 /5QL5
6

41

1
1

.,..

,1

...
.,) i-- ! -

f"

2xWall

Thickness

[,i

1
1

""'

1
Q)

a.

a_

"

l.J

I
Pipe
O.O.

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
7
6
5

3
2
1

_L._

o
C. Header Development

lllustration #167 - Tee Layout (Equal)

,.

'I

4 5 6 7 8 7 6 5

456787654

"

"

"

Pipe Circumference

..

""1 "'

-- --

14

... D;'

327

Tee Development Template

1
D. Branch Development

328

PIPE LAYOUT
Tee Development Template (Equal)
11. The flat development pattern for the
header opening is projected directly
below the side view drawing. The length
of the header development should also
be equal to the circumference of the
header, see illustration #167C.
12. Divide the header development into
six
teen equal parts and number each divi
sion as shown. Extend lines down
from the side view intersection points
stop ping at the corresponding last
number
on the flat drawing.
13. Connect the intersection poi_nts on the
flat development to form the template
opening for the header.

Tee Development Template


(Unequal)
When developing templates for unequal
diameter tees, the same basic development
procedure is followed as that used for equal
diameter tees.

Tee Develo ment Tem late


lllustration #168 shows a typical example of
unequal tee development where the branch
is a smaller diameter than that of the
header.
The only difference between the two proce
dures is in the development of the header
opening. In the development of unequal
diameter tees, the distance between divi
sion lines on the flat header opening is
established by measuring the are distance
between the divisional lines on the circum
ference of the header circle. In most devel
opments, the chord distance between the
division lines is sufficient for layout, rather
than the actual curvature distance.
Note: Either the inside or outside of the
branch may be used in the development
of the header hole for the tee. The tem
plate may be designed to /et the branch
sit on the header (saddle on) or it may be
designed to /et the branch project into
the header (saddle in). These two
methods are shown in illustration #169.

PIPE LAYOUT

Tee Development Template (Unequal)

A. Side 7 "
View 8 "'

B. End
View

[/ 7
,...

....

s]d s

5 "

55r-.. 6

6,..

Tee Develo ment Tem late

41

1/

14

Pipe Circumference

-r-1

----

----\ 1

1
1

o
e:
E

,,,

Q)

g::>
Q)

9-

Q)

,_

1
J

...

,,,

4
2

--

lllustration #168 - Tee Layout (UneQual}

w
I".....

C. Header Development

Opening

)1

4 5 6 7 8 7 6 5 4 5 6 7 8 7 6 5 4

329

D. Branch Development

330

PIPE LAYOUT

Saddle In or On/Wye Template

Saddle In or On Development
6 5 ,...

Saddle On Development

---..,,.

Unes Extend
from lnside
Branch
Circumference

1
1

Unes Extend
from Outside

Branch
Circumference

Saddle In
Development
lllustration #169 - Saddle On/Saddle In

Wye Template Development

1. Draw a side elevation view of the wye


needed, using the actual pipe dimen
sions. The center lines of the wye
should be drawn first, and then the
outside lines
of the fitting should be added, see illus
tration #170A.
2. Sectional lines are added to the
drawing to divide the header from
the branch pieces, see illustration
#170A.
3. Semi circles are drawn over one of the
branches and below the header piece.
Each semi-circle is -divided into 6
equal parts and the division lines for
the semi
circles are numbered as shown in illus
tration #1708.
4. Extend the division lines from the semi
circles until they meet the sectional
lines
of the wye.
5. The flat development for the branch is
projected in line with the branch angle.
The length of the branch development
should equal the circumference of the
branch.

PIPE LAYOUT

Wye Template

Wye Template Development


6. Divide the branch development into
twelve equal parts and number each
divi sion as shown. Extend the division
lines diagonally across from the wye
drawing, stopping in line with the
corresponding
numbers on the flat development draw
ing.

7. Connect the intersection points on the flat


development to form the template of the
branch pieces.
8. The flat development for the header is
projected directly to the side of the header
drawing, following the same procedure as
that of the branch, see illustration #1708.

A
B
Header Development

le

Pipe O.O.

lllustration #170 - True Wye Layout

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1e

Pipe Circumference

,\

SECTION EIGHT QUESTIONS


PIPE LAYOUT
1.

A side view of a 45 degree pipe lateral is drawn on a steel piafe. The necessary
measurements are then transferred to the pipe. This is called:
a.
template development
b.
direct layout

2.

What are the necessary inside and outside measurements needed to make a 22 112
degree elbow that is cut from a manufactured 90 degree LR elbow? The diameter is 20
inches (500 mm).
a.
inside
=
=
b.
outside

3.

What is an easy method ot extending the established centerline points on a


section of pipe?
Answer:

4.

When using a pipe wrap-around to make a circumference line, what is the length of the
wrap-around as compared to the pipe circumference?
a.
same length
b.
shorter
c.
longer
d.
does not matter
5.
What are the two principie methods used to find the circumference of a pipe?
Answer:
1.
2.
6.

To find the centerlines, the pipe circumference would be divided by.

a.

c.

b.

d.
e.

7.
a.
b.
c.
d.

8
number of sectors needed
What must be determined in order to fabricate a 2 piece miter turn?
cut angle of miter
factor of the cut angle
cut back distance
all of the above

8.
State the formula used to find the cut angle of a 2 piece miter turn?
Answer:
cut angle
=

9.
What is the formula needed to find the cut back distance of a 2 piece miter?
Answer:
cut back
=
1O.
What is the cut angle, the cut angle factor, and the cut back distance of a 4
inch (100 mm) pipe making a 45 degree turn?
Answer:
a.
cut angle
=
b.
cut angle factor
=
=
c.
cut back
distance
11.
When making a mu/ti piece 90 degree turn (elbow), the same data as that
required for a 2 piece turn is required; plus one extra tem of information. What is the
extra information required?
Answer:
12.
a.
b.
c.
d.

The number of welds in an elbow miter is found by:


number of miter pieces minus 3
number of miter pieces minus 2
number of miter pieces minus 1
number of welds = number of miter pieces

13.

What is the pipe end cut angle for a 3 piece, 90 degree elbow'?
Answer:

14.

What is the length of the interior section of a 3 piece, 90 degree e/bow? The pipe is 6
inches (300 mm) in diameter, and the turn radius is 30 inches (762 mm).
Answer:

15.

A 42 inch (1050 mm) pipe could be accurately layed out by using 8 division
(ordinate fines).
a.
true
b.
false

16.

What are the two basic steps needed to find the ordinate fine lengths of a 16
division miter cuf?
Answer:
1.

2.

17.

lf the branch pipe is positioned on the main pipe header when making a Tee, it is called
the Saddle In Method.

a.
true
b.
false

18.

When laying out a Saddle In Tee from 2 equal sized pipes, the side intersection points
formed on the branch are usual/y:
a.
extend to the header centerline and rounded off
b.
rounded out above the header centerline 2 x the W.T.
c.
rounded out above the header centerline 3 x the W.T.
d.
extended below the header centerline and rounded off
19. A wrap-around can be used to layout both the header and branch of a Tee on smal/
diameter pipe.
a.
true
b.
false

20.

The header cut out for a reducing Tee can be layed out by tacking the branch to the
header, then tracing the branch outline onto the header by using a:
Answer:

21.

The branch and header of a small diameter 45 degree lateral can be marked for
cutting by using a wrap around.
a.
true
b.
false

22.

What is the name given to the cap on the pipe end which is cut, and welded from the
same pipe?
Answer:

23.

When laying out and cutting a true Y, two identical pieces are layed out and cut for the
two branches.
a.
true
b.
false
24.
a.
b.
c.
d.

25.

Template development for pipe layout is called:


triangulation
radial line development
wrap around layout
parallel line development

When making a template, one of the key points to remember is that the
intersection points on the templa te must be joined together with:
a.
straight lines
b.
a smooth cuNe

26.

When making a template of the opening in the header for a 45 degree unequal sized
lateral, the "opening" distance on the template is equal to the curved distance of the
opening taken from the end view.
a.
true
b.
false

27.

When making a template for a Tee, the first consideration will be whether the branch
will be a Saddle On ora Saddle In.
a.
true
b.
false

SECTION
NINE
PIPING PRINTS

3341 PIPING PRINTS

Types of Unes

lntroduction
The purpose of this section is to assist in
the interpretation of piping drawings and
blue prints.
Within this section, andas a rule throughout
industry, drawings or blueprints have an
interchangeable meaning and refer to
copies of the engineering drawings.
Drawings and their blueprint copies ar he
principie language used to convey p1pmg
information from engineers and designers
to the fabrication and construction
personnel. This transfer of information
using drawings enables the fabrication,
building and main tenance of piping
systems in a wide and ever growing field
of applications. Piping draw ings primarily
represent piping layouts by the use of both
single and double line drawings, symbols,
and special notations.

Unes
and
Functions

Their

Lines
play
an important
role in
communicat ing necessary information on
blueprints. Every line on a drawing has a
special pur pose and meaning that must
be understood

in arder to correctly interpret and use blue


prints. The various line types (often r
fe:rred to as the alphabet of lines) are
shown in 1llus tration #171 preceded by a
brief description and specific used far
each.
Piping in blueprints is generally represented
by a salid line, but wh_en. it _is n cessary to
differentiate between d1ss1m1lar lmes of
pipe, lettering and symbols are of_ten used.
lllus trations #172A and #1728 display
common graphic symbols used. in air con
itioning, heating, instrumentat1on, plum m ,
8:nd sprinkler system prints to _d1stmgu1sh
between the dissimilar lines of pipe.
Line
Description
andFunction
1. Break Unes - Three types of break
lines are frequently used on drawings to
shorten continua! long objects or sections
in draw
ings. The short break line is used when .
break is required across a small space. lt 1s
represented by a thic wa_vy line. !he long
break line is drawn thm w1th a horizontal Z
placed between the lif'.e showi g the brea .
Far round objects or pipe, a th1ck S break
1s usually used.

PIPING PRINTS
Line
Description
and
Function
2. Center Line - A thin line composed of long
dashes alternating with short dashes used
to represent the center of fittings, pipe and
equipment.
3. Cutting Plane Line - A thick line used to
indicate where a difficult to show object or
section of the drawing is cut through for
viewing. A drawing of the view is then
shown through the cut plane typically
distinguished by sectional letters.
4. Dimension And Extension Lines - Thin
lines that are typically used together to
rep resent the extended features of an
object and the dimension of those
features. Dimension lines typically use
arrow heads placed against the extension
lines to limit or show the dimension
features.
5. Flow Lines - Primary and secondary flow
lines are used on flow diagrams and P&ID
(Piping & lnstrumentation Diagram) draw
ings to show flow paths. Primary lines are
shown as thicker lines and secondary lines
as medium to thick lines.

Types of Unes

laas

6. Hidden Line - Medium weight dash lines


used to show features hidden from the
par ticular view on a drawing.
7. Match And Boundary Line -A thick line
used to show where two drawings align or
project boundaries begin.
8. Object Or Visible Line - Continuous line
used to represent ali visible object
surfaces that are in view.
9. Section Line - Medium or thin weight li.nes
usually drawn at 45 degrees indicate the
object or surface has been cut through
along this point or plane. The nature of
material used in the object can be
identified by the type of cross hatching line
used in showing the cut surface. The cross
hatching symbols for various types of
material are shown in illustration #173.
1O. Phantom Line - A thin line consisting
of long dashes alternating with a pair of
short dashes. The phantom line indicates:
alter nating positions or movable parts,
future location of equipment or piping,
and/or repeated detail.

PIPING PRINTS

Types of Unes

Line Description and Function


1. a)
b)

e)

2.

3.

p
a
---

Short Break Line (Thick or Medium)

'v

Long Break Line (Thin)

_.I
..J

S-Cylindrical

Break

Line

(Thick)

Center Line (Thin)


Cutting Plane Line (Thick)

4.

Dimension and Extension Line (Thin)

5. a)

Flow Primary
Flow Secondary

b)
6.

7.

---------

8.
9.
10.
lllustration #171 - Line Description and Function

Hidden Line (Medium)


Match or Boundary Line (Thick)
Object or Visible Line (Thick or Medium)

Section Line View (Medium or Thin)


Phantom Line (Thin)

PIPING PRINTS

Piping Une Symbols

Piping Line Symbols


Plumblng

Alr Condltlonlng
BRINE RETURN ----BRINE SUPPLY
CIRCULATING CHILLED
OR HOT WATER FLOW

ACID WASTE

....;..;A""'C""'ID

COLO WATER

---A---

BR

---B-----CH---

COMPRESSED AIR
DRINKING-WATER FLOW

CIRCULATING CHILLED
OR HOT WATER ---CHR-RETURN
CONDENSER WATER
FLOW

---c---

CONDENSER WATER ---CR-RETURN


DRAIN

---o---

HUMIDIFICATION LINE ---H--MAKE-UP WATER


REFRIGERANT
---RD--DISCHARGE
REFRIGERANT LIOUID
---

RL

REFRIGERANT SUCTION ---

RS --lllustration #172A - Piping Une Symbols

DRINKING-WATER
RETURN
FIRE LINE -F ---

F-

GAS -G---GHOT WATER --------


HOT WATER RETURN ----------
SOIL, WASTE OR
LEADER (ABOVE
------

GRADE)

SOIL, WASTE OR
LEADER (BELOW ---GRADE)
VACUUM CLEANING -V
VENT -

V-

Piping Une Symbols

PIPING PRINTS
Piping Line Symbols
AIR-RELIEF UNE -----BOILER BLOW-OFF ---COMPRESSED AIR
CONDENSATE OR
VACUUM PUMP

-0-

A--

-0- -0-

DISCHARGE

FEEDWATER PUMP

-00- -00-

MEDIUM PRESSURE STEAM

/(

FOF --

FUEL OIL RETURN ---FOR-FUEL OIL TANK VENT --HIGH PRESSURE RETURN

--1/- --/1HOT WATER HEATING


RETURN

CONNECTION TO PROCESS
OR INSTRUMENTATION
SUPPLY
PNEUMATIC SIGNAL

HIGH PRESSURE STEAM

11

lnstrumentatlon

DISCHARGE
FUEL OIL FLOW

--

+-+-

MAKE-UP WATER -------RETURN


MEDIUM PRESSURE

11

FOV -

ELECTRIC SIGNAL -

HOT WATER HEATING


SUPPLY
LOW PRESSURE RETURN ----LOW PRESSURE STEAM
lllustration #1728 - Piping Line Symbols

CAPILLIARY TUBING

-lf-

11
11

(FILLED SYSTEM)
HYDRAULIC SIGNAL
ELECTROMAGNETIC OR
SONIC SIGNAL (WITHOUT
WIRING OR TUBING)

>u

<>u

C':V

Sprinklers
BRANCH ANO HEAD
DRAIN
MAIN SUPPLIES

--<>--0-s- - - s-

---s---

339

Section Une Symbols

PIPING PRINTS
Section line Symbols

11111111111111111

Cast lron and Malleable lron


(Also Used for all Materials)

Magnesium, Aluminum,
and Aluminum Alloys

Steel

Rubber, Plastic,
Electrical lnsulation

Electric Windings,
Electromagnets, Resistors, etc.

Rock

Marble, Slate, Glass,


Porcelain etc.

Sand

c : i

.- . .<D .
Q.

Brass, Bronze
and Compositions

White Metal, Zinc, Lead


Babbitt and Alloys

Cork, Felt, Fabric,


Leather, Fibra

Water and Other Liquids

Firebrick and
Refactory Material

Wood, (Across Grain


/With Grain)

lllustratlon #173 - Section Une Symbols

>.

\'

'.6.-

- .

-'::1

6 Q. d : - o
Concrete

Earth

.
'

340

PIPING PRINTS
Pipe and Fitting Representation
Pipe and fittings are shown on drawings
and blueprints as either single or double
lines, see illustration #174. Because
single line pipe drawings are faster to
draw, most prints use this method of
showing pipe and fit tings.

Sin le & Double Line/ldentification


Double line pipe drawings are usually only
used on pipe sizes over 12 inches (300
mm), and where it is important to show the
clear ance or relationship between lines
and/or equipment.

Line ldentification Numbers


Line identification numbers or codes are
used in industry to differentiate between
the various pipe runs throughout a system.
The line number is typically placed beside
the line or located directly in the pipe line
drawing as shown in illustration #175.

P25 - 82 - HS - 8 - S - IH 1-----.

lllustration
Symbol

lllustration
Drawings

#174

Single

and

Double

Line

#175

Pipe

ldentification

Number

Even though the line identification codes


are not standardized, most companies
provide
the
same
fundamental
information within each line number.

PIPING
PRINTS
Line
ldentification
Numbers
The following gives an example of the
infor mation that may be found in a
typical line number:
P25-82-HS-B-S-IH
P25 - sequential number of the line
(25th line in process)
82 - denotes the area number of the line
(eg: Area 82 in plant)
HS - represents the medium or
conveyed fluid (High Pressure Steam)
8 - line pipe size (8 inch/400
mm)
S - pipe material specification (Standard
I Carbon Steel Pipe to API 5L Grade B
or A, Flang7s to ASTM A181 Grade B)
IHinsulation
type
(Hot
lnsulation)

Note: lt should be noted that the line


number remains with that line, except
where the size changes or the line runs
through a majar piece of equipment.
Branch lines taken off the continuous
line will have different line numbers
regard less of branch size. The
sequence of
number or letter identification for line
specifications are determined by the
company and vary from one company
to another.

Standard Piping Symbols


Standard piping symbols for fittings,
valves, and line designations on drawings
as a rule correspond to ANSI Z32.23
standard. Com monly used single and
double line fittings and valve symbols are
shown in illustrations
#176A and #1768. Companies often
modify these symbols but, typically the
variations are slight and easily recognized.

342

PIPING PRINTS

Standard Pi

Symbols

Standard Piping Symbols


Fitting or Valva Types
Gata Valva
Globe Valva
Motor Op. Gata Valva

Flange
d

Screwe
d

-tt><P
---H><P

-t><P
-

tt><H
t><l
-t{)a(}t
tx:r-

Bel!
and

Welded
')( nr

3><E
3><E

Soldere
d

f><}r

Double
l inA

O><
O
O><
O

Motor Op. Globe Valva

e
n

Gata Hose Valva

:
;

Diaphragm Valva

Globe Hose Valve

Lockshield Valve
Motor Control Valve
Quick Opening Plug
Solenoid Valve
Safety Relief Valve

(]><l
l

Q>::i:i

---C<P
ft)i<:}t -t::kJ-t{9(}
+t*:r
-

-*

r r

lllustration #176A - Comm >nly Used Fittinq and Valve Svmbols

--..T_,.

_ VQ.
L

ro

.J

PIPING PRINTS

Standard Pi ing Symbols

Standard Piping Symbols


Fitting or Valve Types
Angle Check Valve
Angle Gate (Elevation)
Angle Gate (Plan)

ffi

Angle Globe (Elevation)


Angle

Globe

(Plan)

Angle Hose Valve


Ball Valve
Butterfly Valve
Straightway

Check

Valve

Cock or Plug Valve .


Y-Valve
Strainer
lllustration #1768 - Commonly Used Fitting and Valve Symbols

343

3441

PIPING PRINTS

Standard Piping Symbols

Standard Piping Symbols


Fitting or Valva Types

en

Straight Cross

Reducing Cross

a:
oo

Tee Outlet Down

en
e n

Straight Tee

Tee Outlet Up

" C

eca

en

w
w

1-

Side Outlet Down


Side Outlet

Up

Reducing Tee
Double Sweep
Coupling
Concentric Reducer
Eccentric Reducer

lllustration #176C - Commonly Used Fitting and Valve Symbols

-e-0-e

U C) O

PIPING PRINTS

Standard
Pi

Standard Piping
Symbols
Fitting or Valva Types

Flange
d

45Elbow

3
:

o
m
_
J

Elbow Turnad Down

G-#-

Elbow Turnad Up

e--tt-

Base Elbow
Long Radius Elbow
Raducing Elbow
Sida Outlat (Turnad Down)
Sida Outlat (Turnad Up)

90Elbow

e
n

Screwe
d

J=

*
4*
2

rr-

Bell
and

Wel
ded

G-+-

G-*

@--?-

&*

J
r
4r
2<(+

4_r
+2

Solda
red

,r-

Gt-

Union

111

D-

tt+

lllustration #1760 - Commonly Used Fitting and Valve Symbols

Dou
bl

Q3
o
0-&-

(Q)jJ

r (?
4(*
2 4
2'(* 4r
gJJ
f*

Elbowlat
Bushing

345

Symbols

El

a1:i

[[::
o
1[
\.J

'

346

PIPING PRINTS
Pi

Standard

Symbols

Standard Piping Symbols


Fitting or Valve Types
Connecting Pipe Joint
Expansion Joint

Lateral Joint

._
Sleeve

Flanged

Screwed

-+-o*=*
--ft-

11
11

Boll and

Welded

Soioot

X or

-7--

. +-4 +4
11

-H---H-

-+-+-

*
*=*

Soldered

-e-

Double
1 inA

-e---e-

--E-

Orfice Flange

-1:

Reducing Flange

-lD-

-.j[>-

Socket Weld Flange

-fil-

rr:n

--<ill>--

--+--

CTID

Blind Flange

-<1Il

--4

dll

Bull Plug

-tD

Weld Neck Flange

Pipe Plug
Cap

-w-

-f<]

---3

-o
-{e

---3

O![JD

o01
o{)

PIPING PRINTS
Notes
Specifications

Notes and S ecifications

and

Any information that is not easily


interpreted from a drawing or blueprint is
usually noted for recognition. Piping notes
can be classi fied as either general or
local.
General notes, when used, applytothe
entire drawing and are normally placed
clase to the edge of the drawing or near
the title block. Local or specific notes take
priority over general notes and convey
precise informa tion about one part or area
of the drawing. ltems such as reducer sizes
and valve types are locally noted or called
out by size and, in the case of valves,
given a number to rep resenta specific
type. Examples of a com mon local note
and callout are presented in illustration
#177A and #1778.
Specifications or Specs, as they are often
referred to, are the written guide lines or
project standards to which the job is to be
constructed.

Pipe material specifications deal with the


requirements for pipe, valves, fittings,
flanges, and gaskets which are not
normally found on the piping drawing.
Specifications for a particular