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Difference between ELCB and RCCB

ELCB is the old name and often refers to voltage operated devices that are no
longer available and it is advised you replace them if you find one.
RCCB or RCD is the new name that specifies current operated (hence the new
name to distinguish from voltage operated).
The new RCCB is best because it will detect any earth fault. The voltage type
only detects earth faults that flow back through the main earth wire so this is
why they stopped being used.
The easy way to tell an old voltage operated trip is to look for the main earth
wire connected through it.
RCCB will only have the line and neutral connections.
ELCB is working based on Earth leakage current. But RCCB is not having
sensing or connectivity of Earth, because fundamentally Phase current is
equal to the neutral current in single phase. Thats why RCCB can trip when
the both currents are deferent and it withstand up to both the currents are
same. Both the neutral and phase currents are different that means current is
flowing through the Earth.
Finally both are working for same, but the thing is connectivity is difference.
RCD does not necessarily require an earth connection itself (it monitors only
the live and neutral).In addition it detects current flows to earth even in
equipment without an earth of its own.
This means that an RCD will continue to give shock protection in equipment
that has a faulty earth. It is these properties that have made the RCD more
popular than its rivals. For example, earth-leakage circuit breakers (ELCBs)
were widely used about ten years ago. These devices measured the voltage
on the earth conductor; if this voltage was not zero this indicated a current
leakage to earth. The problem is that ELCBs need a sound earth connection,
as does the equipment it protects. As a result, the use of ELCBs is no longer
recommended.
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MCB Selection

The first characteristic is the overload which is intended to prevent the


accidental overloading of the cable in a no fault situation. The speed of the
MCB tripping will vary with the degree of the overload. This is usually
achieved by the use of a thermal device in the MCB.
The second characteristic is the magnetic fault protection, which is intended

to operate when the fault reaches a predetermined level and to trip the MCB
within one tenth of a second. The level of this magnetic trip gives the MCB its
type characteristic as follows:

Type Tripping Current

Operating Time

Type B

3 To 5 time full load current

0.04 To 13 Sec

Type C

5 To 10 times full load current

0.04 To 5 Sec

Type D

10 To 20 times full load current 0.04 To 3 Sec

The third characteristic is the short circuit protection, which is intended to


protect against heavy faults maybe in thousands of amps caused by short
circuit faults.
The capability of the MCB to operate under these conditions gives its short
circuit rating in Kilo amps (KA). In general for consumer units a 6KA fault level
is adequate whereas for industrial boards 10KA fault capabilities or above
may be required.
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Fuse and MCB characteristics

Fuses and MCBs are rated in amps. The amp rating given on the fuse or MCB
body is the amount of current it will pass continuously. This is normally called
the rated current or nominal current.
Many people think that if the current exceeds the nominal current, the device
will trip, instantly. So if the rating is 30 amps, a current of 30.00001 amps will
trip it, right? This is not true.
The fuse and the MCB, even though their nominal currents are similar, have
very different properties.
For example, For 32Amp MCB and 30 Amp Fuse, to be sure of tripping in 0.1
seconds, the MCB requires a current of 128 amps, while the fuse requires 300
amps.
The fuse clearly requires more current to blow it in that time, but notice how
much bigger both these currents are than the 30 amps marked current
rating.
There is a small likelihood that in the course of, say, a month, a 30-amp fuse
will trip when carrying 30 amps. If the fuse has had a couple of overloads
before (which may not even have been noticed) this is much more likely. This
explains why fuses can sometimes blow for no obvious reason
If the fuse is marked 30 amps, but it will actually stand 40 amps for over an

hour, how can we justify calling it a 30 amp fuse? The answer is that the
overload characteristics of fuses are designed to match the properties of
modern cables. For example, a modern PVC-insulated cable will stand a 50%
overload for an hour, so it seems reasonable that the fuse should as well.