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DNA vs.


DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid,

is like a blueprint of biological
guidelines that a living organism
must follow to exist and remain
functional. RNA, or ribonucleic
acid, helps carry out this
blueprint's guidelines. Of the
two, RNA is more versatile than
DNA, capable of performing
numerous, diverse tasks in an
organism, but DNA is more
stable and holds more complex
information for longer periods
of time.


Stands DeoxyriboNucleicAcid.


Definition A nucleic acid that contains the genetic

instructions used in the development and
functioning of all modern living organisms. DNA's
genes are expressed, or manifested, through the
proteins that its nucleotides produce with the hlp
of RNA.

The information found in DNA

determines which traits are to be
created, activated, or deactivated,
while the various forms of RNA
do the work.

Function The blueprint of biological guidelines that a living

organism must follow to exist and remain
functional. Medium of long-term, stable storage
and transmission of genetic information.

Helps carry out DNA's blueprint

guidelines. Transfers genetic code
needed for the creation of
proteins from the nucleus to the



The endocrine system is the collection of glands

that produce hormones that regulate metabolism,
growth and development, tissue function, sexual
function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among
other things.

The endocrine system is made up of the pituitary

gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal
glands, pancreas, ovaries (in females) and testicles
(in males), the Mayo Clinic notes.

Diseases of the endocrine


Hormone levels that are too high or too low

indicate a problem with the endocrine system.
Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not
respond to hormones in the appropriate ways.
Stress, infection, and changes in the blood's fluid
and electrolyte balance can also influence
hormone levels, according to the National
Institutes of Health.
The most common endocrine disease in the United
States is diabetes, a condition in which the body
does not properly process glucose, a simple sugar.
This is due to the lack of insulin or, if the body is
producing insulin, because the body is not working
effectively, according to Dr. Jennifer Loh, chief of
the department of endocrinology for Kaiser
Permanente in Hawaii.
Hormone imbalances can have a significant impact
on the reproductive system, particularly in women,
Loh explained.
Another disorder, hypothyroidism, occurs when
the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid
hormone to meet the bodys needs. Loh noted that
insufficient thyroid hormone can cause many of
the body's functions to slow or shut down

Causes and treatment of

endocrine diseases
Diabetes, the most common disease of the
endocrine system, can be linked to obesity, diet
and family history, according to Dr. Alyson Myers
of North Shore-LIJ Health System. "To diagnose

diabetes, we do an oral glucose tolerance test with

It is also important to understand the patient's
health history as well as the family history, Myers
Tumors both benign and cancerous can also
disrupt the functions of the endocrine system,
Myers explained. Infections and medications such
as blood thinners can also cause adrenal
Diabetes is treated with pills or insulin injections.
Managing other endocrine disorders typically
involves stabilizing hormone levels with
medication or, if a tumor is causing an
overproduction of a hormone, by removing the

What is an endocrinologist?
After completing four years of medical school,
people who want to be endocrinologists then
spend three or four years in an internship and
residency program. These specialty programs
cover internal medicine, pediatrics, or obstetrics
and gynecology, according to the American Board
of Internal Medicine.
Endocrinologists-in-training then spend two or
three more years learning how to diagnose and
treat hormone conditions. Overall, an
endocrinologist's training will take more than 10
years after the undergraduate degree. They are
certified by the American Board of Internal
Medicine. Endocrinologists typically specialize in
one or two areas of endocrinology, such as
diabetes or infertility

Jace Asher U. Piana

Mrs. Solmoro

Jace Asher U. Piana