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PART II

ADDITIONAL NOTES
FOR THE
INSTRUCTORS

159

Experiment 1
Dynamics of a three storied building frame subjected to harmonic
base motion.
The performance of the experiment, as per suggested procedure, on the setup
developed at IISc, resulted in observations and subsequent deductions as provided in
tables 11.1-11.7 and figures11.1-11.6. The calculations related to the analysis of the
mathematical model is briefly summarized below:
Mass matrix (kg)
M = [1.8965 0
0
0 1.8965
0
0
0 1.7338]
Stiffness matrix (N/m)
K = 1.0e+003 *[5.8475 -2.9237
-2.9237 5.8475
0.0000 -2.9237

0.0000
-2.9237
2.9237]

Natural frequencies (rad/s)


{n} = [17.8939
49.7476
71.1199]
Mass normalized modal matrix
= [-0.2464 0.5401 -0.4181
-0.4416 0.2132 0.5356
-0.5451 -0.4560 -0.2679]
Damping ratios
{} = [0.024300
0.0092567
0.0067477]
Damping matrix determination
[ t ]1 =[-0.4672 1.0244 -0.7930
-0.8374 0.4043 1.0157
-0.9450 -0.7906 -0.4644]
[2 ] = [0.8696
0
0.0000 0.9210
0
0

0
0
0.9597]

160

[ ] 1 = [-0.4672 -0.8374 -0.9450


1.0244 0.4043 -0.7906
-0.7930 1.0157 -0.4644]
Damping matrix (Ns/m)
C = [ t ] 1 [2 ][ ] = [1.7598 -0.0513 -0.0084
-0.0513 1.7506 -0.0589
-0.0084 -0.0589 1.5593]
1

Orthogonality checks:

t M = [1.0000 0.0000 0.0000


0.0000 1.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 1.0000]

t K = 1.0e+003 [0.3202 -0.0000 -0.0000


-0.0000 2.4748 -0.0000
-0.0000 -0.0000 5.0580];

\
= n2

t C = [0.8696 -0.0000 0.0000


-0.0000 0.9210 0.0000
-0.0000 -0.0000 0.9597];

\
=

2 n n

Refined methods of experimental and mathematical modeling can be brought to bear


on the structure under study. Thus the three-story shear-building frame was analyzed
mathematically using finite element (FE) analysis and experimentally by using
experimental modal analysis (EMA) procedures. The FE analysis was carried out
using NISA software and the EMA was carried out using MEscope software. The FE
modeling involved descretization of the structure using 3-D beam, 4-node shell and
concentrated mass elements resulting in a system with 1482 degrees of freedom.
Figure 11.4 shows the setup used for measurement of frequency response functions
using impulse hammer test. Tables 11.6 and 11.7 summarize the natural frequencies
of the frame using refined and approximate methods. As may be observed from this
table, these estimates show good mutual agreement. Figures 11.5 and 11.6,
respectively, show the first three mode shapes as predicted by the detailed FE analysis
and EMA.

161

Figure 11.1 Plot of X1 versus f

Figure 11.2 Plot of X2 versus f

Figure11.3 Plot of X3 versus f

162

Figure 11.4 Block diagram of Shear Building Model test using impulse hammer
excitations F: Impulse hammer; A1-A3: Accelerometers.

(a)

163

(b)

(c)

Figure 11.5 Mode shapes of the three-story shear building frame obtained from detailed FE model; (a)
I-mode; (b) II-mode; (c) III-mode

164

(a)

(b)

(b)

165

(c)

Figure 11.6 Mode shapes of the three-story shear building frame obtained from experimental modal
analysis; (a) I-mode; (b) II-mode; (c) III-mode

166

Table 11.1 Physical properties of parts of the structure

Sl.
No.
1
2

Part

Material

Column
Slab
Allen screw,
M8

Mass
kg

Aluminum Mc =0.0814
Aluminum Ms= 1.5430
Steel

Material Properties
Youngs
Mass density ()
Modulus (E)
kg/m3
N/m2
69.0E+009
2700
69.0E+009
2700

Msc=0.0035

Table 11.2 Geometric data of the structure

Sl. No.

Part

1
2

Column
Slab

Depth (D)
DA =3.00
DB =12.70

Dimensions in mm
Width (B)
Length (L)
BA =25.11
LA =400.00
BB =150.00
LB =300.00

Table 11.3 Details of the sensors used; CF: conversion factor

Accelerometer type 4375, B & K

Sensitivity, S
pC/ms-2 pC/g
0.320
3.14

Accelerometer type 4371, B & K

0.980

9.61

Accelerometer type 4371, B & K

1.011

9.92

Sl. No.

Sensor

CF
0.1
mm/V
0.1
mm/V
0.1
mm/V

Mass
kg
0.004
0.011
0.011

Table 11.4 Free vibration test data on three-story shear building frame

S.No.
1
2
3
4
5

Quantity
Amplitude of 0th peak
Amplitude of nth peak
Number of cycles
Logarithmic decrement
Damping ratio

Notation
A0
An
n

Observations
32.8V
30.4V
11
0.0069
0.0011

167

Table 11.5.1 Base motion test data on three-story shear building frame; measurement made at first floor

S.No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Frequency,
f
(Hz)
2.2400
2.2900
2.3000
2.3200
2.4100
2.4200
2.5600
2.6300
2.7100
2.7200
2.7500
2.7700
2.7800
2.8200
2.9000
2.9300
3.0500
3.3200
3.3900
3.5000
4.5500
4.9800
5.2100
5.4900
6.0400
6.5500
7.1000
7.1600
7.3500
7.4300
7.4900
7.5400
7.6000
7.7000
7.7200
7.9000
8.0600
8.4000
8.7000
9.0900
9.2200
9.6500
10.2500
10.5000

Frequency
=2f
(rad/s)
14.0743
14.3885
14.4513
14.5770
15.1425
15.2053
16.0850
16.5248
17.0274
17.0903
17.2788
17.4044
17.4673
17.7186
18.2212
18.4097
19.1637
20.8602
21.3000
21.9911
28.5885
31.2903
32.7354
34.4947
37.9504
41.1549
44.6106
44.9876
46.1814
46.6841
47.0611
47.3752
47.7522
48.3805
48.5062
49.6372
50.6425
52.7788
54.6637
57.1142
57.9310
60.6327
64.4026
65.9734

Amplitude
1
rms (mV)
0.0846
0.0995
0.1010
0.1020
0.1340
0.1350
0.2150
0.3060
0.7330
0.7900
1.1600
4.1100
0.8310
0.3790
0.2560
0.2300
0.1130
0.0430
0.0400
0.0251
0.0257
0.0404
0.0507
0.0595
0.0920
0.1460
0.3560
0.4210
1.0100
2.9200
5.9100
2.0700
1.1900
0.6280
0.5630
0.3080
0.2110
0.1200
0.0818
0.0474
0.0331
0.0114
0.0428
0.0720

Displacement Amplitude
X1= 2 (CF) 1
(mm)
0.1196
0.1407
0.1428
0.1442
0.1895
0.1909
0.3041
0.4327
1.0366
1.1172
1.6405
5.8124
1.1752
0.5360
0.3620
0.3253
0.1598
0.0608
0.0566
0.0355
0.0363
0.0571
0.0717
0.0841
0.1301
0.2065
0.5035
0.5954
1.4284
4.1295
8.3580
2.9274
1.6829
0.8881
0.7962
0.4356
0.2984
0.1697
0.1157
0.0670
0.0468
0.0161
0.0605
0.1018

168

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

10.7100
10.9400
11.1000
11.2600
11.3000
11.4700
11.7100
12.0200
12.3800
12.5000
12.8000
13.1800
13.4800
13.9100
14.2500

67.2929
68.7380
69.7434
70.7487
71.0000
72.0681
73.5761
75.5239
77.7858
78.5398
80.4248
82.8124
84.6973
87.3991
89.5354

0.1300
0.2510
0.5280
2.1400
1.6700
0.4750
0.2460
0.1580
0.1160
0.1070
0.0871
0.0742
0.0645
0.0570
0.0516

0.1838
0.3550
0.7467
3.0264
2.3617
0.6718
0.3479
0.2234
0.1640
0.1513
0.1232
0.1049
0.0912
0.0806
0.0730

Table 11.5.2 Base motion test data on three-story shear building frame; measurement made at second
floor

S.No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Frequency,
f
(Hz)
2.1200
2.2400
2.3000
2.3200
2.3600
2.4200
2.5700
2.6500
2.7300
2.7700
2.9200
2.9400
3.0700
3.1500
3.3600
3.5200
3.5600
3.7900
4.0100
4.1500
4.3600
4.6200
4.8000
5.0200
5.3500

Frequency
=2f
(rad/s)
13.3204
14.0743
14.4513
14.5770
14.8283
15.2053
16.1478
16.6504
17.1531
17.4044
18.3469
18.4726
19.2894
19.7920
21.1115
22.1168
22.3681
23.8133
25.1956
26.0752
27.3947
29.0283
30.1593
31.5416
33.6150

Amplitude
2
rms (mV)
0.0965
0.1320
0.1480
0.1520
0.1660
0.1910
0.3760
0.6590
1.6700
5.0200
0.4820
0.4460
0.2470
0.1960
0.1280
0.1050
0.1000
0.0790
0.0606
0.0540
0.0435
0.0363
0.0319
0.0246
0.0180

Displacement Amplitude
X2= 2 (CF) 2

(mm)
0.1365
0.1867
0.2093
0.2150
0.2348
0.2701
0.5317
0.9320
2.3617
7.0994
0.6817
0.6307
0.3493
0.2772
0.1810
0.1485
0.1414
0.1117
0.0857
0.0764
0.0615
0.0513
0.0451
0.0348
0.0255

169

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

5.5500
6.3000
6.4000
6.5800
6.8300
7.1300
7.1500
7.2000
7.3800
7.4200
7.4600
7.4700
7.5100
7.5200
7.7400
7.9200
7.9900
8.1300
8.3500
8.4600
8.7000
8.7600
9.1700
9.4500
9.6500
9.8200
10.0600
10.3100
10.4800
10.7400
10.8000
10.9600
11.0600
11.2600
11.2700
11.2900
11.4400
11.5700
11.6600
11.7100
11.8500
11.9800
12.0500
12.3500
12.4400
12.7700
12.8700
13.2300

34.8717
39.5841
40.2124
41.3434
42.9142
44.7991
44.9248
45.2389
46.3699
46.6212
46.8726
46.9354
47.1867
47.2496
48.6319
49.7628
50.2027
51.0823
52.4646
53.1557
54.6637
55.0407
57.6168
59.3761
60.6327
61.7009
63.2088
64.7796
65.8478
67.4814
67.8584
68.8637
69.4920
70.7487
70.8115
70.9372
71.8796
72.6965
73.2619
73.5761
74.4557
75.2726
75.7124
77.5973
78.1628
80.2363
80.8646
83.1265

0.0160
0.0072
0.0180
0.0347
0.0605
0.1600
0.1660
0.2140
0.7600
1.2800
2.3900
2.6200
1.6000
1.5000
0.3110
0.2080
0.1900
0.1570
0.1340
0.1220
0.1130
0.1120
0.1050
0.1090
0.1110
0.1150
0.1280
0.1490
0.1670
0.2330
0.2600
0.3920
0.5850
2.6000
2.1600
1.9500
0.5850
0.3040
0.2280
0.2020
0.1570
0.1260
0.1150
0.0771
0.0714
0.0514
0.0482
0.0376

0.0226
0.0102
0.0255
0.0491
0.0856
0.2263
0.2348
0.3026
1.0748
1.8102
3.3800
3.7052
2.2627
2.1213
0.4398
0.2942
0.2687
0.2220
0.1895
0.1725
0.1598
0.1584
0.1485
0.1541
0.1570
0.1626
0.1810
0.2107
0.2362
0.3295
0.3677
0.5544
0.8273
3.6770
3.0547
2.7577
0.8273
0.4299
0.3224
0.2857
0.2220
0.1782
0.1626
0.1090
0.1010
0.0727
0.0682
0.0532

170

74
75
76
77

13.3700
13.6200
14.0100
14.2900

84.0062
85.5770
88.0274
89.7867

0.0330
0.0272
0.0216
0.0190

0.0467
0.0385
0.0305
0.0269

Table 11.5.3 Base motion test data on three-story shear building frame; measurement made at third
floor

S.No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

Frequency,
f
(Hz)
2.1800
2.2700
2.3300
2.5500
2.6300
2.6700
2.7100
2.7600
2.7800
2.9200
3.0300
3.3400
3.4500
3.5200
3.6600
3.8800
4.1100
4.3400
4.5400
4.6400
4.7700
4.9400
5.1500
5.3600
5.5400
5.6700
5.8500
6.0600
6.2800
6.5500
6.7000
6.8500
7.1000
7.3500
7.3900
7.4500
7.5500

Frequency
=2f
(rad/s)
13.6973
14.2628
14.6398
16.0221
16.5248
16.7761
17.0274
17.3416
17.4673
18.3469
19.0381
20.9858
21.6770
22.1168
22.9965
24.3788
25.8239
27.2690
28.5257
29.1540
29.9708
31.0389
32.3584
33.6779
34.8088
35.6257
36.7566
38.0761
39.4584
41.1549
42.0973
43.0398
44.6106
46.1814
46.4327
46.8097
47.4380

Amplitude
3
rms (mV)
0.1390
0.1640
0.1870
0.3950
0.6320
0.9610
1.5300
13.7000
7.6200
0.6230
0.3760
0.1990
0.1720
0.1590
0.1380
0.1180
0.1050
0.0970
0.0921
0.0905
0.0895
0.0885
0.0881
0.0890
0.0940
0.0965
0.1060
0.1100
0.1230
0.1500
0.1740
0.2120
0.3420
1.0300
1.8900
3.9200
1.4500

Displacement Amplitude
X3= 2 (CF) 3

(mm)
0.1966
0.2319
0.2645
0.5586
0.8938
1.3591
2.1637
19.3747
10.7763
0.8811
0.5317
0.2814
0.2432
0.2249
0.1952
0.1669
0.1485
0.1372
0.1302
0.1280
0.1266
0.1252
0.1246
0.1259
0.1329
0.1365
0.1499
0.1556
0.1739
0.2121
0.2461
0.2998
0.4837
1.4566
2.6729
5.5437
2.0506
171

38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

7.6700
7.8400
7.9100
8.0300
8.1800
8.5300
8.7400
9.0400
9.2600
9.4500
9.6900
9.8400
10.1000
10.3500
10.6400
10.7800
11.0600
11.0900
11.1100
11.2600
11.2900
11.4200
11.5200
11.8200
11.8600
12.1500
12.2000
12.4600
12.6900
12.9500
13.1200

48.1920
49.2602
49.7000
50.4540
51.3965
53.5956
54.9150
56.8000
58.1823
59.3761
60.8841
61.8265
63.4602
65.0310
66.8531
67.7327
69.4920
69.6805
69.8062
70.7487
70.9372
71.7540
72.3823
74.2673
74.5186
76.3407
76.6549
78.2885
79.7336
81.3672
82.4354

0.6070
0.3300
0.2810
0.2170
0.1680
0.1150
0.0989
0.0838
0.0766
0.0726
0.0684
0.0692
0.0726
0.0792
0.0984
0.1200
0.2680
0.3050
0.3510
1.3300
0.7420
0.2280
0.1470
0.0620
0.0603
0.0370
0.0320
0.0226
0.0208
0.0155
0.0132

0.8584
0.4667
0.3974
0.3069
0.2376
0.1626
0.1399
0.1185
0.1083
0.1027
0.0967
0.0979
0.1027
0.1120
0.1392
0.1697
0.3790
0.4313
0.4964
1.8809
1.0493
0.3224
0.2079
0.0877
0.0853
0.0523
0.0453
0.0320
0.0294
0.0219
0.0187

Table 11.6 Estimate of the natural frequencies of the three-story shear building frame; Experiment-I:
Impulse hammer test and modal extraction using ME scope; Experiment-II: Shake table test

Mode No.

FE Model

1
2
3

2.84
8.03
11.74

Natural frequencies in Hz
3-DOF
Experiment I
Model
2.8479
2.79
7.9176
7.91
11.3191
11.64

Experiment
II
2.77
7.47
11.26

172

Table 11.7 Estimate of the mode shapes of the three-story shear building frame; Experiment-I: Impulse
hammer test and modal extraction using ME scope; Experiment-II: Shake table test

Mode shapes
3-DOF Model
Experiment I

FE Model
I
mode
1.000
1.799
2.224

II
mode
1.000
0.398
0.845

III
mode
1.000
1.266

I
mode
1.000

II
mode
1.000

III
mode
1.000

I
mode
1.000

II
mode
1.000

1.792

0.394

-1.281

1.813

0.392

0.638

2.212

0.6408 2.172
0.844

0.885

Experiment II

III
mode
1.000
1.415

I
mode
1.000

II
mode
1.000

2.074

0.571 -1.17

0.713

3.591

1.218

173

III
mode
1.000

0.480

Experiment 2
Dynamics of a one-storied building frame with planar asymmetry
subjected to harmonic base motions.
The performance of the experiment, as per the suggested procedure, on the setup
developed at IISc, resulted in observations and subsequent analysis as provided in
tables 12.1 -12.9 and figures 12.1 and 12.2. The calculations related to the analysis of
the model is briefly summarized below:

Location of mass center (m)


bs=0.30 , ds=0.15 , ts=10.625e-3
bs1=0.286 , ds1=0.136

Mass matrix
M = [4.0444(kg)
0
0
0
4.0444 (kg)
0
0
0 0.0431 (kgm2)];
Stiffness matrix (force in N, distance in m and angle in rad).
k1=k2=k3=k4=k7=k8= 3.4240e+003 N/m
k5=k6=9.2674e+003 N/m
k*=313.1298 Nm
K = 1.0e+004 *[ 1.9539
0
0.0475
0
1.9539 -0.0824
0.0475 -0.0824 0.0805];
Natural frequencies (rad/s)
{n} = [66.8321
69.5064
138.0460];
Mass normalized modal matrix
=[ -0.2452 0.4308 0.0392
0.4254 0.2483 -0.0681
0.7615
0
4.7567]

Damping ratios
{} = [0.0218
0.0201

174

0.0112];
Damping matrix determination
[ t ]1 =[-0.9915 1.7425 0.1587
1.7206 1.0041 -0.2755
0.0328
0
0.2050]
[ 2 ] = [2.9139
0
0

0
2.7942
0

0
0
3.0922];

[] 1 = [-0.9915 1.7206 0.0328


1.7425 1.0041 -0.0000
0.1587 -0.2755 0.2050]
C = [ t ]1 [2 ][ ] = [11.4260 -0.2173 0.0058
-0.2173 11.6779 -0.0101
0.0058 -0.0101 0.1331];
1

Orthogonality checks:
t M = [1.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 1.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 1.0000];
t K = 1.0e+004 *[ 0.4467 -0.0000 0.0000
-0.0000 0.4831 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 1.9057];

\
= n2

t C = [2.9139 -0.0000 -0.0000


-0.0000 2.7942 -0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 3.0922];
\
=

2 n n

The structure under study was also analyzed using more sophisticated methods,
namely, numerical modeling using finite element method, and, frequency response
measurements using impulse hammer test. Figure 12.3 shows the set up for modal test
using impulse hammer. The frequency response functions so measured are compared

175

with theoretical predictions based on equation (2.2) in figure 12.4. The mode shapes
derived from the detailed finite element model (with 630 dofs) are shown in figure
12.5. Table 12.8 summarizes the results on natural frequencies obtained using
different methods.

(a)

(b)
Figure 12.1 Comparison of displacement as a function of driving frequency using theory and
experiment using shake table; =0.

176

(a)

(b)

Figure 12.2 Maximum amplitude response of one-story building frame subjected to


harmonic base motion with angle of incidence varying from 0 to 90 degrees;
frequency of excitation = 7.42 Hz; maximum support displacement = 0.291mm. (a)
response along x direction; (b) response along y direction;

177

Figure 12.3 Block diagram of building modal test using impulse hammer excitation F:
Impulse hammer; A1-A2: Accelerometers

178

(b)

(a)

(c)

Figure 12.4 Plots of frequency response function of building frame model using
impulse hammer test; impulse applied in the x-direction (a) displacement along xdirection; (b) displacement along y-direction; (c) rotation about z-axis.

179

(a)

(b)

180

(c)
Figure 12.5 Mode shapes of the three-story shear building frame obtained from
detailed FE model; (a) I-mode; (b) II-mode; (c) III-mode

181

Table 12.1 Equipment used in free vibration and forced vibration test of one-story building frame

S.No.
1
2
3
4

Equipment
Oscilloscope
Accelerometers
Conditioning amplifiers
Shake table

Quantity
1
2
2 channels
1

Table 12.2 Physical properties of parts of the structure

Sl.
No.

Part

Qty.
Nos.

Material

Columns

Aluminum

2
3

Column
Slab

1
1

Steel
Steel

Material Properties
Mass
Modulus
Poissons
density
of
ratio ()
elasticity
()
kg/m3
(E) N/m2

Mass
Kg

(m1+m2+m3)
= 0.3264
m4=0.3037
Ms=3.7294

2700

69.0E+009

0.3

7800
7800

2.00E+011
2.00E+011

0.3
0.3

Table 12.3 Geometric data of the structure

Sl. No.

Part

Slab

Aluminum
Column

Steel Column

Dimensions in mm
Depth (t)
10.625
Length (bs )
300
Width (ds)
150
Diameter (Dal)
10.13
Length (L)
500
Diameter (Ds)
9.958
Length (L)
500

Table 12.4 Details of the sensors used; CF: conversion factor

Sl.
No.
1
2

Sensor
B & K Deltatron Accelerometer
Type 4507 002, Sl. No. 10308
B & K Deltatron Accelerometer
Type 4507 002, Sl. No. 10309

Sensitivity, S
mV/msmV/g
2

Mass
gm

93.8

920

4.8

94.6

928

4.8

182

Table 12.5 Base motion test data on one-story building frame; Measurement made at first floor along
X direction; Amplitude of base motion, =0.055 mm
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Frequency,
f
(Hz)

Frequency
=2f
(rad/s)

Amplitude
x
rms (mV)

Conversion
Factor
CF
(V/m)

2.68
2.86
3.19
3.50
3.55
3.88
4.25
4.62
4.91
4.95
5.19
5.41
5.49
5.56
5.85
6.17
6.51
6.80
7.17
7.25
7.31
7.77
8.10
8.15
8.30
8.32
8.55
8.62
8.87
9.09
9.30
9.48
9.68
9.83
10.15
10.2
10.36
10.36
10.60
10.66
10.68
10.84
11.13
11.14
11.67
11.83
11.85
12.20
12.25
12.59

16.84
17.97
20.05
22.00
22.31
24.38
26.71
29.04
30.86
31.11
32.62
34.00
34.50
34.94
36.77
38.78
40.92
42.74
45.06
45.57
45.94
48.84
50.91
51.22
52.17
52.29
53.74
54.18
55.75
57.13
58.45
59.58
60.84
61.78
63.80
64.11
65.12
65.12
66.62
67.00
67.13
68.13
69.96
70.02
73.35
74.36
74.48
76.68
77.00
79.13

29.45
33.30
32.85
31.70
25.22
26.20
32.32
33.76
34.50
35.72
35.23
30.42
35.36
33.60
33.55
36.16
39.71
40.06
45.88
48.50
41.32
54.42
55.50
59.35
83.03
82.50
95.67
98.50
117.67
136.00
155.67
182.50
265.00
349.25
177.50
384.00
758.33
766.50
863.40
670.00
659.50
381.75
222.00
225.50
127.50
111.50
107.67
85.83
80.45
67.50

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

Displacement
Amplitude

X = 2 (CF) x
(mm)
0.041648190
0.047092860
0.046456470
0.044830140
0.035666124
0.037052040
0.045706944
0.047743392
0.048789900
0.050522295
0.049822266
0.043027035
0.050006112
0.047517120
0.047446410
0.051137472
0.056157882
0.056652852
0.064883496
0.068588700
0.058434744
0.076967835
0.078488100
0.083932770
0.117421026
0.116671500
0.135303585
0.139298700
0.166408914
0.192331200
0.220148514
0.258091500
0.374763000
0.493909350
0.251020500
0.543052800
1.072430286
1.083984300
1.221020280
0.947514000
0.932664900
0.539870850
0.313952400
0.318902100
0.180310500
0.157683300
0.152266914
0.121380786
0.113772390
0.095458500

183

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

12.67
12.80
13.08
13.19
13.25
13.35
13.46
13.53
13.82
13.96
14.15
14.36
14.37
14.76
14.81
15.10
15.16
15.40
20.75
22.05

79.64
80.45
82.21
82.90
83.28
83.91
84.60
85.04
86.86
87.74
88.94
90.26
90.32
92.77
93.09
94.91
95.29
96.80
130.42
138.60

64.00
61.43
52.12
48.20
49.53
46.94
45.44
43.30
38.88
37.92
35.97
30.98
32.14
29.46
29.27
26.67
23.57
23.36
8.86
24.40

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

0.090508800
0.086874306
0.073715175
0.06816444
0.070049569
0.066382548
0.064261248
0.061234860
0.054984096
0.053626464
0.050875845
0.043811916
0.045452388
0.041662332
0.041400705
0.037723785
0.033344008
0.033035712
0.012529812
0.034506480

Table 12.6 Base motion test data on one-story building frame; measurement made at first floor along Y
direction; Amplitude of base motion, =0.055 mm
Sl.
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Frequency,
f
(Hz)

Frequency
=2f
(rad/s)

Amplitude
x1
rms (mV)

Amplitude
x2
rms (mV)

Conversion
Factor
CF1
(V/m)

3.61
3.62
5.56
5.64
5.66
5.88
6.32
6.34
6.46
6.48
6.85
6.87
7.1
7.50
7.56
7.75
7.77
7.81
7.92
8.02
8.14
8.22
8.54
8.57
8.80
9.11
9.29

22.72
22.77
34.94
35.47
35.63
36.96
39.73
39.88
40.60
40.78
43.11
43.23
44.62
47.19
47.52
48.71
48.84
49.11
49.80
50.44
51.16
51.69
53.68
53.90
55.33
57.26
58.41

34.50
34.10
27.00
17.90
18.60
35.40
53.50
53.60
33.10
53.40
61.10
59.20
63.80
75.20
73.90
79.20
78.50
81.20
84.40
86.10
91.30
97.70
103.0
114.0
127.0
161.0
188.0

36.20
35.60
26.00
18.20
19.40
34.40
51.60
51.70
35.80
51.70
59.10
58.00
60.70
72.10
71.90
76.10
74.50
79.10
82.40
81.50
85.90
94.40
94.30
105.0
118.0
147.0
172.0

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

Displacement
Amplitude

X1 = 2
(CF1) x1
(mm)
0.04878990
0.04822422
0.03818340
0.02531418
0.02630412
0.05006268
0.07565970
0.07580112
0.04681002
0.07551828
0.08640762
0.08372064
0.09022596
0.10634784
0.10450938
0.11200464
0.11101470
0.11483304
0.11935848
0.12176262
0.12911646
0.13816734
0.14566260
0.16121880
0.1796034
0.2276862
0.2658696

Conversion
Factor
CF2
(V/m)
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

Displacement
Amplitude
X2 = 2
(CF2) x2
(mm)
0.051194040
0.050345520
0.036769200
0.025738440
0.027435480
0.048648480
0.072972720
0.073114140
0.050628360
0.073114140
0.083579220
0.082023600
0.085841940
0.101963820
0.101680980
0.107620620
0.105357900
0.111863220
0.116530080
0.115257300
0.121479780
0.133500480
0.133359060
0.148491000
0.166875600
0.207887400
0.243242400

184

Rotation**
z
(rad)

0.017677500
0.015597794
0.010398529
0.003119559
0.008318824
0.010398529
0.019757206
0.019757206
0.028076029
0.017677500
0.020797059
0.012478235
0.032235441
0.032235441
0.020797059
0.032235441
0.041594118
0.021836912
0.020797059
0.047833235
0.056152059
0.034315147
0.090467206
0.093586764
0.093586764
0.145579411
0.166376469

28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

9.45
9.66
9.78
9.82
9.96
10.14
10.31
10.34
10.56
10.64
10.78
11.09
11.25
11.45
11.61
11.74
11.82
12.10
12.20
12.45
12.52
12.92
13.20
13.60
14.00
14.20
21.50
21.80
22.26
23.21

59.41
60.73
61.50
61.74
62.60
63.73
64.80
64.99
66.37
66.88
67.76
69.70
70.71
71.97
72.97
73.79
74.29
76.05
76.68
78.25
78.69
81.21
82.97
85.48
88.00
89.25
135.14
137.02
139.92
145.89

216.0
276.0
328.0
338.0
451.0
890.0
188.0
140.0
1100.0
465.0
210.0
108.0
85.00
67.40
57.20
50.70
48.50
40.00
36.80
28.10
89.80
77.60
69.60
59.50
51.10
47.10
555.0
116.0
249.0
88.80

197.0
250.0
295.0
306.0
402.0
754.0
130.0
157.0
1050.0
670.0
199.0
99.10
78.20
61.10
51.70
45.80
43.80
35.10
32.30
25.00
79.60
67.80
59.60
51.60
42.40
39.50
489.0
134.0
362.0
154.0

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
3160
316
3160
3160

0.3054672
0.3903192
0.4638576
0.4779996
0.6378042
1.2586380
0.2658696
0.1979880
4.922848101
2.081022152
0.939816456
0.483334177
0.380401899
0.301636329
0.255988101
0.226898544
0.217052848
0.179012658
0.164691646
0.125756392
0.126995160
0.109741920
0.098428320
0.084144900
0.072265620
0.066608820
0.248380063
0.519136709
0.111435380
0.039740810

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
3160
316
3160
3160

0.278597400
0.353550000
0.417189000
0.432745200
0.568508400
1.066306800
0.183846000
0.222029400
4.699082278
2.998462025
0.890587975
0.443503861
0.349969747
0.273441835
0.231373861
0.204969494
0.196018861
0.157083608
0.144552722
0.111882911
0.112570320
0.095882760
0.084286320
0.072972720
0.059962080
0.055860900
0.218842975
0.599692405
0.162006456
0.068919873

Table 12.7 Base motion test data on one-story building frame; Frequency of excitation = 7.42 Hz;
Amplitude of base motion, = 0.291mm
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Angle of
Incidence
(degrees)

Amplitude
x
rms (V)

Amplitude
y
rms (V)

Conversion
Factor
CF
(V/m)

Displacement
Amplitude

Displacement
Amplitude

X = 2 (CF) x
(mm)

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

0.4156
0.4136
0.4106
0.3991
0.3876
0.3706
0.3536
0.3375
0.3155
0.2915
0.2634
0.2274
0.2013
0.1758
0.1432
0.1077
0.0775
0.0378
0.0178

0.0117
0.0172
0.0221
0.0278
0.1312
0.1653
0.1943
0.2274
0.2604
0.2884
0.3055
0.3155
0.3355
0.3515
0.3596
0.3636
0.3616
0.2864
0.1422

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

0.58689
0.58407
0.57982
0.56356
0.54730
0.52325
0.49921
0.47659
0.44547
0.41153
0.37194
0.32102
0.28425
0.24819
0.20223
0.15203
0.10939
0.05332
0.02517

Y = 2 (CF)
y
(mm)
0.01655
0.02432
0.03125
0.03932
0.18526
0.23334
0.27436
0.32102
0.36769
0.40729
0.43133
0.44547
0.47376
0.49638
0.50770
0.51336
0.51053
0.40446
0.20082

185

0.197572056
0.270361758
0.343151457
0.332752929
0.509527897
1.414199057
0.603114633
0.176774998
1.645335448
6.745779097
0.361974109
0.292869966
0.223765819
0.207312450
0.180987061
0.161243018
0.154661670
0.161243018
0.148080323
0.102010889
0.106065000
0.101905588
0.103985294
0.082148382
0.090467206
0.079028823
0.217184472
0.592321226
0.371846130
0.214551933

Table 12.8 Estimate of the natural frequencies of the one-story building frame; Experiment-I: Impulse
hammer test and modal extraction using ME scope; Experiment-II: shake table test.

Mode No.

FE Model

1
2
3

10.1559
10.8203
18.0018

Natural frequencies in Hz
3-DOF
Experiment
Model
I
10.6367
10.1380
11.0623
10.3820
21.9707
21.7250

Experiment
II
10.1400
10.6400
21.8000

Table 12.9 Estimate of the damping of one-story building frame using the data from Experiment-I:
Impulse hammer test

Mode No.
1
2
3

Experiment
I
0.0218
0.0201
0.0112

186

Experiment 3
Dynamics of a three storied building frame subjected to periodic
(non-harmonic) base motion.
The performance of the experiment, as per suggested procedure, on the setup
developed at IISc, resulted in observations and subsequent deductions as provided in
figures13.1-13.3. Refer to the notes provided in Experiment 1 for details of the mass,
stiffness and damping matrices. Figure 13.1 shows the base motions for different
RPM of the motor resulting in base motion periods of 0.9870,1.0328, 1.1845 and
1.2490 s respectively. The base motions re-constructed from the derived Fourier
coefficients are also shown in this figure. Figure 13.2 shows the computed floor
displacement from the mathematical model. Here the solution is obtained using two
alternative strategies: the first method involves modal decomposition of the system
and Fourier decomposition of excitation (equation 3.2) and, the second, employs
direct integration technique using the base motion without Fourier decomposition.
The two solutions show the expected mutual agreement. The steady oscillatory
response of the system obtained using experiments and theory are compared in figure
13.3. It may be noted that the phase difference that is observed between the two
results in these figures is because of the arbitrary choice of time axis for the two
results. The instructor may note that significant amount of computer work is needed
for obtaining the analytical results of this study.

187

Period=0.9870 s

Period=1.0328 s

Period=1.1845 s

Period=1.2490 s

Figure 13.1 Typical base motion profiles with differing periods; the reconstructed
signals using Fourier series are also shown in these figures.

188

Figure 13.2 Displacement of floors (a) Floor I (b) Floor II (c) Floor III. Period=1.0328
s

189

(a)

(b)

(c)
Figure 13.3 Comparison of experimental and analytical results on the total floor
displacement in the steady state. Note that only the oscillatory motion is measured in
the experiment; Period=1.0328 s; (a) First floor; (b) Second floor; (c) third floor.

190

Experiment 4
Vibration isolation of a secondary system
The performance of the experiment, as per suggested procedure here in, on the setup
developed at IISc, resulted in observations and subsequent analysis as shown in tables
14.1-14.8 and figures 14.1-14.5. Refined methods of experimental and mathematical
modeling can be brought to bear on the structure under study. Thus the frame was
analyzed mathematically using finite element (FE) analysis and experimentally by
using experimental modal analysis (EMA) procedures. The FE analysis was carried
out using NISA software and the EMA was carried out using MEscopeVES software.
The FE modeling involved discretization of the structure using 3-D beam, 4-node
shell and concentrated mass elements resulting in a system with 1482 degrees of
freedom. Figure 14.2 shows the setup used for measurement of frequency response
functions using impulse hammer test. Table 14.8 summarizes the natural frequencies
of the frame using refined and approximate methods. As may be observed from this
table, these estimates show good mutual agreement Figures 14.3 and 14.4 respectively
show the first three mode shapes as predicted by detailed FE analysis and EMA.
In the development of mathematical model, as described in section 4.3, the structural
matrices were obtained as

Mass matrix (kg)


M1= MS + 4* MC + Msc1
M2= MS + 4* MC + Msc1+ Mbb +0.5* Msp + Macc
M3= MS + 4*0.5* MC + Msc1
M4= Miso + 0.5* Msp + Macc+ Msc2
Amplitude of the Base motion= 0.1015mm
M = [1.8965
0
0
0
0 1.9543
0
0
0
0 1.7338 0
0
0
0 0.0915]
Stiffness matrix (N/m)
K = 1.0e+003 *[ 5.8475 -2.9237
0
0
-2.9237
5.9379
-2.9237 -0.0904
0
-2.9237
2.9237
0
0
-0.0904
0
0.0904]
2
The solution of the eigenvalue problem K = M lead to the natural frequencies
(rad/s)
{n} = [17.5682
31.6945
49.7510

191

70.7656]
and mass normalized mode shapes

= [-0.2406
-0.4331
-0.5301
-0.6299

-0.0400 0.5392 -0.4208


-0.0540 0.2127 0.5253
-0.1336 -0.4547 -0.2667
3.2391 -0.1413 -0.1291]

The damping ratios derived from the measured frequency response functions were
found to be
{} = [0.0100
0.0080
0.0060
0.0040];
The C matrix associated with the above damping ratios was obtained as follows:
[ t ]1 = [-0.4564
-0.8464
-0.9191
-0.0577

-0.0759
-0.1055
-0.2316
0.2965

[ 2 ] = [0.3514
0
0
0

0
0.5071
0
0

1.0225
0.4157
-0.7884
-0.0129

-0.7981
1.0266
-0.4624
-0.0118]

0
0
0
0
0.5970
0
0 0.5661]

[ ] 1 =[-0.4564 -0.8464 -0.9191 -0.0577


-0.0759 -0.1055 -0.2316 0.2965
1.0225 0.4157 -0.7884 -0.0129
-0.7981 1.0266 -0.4624 -0.0118]

C = [ t ]1 [2 ][ ] = [1.0609
-0.0703
-0.1160
-0.0047
1

-0.0703
0.9572
-0.1786
-0.0088

-0.1160
-0.1786
0.8161
-0.0070

-0.0047
-0.0088
-0.0070
0.0459]

Furthermore, the following orthogonality checks were also made:

t M = [1.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000


0.0000 1.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000
-0.0000 -0.0000 1.0000 -0.0000
-0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 1.0000];

192

t K = 1.0e+003 [0.3086 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000


0.0000 1.0045 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 2.4752 -0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 5.0078]
t C = [0.3514
-0.0000
-0.0000
0.0000

-0.0000
0.5071
-0.0000
0.0000

0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000
0.5970 -0.0000
-0.0000 0.5661]

The following calculations were involved in making a sdof model:


M4= Miso + 0.5* Msp + Macc+ Msc2
= 0.0675+ 0.5*0.0073+0.012+ 0.00836 (from tables 14.2 and 14.3)
= 0.0915 kg

bd 3
12
= 0.02*0.0083/12
= 8.5333e-13 m4

I2 =

3E 2 I 2
L32
= 3*69e9*8.5333e-13/0.1253k
= 90.4397 N-m

k4 =

Hence, in this approximation, n = k4 / m4 = 90.4397 / 0.0915 = 31.43 rad/s (5.0036


Hz)

193

(b)
(a)

(c )

(d)

Figure 14.1 Comparison of experimental results and theoretical predictions.


Experimental results were obtained for the frame under harmonic base motions
supplied by the shake table and theoretical results from the 4-dof model of equation
4.6. (a) Amplitude of the base motion as the speed of the motor is varied; note that
this amplitude is expected to be independent of the motor speed; (b) Displacement of
mass M2; (c) Displacement of mass M4; (d) Displacement transmissibility ratio.

194

Figure 14.2 Test set-up for the impulse hammer test on the frame in figures 4.1c and
d; impulse hammer excitations; F: Impulse hammer; A1-A3: Accelerometers.

(a)

195

(b)

(c)

196

(d)
Figure 14.3 Mode shapes of the the frame in figures 4.1c and d obtained from detailed
FE model; (a) I-mode; (b) II-mode; (c) III-mode; (d) IV-mode

197

I-mode

III-mode

II-mode

IV-mode

Figure 14.4 Mode shapes of the frame in figures 4.1c and d obtained from
experimental modal analysis using impulse hammer tests and modal extraction
software.

198

Figure 14.5 Displacement transmissibility ratios obtained using different alternative


approaches. (Experiment-I: Impulse hammer test and modal extraction using ME scope;
Experiment-II: Shake table test)

199

Table 14.1 Equipments used in free vibration and forced vibration test of three-story shear building
frame
No.
1
2
3
4

Equipments
Oscilloscope/Data acquisition system
Accelerometer
Charge amplifier/Transducer conditioner
Shake table

Quantity
1
3
1
1

Table 14.2 Physical properties of parts of the structure


Mass kg
No.

Part

Material

1
2

Column
Slab
Allen screw,
M8
Allen screw,
M3
Base block
Spring (Al
strip)
Mass to be
isolated
Mass of
accelerometer

Aluminum
Aluminum

Mc = 0.0814
Ms= 1.5430

Steel

Msc1=0.0280

Steel

Msc2=0.00836

3
4
5
6
7
8

Aluminum

Material Properties
Youngs
Mass density ()
Modulus (E)
kg/m3
2
N/m
69.0E+009
2700
69.0E+009
2700

Mbb=0.0422
*

2.0E+011

7800

69.0E+009

2700

Aluminum

Msp =0.0073

69.0E+009

2700

Aluminum

Miso=0.0675

69.0E+009

2700

Macc=0.012

* Msp = *d*b*L2
Table 14.3 Geometric data of the structure

No.

Part

1
2
3
4

Column
Slab
Base block
Spring (Al strip)
Mass to be
isolated

Depth (D)

Dimensions in mm
Length (L)
Width (B)

Effective
length

DC =3.00
DS =12.70
Dbb =25.00
d =0.80

BC=25.11
BS =150.00
Bbb =25.00
b =20.00

LC=400.00
LS =300.00
Lbb =25.00
L2 =170.00

LE2 =125.00

Diso =10.00

Biso =50.00

Liso =50.00

Table 14.4 Details of the sensors used; CF: conversion factor


No.
1
2
3

Sensor
Flat Pack, Model JTF, Sensotec
Flat Pack, Model JTF, Sensotec
Flat Pack, Model JTF, Sensotec

Sensitivity, S
mV/g
129.3298
326.6722
336.5686

CF
m/s2/V
75.8526
30.0301
29.1471

Mass
kg
0.012
0.012
0.012

200

Table 14.5 Free vibration test data on three-story shear building frame with a mass, on second floor, to
be isolated
No.
1
2
3
4
5

Quantity
Amplitude of 0th peak
Amplitude of nth peak
Number of cycles
Logarithmic decrement
Damping ratio

Notation
A0
An
n

Observations
0.5448 m/s2
0.4489 m/s2
18
0.0108
0.0017

Table 14.6 Base motion test data on frame in figures 4.1c and d
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Frequency,
f
(Hz)

2.1362
2.3499
2.5024
2.5635
2.7161
2.8381
2.9907
3.0823
3.4180
3.6926
4.1199
4.3030
4.5471
4.7913
4.9744
5.0354
5.0659
5.0964
5.2490
5.3101
5.4321
5.4626
5.7068
5.8289
6.1340
6.2561
6.4697
7.0190
7.0801
7.2632
7.3853
7.6294
7.7820
7.8430
7.9651
7.9956
8.1787
8.3008
8.4229
8.6060

Frequency
=2f
(rad/s)

13.4221
14.7649
15.7230
16.1069
17.0658
17.8323
18.7911
19.3667
21.4759
23.2013
25.8861
27.0365
28.5703
30.1046
31.2551
31.6384
31.8300
32.0216
32.9804
33.3643
34.1309
34.3225
35.8569
36.6241
38.5411
39.3082
40.6503
44.1017
44.4856
45.6360
46.4032
47.9369
48.8957
49.2790
50.0462
50.2378
51.3883
52.1555
52.9226
54.0731

Amplitude
1
rms (mm)

0.0770
0.0761
0.0750
0.0757
0.0770
0.0761
0.0728
0.0744
0.0766
0.0738
0.0723
0.0723
0.0712
0.0718
0.0719
0.0718
0.0712
0.0710
0.0706
0.0718
0.0705
0.0701
0.0697
0.0698
0.0702
0.0704
0.0707
0.0723
0.0723
0.0719
0.0720
0.0714
0.0714
0.0709
0.0701
0.0705
0.0701
0.0700
0.0700
0.0698

Amplitude
2
rms (mm)

0.2083
0.3063
0.4797
0.6222
2.1028
1.0113
0.4373
0.2813
0.1454
0.1003
0.0617
0.0520
0.0403
0.0341
0.0297
0.0271
0.0263
0.0256
0.0321
0.0295
0.0258
0.0249
0.0207
0.0261
0.0116
0.0101
0.0068
0.0146
0.0182
0.0291
0.0432
0.0927
0.2502
0.4139
0.9613
0.4943
0.1706
0.1267
0.1010
0.0821

Amplitude
3
rms (mm)

0.2838
0.4464
0.7347
0.9846
3.3068
1.8413
0.8376
0.5800
0.3268
0.1998
0.1477
0.1612
0.1872
0.2137
0.2891
0.4273
0.4430
0.6779
0.5760
0.3615
0.2207
0.2043
0.0975
0.0684
0.0275
0.0194
0.0087
0.0171
0.0204
0.0305
0.0408
0.0771
0.1848
0.2953
0.6324
0.3257
0.1061
0.0752
0.0574
0.0435

Displacement
Amplitude
Y=
2 (CF) 1
(mm)
0.1089
0.1076
0.1061
0.1070
0.1090
0.1076
0.1030
0.1053
0.1084
0.1043
0.1023
0.1022
0.1007
0.1015
0.1016
0.1016
0.1007
0.1004
0.0998
0.1015
0.0997
0.0992
0.0986
0.0987
0.0993
0.0996
0.1000
0.1022
0.1023
0.1017
0.1018
0.1009
0.1009
0.1003
0.0992
0.0997
0.0992
0.0990
0.0990
0.0987

Displacement
Amplitude
X2 =
2 (CF) 2
(mm)
0.2946
0.4332
0.6784
0.8799
2.9738
1.4301
0.6185
0.3978
0.2056
0.1418
0.0873
0.0735
0.0570
0.0482
0.0421
0.0384
0.0372
0.0362
0.0454
0.0418
0.0364
0.0353
0.0292
0.0370
0.0165
0.0142
0.0097
0.0207
0.0258
0.0412
0.0611
0.1311
0.3539
0.5854
1.3595
0.6991
0.2412
0.1792
0.1428
0.1161

Displacement
Amplitude
X4 =
2 (CF) 3
(mm)
0.4014
0.6313
1.0390
1.3924
4.6765
2.6040
1.1845
0.8202
0.4621
0.2826
0.2088
0.2279
0.2648
0.3022
0.4089
0.6043
0.6265
0.9587
0.8146
0.5112
0.3121
0.2889
0.1379
0.0967
0.0388
0.0274
0.0124
0.0242
0.0289
0.0431
0.0577
0.1090
0.2614
0.4177
0.8943
0.4606
0.1500
0.1064
0.0812
0.0615

201

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

8.9111
8.9416
9.0942
9.3079
9.4910
9.7351
10.0098
10.2539
10.4370
10.6812
11.1389
11.3220
11.5356
11.5967
11.9019
12.2375
12.2986
12.6343
13.0005
13.5193

55.9901
56.1817
57.1405
58.4833
59.6337
61.1674
62.8934
64.4272
65.5776
67.1120
69.9878
71.1382
72.4803
72.8642
74.7818
76.8905
77.2744
79.3836
81.6846
84.9443

0.0693
0.0695
0.0693
0.0690
0.0689
0.0690
0.0693
0.0696
0.0695
0.0701
0.0712
0.0712
0.0719
0.0716
0.0728
0.0733
0.0737
0.0738
0.0732
0.0745

0.0669
0.0658
0.0622
0.0590
0.0576
0.0573
0.0597
0.0646
0.0690
0.0816
0.1460
0.2168
2.7661
1.8836
0.1822
0.0812
0.0712
0.0449
0.0306
0.0206

0.0318
0.0308
0.0272
0.0237
0.0219
0.0204
0.0194
0.0205
0.0200
0.0227
0.0369
0.0523
0.6252
0.4200
0.0391
0.0166
0.0144
0.0088
0.0060
0.0038

0.0980
0.0983
0.0980
0.0976
0.0975
0.0976
0.0980
0.0985
0.0983
0.0992
0.1006
0.1007
0.1017
0.1013
0.1030
0.1036
0.1042
0.1044
0.1035
0.1054

0.0947
0.0931
0.0880
0.0835
0.0815
0.0810
0.0845
0.0914
0.0976
0.1154
0.2064
0.3066
3.9118
2.6639
0.2576
0.1148
0.1007
0.0635
0.0432
0.0291

0.0450
0.0436
0.0385
0.0335
0.0310
0.0288
0.0275
0.0290
0.0283
0.0321
0.0522
0.0739
0.8842
0.5940
0.0553
0.0235
0.0204
0.0124
0.0085
0.0054

202

Table 14.7 Frequency ratio and the displacement transmissibility ratio


No.

Frequency ratio
f / fn

Amplitude ratio
X4 / X2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

0.4192
0.4611
0.4910
0.5030
0.5329
0.5569
0.5868
0.6048
0.6707
0.7246
0.8084
0.8443
0.8922
0.9401
0.9761
0.9880
0.9940
1.0000
1.0299
1.0419
1.0659
1.0719
1.1198
1.1437
1.2036
1.2276
1.2695
1.3772
1.3892
1.4252
1.4491
1.4970
1.5270
1.5389
1.5629
1.5689
1.6048
1.6288
1.6527
1.6886
1.7485
1.7545
1.7844
1.8264
1.8623
1.9102
1.9641
2.0120
2.0479
2.0958
2.1856
2.2216
2.2635

1.3652
1.4574
1.5315
1.5825
1.5726
1.8208
1.9152
2.0619
2.2475
1.9927
2.3916
3.1017
4.6431
6.2660
9.7197
15.7434
16.8614
26.5040
17.9559
12.2436
8.5645
8.1901
4.7185
2.6171
2.3581
1.9267
1.2771
1.1698
1.1200
1.0455
0.9437
0.8314
0.7387
0.7134
0.6579
0.6588
0.6217
0.5937
0.5688
0.5296
0.4750
0.4685
0.4379
0.4010
0.3797
0.3560
0.3255
0.3171
0.2895
0.2779
0.2516
0.2411
0.2260

203

54
55
56
57
58
59
60

2.2755
2.3354
2.4012
2.4132
2.4791
2.5509
2.6527

0.2230
0.2147
0.2097
0.2027
0.1949
0.1910
0.1846

Table 14.8 Estimate of the natural frequencies of the frame in figures 4.1c and d; Experiment-I:
Impulse hammer test and modal extraction using ME scope; Experiment-II: Shake table test.

Mode No.

FE Model

1
2
3
4

2.79916
5.16252
8.05047
11.68590

Natural frequencies in Hz
4-DOF Model
Experiment I
2.7914
5.0438
7.9083
11.2579

2.74658
5.06592
7.93457
11.59668

Experiment II
2.7161
5.0964
7.9651
11.5356

204

Experiment 5
Dynamics of a vibration absorber
The performance of the experiment, as per suggested procedure here in, on the setup
developed at IISc, resulted in observations and subsequent analysis as provided in
tables 15.1-15.9 and figures15.1-15.3. Refined methods of experimental and
mathematical modeling can be brought to bear on the structure under study. Thus the
beam vibration absorber system was analyzed mathematically using finite element
(FE) analysis and experimentally by using experimental modal analysis (EMA)
procedures. The FE analysis was carried out using NISA software and the EMA was
carried out using MEscope software. The FE modeling involved descretization of the
structure using 2-D beam and concentrated mass elements resulting in a system with
40 degrees of freedom. Figure 15.4 shows the setup used for measurement of
frequency response functions using impulse hammer test. Figures 15.5 and 15.6
respectively show the first three mode shapes as predicted by detailed FE analysis and
EMA. Both the FE model and the EMA model predict the presence of an intermediate
mode that gets sandwiched between the two modes predicted by the approximate 2dof model for the beam-absorber system. Figure 15.7 shows the frequency response
functions obtained using refined and approximate methods.

Calculations for main beam (1 dof system)

Mass of main beam, M0 = (0.3714* MA)+ MB+MC +2* MD+ ME + Mac1 = 3.9999 Kg
Stiffness of the main beam, K1=2.5898e+004 N/m
Frequency of the main beam, f =12.8065 Hz
Damping ratio = 0.202 % obtained from table15.5

Calculations for main beam and absorber beam (2 dof system)

M1=(0.3714* MA)+ MB+MC +2* MD+ ME + MF + Mac1= 4.1952 kg


K1=192*E*I/ L3e 1 = 2.5898e+004 N/m
M2=0.2357*2* MG+2* MH + Mac2 = 0.4516 kg
K2=2*3*E*I/ L3e 2 = 0.30229 e+004 N/m
Mass matrix (kg)
M=[4.1952 0
0 0.4516]

Stiffness matrix (N/m)

205

K= 1.0e+004 * [2.89209 -0.30229


-0.30229 0.30229]
Natural frequencies (rad/s)
{n} = =[67.7897
94.8288]
Mass normalized modal matrix
= [-0.3373 -0.3530
-1.0759 1.0281]

Damping ratios obtained from half power bandwidth method


{} = [0.026508
0.021382]
Damping matrix determination
[ t ]1 =[-1.4150 -1.4808
-0.4858 0.4643];

0
[2 ] = [3.5939
0 4.0554];
[ ] 1 = [-1.4150 -0.4858
-1.4808 0.4643];
Damping matrix (Ns/m)
C = [ t ] 1 [2 ][ ] = [16.0892 -0.3172
-0.3172 1.7224];
1

Orthogonality checks:

t M = [1.0000 0.0000
0.0000 1.0000]
t K = 1.0e+003 *[4.5954 -0.0000
0.0000 8.9925];
\
= n2

206

t C = [3.5939 0.0000
-0.0000 4.0554];

\
=

2 n n

207

Figure 15.1 Plot of X/F versus f

Figure 15.2 Plot of Y/F versus f

Figure 15.3 Plot of Z/F versus f

208

Charge Amplifier
Signal
Conditioning
Amplifiers
F
A1
A3

Anti-aliasing
Filters

A2

Simultaneous
Sampling and
hold Board

Analyzer
&
Display

Figure 15.4 Setup for impulse hammer test; F: point of application of impulse; A1, A2,
A3: accelerometers.

209

(b)

(c)
Figure 15.5 Mode shapes of the combined system obtained from detailed FE model; (a) I-mode; (b) IImode; (c) III-mode

210

(a)

(b)

211

(c)
Figure 15.6 Mode shapes of the combined system obtained from experimental modal analysis; (a) Imode; (b) II-mode; (c) III-mode

(a)

212

(b)

(c)
Figure 15.7 Frequency response functions using refined and approximate methods; (a)

&
X&
versus f; (b)
F

&
&
Y&
Z&
versus f ; (c)
versus f; Experiment-I: Impulse hammer test and modal extraction using ME
F
F
scope; Experiment-II: sine test using motor with eccentric mass.

213

Table 15.1 Equipments used in free vibration and forced vibration test of DVA

S.No.
1
2
3
4

Equipments
Quantity
Oscilloscope
1
Accelerometers
2
Transducer conditioning amplifiers
2
Regulated DC power supplier
1

Table 15.2 Physical properties of parts of the structure


Notat
ion

Part

Material

Main Beam

Mild Steel

B
C

D.C. Motor
Fly wheel

Aluminum

Eccentric mass

Mild Steel

Connecting
plates

Mild Steel

Connecting rod

Mild Steel

G
H
ac1
ac2

Absorber beam
Mass on
absorber beam
Accelrometer1
Accelrometer2

Aluminum
Mild Steel
-

Mass kg
Formula
Value
*D1*B1*
Le1
-

*Dc*Bc*
Lc
*D2*B2*
L2
*(pi*DG2
/4)*TG
-

Material Properties
Youngs Modulus
Mass density
(E) N/m2
() kg/m3

MA = 3.0153

2.10E+11

7800

0.69E+11

2700

2.10E+11

7800

ME =0.510

2.10E+11

7800

MF = 0.1953

2.10E+11

7800

MG = 0.0762

0.69E+11

2700

MH = 0.2058

2.10E+11

7800

Mac1= 0.055
Mac2= 0.004

MB+MC =
2.255
MD =0.03

Table 15.3 Geometric data of the structure


Part

Dimensions in mm
Depth (D)
Width (B)
Length (L)
Effective Length (Le)
Main beam
D1=6.43
B1 =50.10
L1 =1500
Le 1= 1200
Absorber beam
D2=3.15
B2 =29.85
L2=300*
Le 2 = 220
Connecting rod
Dc =11.92
Bc =11.92
Lc =176.26
Mass on absorber
Diameter (DG )
40
beam
Thickness (TG )
21
Eccentricity of eccentric mass on the flywheel, e=50 mm
* The absorber is modeled as a cantilever beam. The total length of the absorber beam is 2*L2

Table 15.4 Details of the sensors used; CF: conversion factor

Sl. No.
1
2

Sensitivity, S
Mass
CFx10-6
-2
kg
pC/ms pC/g
Accelerometer type 4370, B & K 10.05
98.7 1 m/mV 0.055
Accelerometer type 4375, B & K 0.320
3.14 1 m/mV 0.004
Sensor

214

Table 15.5 Free vibration test data on primary beam (without the absorber)

S.No.
1
2
3
4
5

Quantity
Amplitude of 0th peak
Amplitude of nth peak
Number of cycles
Logarithmic decrement
Damping ratio

Notation
A0
An
n

Observations
2600 mV
2440 mV
5
0.013
0.00202

Table 15.6 Forced vibration test data on primary beam (without the absorber)
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

Frequency,
f
(Hz)

Frequency
=2f
(rad/s)

Amplitude

rms (mV)

5.1000
5.6000
6.2000
6.6000
7.2000
7.7000
8.2000
8.7000
9.2000
9.8000
10.4000
10.8000
11.3000
11.6000
11.9000
12.0000
12.2500
12.3000
12.6000
12.7000
12.8000
12.8500
12.9000
13.0000
13.6000
13.8500
14.0500
14.3500
14.6500
15.0200
15.3500
16.0000
16.7000
17.1000
17.6000
18.2000
19.1000
19.9000

32.0442
35.1858
38.9557
41.4690
45.2389
48.3805
51.5221
54.6637
57.8053
61.5752
65.3451
67.8584
71.0000
72.8849
74.7699
75.3982
76.9690
77.2832
79.1681
79.7965
80.4248
80.7389
81.0531
81.6814
85.4513
87.0221
88.2788
90.1637
92.0487
94.3734
96.4469
100.5310
104.9292
107.4425
110.5841
114.3540
120.0088
125.0354

60
80
114
140
184
233
290
373
464
630
880
1130
1660
2000
2830
3140
4730
5130
11000
20000
35000
40000
50000
15000
4050
3370
2910
2470
2130
1870
1700
1450
1270
1190
1130
1050
978
925

Amplitude
X = 2 (CF)
(m) x10-3
0.0849
0.1131
0.1612
0.1980
0.2602
0.3295
0.4101
0.5275
0.6562
0.8910
1.2445
1.5981
2.3476
2.8284
4.0022
4.4406
6.6892
7.2549
15.5563
28.2843
49.4975
56.5685
70.7107
21.2132
5.7276
4.7659
4.1154
3.4931
3.0123
2.6446
2.4042
2.0506
1.7961
1.6829
1.5981
1.4849
1.3831
1.3081

Force,
F=2MD e2
(N)

Receptance
X/F
(m/N) x10-3

3.0805
3.7141
4.5527
5.1590
6.1397
7.0220
7.9636
8.9644
10.0244
11.3745
12.8100
13.8143
15.1230
15.9366
16.7716
17.0547
17.7727
17.9181
18.8028
19.1024
19.4044
19.5563
19.7088
20.0156
21.9058
22.7185
23.3794
24.3885
25.4189
26.7190
27.9060
30.3194
33.0304
34.6317
36.6865
39.2305
43.2064
46.9015

0.0275
0.0305
0.0354
0.0384
0.0424
0.0469
0.0515
0.0588
0.0655
0.0783
0.0972
0.1157
0.1552
0.1775
0.2386
0.2604
0.3764
0.4049
0.8273
1.4807
2.5508
2.8926
3.5878
1.0598
0.2615
0.2098
0.1760
0.1432
0.1185
0.0990
0.0862
0.0676
0.0544
0.0486
0.0436
0.0379
0.0320
0.0279

215

Table 15.7 Free vibration test data combined system.

S.No.

Quantity

Notation

1
Amplitude of 0th peak
A0
2
Amplitude of nth peak
An
3
Number of cycles
n
4
Logarithmic decrement

5
Damping ratio

Average value of damping ratio, = 0.00195

Observations on
primary beam
20.0 V
18.4 V
8
0.0104
0.00165

Observations on
absorber beam
2.12 V
1.92 V
7
0.0142
0.00225

Table 15.8 Forced vibration test data on combined system; measurement made on main beam
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

Frequency,
f
(Hz)

Frequency
=2f
(rad/s)

Amplitude

rms (mV)

5.0000
5.7000
6.3600
6.9500
7.7000
8.3300
8.9600
9.5600
10.0800
10.5500
10.8700
11.4400
12.0200
12.7400
13.2500
13.6400
14.1000
14.6000
15.1300
15.5800
15.7700
16.3700
16.7200
17.1200
17.8300
18.2500
19.0000
19.7600

31.4159
35.8142
39.9611
43.6681
48.3805
52.3389
56.2973
60.0673
63.3345
66.2876
68.2982
71.8796
75.5239
80.0478
83.2522
85.7026
88.5929
91.7345
95.0646
97.8920
99.0858
102.8557
105.0549
107.5681
112.0292
114.6681
119.3805
124.1557

60
91
131
182
269
383
567
880
1530
3500
28000
2700
1300
703
405
240
36
340
1040
3200
13300
5240
3090
2230
1610
1420
1200
1060

Amplitude
Y = 2 (CF)
(m) x10-3
0.0849
0.1287
0.1853
0.2574
0.3804
0.5416
0.8019
1.2445
2.1637
4.9497
39.5980
3.8184
1.8385
0.9942
0.5728
0.3394
0.0509
0.4808
1.4708
4.5255
18.8090
7.4105
4.3699
3.1537
2.2769
2.0082
1.6971
1.4991

Force,
F=2MD e2
(N)

Receptance
Y/F
(m/N) x10-3

2.9609
3.8480
4.7907
5.7207
7.0220
8.2181
9.5082
10.8242
12.0338
13.1821
13.9939
15.5000
17.1116
19.2229
20.7928
22.0348
23.5461
25.2457
27.1118
28.7485
29.4540
31.7379
33.1096
34.7127
37.6516
39.4463
42.7551
46.2439

0.0287
0.0334
0.0387
0.0450
0.0542
0.0659
0.0843
0.1150
0.1798
0.3755
2.8297
0.2463
0.1074
0.0517
0.0275
0.0154
0.0022
0.0190
0.0542
0.1574
0.6386
0.2335
0.1320
0.0909
0.0605
0.0509
0.0397
0.0324

216

Table 15.9 Forced vibration test data on combined system; measurement made on absorber beam
No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Frequency,
f
(Hz)

Frequency
=2f
(rad/s)

Amplitude

rms (mV)

Amplitude

Force,
F=2MD e2
(N)

Receptance
Z /F
(m/N) x10-3

Z = 2 (CF)
(m) x10-3
5.2000
32.6726
72
0.1018
3.2025
0.0032
6.0000
37.6991
256
0.3620
4.2637
0.0085
6.5000
40.8407
436
0.6166
5.0039
0.0123
7.2000
45.2389
940
1.3294
6.1397
0.0217
7.7200
48.5062
1680
2.3759
7.0586
0.0337
8.3600
52.5274
3550
5.0205
8.2774
0.0607
8.8800
55.7947
6630
9.3762
9.3391
0.1004
9.5000
59.6903
13800
19.5161
10.6888
0.1826
10.0000
62.8319
27500
38.8909
11.8435
0.3284
10.4800
65.8478
67000
94.7523
13.0078
0.7284
10.8500
68.1726
70000
989.9495
13.9425
7.1002
11.3000
71.0000
14700
207.8894
15.1230
1.3747
11.5000
72.2566
8610
121.7638
15.6631
0.7774
11.9000
74.7699
6620
93.6209
16.7716
0.5582
12.2000
76.6549
4470
63.2153
17.6279
0.3586
12.8500
80.7389
3720
52.6087
19.5563
0.2690
13.5000
84.8230
3310
46.8105
21.5848
0.2169
14.0000
87.9646
3510
49.6389
23.2133
0.2138
14.5000
91.1062
4060
57.4171
24.9010
0.2306
15.0000
94.2478
5270
74.5291
26.6479
0.2797
15.5500
97.7035
11000
155.5635
28.6379
0.5432
15.7500
98.9602
20700
292.7422
29.3793
0.9964
15.8000
99.2743
32800
463.8620
29.5662
1.5689
16.2000
101.7876
12600
178.1909
31.0821
0.5733
16.6000
104.3009
7230
102.2476
32.6360
0.3133
17.0000
106.8142
4070
57.5585
34.2278
0.1682
17.5000
109.9557
2500
35.3553
36.2708
0.0975
18.1000
113.7257
1390
19.6576
38.8006
0.0507
18.7300
117.6841
904
12.7845
41.5486
0.0308
19.2000
120.6372
720
10.1823
43.6600
0.0233
19.8000
124.4071
550
7.7782
46.4314
0.0168
Note: Here in this case CF=1 m/mV from 1-10 points and 0.1 m/mV from 11-31 points

217

EXPERIMENT 6
Dynamics of a four storied building model with and without an open
ground floor
The frequency response functions for displacement of different floors were obtained
using impulse hammer test. Figure 16.1 shows the experimental setup and figures
16.2 and 16.3 show the comparison between analytical and experimental results.
Tables 16.1-16.8 document the results of experiment as per the suggested procedure.
Figure 16.4 show the plot of absolute floor displacements for the two frames obtained
using theory and experiment. Results on spring forces from theory and experiment are
shown in figure 16.5 for the two frames. Tables 16.9 and 16.10 compare the results on
fundamental natural frequency for the two frames using theory and experiment. From
Table 16.9 it may be observed that the match between theoretical and experiment is
not good. This could be due to the approximate nature of determination of inter-storey
stiffness.
Brief details of analysis of the 4-dof model is given below.
Calculations for building frame without soft first story

Mass matrix (kg)


M = [3.0390
0
0
0

0
3.0390
0
0

0
0
3.0390
0

0
0
0
2.2910];

Stiffness matrix (N/m)


K = [558260
-279130
0
0

-279130
558260
-279130
0

0
-279130
558260
-279130

0
0
-279130
279130];

Natural frequencies (rad/s)

{ n } = [111.2212
317.4533
478.3553
575.2993];
Mass normalized modal matrix
= [-0.1418
-0.2645
-0.3516
-0.3913

0.3483
0.3145
-0.0644
-0.3726

0.3719
-0.1827
-0.2821
0.3213

-0.2221
0.3561
-0.3489
0.2033] ;

218

Damping ratios
{} = [0.0190
0.0074
0.0076
0.0056];
Damping matrix determination

[ ]

t 1

= [-0.4309
-0.8037
-1.0684
-0.8964

1.0586
0.9557
-0.1957
-0.8537

1.1301
-0.5552
-0.8573
0.7360

-0.6750
1.0823
-1.0603
0.4657];

-1.0684
-0.1957
-0.8573
-1.0603

-0.8964
-0.8537
0.7360
0.4657];

[2 ] = [4.2353
4.6922
7.2446
6.4940];

[ ]1 = [-0.4309

-0.8037
1.0586 0.9557
1.1301 -0.5552
-0.6750 1.0823

Damping matrix (Ns/m)

[ ] [2 ][]

C = t

= [18.2551 -3.0760 -1.3936 1.3802


-3.0760 16.8615 -1.2451 -0.4640
-1.3936 -1.2451 17.6396 -2.9379
1.3802 -0.4640 -2.9379 12.1562];
Orthogonality checks:

[ ][M ][] = [1.0000


t

0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000


0.0000 1.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000
0.0000 -0.0000 1.0000 0.0000
-0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 1.0000];

[ ][K ][ ] = 1.0e+005 *[0.1237


t

0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 1.0078 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 2.2882
-0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

[ ][C ][] = [4.2353


t

-0.0000 -0.0000
0.0000 4.6922 -0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 7.2446
-0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
3.3097];

-0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0000
6.4940];

219

Calculations for building frame with soft first story

Mass matrix (kg)


M = [2.6398
0
0
0

0
3.0390
0
0

0
0
3.0390
0

0
0
0
2.2910];

Stiffness matrix (N/m)


K = [306801
-279130
0
0

-279130
558260
-279130
0

0
-279130
558260
-279130

0
0
-279130
279130];

Natural frequencies (rad/s)

{ n } = [ 48.0745
261.8895
456.5069
571.1084];
Mass normalized modal matrix
= [-0.2768
-0.2981
-0.3120
-0.3181

0.4047
0.1823
-0.1762
-0.4031

0.3263
-0.2845
-0.2498
0.3516

-0.1788
0.3550
-0.3718
0.2217] ;

Damping ratios
{} = [0.0050
0.0050
0.0050
0.0050];
Damping matrix determination

[ ]

t 1

= [-0.7306 1.0683 0.8614 -0.4720


-0.9061 0.5540 -0.8645 1.0788
-0.9483 -0.5355 -0.7592 -1.1299
-0.7287 -0.9236 0.8056 0.5079];

[2 ] = [0.4807
2.6189
4.5651
5.7111];

220

[ ]1 = [-0.7306

-0.9061 -0.9483 -0.7287


1.0683 0.5540 -0.5355 -0.9236
0.8614 -0.8645 -0.7592 0.8056
-0.4720 1.0788 -1.1299 0.5079];

Damping matrix (Ns/m)

[ ] [2 ][]

C = t

= [7.9050
-4.4390
-1.1052
-0.5289
Orthogonality checks:

-4.4390
11.2563
-4.3286
-1.0729

-1.1052
-4.3286
11.1055
-4.4424

-0.5289
-1.0729
-4.4424
6.9254];

[ ][M ][] = [1.0000


t

-0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000


-0.0000 1.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000
-0.0000 -0.0000 1.0000 0.0000
0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 1.0000];

[ ][K ][ ] = 1.0e+005 *[0.0231


t

0.0000
0.0000 0.6859
-0.0000 -0.0000
0.0000 0.0000

-0.0000
-0.0000
2.0840
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
3.2616];

[ ][C ][] = [0.4807


t

-0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000


0.0000 2.6189 -0.0000 0.0000
-0.0000 -0.0000 4.5651 -0.0000
0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 5.7111];

221

Figure 16.1 Setup for impact hammer tests on the two frames.

222

(a)

(b)

(c)
Figure 16.2 Frequency response function for the structure with soft first storey;
response measured at (a) first floor (drive point); (b) second floor; (c) third floor.

223

(a)

(b)

(c)
Figure 16.3 Frequency response function for the structure without soft first storey;
response measured at (a) first floor (drive point); (b) second floor; (c) third floor.

224

0.02

0.012
I Floor
II Floor
III Floor
IV Floor

0.018

0.014

Absolute Displacement, m

Absolute Displacement, m

0.016

I Floor
II Floor
III Floor

0.01

0.012
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0.002
0

5.5

6.5

7
7.5
8
Frequency, Hz

8.5

9.5

10

5.5

6.5

(a)

9.5

10

(b)

x 10

5
I Floor
II Floor
III Floor
IV Floor

x 10

I Floor
II Floor
III Floor

4.5
4
Absolute Displacement, m

Absolute Displacement, m

8.5

-3

-3

7
7.5
8
Frequency, Hz

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1

0.5
0
10

11

12

13

14
15
16
Frequency, Hz

(c)

17

18

19

20

0
10

11

12

13

14
15
16
Frequency, Hz

17

18

(d)

Figure 16.4 Absolute displacement response of the four storied building model (a)
analytical (with soft first storey); (b) experimental (with soft first storey); (c)
analytical (without soft first storey); (d) experimental (without soft first storey).

225

19

20

450

300
I Floor
II Floor
III Floor
IV Floor

400
350

250

200
Spring force, N

300
Spring force, N

I Floor
II Floor
III Floor

250
200
150

150

100

100
50
50
0

5.5

6.5

7
7.5
8
Frequency, Hz

8.5

9.5

10

5.5

6.5

(a)

8.5

9.5

10

(b)

600

450
I Floor
II Floor
III Floor
IV Floor

500

I Floor
II Floor
III Floor

400
350
300
Spring force, N

400
Spring force, N

7
7.5
8
Frequency, Hz

300

200

250
200
150
100
50

100

0
0
10

11

12

13

14
15
16
Frequency, Hz

(c)

17

18

19

20

-50
10

11

12

13

14
15
16
Frequency, Hz

17

18

(d)

Figure 16.5 Spring forces in four storied building model (a) analytical (with soft first
storey); (b) experimental (with soft first storey); (c) analytical (without soft first
storey); (d) experimental (without soft first storey).

226

19

20

Table 16.1 Details of sensors and equipment used.


Sl.No.
1
2
3
4

Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4

Part
Column
Slab
Stiffener
A
Stiffener
B

Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4

Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4

Equipments
Accelerometers
Nexus conditioning amplifier
Shake Table
Data Acquisition System

Quantity
4
1
1
1

Table 16.2 Physical properties of parts of the structure


Material Properties
Mass
Quantit
Material
Youngs Modulus
Mass density ()
kg
y
(E) N/m2
kg/m3
4 nos.
Aluminum Mc = 0.6976
69.0E+009
2700
1 no.
Aluminum Ms = 1.5430
69.0E+009
2700
2 nos.
Aluminum Msa = 0.2592
69.0E+009
2700
2 nos.

Part
Slab
Column
Stiffener A
Stiffener B

Aluminum

Msb = 0.5391

69.0E+009

Table 16.3 Geometric data of the structure


Dimensions in mm
Depth
Width
150
300
25.1391
6.4233
150
2
2
312

Table 16.4 Details of the sensors used


Sensitivity, S
Sensor
mV/ms-2
mV/g
B & K Deltatron Accelerometer Type 4507
93.8
920
002, Sl. No. 10308
B & K Deltatron Accelerometer Type 4507
94.6
928
002, Sl. No. 10309
B & K Deltatron Accelerometer Type 4507,
9.80
96.1
Sl. No. 11574
B & K Deltatron Accelerometer Type 4507,
10.04
98.4
Sl. No. 11575

2700

Length
12.7
400
160
160

Mass
gm
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8

227

Table 16.5 Base motion test data on four storey building frame with soft first storey
Sl.no

Frequency
Hz

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

2.29
2.40
2.62
2.90
3.00
3.30
3.70
4.00
4.30
4.40
4.50
4.75
4.90
4.95
5.10
5.25
5.40
5.68
5.81
5.95
6.30

Base motion
Amplitude
x*10-4
rms (V)
1.0930
1.0810
1.0840
1.0870
1.1360
1.1220
1.1520
1.1510
1.1750
1.2160
1.2180
1.2100
1.2280
1.2640
1.2580
1.2550
1.3360
1.3240
1.3620
1.3950
1.5220

First floor
Amplitude
x1*10-4
rms (V)
3.6610
1.4110
1.4590
1.4360
1.5350
2.4460
1.7940
1.7600
2.0680
2.1920
2.1390
2.4190
2.5780
2.6830
3.0420
3.4880
4.0300
4.5040
5.3090
6.1890
11.6120

Second floor
Amplitude
x2*10-4
rms (V)
3.9680
1.3380
1.4890
1.5300
1.5050
2.6490
1.6850
1.8170
2.1060
2.1920
2.2150
2.4340
2.7920
2.7610
3.2030
3.6870
4.2500
4.7730
5.6370
6.6130
12.5850

Third floor
Amplitude
x3*10-4
rms (V)
4.2210
1.3410
1.3970
1.4170
1.4600
2.6870
1.7230
1.8830
2.1000
2.2350
2.2520
2.4980
2.8530
2.8690
3.2120
3.7870
4.4080
5.0380
5.9360
7.0100
13.4630

Base motion
First floor
Displacement Displacement
Amplitude
Amplitude
Xg= 2 x
(m) *10-4
1.545721
1.528750
1.532993
1.537235
1.606531
1.586732
1.629158
1.627744
1.661685
1.719667
1.722496
1.711182
1.736638
1.787549
1.779064
1.774821
1.889371
1.872401
1.926140
1.972809
2.152412

X1= 2 x1
(m) *10-4
5.177386
1.995436
2.063318
2.030791
2.170797
3.459133
2.537075
2.488992
2.924566
3.099926
3.024974
3.420950
3.645808
3.794299
4.301996
4.932730
5.699226
6.369557
7.507988
8.752484
16.421690

Second floor
Displacement
Amplitude
X2= 2 x2
(m) *10-4
5.611546
1.892200
2.105744
2.163726
2.128371
3.746216
2.382927
2.569601
2.978305
3.099926
3.132453
3.442163
3.948446
3.904606
4.529683
5.214155
6.010350
6.749977
7.971845
9.352105
17.797707

Third floor
Displacement
Amplitude
X3= 2 x3
(m) *10-4
5.969338
1.896442
1.975637
2.003921
2.064732
3.799955
2.436667
2.662939
2.969820
3.160737
3.184778
3.532672
4.034713
4.057340
4.542410
5.355575
6.233794
7.124740
8.394691
9.913542
19.039375

228

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

6.40
6.70
6.80
6.90
7.20
7.60
7.80
8.20
8.70
9.26
9.95
10.70
12.00
12.95
13.89
15.30
17.20
17.60

1.5510
1.0330
0.9240
0.9900
1.1690
1.2040
1.2390
1.2110
1.2170
1.2260
1.2010
1.1620
1.1440
1.1370
1.1830
1.2610
1.4310
1.4730

13.3400
69.5040
25.3700
17.8570
6.1100
4.3970
3.1800
2.0140
1.7510
1.5690
1.5100
1.1220
0.7930
0.7830
0.8330
0.7100
0.8040
0.8990

14.3090
75.5870
27.4880
19.4060
6.6630
4.8490
3.5220
2.2400
1.8360
1.5460
1.5700
1.2040
0.7420
0.8350
0.8700
0.7990
0.8490
0.8760

15.3550
82.3930
29.7840
20.9650
7.2090
5.1800
3.7620
2.4220
1.8850
1.6080
1.5890
1.2060
0.7780
0.7270
0.6130
0.5210
0.5070
0.6740

2.193424
1.460869
1.306721
1.400058
1.653200
1.702697
1.752194
1.712596
1.721081
1.733809
1.698454
1.643300
1.617845
1.607945
1.672999
1.783306
2.023720
2.083117

18.865428
98.292557
35.878254
25.253369
8.640762
6.218237
4.497156
2.848199
2.476264
2.218880
2.135442
1.586732
1.121461
1.107319
1.178029
1.004082
1.137017
1.271366

20.235788
106.895135
38.873530
27.443965
9.422815
6.857456
4.980812
3.167808
2.596471
2.186353
2.220294
1.702697
1.049336
1.180857
1.230354
1.129946
1.200656
1.238839

21.715041
116.520181
42.120533
29.648703
10.194968
7.325556
5.320220
3.425192
2.665767
2.274034
2.247164
1.705525
1.100248
1.028123
0.866905
0.736798
0.716999
0.953171

40

19.70

1.2740

0.7550

0.6440

0.4430

1.801691

1.067721

0.910745

0.626491

229

Table 16.6 Base motion test data on four storey building frame without soft first storey
Sl.no Frequency
(Hz)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

2.44
2.44
4.88
5.11
5.49
5.68
5.62
6.17
6.58
6.90
7.30
7.70
7.95
8.20
8.70
8.93
9.30
9.45

Base motion
Amplitude
x*10-4
rms(V)
1.0110
1.0400
1.1200
1.1300
1.1440
1.1540
1.1880
1.1800
1.1960
1.2240
1.2410
1.2780
1.3220
1.3290
1.3600
1.3780
1.4230
1.4350

Base motion
First floor
Second
First floor
floor
Third floor Displacement Displacement
Amplitude
Amplitude Amplitude Amplitude Amplitude
-4
-4
-4
Xg= 2 x X1= 2 x1
x1*10
x2*10
x3*10
rms(V)
rms(V)
rms(V)
(m) *10-4
(m) *10-4
1.2370
1.3210
1.1800
1.4298
1.7494
1.2380
1.2620
1.1700
1.4708
1.7508
1.3560
1.4070
1.3130
1.5839
1.9177
1.3340
1.4720
1.3780
1.5980
1.8865
1.3340
1.4700
1.4000
1.6178
1.8865
1.3720
1.5690
1.4110
1.6320
1.9403
1.4320
1.4650
1.4530
1.6801
2.0251
1.4060
1.4810
1.4910
1.6688
1.9884
1.3990
1.6550
1.5410
1.6914
1.9785
1.4910
1.6680
1.6570
1.7310
2.1086
1.6280
1.8720
1.9060
1.7550
2.3023
1.7600
2.0330
2.1470
1.8073
2.4890
1.7060
1.9510
2.0110
1.8696
2.4126
1.6510
1.8390
1.9830
1.8795
2.3348
1.6810
1.8920
2.0330
1.9233
2.3773
1.9470
2.0190
2.1350
1.9488
2.7534
1.7830
2.0960
2.2430
2.0124
2.5215
1.8240
2.1480
2.3490
2.0294
2.5795

Second floor
Displacement
Amplitude

Third floor
Displacement
Amplitude

X2= 2 x2
(m) *10-4
1.8682
1.7847
1.9898
2.0817
2.0789
2.2189
2.0718
2.0944
2.3405
2.3589
2.6474
2.8751
2.7591
2.6007
2.6757
2.8553
2.9642
3.0377

X3= 2 x3
(m) *10-4
1.6688
1.6546
1.8568
1.9488
1.9799
1.9954
2.0548
2.1086
2.1793
2.3433
2.6955
3.0363
2.8440
2.8044
2.8751
3.0193
3.1721
3.3220

230

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

9.54
9.80
10.42
10.64
10.70
11.00
11.30
11.50
11.90
12.20
12.40
12.50
12.82
13.00
13.20
13.35
13.55
13.65
13.71
13.80
13.90
14.29
14.29
14.50
15.40
15.15
15.62
15.80

1.4550
1.4860
1.4970
1.5050
1.5120
1.5370
1.5310
1.5630
1.5630
1.5790
1.6100
1.6030
1.6220
1.6450
1.6670
1.7050
1.7070
1.7330
1.7360
1.8250
1.8720
1.3430
1.3280
0.9850
0.8750
0.9050
0.9100
0.9040

1.8470
2.1270
2.0960
2.2070
2.3360
2.3280
2.2940
2.4860
2.7140
2.9110
2.9760
2.9710
3.2440
3.3390
3.7240
3.8260
4.2920
4.3690
4.4560
5.6400
6.7390
11.4610
11.0010
7.7460
4.5600
4.7640
3.6440
3.0770

2.2170
2.3180
2.4660
2.5430
2.7350
2.8420
2.9070
3.1400
3.4230
3.8420
3.9290
4.0240
4.5840
4.6220
5.2750
5.5730
6.1980
6.2910
6.3670
8.6810
10.7160
20.1390
19.2880
14.1780
8.7890
9.0380
7.1750
6.2160

2.4170
2.5570
2.7290
2.8600
2.9990
3.1330
3.3970
3.7450
4.1670
4.6580
4.8510
4.8710
5.7250
5.8200
6.7020
7.1550
8.1130
8.2480
8.3410
11.7310
14.6900
29.9940
28.8310
21.4670
13.3670
13.6860
10.8740
9.4210

2.0577
2.1015
2.1171
2.1284
2.1383
2.1736
2.1651
2.2104
2.2104
2.2330
2.2769
2.2670
2.2938
2.3264
2.3575
2.4112
2.4140
2.4508
2.4551
2.5809
2.6474
1.8993
1.8781
1.3930
1.2374
1.2799
1.2869
1.2784

2.6120
3.0080
2.9642
3.1211
3.3036
3.2923
3.2442
3.5157
3.8381
4.1167
4.2087
4.2016
4.5877
4.7220
5.2665
5.4107
6.0697
6.1786
6.3017
7.9761
9.5303
16.2081
15.5576
10.9544
6.4488
6.7372
5.1533
4.3515

3.1353
3.2781
3.4874
3.5963
3.8678
4.0192
4.1111
4.4406
4.8408
5.4334
5.5564
5.6907
6.4827
6.5364
7.4599
7.8813
8.7652
8.8967
9.0042
12.2767
15.1546
28.4806
27.2771
20.0505
12.4294
12.7815
10.1469
8.7907

3.4181
3.6161
3.8594
4.0446
4.2412
4.4307
4.8040
5.2962
5.8930
6.5873
6.8603
6.8886
8.0963
8.2306
9.4780
10.1186
11.4734
11.6643
11.7958
16.5900
20.7746
42.4175
40.7728
30.3586
18.9036
19.3547
15.3780
13.3232

231

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

16.40
16.50
16.80
17.10
17.50
17.70
18.31
18.50
18.50
18.52
19.23

0.9560
1.0170
1.0090
1.0540
1.0800
1.0970
1.1400
1.1490
1.1370
1.1940
1.2140

2.4460
1.8250
1.7150
1.3010
1.0120
1.1360
1.2010
0.8010
1.2130
0.8350
1.3720

5.0660
4.1010
3.3770
2.9370
2.6460
2.1580
2.1120
1.8190
1.6990
1.5770
1.3570

7.7640
6.3160
5.2740
4.6540
4.0600
3.5570
3.2940
2.9320
2.9220
2.7990
2.5530

1.3520
1.4382
1.4269
1.4906
1.5273
1.5514
1.6122
1.6249
1.6079
1.6886
1.7168

3.4591
2.5809
2.4254
1.8399
1.4312
1.6065
1.6985
1.1328
1.7154
1.1809
1.9403

7.1643
5.7996
4.7758
4.1535
3.7420
3.0518
2.9868
2.5724
2.4027
2.2302
1.9191

10.9798
8.9321
7.4585
6.5817
5.7417
5.0303
4.6584
4.1464
4.1323
3.9583
3.6105

58

19.70

1.2400

0.7690

1.1550

2.1430

1.7536

1.0875

1.6334

3.0306

232

Table 16.7: Free vibration test data for the one storey structure without walls
S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Quantity
Amplitude of 0th peak
Amplitude of nth peak
Number of cycles
Logarithmic decrement
Damping ratio
Natural Frequency
(experiment)
Total mass (SDOF
approximation)
Stiffness (from experiment)

Notation
A0
An
n

Observations
16.0 mV
10.0 mV
16
0.0294
0.0047
19.23 Hz

M1

1.8954 kg

Kopen

2.7671E+04 N/m

Table 16.8: Free vibration test data for the one storey structure with walls

S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Quantity
Amplitude of 0th peak
Amplitude of nth peak
Number of cycles
Logarithmic decrement
Damping ratio from modal
analysis
Natural Frequency
(experiment)
Total mass (SDOF
approximation)
Stiffness (from experiment)

Notation
A0
An
n

Observations
18.4 mV
6.4 mV
2
0.5280
0.019

fs

55.51 Hz

M2

2.2946 kg

Kclose

2.7913E+05 N/m

Table 16.9 Estimate of the first natural frequency in Hz of the building frame with and without soft first
story
Frame with soft first story
Analytical
Experimental
7.65
6.70

Frame without soft first story


Analytical
Experimental
17.70
14.29

Table 16.10 Estimate of the fundamental mode shape of the building frame with and without soft first
story

Frame with soft first story


Analytical
1.0000
1.0759
1.1266
1.1456

Experimental
1.0000
1.0887
1.1905
*

Frame without soft first


story
Analytical Experimental
1.0000
1.0000
1.8562
1.7572
2.4653
2.6171
2.7433
*

*: this coordinate was not measured.

233

Experiment 7
Dynamics of one-span and two-span beams
Tables 17.1-17.11 show the results of experiment conducted on the setup developed at
IISc. The two beam structures were also studied experimentally using impulse
hammer test and, computationally, using commercial finite element software. The
results of these studies are superposed on the experimental results in figure 17.1. The
results show reasonable mutual agreement. In the FE model developed, and also in the
two-dof analytical model developed, the stiffening effect of due to the placement of
the motor and the dummy mass has not been included. Similarly the support
conditions have been assumed to correspond to perfect simple support situations. This
may not be correctly realized in the experimental setup. These features possibly
explain the difference between the analytical and experimental predictions. Some of
the calculations involved in the development of the two-dof model for the two beams
systems are summarized below.

Calculations for one-span beam


Mass matrix (kg)

M1 = 0.5* MA + ME + MF
M2 = 0.5*MA + MB + MC +2* MD1 + MF
M = [4.0826
0
0 4.0891]
Flexibility matrix (m/N)
F = 1.0e-004 *[0.9122 0.7095
0.7095 0.9122]
Stiffness matrix (N/m)
K = 1.0e+004 *[2.7748 -2.1582
-2.1582 2.7748]
Natural frequencies (rad/s)

{ n } = [38.8479
109.8784]
Mass normalized modal matrix
= [-0.3498 -0.3501
-0.3499 0.3495]

Damping ratios
{} = [0.0372

234

0.0148]
Damping matrix determination

[ ]

t 1

= [-1.4280 -1.4295
-1.4306 1.4291]

[2 ] = [2.8903

0
3.2524]

[ ]1 = [-1.4280
-1.4295

-1.4306
1.4291]

Damping matrix (Ns/m)

[ ] [2 ][]

C = t

= [12.5398 -0.7398
-0.7398 12.5582]

Orthogonality checks:

[ ][M ][] = [1.0000 0.0000


t

0.0000 1.0000]

[ ][K ][ ] = 1.0e+004 [0.1509


t

0.0000

0.0000
1.2073]

[ ][C ][] = [2.8903


t

0.0000
0.0000 3.2524];

Calculations for two-span beam


Mass matrix (kg)
M1 = 0.25*MA + ME + MF
M2 = 0.25*MA + MB+MC +2* MD2 + MF
M = [3.3338
0
0
3.3386]

Flexibility matrix (m/N)


F = 1.0e-004 *[0.1457 -0.0570
-0.0570 0.1457]

235

Stiffness matrix (N/m)


K = 1.0e+004 *[8.1041 3.1712
3.1712 8.1041]
Natural frequencies (rad/s)

{ n } = [121.5982
183.8392];

Mass normalized modal matrix


= [-0.3869 0.3876
0.3873 0.3866];

Damping ratios
{} = [0.0143
0.0113];
Damping matrix determination

[ ]

t 1

=[1.2899 -1.2923
-1.2932 - 1.2908]

[2 ] = [3.4777
0

0
4.1548]

[ ]1 = [1.2899

-1.2932
-1.2923 -1.2908]

Damping matrix (Ns/m)

[ ] [2 ][]

C = t

= [12.7246 1.1294
1.1294 12.7388];

Orthogonality checks:

[ ][M ][] = [1.0000 0.0000


t

0.0000 1.0000];

[ ][K ][ ] = 1.0e+004 [1.4786 0


0 3.3797]
[ ][C ][] = [3.4777 -0.0000
t

-0.0000

4.1548]

236

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 17.1 Comparison of experimentally measured frequency response function, normalized with respect to the driving force
amplitude, with the corresponding results from analysis; (a) one-span beam; response under the dummy mass; (b) one-span beam
response under drive point; (c) two-span beam; response under the dummy mass; (d) two-span beam; response under drive point.
Experiment I: Impulse hammer test; Experiment II: harmonic excitation test using the excitation induced by the electric motor.

237

(a)

(b)

Figure 17.2 Setup for impact hammer tests on (a) one span beam (b) two span beam

238

Table 17.1 Equipments used in free vibration and forced vibration test of simply supported beam &
continuous beam

S.No.
1
2
3
4
5

Equipments
Oscilloscope
Accelerometers
Signal conditioning amplifier
Regulated DC power supply
D.C Motor

Quantity
1
2
1
1
1

Table 17.2 Physical properties of parts of the structure


Part
Main Beam
D.C. Motor
Fly wheel
Eccentric mass
(Simply supported beam)
Eccentric mass
(Continuous beam)
Lumped Mass
Base plate

Material Properties
Youngs Modulus
Mass density
(E) N/m2
() kg/m3
2.00E+011
7800

Mass
Kg

Material
Mild Steel
Aluminum
Mild Steel

MA = 2.9952
MB+MC= 2.000

69.0E+009

2700

MD1 = 0.00324

2.00E+011

7800

Mild Steel

MD2 = 0.00240

2.00E+011

7800

Mild Steel
Mild Steel

ME = 2.000
MF = 0.5850

2.00E+011
2.00E+011

7800
7800

Table 17.3 Geometric data of the structure


Dimensions in mm
Depth (DA)
Width (BA)
Length (LA)
Main beam
6.4
50
1350
Eccentricity of eccentric mass on the flywheel, e=25 mm
Formula for calculating, MA = DA* BA* Le*
Part

Effective Length (Le)


1200

Table 17.4 Details of the sensors used

Sl.
Sensor
No.
1 B & K Deltatron Accelerometer
Type 4507, Sl. No. 11574
2 B & K Deltatron Accelerometer
Type 4507, Sl. No. 11575

Sensitivity, S
mV/ms-2
mV/g
9.80
96.1
10.04

98.4

Mass
gm
4.8
4.8

Table 17.5 Free vibration test data on simply supported beam (observations I) and continuous beam
(observations II)

S.No.
1
2
3
4
5

Quantity
Amplitude of 0th peak
Amplitude of nth peak
Number of cycles
Logarithmic decrement
Damping ratio

Notation
A0
An
n

Observations I
50mV
6mV
19
0.11159
0.01776

Observations II
220mV
80mV
18
0.0562
0.0089

239

Table 17.6 Flexibility coefficients obtained from the finite element analysis

One span beam (m/N)

Continuous beam (m/N)

f11 = 9.12233E-05

f12 = 7.09514E-05

f11 = 1.45704E-05

f12 = -5.70146E-06

f21 = 7.09514E-05

f22 = 9.12233E-05

f21 = -5.70146E-06

f22 = 1.45704E-05

240

Table 17.7 Forced vibration test data on simply supported beam


S.No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Frequency,
f
(Hz)

6.25
6.30
6.55
6.70
6.95
7.15
7.41
7.47
7.65
7.78
7.80
7.95
7.96
8.20
8.27
8.32
8.40
8.70
9.02
9.10
9.14
9.33
9.59
9.72

Frequency
=2f
(rad/s)

39.27
39.58
41.15
42.09
43.66
44.92
46.55
46.93
48.06
48.88
49.00
49.98
50.01
51.52
51.96
52.31
52.77
54.66
56.70
57.17
57.42
58.62
60.25
61.07

Amplitude
x1
rms (mV)

25.20
22.10
26.50
28.20
35.90
48.00
70.10
74.90
110.00
165.00
187.00
701.00
750.00
283.00
240.00
200.00
153.00
90.60
61.50
57.50
54.70
46.60
41.10
37.30

Amplitude
x2
rms (mV)

17.90
17.50
21.60
23.00
30.90
40.90
64.20
65.70
103.00
155.00
173.00
634.00
683.00
268.00
228.00
189.00
149.00
87.50
60.40
55.90
56.50
46.80
43.10
39.80

Conversion
Factor
CF
(V/m)
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

Displacement
Amplitude
X1 =
2 (CF) x1
(mm)
0.035638
0.031254
0.037476
0.039880
0.050770
0.067882
0.099135
0.105924
0.155562
0.233343
0.264455
0.991354
1.060650
0.400219
0.339408
0.282840
0.216373
0.128127
0.086973
0.081317
0.077357
0.065902
0.058124
0.052750

Displacement
Amplitude
X2 =
2 (CF) x2
(mm)
0.025314
0.024749
0.030547
0.032527
0.043699
0.057841
0.090792
0.092913
0.145663
0.219201
0.244657
0.896603
0.965899
0.379006
0.322438
0.267284
0.210716
0.123743
0.085418
0.079054
0.079902
0.066185
0.060952
0.056285

Force,
F=
2MD1
e2
(N)

Receptance
X1/F

Receptance
X2/F

(m/N)

(m/N)

0.2498
0.2538
0.2744
0.2871
0.3089
0.3270
0.3512
0.3569
0.3743
0.3871
0.3891
0.4042
0.4052
0.4300
0.4374
0.4427
0.4513
0.4841
0.5203
0.5296
0.5343
0.5567
0.5882
0.6042

1.0133e-004
9.7499e-005
1.1133e-004
1.1330e-004
1.4146e-004
1.7691e-004
2.5855e-004
2.6035e-004
3.8918e-004
5.6625e-004
6.2877e-004
2.2182e-003
2.3836e-003
8.8134e-004
7.3716e-004
6.0374e-004
4.6694e-004
2.5563e-004
1.6416e-004
1.4927e-004
1.4955e-004
1.1888e-004
1.0363e-004
9.3151e-005

1.01337E-04
9.75138E-05
1.11323E-04
1.13295E-04
1.41466E-04
1.76884E-04
2.58519E-04
2.60333E-04
3.89161E-04
5.66265E-04
6.28777E-04
2.21822E-03
2.38376E-03
8.81409E-04
7.37170E-04
6.03759E-04
4.66909E-04
2.55615E-04
1.64171E-04
1.49271E-04
1.49545E-04
1.18888E-04
1.03625E-04
9.31562E-05

241

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

9.94
10.25
10.49
10.75
10.82
10.94
11.40
11.70
11.85
12.35
12.90
13.55
18.30
18.40
18.75
18.90
19.10
19.25
19.44
19.61
19.90
20.00
20.10
20.37
20.56
20.82
21.01
21.11
21.20
21.40
21.50
21.53
21.55
21.61

62.45
64.40
65.91
67.54
67.98
68.73
71.62
73.51
74.45
77.59
81.05
85.13
114.98
115.61
117.81
118.75
120.00
120.95
122.14
123.21
125.03
125.66
126.29
127.98
129.18
130.81
132.01
132.63
133.20
134.46
135.08
135.27
135.40
135.78

33.10
29.70
78.20
71.20
70.00
67.70
58.70
54.90
54.60
47.00
40.70
34.80
3.80
4.13
4.72
6.08
7.17
8.10
9.14
9.98
12.40
15.10
16.40
20.60
24.70
32.60
42.50
46.70
57.40
67.00
90.00
96.10
103.00
117.00

36.90
35.00
89.10
84.5
84.3
83.1
79.00
77.50
78.87
74.90
77.20
70.20
12.50
13.00
14.00
14.90
16.00
17.20
18.10
19.50
22.50
25.00
26.70
31.50
35.40
44.00
55.20
58.00
69.50
80.00
105.00
111.00
118.00
133.00

1000
1000
3160
3160
3160
3160
3160
3160
3160
3160
3160
3160
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316

0.046810
0.042002
0.034997
0.031864
0.031327
0.030298
0.026270
0.024569
0.024435
0.021034
0.018215
0.015574
0.017006
0.018483
0.021123
0.027210
0.032088
0.036250
0.040904
0.044664
0.055494
0.067577
0.073395
0.092192
0.110540
0.145895
0.190201
0.208997
0.256883
0.299846
0.402778
0.430078
0.460958
0.523612

0.052184
0.049497
0.039875
0.037816
0.037727
0.037190
0.035355
0.034684
0.035297
0.033520
0.034549
0.031417
0.055941
0.058179
0.062654
0.066682
0.071605
0.076975
0.081003
0.087269
0.100695
0.111883
0.119491
0.140972
0.158426
0.196914
0.247037
0.259568
0.311034
0.358025
0.469908
0.496760
0.528087
0.595217

0.6319
0.6719
0.7038
0.7391
0.7487
0.7654
0.8312
0.8755
0.8981
0.9755
1.0643
1.1742
2.1418
2.1653
2.2484
2.2845
2.3331
2.3699
2.4169
2.4594
2.5327
2.5582
2.5838
2.6537
2.7035
2.7723
2.8231
2.8500
2.8744
2.9289
2.9563
2.9646
2.9701
2.9866

8.2583e-005
7.3664e-005
5.6660e-005
5.1166e-005
5.0388e-005
4.8587e-005
4.2537e-005
3.9617e-005
3.9303e-005
3.4363e-005
3.2462e-005
2.6755e-005
2.6119e-005
2.6869e-005
2.7866e-005
2.9188e-005
3.0690e-005
3.2480e-005
3.3515e-005
3.5484e-005
3.9758e-005
4.3735e-005
4.6245e-005
5.3122e-005
5.8601e-005
7.1030e-005
8.7505e-005
9.1075e-005
1.0821e-004
1.2224e-004
1.5895e-004
1.6757e-004
1.7780e-004
1.9929e-004

8.25827E-05
7.36672E-05
5.66567E-05
5.11649E-05
5.03900E-05
4.85890E-05
4.25349E-05
3.96162E-05
3.93019E-05
3.43619E-05
3.24617E-05
2.67561E-05
2.61187E-05
2.68688E-05
2.78660E-05
2.91889E-05
3.06909E-05
3.24803E-05
3.35152E-05
3.54839E-05
3.97580E-05
4.37350E-05
4.62462E-05
5.31228E-05
5.86003E-05
7.10291E-05
8.75056E-05
9.10765E-05
1.08208E-04
1.22239E-04
1.58951E-04
1.67564E-04
1.77801E-04
1.99296E-04

242

59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92

21.70
21.72
21.76
21.82
21.86
21.91
21.93
21.93
21.95
22.40
22.70
22.83
23.00
23.58
23.80
24.80
25.61
25.83
25.99
27.03
27.20
28.00
28.60
29.34
29.70
30.50
30.90
31.60
32.05
32.55
33.30
34.34
35.70
37.20

136.34
136.47
136.72
137.09
137.35
137.66
137.79
137.79
137.91
140.74
142.62
143.44
144.51
148.15
149.54
155.82
160.91
162.29
163.30
169.83
170.90
175.92
179.69
184.34
186.61
191.63
194.15
198.54
201.37
204.51
209.23
215.76
224.31
233.73

150.00
168.00
181.00
196.00
206.00
287.00
329.00
348.00
395.00
70.50
59.00
53.50
46.50
35.90
32.70
25.10
21.10
20.90
19.60
17.70
17.50
15.50
15.20
14.10
14.00
13.50
13.20
13.10
12.70
11.90
12.20
11.80
11.30
11.00

171.00
187.00
203.00
218.00
228.00
312.00
358.00
375.00
421.00
68.40
52.20
46.50
39.50
28.40
25.60
17.40
13.80
12.90
12.10
9.97
9.64
8.01
7.66
6.79
6.44
6.01
5.75
5.42
5.14
4.72
4.65
4.38
4.15
3.72

316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316

0.671297
0.751853
0.810032
0.877162
0.921915
1.284416
1.472379
1.557410
1.767750
0.315510
0.264044
0.239429
0.208102
0.160664
0.146343
0.112330
0.094429
0.093534
0.087716
0.079213
0.078318
0.069367
0.068025
0.063102
0.062654
0.060417
0.059074
0.058627
0.056837
0.053256
0.054599
0.052809
0.050571
0.049228

0.765279
0.836884
0.908489
0.975619
1.020372
1.396299
1.602163
1.678244
1.884108
0.306112
0.233612
0.208102
0.176775
0.127099
0.114568
0.077871
0.061759
0.057732
0.054151
0.044619
0.043142
0.035847
0.034281
0.030387
0.028821
0.026897
0.025733
0.024256
0.023003
0.021123
0.020810
0.019602
0.018573
0.016648

3.0116
3.0171
3.0283
3.0450
3.0562
3.0701
3.0758
3.0758
3.0814
3.2090
3.2955
3.3334
3.3832
3.5560
3.6227
3.9335
4.1946
4.2670
4.3200
4.6727
4.7316
5.0141
5.2313
5.5055
5.6414
5.9494
6.1065
6.3863
6.5695
6.7761
7.0919
7.5418
8.1510
8.8504

2.5411e-004
2.7738e-004
3.0000e-004
3.2040e-004
3.3387e-004
4.5480e-004
5.2090e-004
5.4564e-004
6.1145e-004
9.5391e-005
7.0887e-005
6.2429e-005
5.2250e-005
3.5742e-005
3.1625e-005
1.9797e-005
1.4723e-005
1.3530e-005
1.2535e-005
9.5489e-006
9.1178e-006
7.1493e-006
6.5531e-006
5.5194e-006
5.1088e-006
4.5209e-006
4.2140e-006
3.7981e-006
3.5015e-006
3.1173e-006
2.9343e-006
2.5991e-006
2.2786e-006
1.8811e-006

2.54110E-04
2.77380E-04
3.00000E-04
3.20400E-04
3.33870E-04
4.54806E-04
5.20893E-04
5.45628E-04
6.11445E-04
9.53917E-05
7.08882E-05
6.24294E-05
5.22508E-05
3.57421E-05
3.16250E-05
1.97969E-05
1.47235E-05
1.35299E-05
1.25350E-05
9.54887E-06
9.11785E-06
7.14924E-06
6.55306E-06
5.51939E-06
5.10884E-06
4.52096E-06
4.21403E-06
3.79813E-06
3.50148E-06
3.11728E-06
2.93433E-06
2.59911E-06
2.27862E-06
1.88104E-06

243

93
94
95
96
97

38.30
39.20
40.32
40.90
41.05

240.64
246.30
253.33
256.98
257.92

10.70
10.50
10.20
10.10
10.00

3.62
3.48
3.40
3.15
3.36

316
316
316
316
316

0.047886
0.046991
0.045648
0.045201
0.044753

0.016201
0.015574
0.015216
0.014097
0.015037

9.3815
9.8276
10.3972
10.6985
10.7771

1.7269e-006
1.5847e-006
1.4635e-006
1.3177e-006
1.3953e-006

1.72691E-06
1.58472E-06
1.46347E-06
1.31766E-06
1.39527E-06

Table 17.8 Forced vibration test data on Continuous beam

S.No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Frequency,
f
(Hz)

18.89
21.76
21.95
22.62
22.75
22.96
23.15
23.41
23.72
24.04
24.06
24.10
24.25
24.44
24.56
24.8
25.00
25.15
25.48
25.83

Frequency
=2f
(rad/s)

118.68
136.72
137.91
142.12
142.94
144.26
145.45
147.08
149.03
151.04
151.17
151.42
152.36
153.56
154.31
155.82
157.08
158.02
160.09
162.29

Amplitude
x1
rms (mV)

4.26
8.18
9.50
18.50
21.60
22.00
21.70
27.80
32.10
44.30
400.00
355.00
288.00
185.00
161.00
112.00
103.00
83.40
57.90
47.00

Amplitude
x2
rms (mV)

2.32
2.49
3.12
8.39
10.00
11.00
11.70
17.40
25.20
40.70
391.00
323.00
281.00
189.00
168.00
121.00
113.00
93.40
69.60
58.80

Conversion
Factor
CF
(V/m)

316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316

Displaceme
nt
Amplitude
X1 =
2 (CF)x1
(mm)
0.019065
0.036608
0.042516
0.082793
0.096667
0.098457
0.097114
0.124414
0.143658
0.198257
1.790127
1.588737
1.288891
0.827934
0.720526
0.501235
0.460958
0.373241
0.259121
0.210340

Displacemen
t Amplitude
X2 =

Force,
F=
2MD 2 e2
(N)

Receptance
X1/F

Receptance
X2/F

(m/N)

(m/N)

1.6905
2.2432
2.2825
2.4240
2.4519
2.4974
2.5389
2.5962
2.6654
2.7379
2.7424
2.7515
2.7859
2.8297
2.8576
2.9137
2.9609
2.9965
3.0757
3.1607

1.1278E-05
1.632E-05
1.8627E-05
3.4156E-05
3.9425E-05
3.9424E-05
3.8251E-05
4.7921E-05
5.3896E-05
7.2413E-05
0.00065276
0.0005774
0.00046265
0.00029259
0.00025215
0.00017203
0.00015568
0.00012456
8.4249E-05
6.6548E-05

6.14196E-06
4.9678E-06
6.11742E-06
1.54903E-05
1.82524E-05
1.9712E-05
2.06237E-05
2.99936E-05
4.23111E-05
6.65286E-05
0.00063807
0.000525353
0.000451404
0.000298911
0.000263109
0.000185851
0.000170797
0.000139493
0.000101273
8.32552E-05

2 (CF)x2
(mm)
0.01038273
0.01114354
0.01396299
0.03754791
0.04475316
0.04922848
0.05236120
0.07787051
0.11277797
0.18214538
1.74984873
1.44552722
1.25756392
0.84583481
0.75185316
0.54151329
0.50571076
0.41799456
0.31148203
0.26314861

244

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

26.21
26.57
27.10
27.35
28.41
28.47
29.27
32.70
32.81
33.24
33.38
33.65
33.78
33.88
34.11
34.15
34.2
34.25
34.72
34.97
35.26
35.46
35.77
35.92
36.28
36.66
37.20
37.54
38.34
38.58
39.00
39.68
40.54
40.892

164.68
166.94
170.27
171.84
178.50
178.88
183.90
205.46
206.15
208.85
209.73
211.42
212.24
212.87
214.32
214.57
214.88
215.19
218.15
219.72
221.54
222.80
224.75
225.69
227.95
230.34
233.73
235.87
240.89
242.40
245.04
249.31
254.72
256.93

33.50
26.60
21.10
20.70
15.20
16.00
13.00
18.40
21.90
26.10
27.10
28.90
35.00
36.20
40.00
49.10
47.30
53.80
186.00
136.00
103.00
91.00
73.50
64.60
56.70
45.80
36.80
33.30
29.00
26.70
26.40
25.50
24.00
19.2

39.20
32.00
24.80
19.70
16.40
15.90
18.10
20.70
24.00
33.10
35.90
40.00
45.60
48.70
44.60
55.00
53.80
60.70
186.00
128.00
93.80
80.40
62.10
53.20
44.50
32.80
24.30
18.60
14.40
12.30
10.50
7.93
7.60
5.75

316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
31.6
31.6
31.6
31.6
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316

0.149923
0.119043
0.094429
0.092639
0.068025
0.071605
0.058179
0.082346
0.098009
0.116806
0.121281
0.129337
0.156636
0.162006
1.790127
2.197380
2.116825
2.407720
0.832409
0.608643
0.460958
0.407254
0.328936
0.289105
0.253750
0.204969
0.164692
0.149028
0.129784
0.119491
0.118148
0.114121
0.107408
0.085926

0.17543241
0.14321013
0.11098785
0.08816373
0.07339519
0.07115753
0.08100323
0.09263905
0.10740759
0.14813297
0.16066386
0.17901266
0.20407443
0.21794791
1.99599114
2.46142405
2.40772025
2.71651709
0.83240886
0.57284051
0.41978468
0.35981544
0.27791715
0.23808684
0.19915158
0.14679038
0.10875019
0.08324089
0.06444456
0.05504639
0.04699082
0.03548926
0.03401241
0.02573307

3.2544
3.3444
3.4792
3.5437
3.8237
3.8399
4.0587
5.0657
5.0998
5.2344
5.2785
5.3643
5.4058
5.4379
5.5119
5.5249
5.5411
5.5573
5.7108
5.7934
5.8899
5.9569
6.0615
6.1124
6.2356
6.3669
6.5558
6.6762
6.9638
7.0512
7.2056
7.4591
7.7859
7.9217

4.6067E-05
3.5594E-05
2.7141E-05
2.6142E-05
1.779E-05
1.8648E-05
1.4334E-05
1.6256E-05
1.9218E-05
2.2315E-05
2.2976E-05
2.4111E-05
2.8976E-05
2.9792E-05
0.00032477
0.00039772
0.00038202
0.00043326
0.00014576
0.00010506
7.8263E-05
6.8367E-05
5.4267E-05
4.7298E-05
4.0694E-05
3.2193E-05
2.5122E-05
2.2322E-05
1.8637E-05
1.6946E-05
1.6397E-05
1.53E-05
1.3795E-05
1.0847E-05

5.39057E-05
4.28203E-05
3.19004E-05
2.48791E-05
1.91948E-05
1.85313E-05
1.99579E-05
1.82876E-05
2.10611E-05
2.83001E-05
3.04372E-05
3.33713E-05
3.7751E-05
4.00797E-05
0.000362121
0.000445517
0.000434523
0.000488822
0.000145759
9.88784E-05
7.12723E-05
6.04034E-05
4.58497E-05
3.89513E-05
3.1938E-05
2.30553E-05
1.65883E-05
1.24683E-05
9.25425E-06
7.80663E-06
6.52143E-06
4.75787E-06
4.36847E-06
3.24843E-06

245

Table 17.9 Estimate of the natural frequencies of the one span beam; Experiment-I: Impulse hammer
test and modal extraction using ME scope; Experiment-II: Harmonic excitation test
Mode
No.
1
2

FE Model
6.20
19.39

Natural frequencies in Hz
2-DOF Model
Experiment I
6.18
7.79
17.49
21.81

Experiment II
7.96
21.95

Table 17.10 Estimate of the natural frequencies of the two span beam; Experiment-I: Impulse hammer
test and modal extraction using ME scope; Experiment-II: Harmonic excitation test
Mode
No.
1
2

FE Model
19.39
29.55

Natural frequencies in Hz
2-DOF Model
Experiment I
19.34
23.94
29.24
34.02

Experiment II
24.06
34.25

Table 17.11 Estimate of the damping of one span beam and two span beam using the data from
Experiment-I: Impulse hammer test
Mode No.
1
2

One span beam


0.0372
0.0148

Two span beam


0.0143
0.0113

246

Experiment 8
Earthquake induced waves in rectangular water tanks
Tables 18.1 and 18.2 summarize the observed natural frequencies along with the
analytical predictions. Results on mode shapes from theory and experiment are
compared in figure 18.1. The comparison between theory and experiment reveals
notable differences in mode shape profiles. This difference appears to be due inability
of the shake table to provide accurate harmonic base motions especially at low
frequencies. Also one should bear in mind that the standing wave profile here is being
measured using a somewhat crude device. Figure 18.2 shows the measured base
motion and its Fourier transform. From this figure it could be observed that although
the signal has a dominant harmonic component, there exist other frequency
components that corrupt the signal. Consequently, in steady state, the shape of the
liquid surface would be made up of contributions from several modes thereby
impeding the accurate measurement of individual mode shapes.

247

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 18.1 Mode shapes obtained using theory and experiment (a) l=0.12 m; h=0.20
m; mode 1; (b) l=0.12 m; h=0.20 m; mode 2; (c) l=0.15 m; h=0.20 m; mode 1; (d)
l=0.15 m; h=0.20 m; mode 2.
0.75
0.50

0.40

0.25

0.30

0.00

0.20

-0.25

0.10

0.35
0.25
0.15
0.05

-0.50

0.00
0.5

-0.75

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Y/t Chart 0

-1.00
2.5

5.0

7.5

Y/t Chart 0

10.0

12.5

(b)

15.0
s

(a)
Figure 18.2 Measured support displacement; (a) time history; (b) Fourier amplitude
spectrum
Table 18.1 Natural frequencies of liquid column; l=0.12 m; h=0.20 m.

248

4.5

5.0
Hz

Mode Number
1
2
3

Analysis (Hz)
1.7940
3.1238
4.0328

Experiment (Hz)
1.83
3.17
4.03

Table 18.2 Natural frequencies of liquid column; l=0.15 m; h=0.20 m.


Mode Number
1
3
5

Analysis (Hz)
1.5888
2.7940
3.6071

Experiment (Hz)
1.59
2.75
3.60

249

Experiment 9
Dynamics of free-standing rigid bodies under base motions
We studied the rocking behavior of a burnt brick with B=0.075 m and H=0.1150 m.
Based on the measured velocity profile was estimated to be 0.43 (figure 19.1). The
input to the Matlab program is as follows.

[g B H alpha w R eta amp alm]= 9.8100 0.0750 0.1150 0.5779 10.3527


0.0686 0.4300 0.0029 63.1400
[npts ncyc nimpacts]=10000
10
100
dt = 9.9512e-006 s
[theta0 thetadot0]=0.0300
0
The measured block response and the corresponding numerical simulations are
compared in figures 19.2-19.5. These figures, respectively, show the plots of rotation,
rotational velocity and the phase plane plots. While these experiment and simulation
show broad mutual agreement, the details of variation of velocity show considerable
difference. These differences are also manifest in the phase plane plot. The following
are thought to be the reasons for these discrepancies
1. It was observed that sliding motion was not entirely absent during the shake
table test. This motion is unaccounted for the in the theoretical model. Also,
the block was found to mildly rotate about the vertical axis while in motion.
This again is not accounted for in the theory.
2. The base motion used in the experiment and the simulations were not
identical. Figure 19.5 shows the details of the applied harmonic base motion in
the experiment and in the simulations. This plot also shows the threshold glvevel needed to cause the uplift of the block. Notice that the exciter passes
through a transient build-up phase before the target harmonic motion is
realized. In numerical simulation of the block behavior we assume that
h(t ) = h0 cos t right from t=0. This would mean that the blocks in experiment
and in simulation pass through different transient regimes before reaching the
steady state. Given that the system is highly nonlinear it is to be expected that
changes in transient conditions would lead to differing steady state regimes.

250

Figure 19.1 Zoomed trace of rotational velocity time histories showing the loss of
velocity upon impacts.

251

(a)

(b)
Figure 19.2 Rotation of the block (a) Experiment (b) Numerical simulation.

252

(a)

(b)
Figure 19.3 Rotational velocity of the block (a) Experiment (b) Numerical simulation

253

(a)

(b)
Figure 19.4 Phase plane plot (a) Experiment (b) Numerical simulations

254

Figure 19.5 Details of harmonic base motion at 63.14 rad/s.

255

EXPERIMENT 10
Seismic wave amplification, liquefaction and soil-structure
interactions
Figure 20.1 shows the comparison of seismic wave amplification in the soil layer
obtained using theory and experiment. Similar results for the two frames are shown in
figures 20.2 and 20.3. It is observed that the soil layer has the first natural frequency
of about 11.81 Hz and the two frames have natural frequencies of about 13.30 Hz and
7.96 Hz. Therefore it may be anticipated that the propensity for dynamic interactions
between soil and structure is higher for structure model I. Figures 20.4 and 20.5
compare the amplification spectra observed in soil-structure models I and II. Also see
figures 10.9a and b to appreciate the importance of coupled and uncoupled soilstructure analyses. It may be observed from figure 20.4 and 20.5 that the comparison
between theory and experiments is poorer at the second natural frequency of the
combined system. This could be explained by noting that the procedure used for
making equivalent discrete model for the soil layer is based on the first mode shape of
the soil layer. Consequently, the model does not correctly capture the soil deformation
in the neighborhood of the second natural frequency of the combined system. Tables
20.1-20.8 depict the experimental observations as per the format suggested.

Calculations for soil model

Frequency of soil model obtained from shake table test, n = 74.2044 rad/s
Mass per unit length, m = [MF+ (2*MOL1 + MOL2) + MH]/ HS
= 14.3147 kg/m
Mass of soil model, MS = HS *m/2
= 2.183 Kg
Stiffness of soil model, Ks = 2n * MS
= 1.2020e+004 N/m
Damping ratio= 3.7024%

Calculations for structure model1

Stiffness of the model, Kb= 5.7934e+003 N/m


Mass of the model, Mb = MS1 + 0.5*4* MC1 + Mscrews1
= 0.8289 kg
Natural frequency of the model, n = 83.6009 rad/s

256

Damping ratio= 1.08%

Calculations for structure model2

Stiffness of the model, Kb = 2.1870e+003 N/m


Mass of the model, Mb = MS2 + 0.5*4* MC2 + Mscrews2
= 0.8743
Natural frequency of the model, n =50.0139 rad/s
Damping ratio= 0.56%

Calculations for soil-structure model1

Mass matrix (kg)


M*S=[0.5*( MF+ 2*MOL1 + MOL2 + MH)] + (MAP1 + MAP2 + MBS1)+0.5*4* MC1 +
Mscrews1
Mb= MS1 + 0.5*4* MC1 + Mscrews1
M = [3.1559
0
0
0.8289]
Stiffness matrix (N/m)
Ks= 12020 N/m
Kb = 5.7934e+003 N/m
K = 1.0e+004 *[ 1.7813 -0.5793
-0.5793 0.5793]
Natural frequencies (rad/s)
{n} = [51.6945
99.8060]

Mass normalized modal matrix


= [-0.4332 -0.3595
-0.7014 0.8453]

257

Damping ratios
{} = [0.0276 0.0108]
Damping matrix determination
[ t ]1 =[ -1.3671 -1.1344
-0.5814 0.7007]
0
[2 ] = [2.8514
0 2.1468]
[ ] 1 = [-1.3671 -0.5814
-1.1344 0.7007]

Damping matrix (Ns/m)


C = [ t ]1 [2 ][ ] = [8.0920 0.5600
0.5600 2.0177]
1

Orthogonality checks:
t M = [1.0000 0.0000
0.0000 1.0000]

t K = 1.0e+003 [2.6723 0.0000


0.0000 9.9612]
\

2
= n

\
t C = [2.8514 -0.0000
0.0000 2.1468]

\
=

2 n n

Calculations for soil-structure model2


Mass matrix (kg)

258

M*S=[0.5*( MF+ 2*MOL1 + MOL2 + MH)] + (MAP1 + MAP2 + MBS2)+0.5*4* MC2 +


Mscrews2
Mb= MS1 + 0.5*4* MC2 + Mscrews2
M = [3.2013
0
0 0.8743];
Stiffness matrix (N/m)
KS= 1.5305+004 N/m
Kb = 2.1870e+003 N/m
K = 1.0e+004 *[ 1.4207 -0.2187
-0.2187 0.2187];
Natural frequencies (rad/s)
{n} = [42.9287
71.3891];
Mass normalized modal matrix

=[ -0.2514 -0.4991
-0.9551 0.4811]
Damping ratios
{} = [0.0187 0.0108];
Damping matrix determination
[ t ]1 =[ -0.8050 -1.5979
-0.8351 0.4207]
[2 ] = [1.6055
0
0 1.5356]

[ ] 1 = [-0.8050 -0.8351
-1.5979 0.4207]
Damping matrix (Ns/m)
C = [ t ]1 [2 ][ ] = [4.9612 0.0470
0.0470 1.3914]
1

Orthogonality checks:

t M = [1.0000 0.0000
259

0.0000 1.0000]

t K = 1.0e+003 [1.8429 0.0000


0.0000 5.0964]
\
= n2

t C = [1.6055 -0.0000
-0.0000 1.5356];

\
=

2 n n

Fig 20.1 Seismic wave amplification factor for the soil layer.

260

Fig 20.2 Seismic wave amplification factor for the structure model I.

Figure 20.3 Seismic wave amplification factor for the structure model II.

261

Figure 20.4a Seismic wave amplification at the top of the soil layer in the soil-structure model I.

Figure 20.4b Seismic wave amplification at the structure slab level in the soil-structure model I.

262

Figure 20.5a Seismic wave amplification at the top of the soil layer in the soil-structure model II.

Figure 20.5b Seismic wave amplification at the structure slab level in the soil-structure model II.

263

Table 20.1 Physical properties of parts of the soil-structure model 1and II


Part

Sl.
No.
Structure 1
1

Structure 2
2

Soil model
3

Assembling
Parts

Notations

Column
Slab
Bottom slab
Screws
Column
Slab
Bottom slab
Screws
Soil
Outer layer
1
Outer layer
2
Hinges
Allen screw
Allen nuts

MC1
MS1
MBS1
Mscrews1
MC2
MS2
MBS2
Mscrews2
MF

Quan
tity
(Q)

Material
Aluminum
Perspex
Perspex
Mild steel
Aluminum
Perspex
Perspex
Mild steel
Foam

MOL1

Perspex

MOL2

Perspex

MH
MAP1
MAP2

Mild steel
Mild steel
Mild steel

4
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
1
-

0.0644
0.6581
0.6581
0.042
0.0891
0.6581
0.6581
0.038
0.9760

Mass
density
()
Kg/m3
2700
1170
1170
2700
1170
1170
23.8339

69*109
3.1*109
3.1*109
2*1011
69*109
3.1*109
3.1*109
2*1011
-

0.8245

1227.7

3.1*109

1.6491

1227.7

0.0918
0.1080
0.0360

Mass

Youngs
Modulus
(E) N/m2

3.1*109
2*1011
2*1011
2*1011

Table 20.2 Geometric data of the soil-structure models I and II


Dimensions in mm
Sl.
No.

Part

Material

Structure 1

Column
Slab
Bottom slab
Screws
Structure 2
Column
Slab
Bottom slab
Screws
Soil
Soil model
Outer layer 1
Outer layer 2
Hinges
Assembling
Allen screw
Parts
Allen nuts
Height of soil model HS = 0.305m

4
5

Aluminum
Perspex
Perspex
Mild steel
Aluminum
Perspex
Perspex
Mild steel
Foam
Perspex
Perspex
Mild steel
Mild steel
Mild steel

Quantit
y
(Q)
4
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
1
-

Depth
(D)

Width
(B)

3
12.5
12.5
3
12.5
12.5
630
300
600
-

25
150
150
25
150
150
325
200
200
-

Length
(L)
318
300
300
440
300
300
200
11.2
11.2
-

Table 20.3 Details of the sensors used


Sl. No.
1
2

Sensor
Accelerometer type 4371, B & K
Accelerometer type 4371, B & K

Sensitivity, S
pC/ms-2
pC/g
0.980
9.61
1.011
9.92

Mass
Kg
0.011
0.011

Table 20.4a CASE 1- Free vibration test data on soil-structure model I


S.No.

1
2
3
4

Quantity
Amplitude of 0th peak
Amplitude of nth peak
Number of cycles
Damping ratio

Notation

A0
An
n

Soil model

Observations
Structure model1

400mV
120mV
5
3.7024%

180mV
120mV
6
1.0755%

Soil structure
model1
560mV
140mV
8
2.7579%

264

Table 20.4b CASE 2- Free vibration test data on soil-structure model II


S.No.

1
2
3
4

Quantity
Amplitude of 0th peak
Amplitude of nth peak
Number of cycles
Damping ratio

Notation

A0
An
n

Soil model

Observations
Structure model 2

400mV
120mV
5
3.7024%

900mV
640mV
10
0.54%

Soil structure
model2
320mV
340mV
4
1.87%

265

Table 20.5a Base motion test data on single-story shear building frame I

Sl.no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

Structure model
Amplitude
Conversion
Frequency
1
Factor
(Hz)
rms (mV)
CF (V/m)
2.85
62.50
316
3.36
63.00
316
3.80
64.90
316
4.13
64.90
316
4.53
65.10
316
5.20
74.00
316
5.53
77.00
316
5.92
79.80
316
6.35
80.80
316
6.56
81.50
316
7.20
89.80
316
7.65
102.00
316
7.90
104.00
316
8.15
113.00
316
8.48
122.00
316
8.88
136.00
316
9.25
149.00
316
9.26
151.00
316
9.60
171.00
316
10.04
203.00
316
10.13
209.00
316
10.30
224.00
316
10.53
260.00
316
10.78
302.00
316
11.07
384.00
316
11.44
584.00
316
11.80
1210.00
316
11.82
1240.00
316
12.15
2180.00
316
12.25
1630.00
316
12.64
690.00
316
13.05
404.00
316
13.20
358.00
316
13.48
282.00
316
13.51
277.00
316
14.20
175.00
316
14.50
152.00
316
14.60
150.00
316
15.20
118.00
316
15.30
113.00
316
16.08
90.70
316
16.70
71.90
316
17.40
61.70
316
17.88
54.50
316
18.60
49.20
316

Structure model
displacement

YT = 2 (CF) 1
(m)
0.0002796677
0.0002819051
0.0002904070
0.0002904070
0.0002913019
0.0003311266
0.0003445506
0.0003570797
0.0003615544
0.0003646867
0.0004018266
0.0004564177
0.0004653671
0.0005056392
0.0005459114
0.0006085570
0.0006667278
0.0006756772
0.0007651709
0.0009083608
0.0009352089
0.0010023291
0.0011634177
0.0013513544
0.0017182785
0.0026132152
0.0054143671
0.0055486076
0.0097548101
0.0072937342
0.0030875316
0.0018077722
0.0016019367
0.0012618608
0.0012394873
0.0007830696
0.0006801519
0.0006712025
0.0005280127
0.0005056392
0.0004058538
0.0003217297
0.0002760880
0.0002438703
0.0002201544

Ratio

Of

YT / H
1.086805742
1.095500188
1.128539082
1.128539082
1.132016861
1.286777998
1.338944674
1.387633571
1.405022463
1.417194687
1.56152249
1.773666971
1.808444754
1.964944781
2.121444808
2.364889294
2.590944888
2.625722672
2.973500509
3.529945049
3.6342784
3.895111778
4.521111886
5.251445344
6.677334477
10.15511285
21.04055916
21.56222592
37.90778427
28.34389374
11.99833539
7.025112315
6.225223289
4.903667507
4.816723047
3.043056077
2.643111564
2.60833378
2.05188924
1.964944781
1.577172492
1.250261325
1.072894628
0.947694607
0.85553348

266

46
47

19.20
19.75

42.20
36.20

316
316

0.0001888316
0.0001619835

0.733811237
0.629477886

Here H is the base motion displacement = 0.257 *1E-3 m

Table 20.5b Base motion test data on single-story shear building frame II

Sl.no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Structure model
Amplitude
Conversion
Frequency
1
Factor
(Hz)
rms (mV)
CF (V/m)
2.80
74.20
316
3.12
75.20
316
3.78
81.40
316
4.07
85.10
316
4.40
88.20
316
4.60
89.20
316
5.00
101.00
316
5.16
108.00
316
5.47
123.00
316
5.72
125.00
316
6.10
147.00
316
6.37
166.00
316
6.90
225.00
316
7.16
271.00
316
7.50
363.00
316
7.88
658.00
316
8.06
1110.00
316
8.10
1130.00
316
8.40
2570.00
316
8.77
735.00
316
9.16
380.00
316
9.55
245.00
316
10.02
169.00
316
10.70
114.00
316
11.35
86.20
316
12.50
38.00
316
13.50
31.10
316
14.40
25.10
316
15.00
24.60
316
16.50
18.00
316
17.60
15.60
316
19.05
14.50
316

Structure model
displacement

YT = 2 (CF) 1
(m)
0.0003320685
0.0003365438
0.0003642908
0.0003808494
0.0003947229
0.0003991982
0.0004520070
0.0004833342
0.0005504639
0.0005594146
0.0006578715
0.0007429025
0.0010069462
0.0012128108
0.0016245399
0.0029447582
0.0049676013
0.0050571076
0.0115015633
0.0032893576
0.0017006203
0.0010964525
0.0007563285
0.0005101861
0.0003857723
0.0001700620
0.0001391823
0.0001123304
0.0001100928
0.0000805557
0.0000698149
0.0000648921

Ratio

Of

YT / H
1.197
1.213
1.313
1.373
1.423
1.439
1.629
1.742
1.984
2.016
2.371
2.677
3.629
4.371
5.855
10.613
17.903
18.226
41.452
11.855
6.129
3.952
2.726
1.839
1.390
0.613
0.502
0.405
0.397
0.290
0.252
0.234

Here H is the base motion displacement = 0.27747*1E-3 m


Table 20.6 Base motion test data on soil model

Frequency
Sl.no.
(Hz)
1

3.10

Soil model
Amplitude Conversion
Factor
1
rms (mV)
CF (V/m)
198

1000

Soil model
displacement

U T = 2 (CF) 1

Ratio

Of

(m)

UT / H

0.000280012

1.088142074

267

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

3.84
4.24
4.68
5.36
5.72
6.01
6.33
6.62
7.20
7.74
8.20
8.50
8.68
8.96
9.20
9.40
9.73
10.07
10.15
10.52
10.76
11.05
11.43
11.55
11.79
11.81
12.14
12.24
12.64
13.00
13.14
13.42
13.89
14.12
14.33
15.11
15.63
15.67
16.34
17.00
17.69
18.56
19.35
20.00

202
207
220
238
251
267
268
273
316
334
379
131
137
148
162
172
197
226
233
293
349
452
720
805
833
831
671
637
452
338
309
261
205
182
167
123
103
102
83.0
74.0
62.8
55.1
45.9
44.7

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316

0.000285668
0.000292739
0.000311124
0.00033658
0.000354964
0.000377591
0.000379006
0.000386077
0.000446887
0.000472343
0.000535982
0.000586266
0.000613118
0.000662347
0.000725001
0.000769754
0.000881637
0.001011422
0.001042749
0.001311268
0.001561885
0.002022843
0.003222228
0.00360263
0.003727939
0.003718988
0.003002937
0.002850777
0.002022843
0.001512657
0.001382873
0.001168058
0.00091744
0.000814508
0.000747378
0.000550464
0.000460958
0.000456482
0.000371451
0.000331173
0.00028105
0.00024659
0.000205417
0.000200047

1.110124743
1.137603078
1.209046749
1.307968756
1.379412428
1.46734310
1.472838767
1.500317103
1.736630785
1.835552792
2.082857809
2.278267033
2.382615142
2.573920007
2.817398927
2.991312441
3.426096226
3.930445416
4.052184876
5.09566596
6.069581639
7.860890833
12.52177301
14.00003788
14.48699572
14.45221301
11.66959679
11.07829084
7.860890833
5.878276773
5.373927583
4.539142715
3.565227037
3.165225955
2.904355684
2.139136222
1.791309194
1.773917843
1.443482166
1.286960004
1.092176868
0.958263462
0.798263029
0.777393408

Here H is the base motion displacement = 0.257 *1E-3 m

268

Table 20.7a Base motion test data on soil structure model I

Sl. Frequency
No.
(Hz)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

3.01
3.30
3.74
4.08
4.26
4.47
4.58
4.72
5.07
5.30
5.47
5.61
5.80
6.04
7.03
7.26
7.56
7.74
7.80
7.95
8.14
8.25
8.47
8.53
8.75
8.86
9.06
9.25
9.50
9.65
10.10
10.25
10.38
10.50
10.78
11.10
11.31
11.52
12.25
12.67
12.95
13.19
13.50

Structure
model
Amplitude
1
rms (mV)
230
240
261
288
297
316
321
342
386
412
442
474
520
596
117
153
234
340
399
493
444
388
282
264
207
182
154
133
114
107
281
269
259
251
237
225
221
219
222
232
248
264
293

Structure
Soil
model
model
Soil model
Conversion Amplitude Conversion displacement displacement
Y= 2
U= 2
2
Factor
Factor
CF(V/m) rms (mV) CF(V/m) (CF) 1 (m) (CF) 2 (m)
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316

208
219
228
240
250
257
260
269
292
303
317
333
351
388
64.6
80.3
115
157
181
215
182
155
105
96.6
70.4
58.8
46.1
36.4
27.5
23.8
45.8
39.7
32.8
29
18.1
7.9
4.54
5.68
19.4
43.8
56.8
69.3
88.1

1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316

0.000325
0.000339
0.000369
0.000407
0.000420
0.000447
0.000454
0.000484
0.000546
0.000583
0.000625
0.00067
0.000735
0.000843
0.001655
0.002164
0.003309
0.004808
0.005643
0.006972
0.006279
0.005487
0.003988
0.003733
0.002927
0.002574
0.002178
0.001881
0.001612
0.001513
0.001258
0.001204
0.001159
0.001123
0.001061
0.001007
0.000989
0.000980
0.000994
0.001038
0.001110
0.001181
0.001311

0.000294
0.000310
0.000322
0.000339
0.000354
0.000363
0.000368
0.000380
0.000413
0.000429
0.000448
0.000471
0.000496
0.000549
0.000914
0.001136
0.001626
0.002220
0.002560
0.003041
0.002574
0.002192
0.001485
0.001366
0.000996
0.000832
0.000652
0.000515
0.000389
0.000337
0.000205
0.000178
0.000147
0.000130
8.1E-05
3.54E-05
2.03E-05
2.54E-05
8.68E-05
0.000196
0.000254
0.000310
0.000394

Ratio
Of

Ratio
Of

Y/H

U/ H

1.264003
1.318960
1.434369
1.582752
1.632213
1.736631
1.764109
1.879518
2.121327
2.264215
2.429085
2.604946
2.857747
3.275418
6.429930
8.408371
12.85986
18.68527
21.92771
27.09364
24.40076
21.32319
15.49778
14.50856
11.37603
10.00211
8.463327
7.309237
6.26506
5.880364
4.88697
4.678274
4.504360
4.365229
4.121750
3.913054
3.843489
3.808706
3.860880
4.034794
4.313055
4.591317
5.095666

1.143099
1.203551
1.253012
1.318960
1.373917
1.412386
1.428873
1.478334
1.604735
1.665187
1.742126
1.830057
1.928979
2.132319
3.550201
4.413021
6.320017
8.628197
9.947157
11.81568
10.00211
8.518284
5.770450
5.308814
3.868950
3.231452
2.533503
2.000423
1.511308
1.307969
0.796524
0.690437
0.570436
0.504349
0.314783
0.137392
0.078957
0.098783
0.337392
0.761741
0.987829
1.205221
1.532178

269

44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

13.81
13.95
14.62
14.68
15.11
15.25
15.50
15.75
16.13
16.56
17.06
17.51
17.80
18.10
18.80
20.00

345
380
848
976
1130
855
613
409
279
198
190
110
93.4
84.4
42.5
19.7

316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316

118
139
387
452
595
467
352
249
182
138
106
88.5
74.6
65
36.2
17.6

316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316

0.001544
0.001701
0.003795
0.004368
0.005057
0.003826
0.002743
0.001830
0.001249
0.000886
0.000850
0.000492
0.000418
0.000378
0.000190
8.82E-05

0.000528
0.000622
0.001732
0.002023
0.002663
0.002090
0.001575
0.001114
0.000815
0.000618
0.000474
0.000396
0.000334
0.000291
0.000162
7.88E-05

6.000016
6.608714
14.74787
16.97396
19.65223
14.86961
10.66090
7.113063
4.852187
3.443488
3.304357
1.913049
1.624352
1.467830
0.739132
0.34261

2.052179
2.417398
6.730453
7.860891
10.34785
8.121761
6.121756
4.330446
3.165226
2.400006
1.843483
1.539135
1.297395
1.130438
0.629567
0.306088

Here H is the base motion displacement = 0.257 *1E-3 m

Table 20.7b Base motion test data on soil structure model II

Structure
model
Amplitude
1
Sl. Frequency
rms (mV)
No.
(Hz)
1
3.06
93.3
2
3.30
111
3
3.62
106
4
3.90
119
5
4.25
140
6
4.50
156
7
4.96
193
8
5.27
241
9
5.50
288
10
5.69
343
11
5.90
438
12
6.15
586
13
6.41
972
14
6.51
1.45
15
6.55
1.54
16
6.73
2.59
17
6.93
1.74
18
7.15
1.12
19
7.35
747
20
7.71
486
21
8.11
366
22
8.50
299
23
9.40
243
24
9.62
234
25
9.93
233
26
10.14
234

Structure model
Soil model
Conversion Amplitude Conversion displacement
Y = 2 (CF)
2
Factor
Factor
CF(V/m)
rms (mV)
CF(V/m)
1 (m)
316
82.5
316
0.0004175470
316
103
316
0.0004967601
316
85.3
316
0.0004743835
316
87.1
316
0.0005325627
316
95.2
316
0.0006265443
316
97.2
316
0.0006981494
316
104
316
0.0008637361
316
118
316
0.0010785513
316
128
316
0.0012888911
316
144
316
0.0015350335
316
164
316
0.0019601886
316
193
316
0.0026225354
316
274
316
0.0043500076
316
384
316
0.0000064892
316
399
316
0.0000068920
316
571
316
0.0000115911
316
310
316
0.0000077871
316
156
316
0.0000050124
316
66.9
316
0.0033430614
316
9.15
316
0.0021750038
316
316
0.0016379658
316
44.1
316
0.0013381196
316
78.7
316
0.0010875019
316
98.9
316
0.0010472241
316
102
316
0.0010427487
316
120
316
0.0010472241

Soil model
displacement

U = 2 (CF) 2
(m)
0.0003692136
0.0004609576
0.0003817445
0.0003898001
0.0004260501
0.0004350008
0.0004654329
0.0005280873
0.0005728405
0.0006444456
0.0007339519
0.0008637361
0.0012262367
0.0017185215
0.0017856513
0.0025554057
0.0013873481
0.0006981494
0.0002993987
0.0000409491
0.0001973615
0.0003522074
0.0004426088
0.0004564823
0.0005370380

Ratio
Of

Ratio
Of

Y / H U/ H
1.33
1.66
1.38
1.40
1.54
1.57
1.68
1.90
2.06
2.32
2.65
3.11
4.42
6.19
6.44
9.21
5.00
2.52
1.08
0.15
0.71
1.27
1.60
1.65
1.94

270

1.50
1.79
1.71
1.92
2.26
2.52
3.11
3.89
4.65
5.53
7.06
9.45
15.68
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.03
0.02
12.05
7.84
5.90
4.82
3.92
3.77
3.76
3.77

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

10.26
10.50
10.60
11.04
11.17
11.43
11.55
11.78
11.79
11.83
12.17
12.25
12.60
12.70
12.92
13.05
13.15
13.77
14.08
14.85
15.50
16.40
16.80
17.40
18.40
19.30

237
245
246
272
282
331
351
415
422
428
720
776
852
785
577
484
441
221
167
92.2
67.9
30.9
26.3
26.1
13.4
10.3

316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316

123
139
147
182
190
243
270
339
350
356
664
723
850
797
610
524
479
267
208
133
126
40.5
38.8
37.9
20.1
19.9

316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316
316

0.0010606500
0.0010964525
0.0011009278
0.0012172861
0.0012620392
0.0014813297
0.0015708361
0.0018572563
0.0018885835
0.0019154354
0.0032222278
0.0034728456
0.0038129696
0.0035131234
0.0025822576
0.0021660532
0.0019736146
0.0009890449
0.0007473778
0.0004126242
0.0003038740
0.0001382873
0.0001177008
0.0001168058
0.0000599692
0.0000460958

0.0005504639
0.0006220690
0.0006578715
0.0008145076
0.0008503101
0.0010875019
0.0012083354
0.0015171323
0.0015663608
0.0015932127
0.0029716101
0.0032356538
0.0038040190
0.0035668272
0.0027299430
0.0023450658
0.0021436766
0.0011949095
0.0009308658
0.0005952171
0.0005638899
0.0001812503
0.0001736423
0.0001696145
0.0000899539
0.0000890588

1.98
2.24
2.37
2.94
3.06
3.92
4.35
5.47
5.65
5.74
10.71
11.66
13.71
12.85
9.84
8.45
7.73
4.31
3.35
2.15
2.03
0.65
0.63
0.61
0.32
0.32

3.82
3.95
3.97
4.39
4.55
5.34
5.66
6.69
6.81
6.90
11.61
12.52
13.74
12.66
9.31
7.81
7.11
3.56
2.69
1.49
1.10
0.50
0.42
0.42
0.22
0.17

Here H is the base motion displacement = 0.27747*1E-3 m.

Table 20.8a Case 1 Estimate of the natural frequencies of soil-structure model I.


Mode No.
1
2

Structure model I
Theory
Experiment
13.3055
12.15
-

Natural frequencies in Hz
Soil model
Theory
Experiment
11.81
11.81
-

Soil-structure model I
Theory
Experiment
8.2274
7.95
15.8846
15.11

Table 20.8b Case 2 Estimate of the natural frequencies soil-structure model II.
Mode No.
1
2

Structure model II
Theory
Experiment
7.96
8.4
-

Natural frequencies in Hz
Soil model
Theory
Experiment
11.81
11.81
-

Soil-structure model II
Theory
Experiment
6.8306
6.73
11.3606
12.60

271

PART III

INVENTORY OF ITEMS
& COST ESTIMATION

272