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Road to Civil War

Until the mid-1800s the North and South handled their differences
peaceably. The disagreements focused on one main question: What
would be the status of slavery in new western states? A series of
compromises kept an uneasy truce through the 1850s. With the elec-
tion of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, however, the South believed it had
no choice but to leave the Union.

Concepts to Understand
★ How expansion was influenced by geography and the
Journal Note ★ How conflict and cooperation over slavery led to secession
g the
Events durin
influenced Read to Discover . . .
1850s were
of out-
by a number ★ the major differences between the North and the South.
standing po ★ the events that led
figures. As y e men
encounter t
, make a
seven Southern states
to secede from the
and women Union.
note of their Chapter Overview
t impres-
and your firs ersonal- Visit the American History: The Early Years to
ir p
sions of the 1877 Web site at and click on
ities and mo Chapter 17—Chapter Overviews to preview
chapter information.

1848 Zachary Taylor elected

United States President
1848 Free-Soil party formed 1850 Compromise of 1850 passed
1846–1849 1850–1853
1852 The South African Republic is
World 1853 The Crimean War begins between
Turkey and Russia

538 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877

History View of Harpers Ferry

ART by Ferdinand Richardt, 1858

John Brown, an abolitionist, targeted the armory at

Harpers Ferry for his attack. Yet Danish painter
Ferdinand Richardt depicts a peaceful view of the town.


1859 John Brown raids Harpers Ferry

1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act passed 1860 Abraham Lincoln elected
1857 Supreme Court makes Dred Scott President
decision 1860 South Carolina secedes
1854–1857 1858–1861
1857 Indian soldiers revolt against 1861 Czar Alexander II abolishes
British rule in the Sepoy Rebellion serfdom in Russia

CHAPTER 17 Road to Civil War: 1850–1860 539


Settling Differences
Main Idea Read to Learn . . .
As they grew farther apart, North- ★ why the Mexican Cession divided the
erners and Southerners sought com- North and the South.
promise on the issue of slavery. ★ how Northerners and Southerners tried
to settle their differences.

Reading Strategy Terms to Know

Organizing Information As you read about ★ sectionalism
growing sectionalism, use a diagram like ★ popular sovereignty
the one shown here to describe the result of
★ Free-Soil party
the debate over slavery in the territories.
★ secede
Debate Result ★ Compromise
over of 1850


D aniel Webster fixed his dark gaze

on the other senators as he began his
nation. What developments had robbed
the country of harmony and threatened
speech on March 7, 1850: the Union?

“ I wish to speak today, not as

a Massachusetts man, nor as
a Northern man, but as an
American. . . . I speak today
★ Regions Grow
Further Apart
for the preservation of the While the addition of new territories
Union. . . . [F]or the restora-
gave the country room to grow and
tion to the country of that
expand, it also raised questions that
quiet and that harmony
which make the blessings brought deep divisions. In the mid-1800s,
of this Union so rich and so the United States gained vast new territo-

dear to us all. . . . ries in the West. Eventually, those territo-
ries would become states. Would they be
Many of Webster’s listeners shared his slave or free states? The issue of slavery in
anxiety about the country’s future, but the the West would set the North against the
Senate was as divided as the rest of the South.

540 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877

The issue of slavery in new states was new territories. In the election of 1848,
not new. You read in Chapter 12 that the both Northerners and Southerners tried to
Missouri Compromise of 1820 kept the play down any discussion of slavery. The
number of slave states and free states Democrats, although controlled by their
equal. The Missouri Compromise applied Southern wing, nominated Northern Sen-
only to those states carved out of the ator Lewis Cass of Michigan as their pres-
Louisiana Purchase. The Mexican Cession idential candidate. The Whigs, who
in 1848 added a vast stretch of western enjoyed strong support in the North,
lands not covered by the Missouri Com- nominated Zachary Taylor, a hero of the
promise. Once again, the question of slav- Mexican War who owned a plantation in
ery in the territories became an issue. Louisiana with more than 100 slaves. His
running mate, Millard Fillmore, was a
moderate New York politician.
Dispute Over Slavery in the West
Even before the war with Mexico had
ended, growing antislavery feelings in the
The Free-Soil Party
North led the House of Representatives, Many Northern Whigs backed Taylor
with its Northern majority, to pass the because he seemed a sure winner, but
Wilmot Proviso. An antislavery Democrat, “conscience Whigs” rebelled. They
David Wilmot, introduced this measure. It refused to back a slaveholder or risk open-
would outlaw slavery in all territory ing the West to slavery. They broke with
acquired from Mexico. The bill was defeat- the Whigs and united with Northern
ed in the Senate, where the North and Democrats to form their own party. The
South were equally represented. Free-Soil party chose former President
The debate over slavery in the territo- Martin Van Buren as their candidate and
ries strengthened feelings of sectionalism. campaigned with the slogan, “Free soil,
Sectionalism means that people are more free speech, free labor, and free men.”
loyal to their state or region than to the Although Taylor became President, the
country as a whole. Southerners united in Free-Soil party received an impressive
their support for slavery and accused the number of votes. Clearly, the slavery issue
North of threatening their way of life. hurt both major parties.
Northern abolitionists believed slavery to
be morally wrong and demanded that the
national government outlaw it.
Some politicians suggested other ways
to settle the question of slavery in the ter-
ritories. Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan
recommended that the voters who lived
in a territory should decide whether the
states they formed would be slave or free.
This idea supported popular sovereignty,
or the notion that people should have the
right to rule themselves.

★ The Election of 1848

There seemed to be no way of reconcil-
ing the opposing views on slavery in the  ZACHARY TAYLOR

CHAPTER 17 Road to Civil War: 1850–1860 541

Admission of California would tip the
balance of power in the Senate in favor of
free states, which already held a majority
in the House. Southern leaders threatened
to leave the Union if it admitted California
as a free state.

★ Threats to the Union

In January 1849, South Carolina Senator
John C. Calhoun acted against what he
saw as a threat to the Southern way of life.
Calling a caucus, or private meeting, of
the Southern members of Congress, he
denounced the Ordinance of 1787 and the
Missouri Compromise of 1820 as attacks
on the South.
Calhoun claimed that any more similar
Northern-sponsored measures would
 SENATE DEBATE An intense debate raged in
Picturing bring an end to slavery, start a race war,
the Senate over the admission of California as
H istory and lead to rule by African Americans.
a free state. What bill did Congress pass to
help resolve the problem? Calhoun warned that the South would
secede, or leave the United States.
Calhoun’s views seemed too extreme
for many people. Even slaveholding sen-
★ The California Question ators, including Sam Houston of Texas
The California Gold Rush in 1848 inten- and Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri,
sified questions about slavery in the new opposed him. Many Southern newspa-
territories. By the end of 1849, an estimat- pers also declared their loyalty to the
ed 95,000 forty-niners from all over the Union. Some Southern members of Con-
world had settled in California. Along gress, however, agreed with Calhoun. In
with this tremendous growth came an the Southern states, some state legisla-
urgent need for government. tures, local conventions, and newspaper
President Taylor believed statehood editors adopted his ideas.
could become a solution to the issue of In Congress debate over California’s
slavery in the territories. As long as lands statehood dragged on for a year. When
remained territories, the federal govern- Calhoun first talked of seceding, Repre-
ment decided the issue of slavery. Once the sentative Robert Toombs of Georgia loud-
territories became states, their own govern- ly opposed any such move. Before 1849
ments could settle the slavery question. ended, however, Toombs stood in the
At the suggestion of President Taylor, a House and declared, “I am for disunion.”
convention met in Monterey, California,
in the fall of 1849 and adopted a constitu-
tion that prohibited slavery. The newly
created government immediately applied
★ Compromise of 1850
for admission to the Union as a free state. To resolve the crisis, Congress turned to
California’s application for statehood Senator Henry Clay. Clay had earned the
touched off a long and bitter debate. nickname the “Great Compromiser” for

542 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877

working out the details of the Missouri Opposition and Support
Compromise of 1820. Now, 30 years later,
Senator Calhoun—so ill that he had to
the 73-year-old Clay used all his charm
sit grimly in his seat while another senator
and eloquence to persuade Congress to
read his speech for him—rejected any
compromise one more time.
compromise as unfair to the South. His
speech stated that some of “the cords
Clay’s Proposal which bind these states together in one
In January 1850 Clay presented a bill in common Union” had already been broken
Congress with the following provisions: or weakened by the North’s hostility. He
(1) admission of California as a free state; warned that continued unrest over slav-
(2) organization of New Mexico and Utah ery “will snap every cord” so that “noth-
as territories with popular sovereignty; (3) ing will be left to hold the states together
payment to Texas for giving up some ter- except force.”
ritory in New Mexico; (4) an end to the Three days later, Senator Daniel Web-
slave trade, but not slavery, in the District ster delivered a speech in favor of the
of Columbia; and (5) passage of a strict compromise. Although he had been
federal law enforcing the return of run- Clay’s rival for decades, Webster support-
away, or fugitive, slaves. Clay designed ed Clay’s attempt to save the Union. Like
the proposals to give both sides some of many Northerners he disagreed with the
their demands. Eventually the proposals institution of slavery. Breaking up the
would become the Compromise of 1850. Union, however, seemed even worse.

Linking Past and Present


Paper Bags smiled in delight as they made

their rounds of the shops.
The world seemed a differ- Instead of carrying a clumsy
ent place without the com- shopping basket or juggling
mon paper bag. It was once a many small parcels, they added
challenge to carry home gro- purchase after purchase to the
ceries, and people could not same brown paper bag. Inven-
“brown-bag” lunches, either. tor Luther C. Crowell had come
up with a bag of stiff brown
Then paper folded and sealed at one
end. It could be made in many
Baskets and Boxes handy sizes.
In 1852 shoppers in West
Dennis, on Massachusetts’s
Cape Cod,
Not Just Brown
Anymore hold! Many bags are printed with
 SHOPPING IN Shoppers today use billions of store symbols. No matter what
THE 1800S paper bags, not only brown but hue, however, each is still folded
many different colors—some- and sealed at one end, much like
times prettier than the items they Crowell’s original design.


CHAPTER 17 Road to Civil War: 1850–1860 543

August Clay realized his five proposals
would have a better chance of passing sep-
The Compromise of 1850
arately. At this point Stephen A. Douglas,
Iowa Wisc.
a young senator from Illinois, hammered
Oreg. 1846 1848 Mich. five bills out of Clay’s proposal. Douglas
Terr. 1837 guided each bill through and won Senate
Un Terr. approval for all of them.
org err.
Utah an
Terr. iz
The Compromise Is Passed
1850 N. Mex. In September 1850 Congress passed the
bills. Together, they closely resembled
1845 Clay’s original compromise proposals.
President Taylor—who might have
MEXICO vetoed them—had died in July. His suc-
Free states Territory open to slaveholding cessor, Millard Fillmore, signed the bills
Slave states Indian Territory into law.
Territory closed 0 350 miles
to slaveholding 0 350 kilometers
Webster wrote a friend shortly after
passage of the bills:

Place In 1850 members of Congress
I can now sleep of nights.
agreed on where slaveholding would be
allowed or not allowed in the western
We have gone through the
territories. Which territories were most important crisis that
closed to slaveholding? has occurred since the
founding of the govern-
ment, and whatever party
may prevail, hereafter the

Union stands firm.
Webster was willing to compromise and
support the South’s demand that fugitive For a time, the compromise patched up
slaves be returned if doing so would save the North-South quarrel. Yet basic differ-
the Union. ences persisted. Many Southerners agreed
The angry debates continued. Even with Calhoun’s charges that the North
with Webster’s support, Clay had to plead had wronged the South. They also
for his compromise again and again. By remembered his remedy—secession.

★ Section
Checking for Understanding 4. Summarizing Re-create the chart shown
here, and describe what the North and South
1. Define sectionalism, popular sovereignty, each gained from the Compromise of 1850.
Free-Soil party, secede, Compromise of 1850.
Compromise of 1850
2. Why did Northern Whigs form the Free-Soil
Northern Gains Southern Gains
3. Drawing Conclusions Do you think the
Compromise of 1850 was fair to both sides? 5. Citizenship Create a campaign poster for
Why or why not? one of the candidates in the 1848 election.
Include slogans or symbols to gain support.

544 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877


Moving Closer to Conflict

Main Idea Read to Learn . . .
The slavery issue continued to drive ★ how Northerners reacted to the
the North and South further apart Fugitive Slave Act.
during the 1850s. ★ why the Kansas-Nebraska Act caused
★ how the Dred Scott decision affected
Reading Strategy slavery in the territories.
Organizing Information As you read
about how the North and South moved
Terms to Know
toward conflict, use a diagram such as the ★ Fugitive Slave Act
one shown here to trace the steps ★ Kansas-Nebraska Act
that led to bloodshed in Kansas.
step step



T he crowd in Syracuse, New York, fell

silent as Reverend J. W. Loguen stood to
Although the Compromise of 1850 kept
peace for a few years, the provisions of the
speak. Years before, Loguen had escaped Fugitive Slave Act aroused deep anger in
to freedom on his master’s horse. He had the North. It aroused new calls for an end
gone to college and become a minister. to slavery.
Now his audience waited to hear what he
had to say about the Fugitive Slave Act:
★ Growing Support
“ The time has come to change
the tones of submission into
tones of defiance—and to
tell Mr. Fillmore and Mr.
for Abolition
A Fugitive Slave Act had been in effect
since 1793, making it a crime to help run-
Webster, if they propose to
execute this measure upon away enslaved persons. The new Fugitive
us, to send on their blood- Slave Act, passed as part of the Compro-
hounds. . . . I don’t respect mise of 1850, however, set up harsher
this law—I don’t fear it— punishments. Now anyone caught aiding
I won’t obey it! It outlaws fugitive slaves could be fined $1,000 and

me, and I outlaw it. be jailed for six months.

CHAPTER 17 Road to Civil War: 1850–1860 545

With the new law, slaveholders hunted Biography ★★★★
fiercely for runaways, whom they
thought of as valuable lost property. Sojourner Truth, Striving for Truth
They sent agents, offered rewards, or
“I was born a slave in Ulster County,
traveled north themselves to hunt down
New York,” Isabella Baumfree began
those who had run away. Agents even
when she told her story to audiences.
caught free African Americans and
Called “Belle,” she lived in the cellar of
claimed they were fugitives. Free or
her master’s mansion house. Born around
enslaved African Americans could not
1797 Belle’s life changed drastically when
testify in their own defense to prove that
she became free in 1828 under a New York
they were not fugitives.
law that banned slavery.
In 1843 Belle chose a new name.
Abolitionist Protests “Sojourner Truth is my name,” she said,
Watching fugitives being brutally “because from this day I will walk in the
seized and driven back into slavery con- light of [God’s] truth.” She began to work
vinced more people of the evils of slavery. in the movements both
Despite the penalties, many Northerners for abolition and for
openly assisted runaways. women’s rights.
Former slaves and free-born African Sojourner Truth had
Americans worked harder than ever to never been taught to
help their people. Harriet Tubman, one of read or write, but she
the best-known conductors on the Under- spoke with wit and
ground Railroad, began guiding runaway wisdom. In 1852
slaves all the way to Canada. In Ohio Eli- at a gathering
jah Anderson led more than 1,000
enslaved African Americans to freedom
between 1850 and 1855.
To win support for the abolitionist
movement, Frederick Douglass and oth-
ers who had gained freedom spoke at
meetings and church services. Some wrote
their life stories, known as “slave narra-
tives.” One of these books, Narrative of
Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave, was pub-
lished in 1850 by the well-known aboli-
tionist editor William Lloyd Garrison. The
book depicted the effects of slavery in the

Footnotes to History
Freedom Packages Many Northerners defied the Fugitive Slave Act and
helped slaves escape. Henry Brown, a slave in Richmond, Virginia, had a friend
build a box to send through the mail. Brown poked three breathing holes in it and
placed himself inside. The trip to freedom was rough. At one point the box was
thrown so hard that Brown’s neck was almost broken. Brown reached Philadel-
phia, though, and when his Northern friends opened the box, the former slave
stood up and fainted.

546 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877

of Ohioans, a rowdy farmer challenged her:
The Constitution did not oppose slavery.
Was she against the Constitution?
In answer, Sojourner used an example
the farmer could understand. She knew
that insects called weevils had eaten that
year’s wheat crop in Ohio. So she
described walking near a wheat field and
touching the tall, healthy-looking stalks
but finding no grain there. “I says, ‘God,
what’s the matter with this wheat?’ And
he says to me, ‘Sojourner, there’s a little
weevil in it.’”
The farmer started to interrupt but she
went on: “I hears talk about the Constitu-
tion and rights of man. I come up and I
takes hold of this Constitution. It looks
mighty big. And I feels for my rights. But
they not there. Then I says, ‘God, what ails
this Constitution?’ And you know what
he says to me? . . . ‘Sojourner, there’s a lit-
tle weevil in it.’” ★★★


A New Picture of Slavery
Many of the people who read slave nar- copies in the British Empire, and became a
ratives and listened to the stories told by hit play. While Stowe portrayed some
freed African Americans already believed Southerners sympathetically, her descrip-
in abolition. A new novel published in tions of a suffering slave and heartless
1852, though, brought the cruel story of slaveholder swayed more Northerners
slavery to a wider audience, moving them than ever against slavery.
to tears and anger. Uncle Tom’s Cabin also turned Southern-
Harriet Beecher Stowe came from a ers against the North. In South Carolina,
family of well-known educators and cler- Mary Chesnut spoke for many slavehold-
gy. After moving from Connecticut to ers when she complained in her diary
Ohio, she heard stories about slavery from about Stowe and other Northern aboli-
those escaping by the Underground Rail- tionists. She believed that they did not
road. She also visited plantations in near- know what they were talking about. Their
by Kentucky. After the passage of the antislavery opinions, she said, were an
Fugitive Slave Act, Stowe used her experi- “obsession with other decent people’s
ences to write the novel Uncle Tom’s customs” and a “self-serving” way to
Cabin—portraying a kindly plantation make money.
family, the brutal overseer Simon Legree,
and a saintly enslaved man, Uncle Tom.
First printed as a series in an abolition-
★ Kansas-Nebraska Act
ist newspaper, Uncle Tom’s Cabin came out In 1854 the political truce over slavery
as a book in 1852. In the first week, it sold ended with the passage of the Kansas-
10,000 copies. Later it was reprinted in 37 Nebraska Act. Senator Stephen A. Dou-
languages, sold more than 1 million glas of Illinois proposed the act to set up

CHAPTER 17 Road to Civil War: 1850–1860 547

territorial governments in the Nebraska Leaders throughout the South support-
Territory and to encourage rapid settle- ed the proposal. They believed slavehold-
ment of the region. Douglas and other ers in Missouri would move across the
Northern leaders also hoped to build a border into Kansas. Eventually, Kansas
transcontinental railroad through their would become a slave state. President
states rather than through the Southern Franklin Pierce, a Democrat elected in
part of the country. 1852, also supported Douglas’s proposal.
The Nebraska Territory stretched from With the President’s help, Douglas
Texas to Canada and from Missouri west pushed the bill through Congress.
to the Rocky Mountains. Douglas knew Northerners became outraged. They
that the South did not want to add anoth- felt betrayed. Popular sovereignty in
er free state to the Union. He, therefore, Kansas and Nebraska, in effect, canceled
proposed dividing the region into two ter- the Missouri Compromise. The Kansas-
ritories, Nebraska and Kansas. In each ter- Nebraska Act opened the possibility of
ritory settlers would decide the issue of new slave states in the West—an area that
slavery by popular sovereignty. had been free for more than 30 years.

Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

The Kansas-Nebraska Act divided the Nebraska

Territory into separate territories, and repealed
the prohibition of slavery north of the Missouri
Compromise line. The citizens of each territory
would be able to determine by vote whether
their state would be slave or free.

Oregon Minnesota
Territory Nebraska Territory
New Mexico

Free states
Slave states
Territory closed to slavery
Territory open to slavery
Indian territory

Region The Compromise of 1850 had closed the area of FREE-SOIL
Kansas and Nebraska territories to slaveholding. How did
the Kansas-Nebraska Act affect the agreement
reached in the Compromise of 1850?

548 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877

Bleeding Kansas at Lawrence, he decided he had to avenge
the crime. On the night of May 24, Brown
The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska
and some followers murdered 5 proslav-
Act started a race to win Kansas for one
ery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek. More
side or the other. Backers of slavery from
fighting and killing followed. By late 1856,
Missouri and other slave states moved to
more than 200 people had been killed.
the territory. Under popular sovereignty,
Americans began to call the territory
they could vote for Kansas to enter the
Bleeding Kansas.
Union as a slave state.
To counter the proslavery groups, the
New England Emigrant Aid Society
helped Free-Soilers, members of the Free- ★ Violence in the Senate
Soil party, to migrate to Kansas and “vote The violence extended to the nation’s
to make it free.” The settlers built the capital, where anger over the issue of slav-
town of Lawrence, Kansas, which became ery exploded in the Senate. Senator
a Free-Soil stronghold. Other emigrant aid Charles Sumner of Massachusetts made a
societies in Free-Soil states also sent set- long speech viciously denouncing South-
tlers and weapons. ern slaveholders and Senator Andrew
Antislavery settlers soon outnumbered Butler of South Carolina as supporters of
proslavery ones. In 1855 Kansas held elec- the crime of slavery in Kansas. The speech
tions to choose its lawmakers. Hundreds enraged Butler’s nephew, South Carolina
of drifters known as border ruffians representative Preston Brooks.
crossed the border from Missouri. They Two days later—the day after the burn-
harassed antislavery settlers in Kansas ing of Lawrence, Kansas—Brooks ap-
and voted illegally for a proslavery gov- proached Sumner at his desk on the
ernment. Senate floor and beat him with a heavy
As a result, Kansas elected a proslavery cane, splintering the wood. Bleeding and
legislature. Its members passed what the half-conscious, Sumner was helped out of
Free-Soilers called “black laws.” One law the Senate. Shocked Northerners viewed
punished antislavery talk with 5 years in Sumner as a martyr and held protest
prison. Another law gave 10 years in jail meetings against the violence. For some
to anyone caught helping escaped slaves. Southerners, however, Brooks became a
Antislavery forces refused to obey the hero. Admirers sent him more canes. One
new government in Kansas. They drafted cane bore the inscription “Hit him again.”
a free-state constitution and elected their Meanwhile in Kansas the struggle over
own representative to Congress. slavery continued. Antislavery settlers
Violence increased. Shootings and eventually won the fight because of their
barn-burnings became common. On April great numbers. In 1861 Kansas entered the
23, 1856, a proslavery sheriff was shot out- Union as a free state.
side the town of Lawrence. Proslavery
newspapers blamed the town’s Free-Soil-
ers and cried for war. In May an army of
border ruffians and proslavery Kansans
★ The Dred Scott Decision
looted and burned Lawrence, killing five During the 1850s Southerners often
abolitionists in the process. criticized the federal government for
John Brown, a fanatical abolitionist treating them unfairly. In 1857, however,
from the Northeast, had come to Kansas the Supreme Court took their side on the
with his 5 sons to join the antislavery question of slavery and pushed the North
forces. When Brown heard of the murders and South further apart.

CHAPTER 17 Road to Civil War: 1850–1860 549

With the help of antislavery lawyers,
Scott’s case eventually reached the
Supreme Court. Many of the justices,
however, favored slavery. The Court voted
7 to 2 against him. On March 6, 1857, Chief
Justice Roger B. Taney (TAW•nee) deliv-
ered an opinion that upheld the Southern
view that Scott had no right to sue in a
federal court. The Court ruled against
Scott because the founders of the United
States did not intend for African Ameri-
cans to be citizens. In addition, Scott’s
travels to free territory had not affected his
status as a slave. Slaves were property,
 DRED SCOTT The Supreme said Taney, and the Fifth Amendment pro-
Court ruled that as an African hibited Congress from taking property
H istory American, Dred Scott could not without “due process of law.” He also said
sue for his freedom because he that the Missouri Compromise ban on
was not a citizen. What did the Supreme Court slavery north of the 36°30´ line was uncon-
rule unconstitutional in the Dred Scott case? stitutional because Congress had no right
to prohibit slavery in the territories. In
In the 1830s an army doctor in Missouri effect, the decision meant that the Consti-
bought an enslaved man, Dred Scott. The tution protected slavery. Abolishing slav-
doctor then moved with his household to ery would require a constitutional
Illinois, a free state, and next to Wisconsin amendment.
Territory, where slavery was banned by Rather than settling the issue, the Dred
the Missouri Compromise. Later the fam- Scott decision aroused bitterness among
ily returned to Missouri, where the doctor the abolitionists and increased tensions
died. In 1846 Dred Scott decided to sue for between the North and South. Many
freedom for himself and his family. He Southerners now happily considered all
claimed that living in free territory had territories open to slavery. Stunned
made him a free person. Northerners vowed to fight the decision.

★ Section Assessment★
Checking for Understanding 4. Analyzing Issues Re-create the diagram
1. Define Fugitive Slave Act, Kansas-Nebraska shown here, and list the reasons the Dred Scott
Act. decision outraged Northern abolitionists.
2. How did the Fugitive Slave Act affect the Dred Scott Decision
abolitionist movement?

Critical Thinking
3. Making Comparisons Uncle Tom’s Cabin
sparked high tensions between the North 5. The Arts Find a slave narrative at the
and South. How was it similar to Thomas library and choose one incident in it.
Paine’s Common Sense? Turn the incident into a brief first-person
monologue that you can present in class.

550 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877



King Cotton


How did cotton become the “king” crop in cotton. By 1860

the southern United States? Europeans and Southern planta-
Americans of the 1700s and 1800s called cot- tions produced more
ton a miracle fiber. It was light, cool, soft, than 1 billion pounds  COTTON CARDING
durable, and easy to dye, sew, and care for. (454,000,000 kg) yearly.
Cotton had been one of the first products The greatest amount was still being shipped to
brought from India by British explorers and England. At the same time, however, new
merchants in the late 1600s. Employees of the American textile factories began to increase the
British East India Company, suffering in demand for cotton.
India’s hot climate, thankfully exchanged
their heavy woolen clothes for light cotton
clothing. They also began sending supplies of
the wondrous fabric back to England. The
Making the Geography Connection
material quickly became immensely popular. 1. How did cotton growing become a part
Planters in the southern American colonies of the British and American way of life?
found that cotton would thrive in the hot, 2. What geographic factors made it pos-
humid climate, though it took the hard work sible for Southern states to base their
of many people. The South’s growing season economy on cotton?
was long enough for a cotton crop to ripen
each year. ACTIVITY
With the invention of the cotton gin in the
1790s, cotton production and exports increased 3. Using an encyclopedia, make a list of
products using cotton or cottonseed (for
astoundingly. By 1840 the United States pro-
example, clothing, towels, oils). Make a
duced more than 60 percent of the world’s
list of ways you use cotton, in as many
different categories as possible.


A New Political Party

Main Idea Read to Learn . . .
A new political party that sought to ★ how the Republican party formed.
stop the spread of slavery arose. ★ the issues and results of the Lincoln-
Douglas debates.

Reading Strategy Terms to Know

Organizing Information As you read ★ Republicans
about the formation of the Republican ★ debate
party, use the diagram shown here to list ★ Freeport Doctrine
what groups formed the party and what its
main views were.
Republican Party
Groups Views


D isagreement over the Kansas-

Nebraska Act split the old Whig party and
brought together fragmented groups of
state-level Republicans, abolitionists,
brought about new political alliances. The Free-Soilers, and anti-Nebraska Whigs
Whigs had refused to take a stand on slav- and Democrats. Members of the new
ery in the territories. As a result, proslav- party accused Southerners of forcing slav-
ery Whigs drifted into the Democratic ery on the territories. Some thought that
party. Meanwhile Whigs and Democrats the institution of slavery kept wages low
opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act for white workers. Others considered
joined Free-Soilers in loosely organized slavery immoral. All Republicans agreed
anti-Nebraska groups. that Congress should keep slavery out of
Gradually, the anti-Nebraska groups the western territories. Most Republicans
united. They organized first on the state did not expect to eliminate slavery in the
level. In Wisconsin they met in the town South.
of Ripon on February 24, 1854. The chair-
man suggested that they call themselves
Republicans. Eventually the Republicans
★ The Election of 1856
became a new national party. Members of the new Republican party
The first national convention of the met in June in Philadelphia to nominate a
Republican party took place in Pittsburgh, presidential candidate. They chose John
Pennsylvania, in February 1856. It C. Frémont, a western explorer and leader

552 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877

of the California uprising against Mexico
in 1846. Republicans rallied around their
candidate with the cry “Free Men, Free
Soil, Frémont.”
By 1856 the Democratic party was
made up mostly of Southerners. Meeting
in Cincinnati, Ohio, they nominated
James Buchanan of Pennsylvania, an
experienced diplomat and former mem-
ber of Congress. They endorsed the notion
of popular sovereignty.
The American party, or Know-Nothing
party, had grown quickly between 1853
and 1856 by attacking immigrants and
promoting temperance. The Know-Noth-
ings nominated former President Millard
Fillmore. This new party lost support
quickly because it ignored the issue of
slavery in the territories.
Due to large support in the South,
Buchanan won the election. With only a  JAMES BUCHANAN James
minority of the popular vote, he won all Buchanan defeated John C.
H istory Frémont and Millard Fillmore in
of the Southern states except Maryland
the election of 1856. What
and received 174 electoral votes against
helped Buchanan win the election?
114 for Frémont and 8 for Fillmore. Fré-
mont carried 11 of the 16 free states. The
election of 1856 made it quite clear that
politics in 1832, losing the race for state
sectionalism now played a critical role in
legislator. In 1834 he again ran for the leg-
American politics.
islature and won. During this time he
began studying law and received his
attorney license in 1836.
★ Abraham Lincoln Lincoln had belonged to the Whig
Becomes a National party for more than 20 years. From 1834
to 1841 he served in the Illinois state leg-
Figure islature and in 1846 voters elected him to
As a young man Abraham Lincoln the House of Representatives. Republi-
moved to New Salem, Illinois, where he cans and not Whigs, though, addressed
purchased a country store. He entered the spread of slavery—one of Lincoln’s

Footnotes to History
A Humble Start Two Presidents, Millard Fillmore and Andrew Johnson, were
once indentured servants. An indentured servant, unlike a slave, was under a
contract to a master for a certain length of time. Like slaves, though, indentured
servants did not have many rights.
Andrew Johnson ran away from his master. Fillmore served his master for sev-
eral years and then bought his freedom for $30.

CHAPTER 17 Road to Civil War: 1850–1860 553


★ The Lincoln-Douglas
The next month, Douglas kicked off his
campaign in Chicago. He exclaimed to a
throng of excited Democrats that Lin-
coln’s “house divided” speech called for
war between the North and South. Dou-
glas attacked the idea of African Ameri-
can equality. The American government,
Douglas claimed, “was made by the white
man, for the benefit of the white man, to
be administered by white men.”
Speaking the following night, Lincoln
denied Douglas’s charge of wanting war.
Whereas Douglas thought of slavery as a
political concern, Lincoln raised the
 ABRAHAM LINCOLN moral question of slavery. Lincoln con-
sidered slavery an evil that must be lim-
concerns. After the Whig party collapsed, ited so that it would die out. “Let us
he joined the Republicans. Lincoln cam- discard all this quibbling about . . . this
paigned vigorously for Frémont. As Illi- race and that race and the other race
nois voters listened to him speak, they being inferior.” He urged his listeners to
enjoyed the way he made complex argu- “once more stand up declaring that all
ments easy to understand. men are created equal.”
People admired Lincoln’s honesty, wit, Lincoln knew he could not attract the
and soft-spoken manner. He served one large crowds that Douglas did. Therefore,
term in the United States House of Repre- he followed Douglas across the state,
sentatives. Ten years later, in 1858, he often traveling on the same train. Douglas
decided to challenge Senator Stephen A. relaxed in a private car while Lincoln rode
Douglas for his seat in the Senate. When in a public coach.
accepting the nomination, Lincoln deliv-
ered a stirring speech to a cheering crowd The Great Debates
at the Illinois Republican convention. As In late July Lincoln challenged Douglas
he began to speak, he seemed afraid and to a series of debates, or public discus-
stiff, but soon he energetically swung his sions, on slavery. After some hesitation,
long arms and rose up on his toes to stress Douglas accepted the challenge. During
each point: the campaign, the men debated seven
times. The debates centered on the exten-

“ A house divided against

itself cannot stand. I believe
this government cannot
endure permanently half
sion of slavery into the free territories.
Lincoln and Douglas held their first
debate in Ottawa, Illinois, before a crowd
slave and half free. I do not of 10,000 people. The two rivals sat side
expect the Union to be dis- by side on the speakers’ platform. Dou-
solved—I do not expect the glas—short but powerfully built, with a
house to fall—but I do large head—looked the part of his nick-
expect it will cease to be name, “Little Giant.” He dressed smartly,

divided. . . . sometimes wearing a ruffled shirt and

554 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877

broad-brimmed plantation hat. Tall, thin career. This answer would be welcomed
Lincoln, on the other hand, wore a baggy in the South, but it might cost him the sen-
suit and kept his carpetbag of notes beside atorial election.
him. To solve the dilemma, Douglas stated
Douglas spoke in a deep voice and ges- that the decision did not necessarily void
tured with clenched fists. Knowing that popular sovereignty in the territories. Yes,
many voters disliked abolitionists, he he admitted that the Supreme Court had
labeled Lincoln and his party “Black said that neither Congress nor the govern-
Republicans.” In a shrill but forceful ments of the territories could prohibit
voice, Lincoln accused Douglas of having slavery by law. On the other hand, in
a “don’t care” attitude toward the spread places where Free-Soilers made up the
of slavery into the territories. Douglas majority, they could destroy slavery sim-
often ridiculed Lincoln for declaring ply by refusing to pass laws that protected
African Americans equal to whites. it. Douglas’s explanation later became
As the debates continued, Lincoln known as the Freeport Doctrine.
devised a way to discredit Douglas with- Lincoln continued to stress this funda-
in his own party. During the debate at mental difference between himself and
Freeport, Illinois, Lincoln asked Douglas Douglas. Douglas ignored the moral
if the people of a territory could exclude question of slavery, while Lincoln regard-
slavery prior to the formation of a state ed it as morally, socially, and politically
constitution. In other words, was popular evil.
sovereignty still workable despite the
Dred Scott decision?
Lincoln had trapped Douglas. If he An End . . . and a Beginning
answered “yes,” Douglas would appear Douglas won the 1858 election by a nar-
to support popular sovereignty, thereby row margin and kept his place in the Sen-
opposing the Dred Scott decision. Such an ate. Still, he lost the support of many
answer would improve his chances for Democrats outside Illinois. Lincoln won
reelection as a senator but cost him South- an impressive popular vote in the state,
ern support for the presidential race in and the election debates made him a
1860. A “no” answer would make it seem national figure. At the time, however, a
as if he had abandoned popular sover- disappointed Lincoln predicted that he
eignty, on which he had based his political would “now sink out of view.”

★ Section Assessment★
Checking for Understanding 4. Analyzing Issues Re-create the chart shown
1. Define Republicans, debate, Freeport here, and describe the position taken by
Doctrine. Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas in
their debates.
2. How did Abraham Lincoln become a nation-
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
al figure in politics?
Douglas’s Position Lincoln’s Position

Critical Thinking
3. Interpreting Primary Sources Why did INTERDISCIPLINARY ACTIVITY
Douglas and other Democrats charge that
Lincoln’s “house divided” speech was a call 5. Citizenship Choose an idea from one of
for war between the North and South? Lincoln’s speeches and design a bulletin
board display around it.

CHAPTER 17 Road to Civil War: 1850–1860 555


Election of 1860 and Secession

Main Idea Read to Learn . . .
In 1860 Abraham Lincoln captured ★ why John Brown invaded
the presidency, which prompted Harpers Ferry.
Southern states to begin seceding ★ how Southern states tried to form
from the union. a separate nation.

Reading Strategy Terms to Know

Sequencing Information As you read ★ homestead act
about how the nation broke apart, create a ★ armory
time line of events that led to the secession ★ Crittenden Plan
of Southern states. Use the dates provided
as a guide.
November 1860 February 1861

October 1859 December 1860


T he people of Springfield, Illinois,

began to jump in the streets, singing and

places in the North. In the South, howev-

er, the news brought confusion, anger,
shouting. Some threw their hats in the air. and despair.
Still others climbed to their rooftops to
cheer. In the statehouse, dignified politi-
cians rolled on the carpet. Everywhere, ★ An Uneasy Decade
people sang: The United States had little to celebrate
during the 1850s. Year after year, relations

“ Ain’t I glad I joined the

Joined the Republicans,
Joined the Republicans,
between the North and South grew
worse. A serious depression, or economic
downturn, hit the North in 1857. To help
Ain’t I glad I joined the businesses and poor farmers, Northern-
Republicans, ers pressed for higher tariffs and free

Down in Illinois. land. Southerners in Congress would not
act to raise tariffs, however. Congress
The wild election-night celebration of passed a homestead act offering free land
Abraham Lincoln’s victory in the 1860 to settlers, but President Buchanan
presidential election echoed in other vetoed it.

556 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877

Violence over slavery continued to rage Reactions in the North
in Kansas. Then in October 1859, aboli- and South
tionist John Brown brought his war
Northerners had mixed
against slavery into Virginia, not far from
reactions to the raid. Was
the nation’s capital.
John Brown a courageous
martyr to the cause of free-
John Brown’s Raid dom or a madman? At his
Now almost 60 years old, with a long trial, Brown testified in a
white beard, Brown thought of himself as moving and dignified
an avenging angel doing God’s will by manner. Northern
destroying slavery, even if it meant killing abolitionists espe-
people. Brown had formed a small army cially admired his
of 18 followers. On the night of October hatred for slavery,
16, 1859, Brown and his men invaded and many believed
Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Vir- that his execution
ginia). They occupied a federal armory, or would give their cause  JOHN BROWN
storehouse for weapons. Then they seized a martyr and hero.
a nearby rifle factory and took several In the South people’s reactions to the
hostages. They hoped to use captured raid consisted of fear, anger, and hatred.
guns and rifles to arm all the enslaved Southerners became convinced that they
persons in the area and ignite a slave could not live safely in the Union. Northern
revolt that would end in freedom for all support for Brown horrified Southerners as
enslaved African Americans. much as the raid itself. Many Southerners
By morning, local farmers and militia feared the possibility of a slave rebellion,
had rushed to town in a panic, fearing a and they became convinced that the North
slave rebellion. Brown and his followers hoped to produce one.
probably could have escaped, but Brown Southern towns organized militias and
refused. No others tried to escape until it declared martial law. Rumors of plots and
was too late. By the time Brown tried to revolts spread like wildfire. Planters
negotiate with the militia, they had enforced harsh discipline, threatening to
trapped him. whip or hang any enslaved persons who
Rumors spread in Washington of a acted at all rebellious.
huge slave rebellion. President Buchanan Government authorities convicted John
sent in army troops and a company of Brown of treason and murder and sen-
United States Marines, commanded by tenced him to hang on December 2, 1859.
Colonel Robert E. Lee. On the second
morning, the marines—plus a huge
crowd—surrounded Brown. When Brown
★ The Election of 1860
refused to surrender, the soldiers battered John Brown’s raid became a major theme
down the door and attacked with bayo- in the presidential election campaigns of
nets. One of the officers wounded and
captured Brown.
John Brown’s raid on the arsenal had
lasted 36 hours. No local people had
Student Web Activity
joined his cause. Ten of Brown’s men, Visit the American History: The Early Years to 1877 Web
including two of his sons, had been killed. site at and click on Chapter 17—Stu-
Brown’s raiders had killed 4 civilians, 1 dent Web Activities for an activity on John Brown’s raid.
marine, and 2 slaves.

CHAPTER 17 Road to Civil War: 1850–1860 557

This stand lost Douglas the support of
Southern delegates at the Democratic con-
Election of 1860
vention in Charleston, South Carolina. It
split the Democratic party. Northern
N.H. Democrats nominated Douglas for Presi-
Vt. Maine
Oreg. Minn. dent and supported popular sovereignty.
Wis. N.Y. Southern Democrats chose John C. Breck-
Nonvoting Mich. R.I.
Territories Iowa Pa. Conn. inridge of Kentucky, supporting the
Calif. Ill. Ind. N.J. ideals of the Dred Scott decision.
Mo. Va. Del.
Ky. Alarmed by sectional divisions, a group
N.C. Md.
Ark. Tenn. S.C.
Miss. Ga.
of former Whigs put together the Consti-
Texas La. Ala. tutional Union party. They nominated
Senator John Bell of Tennessee and cham-
pioned the Union and the Constitution,
attempting to avoid the slavery issue.
Popular vote: Electoral vote: Before John Brown’s raid, Republicans
4,689,568 303
Lincoln 1,865,593 180 Republican
considered William H. Seward their first
Breckinridge 848,356 72 Southern Democrat choice for President. Many voters, howev-
Bell 592,906 39 Constitutional Union er, considered Seward’s views against
Douglas 1,382,713 12 Northern Democrat slavery too extreme. Democrats blamed
him for inspiring the raid on Harpers
Ferry. Abraham Lincoln, who had fewer
Location Lincoln found support in the
Northern and Western states. Which enemies and remained popular outside
states supported Douglas? the Northeast, seemed a safer choice.
Although he opposed extending slavery
into the territories, he conceded Southern-
ers’ right to have slavery in the South.

1860. Democrats grabbed the chance to hurt

Republicans. They branded the raid a
Republican Platform
“Black Republican” plot and accused party The Republican platform also called for
leaders of plotting with Brown. a homestead act, a transcontinental rail-
The issue distressed Republicans. Many road, and a protective tariff. These goals
admired Brown’s ideals but not his appealed to farmers, Westerners, and
actions, which they saw as crimes. “John manufacturers. Southerners, however,
Brown was no Republican,” Lincoln detested the Republicans’ platform and
protested. Still, Southerners remained their candidate. Many Southerners
suspicious of Republicans and anyone thought of Lincoln as an abolitionist and
who refused to support slavery. believed the Republicans wanted to make
war upon the South. They feared that if
Lincoln became President, they would
Parties and Their Candidates lose their voice in the national govern-
The issue that splintered the nation ment. Lincoln’s name did not even appear
also broke apart parties. In 1860 Stephen on the ballot in 10 Southern states. A
A. Douglas tried to hold onto his leader- newspaper in Atlanta, Georgia, insisted
ship in the Democratic party. However, that the South “would never submit to . . .
he insisted that as President he would the inauguration of Abraham Lincoln.” It
not annul laws that discouraged slavery predicted the South would secede rather
in the territories. than accept Lincoln as President.

558 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877

Election Results ★ Moving Toward
On November 6, 1860—Election Day—
telegraph wires flashed the results from
the nation’s polls to Springfield, Illinois. Southerners reacted differently to Lin-
Lincoln and his friends celebrated victo- coln’s election. In Charleston, South Car-
ries in New England, the Northwest, and olina, people set off fireworks and fired
Pennsylvania. Then the news came that cannons to salute the South Carolina flag.
New York voted Republican. Those votes Southerners were certain that a new
won Lincoln the presidency. nation would be born in South Carolina.
The final tally showed Lincoln carried A Charleston newspaper editorial pro-
every free state except New Jersey. This claimed, “The tea has been thrown over-
gave him a majority of the electoral votes. board, the revolution of 1860 has been
Yet, because of the three-way race, he initiated.” A few days later, the United
received only 40 percent—less than a States senators from South Carolina
majority—of the popular vote. resigned from Congress, and the state

Seceding States, 1860–1861

130° W 120° W 110° W 100° W 90° W 80° W 70° W 60° W

Territory N.H.
Vt. Maine
Dakota Minn.
Territory Mass.
40° N
Wis. N.Y.
Nevada Mich. R.I.
Nebraska Territory Pa. Conn.
Territory Iowa
Utah Ohio N.J.
Colorado Ill. Ind. W.
Calif. Territory Kansas Mo. Va.* Va. Del.
PACIFIC New Mexico Indian N.C.
OCEAN Territory Terr. Ark. S.C.
30° N Miss.
Texas Ala. Ga.

*West Virginia seceded from Virginia in 1861 and was admitted to the Union in 1863.
20° N Union free state Slave state seceding 0 200 400 miles
after Ft. Sumter, April 1861
Union slave state
0 200 400 kilometers
Confederate states
Slave state seceding
before Ft. Sumter, April 1861

Region After the attack on Fort Sumter, four more Southern states joined the
seven that had already seceded from the Union. Which slave states
remained in the Union?

CHAPTER 17 Road to Civil War: 1850–1860 559

legislature called a convention to decide no meat—the principle all sucked out.”
what steps to take. For South Carolina, Republicans voted down the plan.
the time to secede had come.
Dissenting Southerners On December 20, 1860, before Lincoln
Not all Southerners seemed as eager to was sworn in as President, delegates at
leave the Union as the people in the South Carolina convention voted
Charleston. Alexander H. Stephens unanimously to secede from the United
implored the Georgia legislature not to act States. By February 1861, Mississippi,
unless the federal government moved Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana,
against the South. He thought the South and Texas had also voted to leave the
could defend its rights better within the Union. These states based their right to
Union. Stephens said, however, that if secede on the theory of states’ rights. They
Georgians decided to secede, he would defined the Constitution as a contract
support his state: “Their cause is my among sovereign states. The Northern
cause, and their destiny is my destiny.” states had broken that contract by refus-
Senator John Crittenden of Kentucky ing to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act and
also tried to save the Union by proposing by denying the Southern states their equal
his Crittenden Plan, which involved sev- rights in the territories.
eral amendments to the Constitution. One On February 4, delegates met in Alaba-
would guarantee the existence of slavery ma to form a new nation. They named it
in the states where it already existed. the Confederate States of America, or the
Another would bring back the old Mis- Confederacy. They elected Jefferson
souri Compromise line prohibiting slav- Davis, a former member of Congress and
ery in the territories but allowing a the cabinet, as president.
popular vote at the time of statehood. Word of the Confederacy spread fast. In
Although not yet in office, Lincoln Galena, Illinois, a man ran into a leather
wielded power as head of his party. He goods store owned by a former army offi-
advised Republicans in Congress to cer Ulysses S. Grant. As he blurted out the
oppose the Crittenden Plan. Otherwise, news, Grant turned to him and said,
he said, the Republican party would “Davis and the whole gang of them ought
become “a mere sucked egg, all shell and to be hung!”

★ Section Assessment★
Checking for Understanding in the North and the South reacted to John
1. Define homestead act, armory, Crittenden Brown’s raid.
Plan. North
2. What was the goal of John Brown’s raid on John Brown’s Raid
Harpers Ferry? South
3. Why were there four parties and candidates
in the presidential election of 1860?
Critical Thinking
4. Making Comparisons Re-create the dia- 5. Citizenship Make up a campaign slogan
gram shown here, and describe how people or song for one of the candidates in the
1860 presidential election.

560 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877

Social Studies Skills

Interpreting an Election Map

The 1848 Presidential Election, Electoral Votes

N.H. 6 Maine
Vt. 9
6 Mass.
Wis. N.Y. 12
4 Mich. 36
R.I. 4
Iowa 5 Pa. Conn. 6
Nonvoting 4 Ohio 26 N.J. 7
Territories Ill. Ind.
12 23 Del. 3
Mo. Md. 8
7 Ky. 12
N.C. 11
Tenn. 13
Ark. S.C.
Miss. Ala. Ga. 9
6 9 10
Texas 6
Popular vote: Electoral vote:
Zachary Taylor 1,360,967 163 Whig
Lewis Cass 1,222,342 127 Democratic
Martin Van Buren 291,263 0 Free-soil

Learning the Skill

Practicing the Skill
An election map shows the support for
candidates in different areas. For example, a 1. What color is the Democratic party?
presidential candidate might win many 2. What was the popular vote for Cass?
votes in western states but very few in the How many electoral votes did he win?
Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive
A presidential election has two kinds of
Workbook, Level 1 provides in-
results: the popular vote and the electoral struction and practice in key social
vote. The candidate with the most popular studies skills.
votes in a state wins all that state’s electoral
votes. (The number of electors from each APPLYING THE SKILL
state equals the combined number of its sen- 3. In an almanac, newspaper, or other ref-
ators and representatives in Congress.) erence work, find the results of a recent
city, state, or national election. Then
create an election map with a key.

Conflict and Cooperation
HISTORY 2. What caused the Democratic party to split in
Self-Check Quiz
Visit the American History: The Early Years to
1877 Web site at and click on History and Geography
Chapter 17—Self-Check Quizzes to prepare for
the chapter test.
Slave Versus Free States
Study the maps below and answer the ques-
Using Key Vocabulary 1. Location After the Compromise of 1850,
what territories were left open to slavery?
Choose the term in each pair that best com-
pletes the sentence. 2. Location Under the Kansas-Nebraska Act
what territories were left open to slavery?
1. The (Wilmot Proviso/Freeport Doctrine)
would have banned slavery in land obtained
from Mexico.
2. The (Compromise of 1850/Kansas-Nebraska Slave and Free States
Act) reversed the Missouri Compromise’s ban Minnesota After Compromise
on slavery in the lands north of Missouri. Territory of 1850
Reviewing Facts Utah
Calif. Territory
1. List the proposals that made up the Compro- New Mexico

mise of 1850. Territory

2. Describe how Northerners reacted to the

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Missouri Compromise
3. Explain how the Kansas-Nebraska Act led to
Free states Territory open to slavery,
violence in Kansas. decision left to voters
Slave states
Territory closed to slavery Indian territory

Understanding Concepts Wash.

After Kansas-Nebraska
Act of 1854
Oregon Minnesota
Geography and the Environment Territory Nebraska Terr.
1. Re-create the diagram shown here, and list Utah
how the Dred Scott decision weakened the Territory Kansas
civil rights of African Americans. Calif. Territory
New Mexico
Dred Scott decision
Americans’ Civil
Rights Weakened

562 UNIT 6 Rift and Reunion: 1820 –1877


The Presidential Election of 1856

5 Maine
Vt. 5 8
Wis. N.Y. Mass. 13
Mich. 35
Iowa 6 R.I. 4
Nonvoting Pa. 27
4 Ill. Ind. Ohio Conn. 6
Territories 13 23
Calif. Mo. 11 Va. 15 N.J. 7
4 9 Ky. 12 Del. 3
N.C. 10
Ark. Tenn. 12 S.C.
Md. 8
4 Miss.Ala. Ga. 8
Tex. La. 7 9 10
4 6
Popular vote: Electoral vote: Fla.
4,053,967 296 3
James Buchanan,
1,838,169 174
John C. Frémont,
1,341,264 114
Millard Fillmore, 874,534 8

Practicing Skills Technology Activity

Interpreting an Election Map Using a Word Processor 30

1. Which party won in Illinois? Use the Internet and other


2. Where did Buchanan run strongest? library resources to compile a list

of current political
Critical Thinking parties. Make a
table that briefly Writing
1. Drawing Conclusions Do you think popular summarizes ABOUT

sovereignty was the best way to decide the each party’s History
slavery issue in new territories? Explain. main views. Using
Your Jou
Cooperative Interdisciplinary Activity: Look
Learning about im r your notes
Debate p
of the 18 ortant people
Form a group and have each person play Henry the one 0s and choose
who inte
Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, or William most. W rests yo
rit u
Seward. Find the speeches these senators gave or one-a e a short skit
about the Compromise of 1850. Use the speeches to that per play in which
stage a debate for the class. son is t
charact he main

CHAPTER 17 Road to Civil War: 1850–1860 563