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# Design of PostPost-Tensioned

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE

FLOORS
Part 1 Basic information and practical approach
Whyy are we concerned about vibration;
What are the causes of vibration;
What are the allowable limits of vibration;
How to evaluate the vibration acceptability of a
floor
Numerical Example

Fl i A l i
FlorianAalami

## Vibrations may be considered as annoying by

occupants
Threshold of perception
Threshold of annoyance
Vibrations may interfere with the functions of
machines and instruments,
instruments such as in laboratories
laboratories.
Each lab/instrument has its own specific limits of
acceptable vibration

FLOORS

## What are the causes of vibration ?

PERCEPTION OF VIBRATION
What are the allowable limits of vibration?
Frequency (Hz); and
Peak acceleration
1.50

occupants;
Dynamic impact from rolling object.

1 00
1.00

## What are the allowable limits of vibration?

Perception of vibration depends on:

## Frequency (cycles per second, Hz); and

Peak acceleration (expressed as percentage of
gravitational acceleration %g)

## Consensus is that humans are most sensitive to

Pea
ak Accelerattion (% g)

## Most common cause is foot drop (heel drop)

Office, residence,
assembly hall

0.50

0.25
Operating
rooms

12

20

## vibration for frequencies

q
between 4 to 8 Hz.

Frequency (Hz)

## Threshold of Human Sensitivity to Vertical Vibration

(ATC)

or lower frequencies.

FLOORS

## How to evaluate the vibration acceptability of a

floor?

NATURAL FREQUENCIES

## Use Finite Element Method with plate elements, or

empirical formulas

## For specific areas, such as a lab or operating room,

6 steps for complete evaluation

## determine the dominant frequencies of the

location of interest.

## Step 1 - Determine natural frequencies (Hz)

St 2 Select
Step
S l t exciting
iti fforce off vibration
ib ti
Step 3 - Select floor type
Step 4 Calculate the weight of vibrating panel
Step 5 Calculate peak acceleration
Step 6 - Evaluate the floor
Numerical example

force

Dy
Factor (DLF)

1.0

## concrete floors to 5-8% for furnished rooms with

partitions extending full height.

0.8

RECOMMENDED DAMPING
FACTORS FOR VARIOUS OCCUPANCIES

0.6

0.4

Occupancy
02
0.2

Bare concrete
B
t floor
fl
Furnished, low partition

0
0

1.0

2.0

3.0

Frequency Hz

## Dynamic Load Factor for First Harmonic of

Walking Force
Exciting force = DLF * (Weight of Person)

Damping factor

0 02
0.02
0.03

## Furnished, full height partition

0.05

Shopping malls

0.02

PEAK ACCELERATION
Step 4 Calculate weight of target panel (W)
Include superimposed load that follows the vibration
((stones;; tiles))

PERCEPTIBILITY OF MOTION
Step 6 Evaluate the floor
Use natural frequency from Step 1; and
Peak ground acceleration (ao/g) from Step 5; and
Chart below from ATC to determine acceptability

## Use an empirical relationship, such as the one below for

footfall

1.50

P0 e0.35fn

g
W

ap

ap
g
Po

W
fn

((1))

= peak acceleration;
= gravitational acceleration [32.2 ft/sec2; 9.81 m/sec2 ];
= constant force representing the walking force (from
Step 2 and weight of walking person);
= modal damping ratio, from previous table
= effective weight of the panel and the superimposed
= first natural frequency (Hz)
(Hz).

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

Peak Acceleratio
on (% g)

1.00
Office, residence,
assembly hall

0 50
0.50

0.25
Operating
rooms

12

20

Frequency (Hz)
Threshold of Human Sensitivity to Vertical
Vibration (ATC)

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE
TNO_123

Numerical Example
Given
Gi
Concrete floor system
Slab thickness
Superimposed DL
Concrete fc
Modulus of Elasticity

8 (203 mm)
20 psf (1 kN/m2)
5000 psi (33
(33.8
8 MPa)
1.2 Ec

Required

Slab thickness
8'' (200mm)

## Evaluate vibration compliance of the floor panel

identified under foot drop

Column
18'' x 24''
(460mm x 610mm)

26'-3''
(
(8.00m)
)

30'-0'' (9.14m)

FLOORS

FLOORS

## Generate model of the entire floor

Use modulus of elasticity 1.2Ec
Include weight of objects attached to floor
Obtain first few natural frequencies

5 79 Hz

6 33 Hz

## Discretization of the Floor for a

Reliable Frequency Values

q
y 6.44 Hz
Demonstrate live

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE

FLOORS
Step 2 - Select exciting force of vibration

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE

FLOORS
Step 3 - Select floor type

## Weight of person 150 lb (667 N)

Walking speed: 2 steps per second
From the chart:
DLF = 0.53
Po = 0.53 * 150 = 79.5 lb (354 N)

d Factor (DLF
F)

1.0

0.8

0.6

## From below select () = 0.03 From table

0.4

Occupancy
Bare concrete floor
Furnished, low partition

0.2

0
0

1.0

2.0

Walking Force

0 03
0.03

0.05

Shopping malls

0.02

3.0

Frequency Hz

Damping factor

0.02

FLOORS

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE

FLOORS
Step 5 Calculate Peak Acceleration (ap/g)

## Step 4 Calculate weight of target panel (W)

Dimensions of panel as shown below
Mortar,
M
stone, firmly
fi l attached
h d to flfloor 20 psff (1 kN/m2)
kN/ 2)
Concrete weight: 150 pcf; (25 kN/m3)

footfall

ap
g

0 35fn
P0 e0.35fn
W

W=

30 26.25

12

TNO_123

Slab
thickness
8'' (200mm)

## (a) Floor plan

Column
18'' x 24''
(460mm x 610mm)

ap
g
Po

W
fn

= peak acceleration;
= gravitational acceleration [32.2 ft/sec2; 9.81 m/sec2 ];
= 0.53 * 150 = 79.7 lb (0.354 kN) (step 2)
= damping ratio 0.03 (step 3)
= 94.5 k ( 421 kN ) (step 4)
= first natural frequency (Hz) = 5.79 Hz (step 1).

ap
g

26'-3''
(8.00m)

79.5 e 0.355.97
0.03 94.5 1000

= 0.00367 ; 0.37%

## Peak ground acceleration ( ap) is calculated to be

0.37% of gravitational acceleration (g)

30'-0'' (9.14m)

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE

FLOORS
Step 6 Evaluate the floor
Use natural frequency from Step 1; 5.79 Hz; and
Peak ground acceleration from Step 5; 0.37% g; and
Chart below from ATC to determine acceptability
1.50

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE

FLOORS
Eliminate the noise (disturbance) from nontargeted floor regions
TNO_123

## Floor plan showing

the target panel

Pea
ak Accelerattion (% g)

1 00
1.00
Office, residence,
assembly hall

0.50

Panel
status

0.25
Operating
rooms

12

20

Frequency (Hz)
Threshold of Human Sensitivity to Vertical
Vibration (ATC)
The target panel is acceptable for office and residential
occupancies,
i
b
but not ffor hospital
h
i l operating
i room

## First mode frequency 5.79 Hz

Note that the first mode is primarily due to
excitation of a non-targeted
non targeted region of floor

FLOORS

FLOORS

## Isolate the target area for vibration analysis

The response of the isolated region is greatly
influenced by the boundary conditions specified
around
d th
the cutt
If the cut does not extend adequately beyond the
target panel, the results may not be reflective of the
prototype

## (b) First mode of vibration Frequency 6.07 Hz

Note: first frequency of the entire
floor is 5.79 Hz

floor is 5.79 Hz

FLOORS

FLOORS

to compliance?

## Increase in stiffness increases the frequencies

Increase in weight reduces the frequencies
Increase in frequency, increases the peak acceleration
Increase in weight reduces the peak acceleration
I
Increase
in
i restraint
t i t off b
boundary
d
conditions,
diti
reduction in span increases frequency

vibration evaluation
Numerical Example

## Estimate the natural frequencies

using empirical relationships
Make a good engineering judgment on the
probable shape of the first natural
frequency

## For the given example, increase slab thickness from 8

(203 mm) to 10 (250 mm)

(ap/g) = 0.154 %

Pe
eak Accelerration (% g)

Frequency fn = 7.72 Hz
W = 115.3 k ((514 kN))
Peak acceleration

1.50
1.00
Office,
residence,
assembly hall
0.50

0.25
Operating
rooms

Panel
status

12

Frequency (Hz)

20

DETERMINATION OF NATURAL
FREQUENCIES

## FORMULAS FOR NATURAL FREQUENCIES

FIRST NATURAL FREQUENCY CONSTANT
Case

Boundary
Conditions

Constant

1.57 1

f
Where

a2

1.57
1 57 5.14
5 14 3
3.13
13 2 5
5.14
14 4

a
b

## rigidly supported, rotationally free

g y supported, rotationally
y fixed
rigidly
span length in x-direction
span l length in y-direction
a/b

DETERMINATION OF NATURAL
FREQUENCIES
Shape of first Natural Frequency Mode

## The first mode of vibration is affine to that of a

single
i l panell simply
i l supported
t d plate.
l t Th
The shape
h
iis
not analogous to the deflected profile under
selfweight

c=

Eh3

12 1-

g
q

## f = first natural frequency [Hz];

a = span length in X-direction;
E = dynamic modulus of elasticity [1
[1.25
25 static E
in psi; MPa];
h = slab thickness [in; mm];
[ ]
= Poissons ratio [0.2];
g = gravitational acceleration [32.2 ft/sec2 ; 9810
mm/sec2]; and
q = weight per unit surface area of the slab.

DETERMINATION OF NATURAL
FREQUENCY
Shape of first Natural Frequency

## Use a simply supported boundary conditions along

the four sides of an interior panel

## Where columns are on a regular orthogonal grid,

the first mode is likely to be in form of a one-way
slab deflecting in a cylindrical form.

## Panels bounded by smaller spans, may

vibrate analogous to a rotationally fixed plate
(a) Simple support

(b) Fixed

(b) Fixed

## (c) Continuous spans

( )C
(c)
Continuous
ti
spans
(d) Deflection self weight

## First Mode Shapes and Deflection of

Simple and Continuous Spans

(d) D
Deflection
fl ti self
lf weight
i ht

## First Mode Shapes and Deflection

of Simple and Continuous Spans

FLOORS

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE

FLOORS

Numerical Example

Step 1

## Evaluate the vibration compliance of the floor slab

below, for foot drop having the same details in
former example, using empirical formulas

## Envisage the probable shape of the first mode of

vibration.
vibration
A column supported slab, such as the floor system
under consideration is likely to vibrate in form of a
cylinder (one-way system)

## View of the Floor System

Probable Shape of First Mode

FLOORS
Step 2

## CALCULATE NATURAL FREQUENCY

FIRST NATURAL FREQUENCY CONSTANT

## Select from the Table of frequency formulas, the case

that can best simulate the envisaged shape of first
mode of vibration

Case

Boundary
Conditions

Constant

TNO_12
3

1.57 1 2

## Find the First Natural Frequency

Using the parameters of frequency table:
g

## First natural frequency, fn:

fn

a2
3

Edynh

g
q

Est

= 29,000 MPa
= 4287 ksi , using ACI-318

Assume Edyn

12 1 2

a
b

## rigidly supported, rotationally free

span length in x-direction
span l length in y-direction

a/b

D
Eh
h3
g

m
12 1 2 q

1.57 1 2

fn = ( c / a2 )

## CALCULATE NATURAL FREQUENCY

Consider a region as shown in
the figure

## CALCULATE NATURAL FREQUENCY

h = 8 inch (203 mm)
q = weight/unit area =

150 * 8
20

12 * 144 144

## = 0.833 lb/ in2 ( 5.74 *10-3 MPa )

5144 * 1000 * 83

12 1 0.22

32.2 * 12
0.833

= 325,653 in2/sec
(2.1*108 mm2/sec)

2
1080

P0 e0.35fn

g
W

ap

## a = 3*90*12 = 1080 in (42.5 m)

90 2
= 1.57(1+2) = 1.57 1
= 20.03
26.25

ap
g

c=

D
Eh
g

m
12 1 2 q

Edyn

= 1.2
1 2 Est = 1.2*
1 2* 4287 = 5144 ksi (35
(35,477
477 MPa)

FLOORS

0 355
5.59
59
79.5
79
5 e 0.35
0.03 94.5 1000

= 0.004 ; 0.4 %

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE

FLOORS
Part 3 Impact of secondary factors

Post-tensioning

A
Acceptability
t bilit

## First natural frequency (5. 59 Hz)

Peak response acceleration relative to

## than their conventionally reinforced

counterparts; hence, they have lower
frequencies
Precompression from post-tensioning inhibits,
or reduces crack formation. Post-tensioned
slabs are stiffer than RC slabs of the same
thickness

## gravitational acceleration (0.4 %)

Peak Accele
P
eration (% g))

1.50
1.00
Office, residence,
assembly hall
0.50

Panel
status

0.25
Operating
rooms

12

20

Frequency (Hz)
Acceptable for office and residential
residential, but not
for operating rooms

FLOORS

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE

FLOORS
Part 3 Impact of secondary factors
Cracking of concrete

## Part 3 Impact of secondary factors

Cracking of concrete
Cracking of concrete, in particular in
conventionally reinforced concrete, where hair
cracks under service condition are common
and numerous in number result in reduction of
local stiffness.
Concentration of local cracks over the supports
and at midspan can result in a change in the
natural mode shape of vibration

Neutral axis

Reinforcement

Cracking
moment

## (b) Applied moment

le
(c) Effective moment of inertia Ie

## Loss of stiffness due to cracking results

in shorter frequencies

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE

FLOORS
Part 3 Impact of secondary factors

Cracking of concrete
reduction in stiffness 69%

## EXTENT OF CRACKING SHOWN THROUGH REDUCTION

IN STIFFNESS FOR MOMENTS ABOUT Y-Y AXIS

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE

FLOORS
Part 3 Impact of secondary factors

Crackingg of concrete
reduction in stiffness 67%

## EXTENT OF CRACKING SHOWN THROUGH

REDUCTION IN STIFFNESS FOR MOMENTS

FLOORS

Part

## Floor covers; tiles; stones

Equipment that is fixed to the floor
The weight of the objects that are attached to a
floor and follow its motion in harmony should
be included in the analysis. These include tiles,
and
d equipment
i
t fi
fixed
d tto a fl
floor.
Objects attached to a floor will add weight, but
not necessarily stiffness. Addition of weight
reduces the frequency
Depending on the method of fixity of an object
to a floor, analysis software allow users to
define a fraction of the mass of each
equipment to be active for motion in each of the
three principal directions.

FREQUENCIES
Factors affecting the natural frequencies:
Floors mass
Modulus of elasticity
Damping
Extent of cracking; post-tensioning
Mass

Expresses as (W/g),
W is the weight of the objects that are
attached to the floor and faithfullyy follow its
displacement; the greater the weight the larger is
the period; the smaller is the frequency (Hz)
g is the gravitational acceleration taken as
32.2 ft/sec2 ((9.81 m/sec2)).

Modulus of Elasticity

## The elastic modulus for vibration analysis is larger

than th
th
the static
t ti values,
l
i particular
in
ti l when
h hi
high
h
strength concrete is used.

## Recommended values are 25%

higher than the static modulus
modulus.

## TRANSMISSION PATH OF VIBRATION

PERCEPTIBILITY OF MOTION

## What is considered unacceptable?

Extent of Cracking

People
p are most sensitive to vibration when

## For conventional RC allow for cracking

For RC flat slab construction; with span to
d th ratio
depth
ti 30 or larger,
l
allow
ll
30% reduction
d ti in
i
stiffness due to cracking
For post-tensioned floors designed using ACI
(IBC), no reduction in stiffness is due
For post-tensioned floors based on the
European code EC2 and most other major
non-US codes, reduction in stiffness may be
necessary

## The response acceleration is sometimes compared

with the minimum acceptable value fn using the
empirical
p
formula developed
p for steel.

K
fn 2.86ln

W
K = a constant, given in [Table next slide];
= modal damping ratio [Table earlier];;
W = weight of area of floor panel affected by
the point load (heel drop); and
fn = minimum acceptable frequency.

PERCEPTIBILITY OF MOTION

## The response acceleration is compared with the

minimum acceptable value fn .

RHYTHMIC MOTIONS

## rhythmic motions; dance halls; gyms;

K
fn 2.86ln

W
CONSTANT K FOR MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE
FREQUENCY

Occupancies
Offices, residences,
assembly halls
Shopping malls

ki
kips

kN

13

58

45
4.5

20

## Using the values of the previous example:

K = 13 kips (58 kN) (empirical constant)
W = 94.5 kips (421 kN) (weight of panel)
= 0.03 (damping)

= 4.36
4 36 Hz < 5
5.97
97 OK

PERCEPTION OF VIBRATION

## The remainder of the analysis and evaluation

follows exactly the same procedure outlined in
foregoing examples

References

## What are the allowable limits of vibration?

Frequency (Hz); and
Peak acceleration

Peak Accele
eration (% g
g)

to be in step harmony
Number of foot drops per second, assume 3,
in absence of information
Estimate of total weight of persons in step
harmony (P)

13

fn = 2.86 ln 0.03
0 03 94.5
94

## In each instance, the evaluation starts by

estimating the following:
Maximum number of individuals that are likely

## ADAPT Technical Note TN290, 2010, Vibration Design of

Concrete Floors for Serviceability
pp., 2010
ADAPT Technical Note TN388, 2010, Vibration Evaluation
of a Floor System for Footfall,
pp
2010

15.0
50
10.0
Rhythmic activities
outdoor footbridges

## AISC/CISC, (1997) ,Steel Design Guide Series 11, Floor

Vibrations Due to Human Activity,
Activity, American Institute of
Steel Construction, Chicago, IL, 1997.

5.0

0.0

12

20

## ATC, (1999) ATC Design Guide 1, Minimizing Floor

, Applied
pp
Technology
gy Council,, Redwood City,
y, CA,,
Vibration,
1999, 49 pp.

Frequency (Hz)
Threshold of Human Sensitivity to Vertical Vibration
from Rhythmic Activities (ATC)

## Bares, R., (1971), Tables for the Analysis of Plates, Slabs

and Diaphragms Based on the Elastic Theory, Bauverlag
GmbH, Wiesbaden und Berlin, 1971, pp. 626
Mast, F. R., (2001),Vibration of Precast Prestressed
Concrete Floors, PCI Journal, November-December 2001,
2001 pp. 76-86.
2001,
76 86

## VIBRATION DESIGN OF CONCRETE FLOORS

References
Source: Allen,
Allen D
D. E
E., and Murray
Murray, T
T. M
M., (1993) Design
Design
Criterion for Vibrations Due to Walking, Engineering
Journal, Fourth Quarter, American Institute of Steel
Construction, 1993, pp. 117-129.
TR43, (2005), Post-tensioned concrete floors: Design
Handbook, Second edition, The Concrete Society , Surrey
GU17 9AB, UK.
Szilard, R., (1974), Theory and Analysis of PlatesClassical and Numerical Methods, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New
Jersey, 1974, 724 pp.

ANY QUESTIONS?