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H

S
SYSTEM
STEAM HEATING
T
TROUBLE
SHOOTING
G GUIDE

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PURPOS
SE
The purppose of this document is
i to help determine
d
the root causee of heat-rellated probleems in a
ControTrrace steam heating
h
systeem. The guidde is tailoredd for ControoTrace applications, but most of
the materrial is also relevant
r
to other
o
steam heating systtems. Probleems with steeam heating systems
can broaddly be divideed into four categories:

Installlation-Relatted Issues: Poor


P
ControT
Trace installaation, inadeqquate insulattion, incorrect steam
circuitry, etc.
m-Related Isssues: Low steam supplyy pressure, stteam trap faiilure, etc.
Steam
Proceess-Related Issues:
I
Probblems whosee root cause is process reelated; oftenn these probllems are
indeppendent of, and
a unrelatedd to, the heatting system.
Desiggn-Related Issues: Desiggn based on inaccurate assumption,
a
c
components
that requiree heating
overllooked, etc.

Most prooblems are either instaallation or steam relatted. This guuide is focuused on theese two
categoriees, but also briefly adddresses the other
o
two. The
T guide iis organizedd in several distinct
sections:

Purpoose: An intro
oduction to the
t guide
Steam
m System Ov
verview: Ann introduction to steam syystems
Level 1 Troublesshooting: Item
ms that are easily
e
perforrmed by maiintenance peersonnel
Level 2 Troubleeshooting: Ittems that caan be perfoormed by maintenance
m
personnel but
b have
greater time and/or resource requirement
r
ts.
Level 3 Troublesshooting: Iteems that reqquire some in-depth
i
knoowledge of steam, ConttroTrace
system
ms, heat tran
nsfer, and prrocess details.
Appeendix A: Steam saturatioon temperatuure table
Appeendix B: Insttructions forr testing the operation
o
off various steaam trap stylees.
Appeendix C: Desscription of strainer
s
blow
w-down discharge clues.
Appeendix D: Theermocouple and IR gun instructions.
i
.
Appeendix E: Perm
manent end--of-circuit stteam temperaature gauge source.

The guidde is designeed to be folloowed progreessively, starrting with Leevel 1, Item 1. CSI invoolvement
in not reqquired to succcessfully peerform troubbleshooting. However, CSI
C is happyy to assist as needed.
Do not hesitate to con
ntact CSI foor assistance with troubleeshooting CoontroTrace systems.
s
Controls Southeast In
nc
704-644--5000
P.O. Boxx 7500
Charlottee, NC 28241

STEAM HEATING
H
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STEAM
M SYSTEM OVERVIEW
O
W
In generaal, a steam heating
h
system
m will consiist of the following majoor componennts (reference Figure
1 for a coonceptual sk
ketch):

b
heat is
i added to water to geenerate steam
m at a certaain pressure. Boiler
Boileer. In the boiler,
pressure is used to control thhe temperatuure of the stteam and to motivate the steam throough the
jackeeting system..
Steam
m Header. Steam exitss the boiler through pipping referredd to as the steam headeer. The
headeer also servees as a reserrvoir that feeeds steam too the individdual heating circuits. Thhe steam
headeer must be large enouggh to minim
mize pressurre drop betw
ween the booiler and thhe steam
manifold.
Steam
m Manifold. Smaller diameter pipinng connects the steam heeader to a stteam manifoold. The
manifold serves as the brannch point for
f supplyinng the indivvidual heatinng circuits. Steam
manifolds commonly have 4--16 branchess, and each branch
b
contaains an isolation valve. A steam
trap is
i located at the bottom of
o the manifo
fold to keep the
t manifoldd clear of conndensate.
Heatiing Circuitss. A typicaal heating circuit
c
is coomprised off a group of
o heating elements
e
(jacketed pipe, bolt-on jackeeting, or tubee tracing) which
w
are connnected in series. Pre-innsulated
tubinng is used to
o transport steam
s
from the steam manifold
m
to the
t first heaating elemennt in the
circuit. Flexible metal hosess are commoonly used too allow the steam
s
to flow from onee heating
P
d tubing is also
a used to transport steeam and
elemeent to the neext within thhe circuit. Pre-insulated
condeensate from the last elem
ment in the circuit to the steam trapp. The lengtth and configuration
of eacch heating circuit must be
b carefully designed annd analyzed to
t ensure freesh steam is supplied
s
to thee jacketing system before the steam has
h lost too much pressuure.
Steam
m Trap. Thee steam trapp is located between thhe steam cirrcuit and thee condensatte return
system
m. The purp
pose of the steam trap is to maintaain the steam
m pressure in the circuuit while
allow
wing the con
ndensate thaat is generatted to escappe. A workinng steam trrap is cruciaal to the
operaation of the heating
h
systeem. Two sepparate supplyy points (circcuits) cannott be combineed into a
singlee steam trap or the condensate may build
b
up insiide one of thhe circuits.
Conddensate Man
nifold. Thee condensatte manifoldd resembles the steam manifold with
w
the
excepption that eaach branch contains a steam trap. The steam trap is usuually precedded by a
strainner and is loccated betweeen two isolattion valves.
Conddensate Head
der. Condennsate from each
e
of the condensate
c
m
manifolds
flows into a common
c
pipe header
h
referrred to as thee condensatee header. Thhe condensatte header retturns liquid water to
the boiler so that it can be reheated into steam. Speccial attentionn must be giiven to the design
d
of
the coondensate heeader to avooid creating excessive
e
prressure drop which leadss to high conndensate
returnn pressure. High
H
condennsate return pressure inhhibits steam
m trap operattion; differennt steam
trap styles
s
have different
d
leveels of tolerannce for high condensate return pressuure.

STEAM HEATING
H
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Figure 1: Sysstem Overvieew Diagram


F
m (numbers correspond
c
to troubleshoooting steps))

STEAM HEATING
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LEVEL 1 TROUBL
LESHOOTIING (Proceess Conditioons and Systtem Installaation)
Diagnosttic Tools Reequired:
CSI
C ControTrrace installattion drawinggs
1. Desiggn Conditio
ons
Descripption
The ConntroTrace sy
ystem designn is based onn a set of design assumpttions and a sppecific therm
mal
objectivve. While thee complete liist of designn assumptionns may not bee readily avaailable, seveeral key
assumpttions are listted on the installation draawings.
Action
Locate the
t area of th
he piping thaat is suspecteed to be the source of thhe problem annd obtain the
ControT
Trace installaation drawinngs for that area;
a
Verify that the assuumptions listted in the CT Design
Data boox match thee as-built sysstem. The major
m
assumpptions are:
The
T process
The
T thermal objective
The
T steam su
upply pressuure
The
T pipe sizze
The
T insulatio
on type and thickness.
Responsse
If any of the design assumptions do not mattch the actuaal system conntact CSI forr an analysiss of the
impact.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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2. Conffirm the Pro


oblem is Heat Related
Descripption
Sometim
mes process related issuees will causee plugging, corrosion,
c
etc. These cann appear to be
b heat
related, but are actu
ually indepenndent issues.
Action
t there aree no process related issues that couldd be the sourrce of the prooblem. The
Verify that
followinng list gives several exam
mples of proocess issues that
t can appear as heatinng issues (Reefer to
Appenddix D if makiing temperatture measureements):
Mixxing of differrent temperaature processs streams ressulting in queenching of thhe hotter streeam
Leakking valves allowing unw
wanted proccess to enter a line
Dam
maged equipm
ment (e.g. caatalyst) physsically pluggging the line
Cheemical reaction forming solids
s
in the line (e.g. caarsul, sulcrette)
Opeerating proceedures outsidde of the design conditioons (e.g. proccess enters thhe line coldeer than
anticcipated)
Responsse
If a proccess issue is a likely probblem sourcee it may makke more sense to investiggate the process
concernns before inv
vestigating thhe heating syystem.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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3. Steam
m Circuitry
y
Descripption
Incorrecct circuitry can
c result in condensate back-up,
b
exccessive steam
m pressure drop,
d
excessiive steam
heat loaad, and otherr problems.
Action
t the ConttroTrace circcuits are rouuted accordinng to the insttallation draw
wings providded by
Verify that
CSI. Veerify that:
All jump-overs
j
are looped down
d
All jump-overs
j
are CSI suppplied compoonents
The steam flow direction is as indicatedd on the draw
wings
Onlyy the compo
onents shownn on the instaallation draw
wing are inclluded in thee circuit (no
unexxpected com
mponents)
Eachh circuit hass a single suppply and a siingle steam trap
t
(note that a single suupply can feeed
multtiple steam traps,
t
but not visa-versa))
Responsse
If any portion of thee circuitry diiffers from thhe installatioon drawings,, correct the circuitry or contact
CSI for an analysis of the impacct.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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4. Unheeated Comp
ponents
Descripption
In generral, all in-lin
ne componennts (valves, fittings,
f
etc) require heatting. Dependding on the specific
conditioons, other iteems, such a branch
b
conneections, flannge pairs, larrge supports,, etc. may alsso
require heating.
Action
t line for any
a unheatedd in-line com
mponents. Allso check forr any conspiccuous items that
Check the
might reequire additiional heatingg. For exampple, an unheaated trunion on a line wiith several heeated tee
shoes coould be prob
blem. The following list contains som
me generic ittems to lookk for:
In-liine valves an
nd instrumenntation
Pipee supports
Jackketed compo
onents withouut a steam suupply
Brannch connectiions
Responsse
Contactt CSI to discu
uss the impaact of unheatted componeents.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

5. Insullation Qualiity
Descripption
Proper insulation
i
is critical to thhe operation of a ControTrace system
m.
Action
t the line is fully insullated includiing all:
Verify that
Fittiings
Valvves
Flannges
Instrrumentation
Brannch Connecttions
Suppports
ConntroHeats
Responsse
Fully innsulate any portion
p
of thee line that is found to be lacking.
Results//Notes

Initiaals / Date

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6. Steam
m Leaks
Descripption
Significcant steam leeaks increasee the steam load of a circcuit and reduuce the operaating pressurre. Small
steam leeaks are not likely to havve a significaant impact.
Action
t line for stteam leaks.
Check the
Responsse
Repair any
a significaant steam leaaks; while it is prudent too repair any small steam
m leaks, thesee are not
likely a problem sou
urce.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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LEVEL 2 TROUBL
LESHOOTIING (Steam
m System Diaagnostic)
Diagnosttic Tools Reequired:
CSI
C ControTrrace installattion drawinggs
Surface therm
mocouple proobe and meteer (or IR gunn)
Steam trap diiagnostic toools (varies byy trap style)
Reference
R
thee diagram inn the Steam System Oveerview sectiion
7. Straiiner Blow-D
Down
Descripption
A cloggged strainer will
w inhibit condensate
c
reemoval.
Action
Open thhe blow-dow
wn valve on the
t steam traap strainer (iff equipped) and observee the dischargge. A
properlyy operating circuit
c
shoulld have a stroong, clean diischarge of steam
s
with some
s
condennsate.
Responsse
If the strrainer has beecome cloggged with conntaminants, it is possible that openingg the blow-ddown
valve will
w remove th
he contaminnants and restore proper circuit
c
operaation.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

m Temperature (end off circuit)


8. Steam
Descripption
The steaam pressure//temperaturee gradually reduces
r
as it progresses through
t
the steam
s
circuitt. The
end of thhe circuit is the worst caase location; if the steam
m pressure/tem
mperature iss acceptable here, it
is accepptable throug
ghout the circcuit.
Action
c
(eitheer at the last CT elementt or just
Measuree the temperrature of the steam at thee end of the circuit
before the
t steam traap). The tempperature shoould typicallyy be no coldder than 10F
F below the supply
s
steam teemperature, though this number
n
willl vary from process
p
to prrocess. Contaact CSI for process
p
by proceess instructio
ons. (Appenndix D contaiins procedurres for measuuring temperrature.)
Responsse
If thhe temperatu
ure is acceptaable: skip to Level 3 item
ms.
If thhe temperatu
ure is below specification
s
n: proceed too item 9.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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9. Steam
m Temperature (supplyy manifold))
Descripption
If the steam pressurre/temperaturre in the circcuit is low, itt may be a reesult of low steam system
m supply
pressuree.
Action
Measuree the temperrature of the steam at thee supply mannifold in the same manneer. The tempperature
should correspond
c
with
w the steaam supply prressure listedd on the instaallation draw
wing (referennce the
steam taable in Appeendix A).
Responsse
If thhe temperatu
ure is acceptaable at the manifold
m
(butt too cold at the last elem
ment / steam trap):
Therre is either excessive
e
preessure drop in
i the supplyy tubing / cirrcuit or the circuit
c
is filleed with
conddensate; procceed to item
m 10.
If thhe temperatu
ure is below specification
s
n at the maniifold: The stteam supply pressure is too
t low.
Inveestigate the steam
s
utilitiees (boiler sett-point approopriate, steam
m distributioon header prooperly
sized, etc.), also
o check item 12.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

ply Tubing
10. Supp
Descripption
In orderr to minimizee the pressurre drop in thhe supply tubbing, CSI typpically speciifies that 3/4 tubing
/ pipe bee used, and that
t the lenggth not exceeed 100ft. If thhe supply tuubing/pipe dooes not meett these
specificcations, it is possible
p
thatt excess presssure drop inn the supply tubing may occur.
Action
Measuree the supply tubing diam
meter and lenngth.
Responsse
If thhe supply tub
bing meets thhe 100ft of 3/4
3 requirem
ment proceedd to item 11.
If thhe supply tub
bing does noot meet the 100ft of 3/4 requirementt, measure thhe temperatuure of the
firstt element of ControTracee in the circuuit. The tempperature should typicallyy be no coldeer than
5F below the su
upply steam
m temperaturee, though thiis number will vary from
m process to process;
conttact CSI for process by process
p
instrructions. If thhe temperatuure is reasonnable, proceeed to item
11. If
I the temperrature is low
w, replace thee supply tubing with 1000ft of 3/4 tuubing or contact CSI
to annalyze the im
mpact.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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11. Steam
m Trap Opeeration
Descripption
Steam trrap failure iss a common cause of steeam circuit failures.
fa
Steaam traps can fail open (passing
steam uncontrolled)
u
) or closed (ccompletely or
o partially blocking
b
the flow of steaam). Steam trrap
diagnosstic methods vary from trrap style to trap
t
style. Thhe followingg two diagnoostic methods work
for any type of steam
m trap, but require
r
that the
t trap be disconnected. Appendix B contains more
m
advanceed diagnosticc proceduress which do not
n require thhe steam trapp to be remooved but requuire a
greater level
l
of fam
miliarity with steam trap operation.
o
Action
hat one of thee following fool-proof
f
m
methods
be used
u
to verifyy proper steaam trap
CSI recoommends th
operatioon:
Discconnect the steam
s
trap frrom the conddensate returrn system annd observe thhe dischargee. In
geneeral, the disccharge shoulld be a mixtuure of flash steam
s
and coondensate. Iff the discharge is
puree condensatee or live steam, the trap should
s
be coonsidered fauulty.
Replace the steaam trap with a known goood unit.
Note thaat thermosta
atic steam traaps back up condensate into the steaam circuit; thhis can comppromise
the therrmal perform
mance of the circuit even if the steam
m trap is operrating correcctly. Note thhat
thermoddynamic stea
am traps aree sensitive too condensatee return presssure (referennce item 13)).
Responsse
The steam trap is
i operating correctly: Prroceed to iteem 12.
i failed (eithher open or closed):
c
Repplace the steaam trap.
The steam trap is
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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12. Steam
m Supply Manifold
M
Traap
Descripption
If the steam trap on the steam suupply manifo
fold were to fail
f closed, excessive
e
coondensate woould be
routed from
f
the supply piping innto the circuuits that feedd from the low
wer manifold taps. The excessive
e
condenssate load wo
ould create exxcessive preessure drop inn the circuit. If the steam
m trap on thee steam
supply manifold
m
weere to fail open, the leak could reduce the supplyy pressure.
Action
Check the
t operation
n of the steam
m trap on thee supply mannifold.
Responsse
The steam trap is
i operating correctly: Prroceed to iteem 13.
The steam trap is
i failed (eithher open or closed):
c
Repplace the steaam trap.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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13. Steam
m Trap Sizee / Condensate Return Pressure
Descripption
The ratee at which a steam trap can
c dischargee condensatee is a functioon of the diff
fferential pressure
across thhe trap. If th
he condensatte return presssure is too high,
h
the trapp will be unaable to dischharge the
condenssate at the raate it is beingg generated by
b the circuiit. If the conddensate returrn pressure is
i very
high, the trap may not
n be able too discharge the
t condensaate at all.
Action
Measuree the conden
nsate return pressure
p
andd verify that the steam traap is rated too handle the steam
load at the
t measured
d differentiaal pressure. Note
N that:
The
T differen
ntial pressuree across the trap
t
is the stteam supply pressure minnus the circuuit
p
pressure
dro
op (usually abbout 10psi) minus
m
the coondensate reeturn pressurre. (e.g. 50pssi steam
s
supply
presssure 10psi pressure droop 20psi coondensate reeturn pressurre = 20psi differential
p
pressure)
A typical Co
ontroTrace circuit
c
steam
m load is less than 150 lb//hr.
The
T condenssate return pressure can often be meaasured indireectly by meaasuring the
c
condensate
temperature
t
and lookingg up the pressure on a steeam table. (reference Apppendix
A and Appen
ndix D)
Thermodyna
T
amic steam traps
t
are esppecially sensiitive to highh condensate return presssures.
Alternattively, disco
onnect the steeam trap from
m the condeensate return system; if correct
c
circuiit
operatioon is restored
d, the condennsate return pressure is too
t high.
Responsse
The steam trap is
i properly sized and thee condensate return presssure is reasonnable: Proceeed to
Levvel 3 items.
The condensate return presssure is too hiigh for the stteam trap sizze / style beinng used: Invvestigate
the steam
s
utilitiees or, if the condensate
c
p
pressure
is not
n too excessive, replacee the steam trap
t
with
one capable of handling
h
the condensate return presssure.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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LEVEL 3 TROUBL
LESHOOTIING (CSI In
nvolvement Recommen
nded)
14. Desiggn Conditio
ons (Advancced)
Descripption
The ConntroTrace sy
ystem is desiign is based on a set of design
d
assum
mptions and a specific theermal
objectivve. Each of th
hese design assumptionss should be verified.
v
Whhile a few basic assumptiions are
listed onn the Contro
oTrace installation drawiings, the com
mplete list off design assuumptions maay not be
readily available
a
to the end userr.
Action
mpare the dessign assumpttions to the as-built
a
systeem. In additiion to the
Contactt CSI to com
assumpttions listed on
o the installlation drawinng, CSI willl likely requiire:
Coppies of appliccable P&IDss
The process nam
me
The process flow
wrate
The process tem
mperature
Pipiing material, and schedule
Responsse
Conntact CSI for assistance.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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15. Poorrly Heated Areas


A
Descripption
Poorly heated
h
areas are difficultt to spot oncce a system is insulated. Additionally
A
y, the extent to which
flanges,, supports, fiittings, etc reequire heatinng is dependent on the sppecific proceess conditionns.
Action
p spotting pooorly heatedd areas on ann insulated line. As a starrting place:
Contactt CSI for help
Com
mpare the ob
bserved locattions of ConttroTrace connnections to the expectedd locations based
b
on
the ControTrace
C
e installationn drawings.
Look for items that
t may reqquire additionnal heating, though the heating
h
requirements willl vary
m process to process. (e.gg. supports, flanges, insttruments, braanch connecctions, etc)
from
Phottograph susp
pect areas.
Responsse
Conntact CSI for assistance.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

16. ConttroTrace Insstallation


Descripption
Poor quuality installaation will ressult in inadeqquate heat trransfer between the ConntroTrace andd the
pipe. Thhe installatio
on quality caan be difficullt to ascertain once the syystem is insuulated.
Action
In generral, look for::
Missing heat traansfer compoound.
Largge gaps betw
ween the pipee and the CoontroTrace ellements (The thickness of
o the heat trransfer
com
mpound shou
uld not exceeed 1/8).
elements (loongitudinallyy or circumfferentially).
Poorrly spaced ControTrace
C
Responsse
Conntact CSI for assistance.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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17. Block
kage in the Circuit
Descripption
It is raree, but possib
ble for foreiggn material too become lodged in the supply
s
tubinng or the ConntroTrace
circuit. This will ressult in excessive pressure drop throuugh the circuuit.
Action
b possible to locate an obstruction
o
b measuringg the steam temperature/
by
t
/pressure aloong the
It may be
circuit; a sudden dro
op in temperrature/pressuure indicates an obstructiion. If an obbstruction is
suspecteed the easiesst approach may
m be to atttempt to cleaar the obstruuction withouut locating itt by
forcing water or air backwards through
t
the circuit.
Responsse
An obstruction
o
is
i present: Clear
C
the obsttruction usinng appropriaate means.
The circuit is cleear: Contact CSI for assiistance.
Results//Notes
Initiaals / Date

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STEAM HEATING
H
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SHOOTING
G GUIDE

APPEND
DIX A (Satu
urated Steam Table)
psig

F
F

baarg

0
5
10
15
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120

212..0
227..1
239..4
249..8
258..8
261..2
265..3
268..3
271..2
274..1
276..8
279..3
281..8
284..4
286..7
289..0
291..2
293..5
295..5
297..7
299..9
301..6
303..6
305..4
307..4
309..2
310..8
312..6
314..2
316..0
317..7
319..3
320..9
322..3
323..8
327..6
331..2
334..6
337..8
341..1
344..1
347..2
350..1

00.0
0
0.3
0
0.7
1.0
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2
2.2
2
2.3
2
2.5
2
2.6
2
2.8
2
2.9
3
3.0
3
3.2
3
3.3
3
3.4
3
3.6
3
3.7
3
3.9
4
4.0
4
4.1
4
4.3
4
4.4
4
4.5
4
4.7
4
4.8
5
5.0
5
5.1
5
5.2
5
5.4
5
5.5
5
5.9
6
6.2
6
6.5
6
6.9
7
7.2
7
7.6
7
7.9
8
8.3

1100.0
1
108.4
1
115.2
1
121.0
1
126.0
1
127.8
1
129.6
1
131.3
1
132.9
1
134.5
1
136.0
1
137.4
1
138.8
1
140.2
1
141.5
1
142.8
1
144.0
1
145.3
1
146.4
1
147.6
1
148.7
1
149.8
1
150.9
1
151.9
1
153.0
1
154.0
1
154.9
1
155.9
1
156.8
1
157.0
1
158.7
1
159.6
1
160.5
1
161.3
1
162.1
1
164.2
1
166.2
1
168.1
1
169.9
1
171.7
1
173.4
1
175.1
1
176.7

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STEAM HEATING
H
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SHOOTING
G GUIDE

psig

F
F

baarg

125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200

352..9
355..6
358..3
360..9
363..4
365..9
368..2
370..6
373..9
375..3
377..4
379..6
381..7
383..7
385..9
387..9

88.6
9
9.0
9
9.3
9
9.7
100.0
100.3
100.7
111.0
111.4
111.7
122.1
122.4
122.8
133.1
133.4
133.8

1178.3
1
179.8
1
181.3
1
182.7
1
184.1
1
185.5
1
186.8
1
188.1
1
189.4
1
190.7
1
191.9
1
193.1
1
194.3
1
195.4
1
196.6
1
197.7

STEAM HEATING
H
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APPEND
DIX B (Stea
am Trap Diaagnostic)
Diagnosttic Tools Reequired:
o Mechanics
M
steethoscope orr appropriatee trap diagnoostic tool
o Trap
T
manufaccturer consultative suppoort
Inverted
d Bucket Traps
o Failuure modes:
Plugged vent:
v
fail colld due to inabbility to disccharge air.
me: fail hot, characterized
c
d by continuous dischargge with bounncing buckett.
Lost prim
Restore prime by clossing valve affter trap for a few minutees and re-opening.
Damaged
d, worn, or boound mechaanism: fail coold or hot duue to trap eithher stuck in closed
or open position.
o Veriffying normall operation:
Listen to trap
t
with meechanics stetthoscope. Noormal operattion is eitherr a light, quieet
continuou
us discharge (characterisstic of light steam
s
loads) or an interm
mittent open--close
dischargee (characterisstic of normaal to heavy steam
s
loads).
If trap is failed
f
open the
t dischargee will be conntinuous andd a louder, hiigher pitch sound
s
than otherr, properly working
w
traps.
Float and Thermosttatic Traps
o Failuure modes:
Float collapsed or punnctured: fail cold due to inability of float to openn discharge.
Damaged
d, worn, or boound mechaanism: fail coold or hot duue to trap eithher stuck in closed
or open position.
p
or faailed closed:: fail cold duue to inabilityy to dischargge air.
Air vent plugged
Air vent failed
f
open: fail
f hot; the primary trapp mechanism
m is operational but the trap
continuou
usly dischargges live steam
m; this may or may not cause
c
signifiicant steam pressure
p
drop in th
he circuit.
o Veriffying normall operation:
Listen to trap
t
with meechanics stetthoscope (coompare to knnown good trraps). Float traps
t
dischargee continuouslly. A failed open
o
traps discharge
d
wiill be louder and a higheer pitch
than a pro
operly workiing trap.
If a down
nstream valvee is closed foor a minute and
a then re-oopened, a faailed open traap will
return to the
t continuoous dischargee sound righht away. A prroperly operrating trap will
w
dischargee its condensate rapidly and
a then setttle down to a slow dischaarge as the trrap
returns to steady statee.
A failed open
o
air ventt may be diff
fficult to deteect by listeniing. Disconnnecting the trrap
from the condensate
c
r
return
system
m is a fool-proof methodd of detectingg a failed oppen air
vent.

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Thermod
dynamic Trraps
o Failuure modes:
Trap seat//disk worn: fail
f hot due to
t inability to
t seal propeerly.
p
diisc from seatting or pluggging a
Debris in trap: fail hoot or cold duee to debris preventing
passagew
way.
o Veriffying normall operation:
Listen to trap
t
with meechanics stetthoscope. Noormal operattion is a periiodic discharrge
every 10 to
t 30 secondds. Dischargee duration will
w depend on
o the circuitt steam load.
Dischargiing every 5 seconds
s
or leess is a sign of either (1)) a worn trapp, (2) excessiive
condensatte back-pressure, or (3) an
a undersizeed trap.
Disconnecting the trapp from the condensate
c
reeturn system
m is not a reliiable way to verify
trap operaation as the condensate
c
r
return
pressuure plays a siignificant roole in the trapp
operation.
Thermosstatic Trapss
o Failuure modes:
Damaged
d, worn, or boound mechaanism: fail coold or hot duue to trap eithher stuck in closed
or open position.
Debris in trap: fail hoot or cold duee to debris preventing
p
traap from clossing or pluggging a
passagew
way.
o Veriffying normall operation:
In some cases
c
(typicaally with nearr-to-steam teemperature models)
m
the trap may disscharge
intermitteently, this inddicates a prooperly functioning trap.
If the trap
p is cooled byy spraying itt with water the dischargge should inccrease brieflly, then
stop, then
n return to steeady state.
Close valv
ve after trap to allow conndensate to build
b
up in the
t trap. Opeen the valve and
listen to th
he dischargee. If the trap is failed opeen, the dischharge sound will
w increasee in
volume an
nd pitch wheen the dischaarge transitioons from conndensate to live
l steam.
b
waterr,
Thermosttatic traps caan usually bee tested by pllacing them in a pot of boiling
consult manufacturer
m
for proper procedure.
p

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H
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APPEND
DIX C (Blow
w-Down Disscharge)
The blow
w-down disch
harge will prrovide somee insight intoo the steam conditions
c
inn the circuit. The
followingg list shows likely probleems based on
o the straineer discharge..
If theere is no disccharge: The circuit
c
is nott supplied with
w steam; thhe circuit is plugged,
p
or the
t
strainner is pluggeed.
If thee discharge is primarily condensate:
c
The steam trrap is failed closed; the circuit
c
steam
m load is
too high due to im
mproper routting; the circcuit pressuree drop is too high due to improper roouting,
smalll supply tubiing, or a resttriction; exceessive condeensate is beinng routed intto the circuitt; the
steam
m supply pressure is too low;
l
the conndensate retuurn pressure is too high.
If thee discharge is weak: The circuit pressure drop is too high duee to impropeer routing, sm
mall
supplly tubing, orr a restrictionn; the straineer is partiallyy clogged; thhe steam suppply pressuree is too
low.
If thee discharge contains
c
a lott of contaminants: Excesssive debris has built up in the circuiit, and
possiibly the trap.
If thee discharge is normal: Thhe steam trapp is failed oppen; the steaam supply prressure is tooo low;
the ciircuit steam load is too high
h
due to im
mproper rouuting; the cirrcuit pressuree drop is tooo high
due too improper routing,
r
smaall supply tubbing, or a resstriction.

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APPEND
DIX D (Tem
mperature Measuremen
M
nt Procedurre)
The best method of measuring
m
thhe steam tem
mperature is to
t have a tem
mperature gaauge installedd with a
ontacts the stteam. Howevver, this typee of temperaature equipm
ment is rarelyy used
probe thaat directly co
with steaam systems. It is usually necessary too measure thhe steam tem
mperature at a given poinnt in the
system by measuring
g the surface temperaturee of the pipinng/tracing. There
T
are twoo common methods
m
for measuuring the surrface temperrature, therm
mocouples annd infrared guns.
g
No mattter which method
m
is used, great
g
care mu
ust be taken to assure thaat the ambieent conditionns are not im
mpacting the pipe
p
temperatuure; in generral, this is acccomplishedd by ensuringg that the areea being meaasured remaiins fully
insulatedd.
Thermoccouple Meth
hod: The theermocouple method is generally the most accuraate as it is noot
impactedd by the emisssivity of thee pipe and thhe piping cann easily remaain insulatedd while perfoorming
the measurement. In general, usee the followinng procedure:
1. Remove
R
a sm
mall amount of
o insulationn from the piiping/tracingg in the area to be measuured.
R
Remove
dirt, debris, scalyy rust, insulaation remnannt, etc from the
t pipe surfface.
2. Attach
A
the theermocouple bead to the pipe/trace
p
inn the exposedd area. It is important
i
that the
bead is presseed against thhe pipe/trace surface; anyy air gap willl cause erronneous readinngs.
Several metho
ods of attachhment may be
b used:
For singlee measuremeent use a pieece of high-teemperature tape
t
is usuallly adequate..
ment over sevveral days are desired it is
i better to atttach the
If multiple measurem
thermocou
uple with ann appropriatee epoxy suchh a JB weld.
For small bore pipingg when the enntire circumference of thhe pipe is exxposed, a heaavy
plastic zip
p-tie or a meetal hose clam
mp may be used.
u
If usingg a metal hoose clamp, innsulate
the therm
mocouple beaad from the clamp
c
using a layer of innsulating matterial.
R
the in
nsulation ovver the therm
mocouple andd the pipe/traace around thhe thermocoouple.
3. Replace
M
Make
sure thaat there are no
n air gaps that
t allow am
mbient air to contact the pipe/trace arround
thhe thermocou
uple.
4. Iff directly meeasuring the trace or steaam piping, wait
w approxim
mately 30minn before takiing a
teemperature reading.
r
If measuring
m
proocess pipingg, wait approoximately 2hhr before takiing a
reeading.
5. Read
R
the therrmocouple teemperature with
w a meter that is propeerly program
mmed for thee
thhermocouplee type being used.
Infrared
d Gun Meth
hod: An infraared gun cann successfully be used to measure thee pipe/trace
temperatuure, but extrra care must be used to prevent
p
the pipe/trace
p
tem
mperature froom being
negativelly impacted by the ambient air temperature. In general
g
use thhe followingg proceeduree:
1. Remove
R
a sm
mall amount of
o insulationn from the piipe/trace in the
t area to bee measured.
R
Remove
a litttle insulationn as possiblee while still exposing
e
suffficient area for the IR guun.
R
Remove
dirt, debris, scalyy rust, insulaation remnannt, etc from the
t pipe surfface.
2. Note
N the mateerial and conndition of thee surface to be measuredd (stainless steel,
s
galvanized
stteel, rusty steeel, fresh steeel, etc.) Reffer to the IR gun manuall and adjust the
t IR gun
em
missivity settting as apprropriate for the
t surface.

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3. R
Re-insulate th
he area to bee measured with
w a patch of insulationn that can bee easily and quickly
q
reemoved. Maake sure that there are noo air gaps thaat allow ambbient air to coontact the piipe/trace
arround the area to be meaasured.
4. Iff directly meeasuring the trace or steaam piping, wait
w approxim
mately 30minn before takiing a
teemperature reading.
r
If measuring
m
proocess pipingg, wait approoximately 2hhr before takiing a
reeading.
5. Remove
R
the insulation
i
paatch and quicckly take thee temperature using the IR
I gun. Takee the
teemperature as
a quickly ass possible as even brief exposure
e
to the
t ambient air will impaact the
pipe/trace waall temperatuure.
R gun emissiivity is set coorrectly, it may
m be possibble to take measurement
m
ts in
Note thatt once the IR
additionaal locations by
b pealing back existingg insulation and
a quickly measuring
m
thhe surface. Also
A
note that the IR gun emissivity
e
caan be calibraated by meassuring the saame surface with both a
mocouple reaading.
thermocoouple and thee IR gun; thee IR gun cann then be adjjusted to mattch the therm

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STEAM HEATING
H
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T
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SHOOTING
G GUIDE

APPEND
DIX E (Perm
manent Steaam Temperrature Gaugge)
Accurateely measuring the steam temperaturee at the end of
o the circuitt (Step 8) is a crucial stepp in
diagnosinng the operaation of a steam circuit. The
T measureement processs can be streeamlined byy
installingg a permanen
nt temperatuure gauge at the
t end of eaach steam ciircuit. CSI haas identifiedd a
suitable temperature
t
gauge for thhis applicatioon. The totall cost of the gauge
g
and thhe fittings too install
it will bee approximattely $50 for each
e
circuit.
The gaugge screws intto a standardd 3/4 tee fittting via a buushing. The tee
t fitting caan then be pllaced inline at the end of the circuit. The optimal location for thee temperaturee gauge is eiither between the
last elem
ment of ContrroTrace and the return tuubing, or bettween the retturn tubing and
a the steam
m trap.
The gaugge must not be
b placed aft
fter the steam
m trap. If the gauge is to be installed in the brancch of the
tee it is im
mportant thaat only the teee and bushinng listed bellow be used in order to achieve
a
propper
clearancee between th
he gauge stem
m and the inside of the fitting.
fi
All paarts can be ordered
o
throuugh
McMasteer-Carr. The following part
p list is currrent as of 4-Oct-2010.
Description
3/4" Strraight Tee
Bushing
WIKA
A Gauge

Part Number
44605K
K155
4513K
K347
3946K
K118
Suubtotal:

The speccifications off the temperaature gauge are:


a
3 dial
Back
B
connecttion
2-1/2 Stem length
l
1//2 NPT con
nnection
o
50-400 F tem
mperature rannge
5 oF subdivisiions

full scalle accuracy


1%

Price
$2.24
$1.91
$
$43.60
$
$47.75