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Project Report on


Submitted by

Roll No.05


Roll No.53


Roll No.66


Roll No.67


Under the guidance of




Autonomous robots are used everywhere nowadays and robotics is also gaining popularity all
around the world. This motivated us to make an autonomous robot that can avoid obstacle
from its path and do a specific task like pick and place object.
There are many kind of autonomous robot present nowadays and the technique for making it
autonomous and the ability of obstacle avoidance comes from various methods. Already
existing methods different types of autonomous robots 1.







Our robotic autonomous arm will be a programmable type which will follow a particular path
and if there are any changes required in the path then program should be changed. The
autonomous arm will also be able to detect any obstacle in its path and move accordingly
such that the obstacle is avoided and the arm reaches its final destination. The robot is made
mobile with the help of dc motors. The movement of the arm is provided by servo motors.
All these motors are controlled by Arduino board. It controls these motors according to the
input program.

2. INTRODUCTIONRobotics has achieved its greatest success to date in the world of industrial
manufacturing. Robot arms, or manipulators, comprise a 2 billion dollar industry. Bolted at
its shoulder to a specific position in the assembly line, the robot arm can move with great
speed and accuracy to perform repetitive tasks such as spot welding and painting.. In the
electronics industry, manipulators place surface-mounted components with superhuman
precision, making the portable telephone and laptop computer possible.
Yet, for all of their successes, these commercial robots suffer from a fundamental
disadvantage: lack of mobility. A fixed manipulator has a limited range of motion that
depends on where it is bolted down. In contrast, a mobile robot would be able to travel
throughout the manufacturing plant, flexibly applying its talents wherever it is most effective.
The autonomous robot is a robot that performs behaviors or tasks with a high degree
of autonomy, which is particularly desirable in fields such as space exploration, household
maintenance (such as cleaning), waste water treatment and delivering goods and services.
Some modern factory robots are "autonomous" within the strict confines of their direct
environment. It may not be that every degree of freedom exists in their surrounding
environment, but the factory robot's workplace is challenging and can often contain chaotic,
unpredicted variables. The exact orientation and position of the next object of work and (in
the more advanced factories) even the type of object and the required task must be
determined. This can vary unpredictably (at least from the robot's point of view).
The main aim of this project is to make an autonomous robotic arm that will not only
perform the job of picking and placing the object but also detect and avoid any obstacle in its

3. MODELThe microcontroller used for making the robot arm is Arduino uno ATMEGA 328p. This
microcontroller has 14 input/output pins and can used to control the servo motors and dc
motors used in the robot. The robotic arm is autonomous and it means that the robot will

always follow a particular path. If any changes are required in the path of the robot then the
program should be accordingly changed. Four dc plastic gear motors are used along with four
servo motors. The motion is provided with the four dc motors attached with compatible
wheels. The obstacle avoidance characteristic of the robot comes from the ultrasonic sensors
attached to it. It will enable the robot to detect and avoid any obstacle in its apth. Two sets of
motor drivers are used to provide an interface between microcontroller and motors. The
power source of the robot is dc batteries which will be mounted on it. The end effector of the
robotic arm will be a gripper that will be used to pick and place objects.

Fig. 3.1- Block diagram of autonomous robotic arm

Advantages of autonomous robotic arma) The robot is autonomous i.e., the robot need not be controlled by a human and can
perform task once it is switched on.
b) The robot can detect and avoid any obstacle in its path and can choose a new path
such that it can avoid the obstacle as well as reach its final destination.
c) The robot can pick and place object because of this end effector which is made in
such a way that it enables picking and placing objects.

Limitations of autonomous robotic arm-

a) The path taken is according to the program and if any changes are needed in the path
taken then the program has to be changed and that may take time.
b) Since the robot contains a lot of weight on it the overall speed of the robot is less.
c) The object that has to be picked should be in the specific range. If the position of the
object changes then the gripper might not be able to lift the object.

4. SCOPEFamiliarization with Arduino uno microcontroller should be done and program should be
designed. For construction of the robotic arm the main components like Arduino board and at
least one dc plastic gear motor and servo motor should be purchased and program should be
designed and tested on them.

Components RequiredThe components required are as follows1. Arduino Uno 328p

2. 4xServo motors
3. DC batteries
4. 2xUltrasonic sensors
5. 4xDC plastic gear motors
6. 4xcompatible wheels
7. 2xMotor Driver
8. Gripper
9. Wires etc.

Expected ResultThe expected result of the project is an autonomous robot which will be able to detect and
avoid any obstacle in its path and also perform a task of picking and placing objects.

Figure 4.1- Expected autonomous robot

Applications1. This robot can be used where human intervention is not required or not possible.
2. This robot can be used in fields such as space exploration, household maintenance (such
as cleaning), waste water treatment and delivering goods and services.
3. Large sized autonomous robots can lift very heavy objects continuously which wouldnt
be possible by humans.
4. This robot can be used in harsh and risky conditions like automobile assembling and
chemical industries,

5. Work Plan-

6. Conclusion1. The objective of this project is of the creation of an autonomous robotic arm that will also
choose a clear path by avoiding obstacles.
2. It can be used in areas when human interference is not possible.
3. It can be used in applications which includes hazardous and/or risky to humans.