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abstraksi geometri +

teori & sejarah desain arsitektur 1 teknologi/ material baru +


‘moralitas’ baru
= ruang arsitektur baru
9

setiadi sopandi modernism


20th century

hendrik petrus berlage


1856-1934, netherlands

“before all else the wall must be shown naked in all its sleek beauty and anything fixed
on it must be shunned as an embarrassment”

“the art of the master builder lies in this, in the creation of space, not the sketching
of facades. a spatial envelope is established by means of walls, whereby a space is
manifested according to complexity of the walling”

1
adolf loos
1908

ornament and crime


the evolution of culture marches with the elimination of ornament from
useful objects
passion for smooth and precious surfaces

german achievements seni modern ala jerman =


…-1933
werkbund
neue sachlichkeit
machine aesthetic abstraksi geometri, sederhana +
new objectivity in german, holland, switzerland
bauhaus
expressionism
dapat diproduksi massal +
functionalism
constructivism in ussr
fungsional & efisien, bagaikan mesin
futurism in italy

= indah
peter behrens 1868-1940, AEG turbine factory, 1910

2
Manifesto

The ultimate aim of all creative activity is a building! The


decoration of buildings was once the noblest function of fine
arts, and fine arts were indispensable to great architecture.
Today they exist in complacent isolation, and can only be
rescued by the conscious co-operation and collaboration of all
craftsmen. Architects, painters, and sculptors must once again come
to know and comprehend the composite character of a building, both
as an entity and in terms of its various parts.
Then their work will be filled with that true architectonic spirit
which, as "salon art", it has lost.
The old art schools were unable to produce this unity; and how,
indeed, should they have done so, since art cannot be taught?
Schools must return to the workshop. The world of the pattern
designer and applied artist, consisting only of drawing and painting
must become once again a world in which things are built. If the albers, scheper, muche, moholy-nagy, bayer, schmidt, gropius, breuer, kandinsky, klee, feininger, stolzl, schlemmer
bruno taut, young person who rejoices in creative activity now begins his career
glass pavilion, as in the older days by learning a craft, then the unproductive
"artist" will no longer be condemned to inadequate artistry, for his
werkbund skills will be preserved for the crafts in which he can achieve great
exhibition, 1914 things.
Architects, painters, sculptors, we must all return to crafts! For
there is no such thing as "professional art". There is no essential
difference between the artist and the craftsman. The artist is an
exalted craftsman. By the grace of Heaven and in rare moments of
inspiration which transcend the will, art may unconsciously blossom
from the labour of his hand, but a base in handicrafts is essential to
every artist. It is there that the original source of creativity lies.
Let us therefore create a new guild of craftsmen without the
class-distinctions that raise an arrogant barrier between craftsmen
and artists! Let us desire, conceive, and create the new building of
the future together. It will combine architecture, sculpture, and
painting in a single form, and will one day rise towards the
heavens from the hands of a million workers as the crystalline
symbol of a new and coming faith.

WALTER GROPIUS

walter gropius,
bauhaus, dessau
walter gropius, bauhaus 1919-1933, dessau

3
walter gropius,
bauhaus curriculum
1922

bentuk = fungsi + abstraksi

4
ruang = fungsi gerak + abstraksi

ludwig mies van der rohe


1886-1969

less is more
god is in the detail

lange house, germany 1927-1930 weissenhof estate, stuttgart, 1927

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Peter Behrens
Victor Bourgeois
Le Corbusier (Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris) and Pierre Jeanneret
Richard Döcker
Josef Frank
Walter Gropius
Ludwig Hilberseimer
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Hans Poelzig
Adolf Rading
Hans Scharoun
Adolf Gustav Schneck
Mart Stam
Bruno Taut apartment block, weissenhofsiedlung, 1925-1927
Max Taut
Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud mercedes-benz advertising 1928

brick country
house project
1924

world’s fair exhibition, german pavilion, barcelona 1928-1929

6
de stijl
1917, netherland

theo van doesburg


bart van der leck
gerrit rietveld

piet mondrian, theo van doesburg


composition with yellow,
arithmetic composition,
blue, and red, 1939-42 1930

gerrit rietveld
schroder house, 1924

gerrit rietveld
theo van doesburg
red and blue chair, 1917
counter composition v,
1924

7
gerrit rietveld gerrit rietveld
gerrit rietveld, schroder house, 1924
schroder house, 1924 schroder house, 1924