22 views

Uploaded by Olivia Mendoza

Libro de vibraciones primer capitulo

- Vibrations Using Matlab
- Vibration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.pdf
- Dynamics 1
- vibration 2.docx
- Damping
- Vibrations Solutions Section2 7
- Ijret - Investigation of Behaviour of 3 Degrees of Freedom Systems for Transient Loads
- Dynamics
- Mechanical Vibrations
- Rtiwari Rd Book 10
- 2974_1.pdf
- MECH257Lab1
- Design of Foundations for Dynamic Loads
- art3A100
- 4 Hysteretic Dampers
- Mass Proportional Damping in Nonlinear Time-history Analysis
- Zm 212350359
- Active Vibration Reduction of Rigid Rotor By
- Dynamics of Machinery Notes
- Design of Microstrip Log Periodic Patch Antenna with The Help of HFSS Software

You are on page 1of 46

In the most of previous chapters, except Chapter 3, we studied how to obtain the free and forced

responses of rotor-bearing systems in different modes of vibrations (e.g., the torsional, transverse, and

axial vibrations). Main aims of these chapters were to obtain natural whirl frequencies, mode shapes,

critical speeds and unbalance response. Unbalance response analysis presented can be extended to

other types of periodic forces with the help of Fourier series especially for the linear systems, where

the principle of superposition holds good. Various methods especially suited for analyzing complex

rotor systems (apart from general methods of vibration analysis, like the Newtons second law of

motion, Lagranges method, Hamiltons principle, etc.) have been dealt in great detail from its

fundamentals (e.g., the transfer matrix and finite element methods). Now in next few chapters, we

would explore another kind of phenomena in rotor-bearing systems called the instability, which might

cause the catastrophic failure of the systems. In certain circumstances, depending upon the design,

some machine may be prone to instability. This means that machine vibrations set in, even in the

absence of unbalance effects, resulting in high levels of noise and component stress and a

corresponding reduced fatigue life. In linear systems the magnitude of these vibrations tends towards

infinity, although in practice shaft vibrations are often limited by system non-linearity. In the present

chapter, various kinds of instability will be studies. Such machine instabilities may originate from a

number of sources including fluid-film bearings, seals, shaft stiffness asymmetry, internal friction

between mating components, and aerodynamic forces. A designers problem is to investigate the

possibility of machine instability, and to change the appropriate machine design parameters to ensure

that may potential unstable modes of operation lie outside the normal operating regime of the

machine. Apart from these when rotors are subjected to angular accelerations (uniform or variable

depending upon the unlimted or limited power of the drive, respectively), transient responses are

generated and study of such transient response is of practical importance. The aim of the present

chapter is to understand various kinds of instability with a simple single mass rotor model and in some

cases with a continuous shaft model. In the subsequent chapter, we would explore methods of

predicting instability in large rotor-bearing systems especially with finite element methods.

11.1 Oil Whirl

In rotating machineries, the unbalance is the most common source of excitation, which comes from

rotors. Similarly, oil-film bearings are possibly the most common source of instability in such rotating

machineries. Oil-whirl instability is also known as half-speed whirl because the frequency of whirl

(vibrations) which are set up is often just below half the shaft rotational frequency (typically 0.46-0.48

654

times of shaft rotational frequency). This instability tends to occur only in lightly loaded oil-film

bearings operating at a very small eccentricity ratio ( er / cr , where er is the eccentricity of the rotor

centre with respect to the bearing centre and cr is the radial clearance). It is an externally dangerous

condition because bearing load-carrying decreases and results in very high whirl amplitude and

consequently the destruction of the bearings is a possibility. Let us consider an fluid-film bearing in

which journal is rotating with frequency, , and whirls around the bearing clearance (i.e., er) at

frequency n as shown in Figure 11.1. Because the bearing is lightly loaded (so operates at only a

small eccentricity er in the first instance) the variation in fluid pressure around the bearing

circumference may be considered to be negligible so that the only fluid flows around the bearing the

bearing is that which is induced by the rotation of the journal. The lubricant flow rate into, and out of,

the dotted wedge-shaped are as shown in Figure 11.1(a) is the given by

Qin = 1 2 ( R + 0)(cr + er )

and

Qout =

( R + 0)(cr er )

(11.1)

where Qin ( 1 2 ( R + 0) is the average velocity and (cr + er ) is the passage width) and Q out (

1

( R + 0) is the average velocity and (cr er ) is the passage width) are flow per unit length of the

bearing.

Since journal is whirling within the bearing clearance with some frequency n , the tangential

velocity of the journal center will be ner as shown in Figure 11.1(b). So the volume of dotted area,

per unit length of the bearing must be increasing at a rate given by

Qvol = ( n er )(2 R )

(11.2)

655

where ( n er ) is the tangential velocity of journal center and ( 2 R ) is the shaded area of journal per

unit length of bearing. The volume flow rate must be provided by the net lubricant flow into the

dotted are under consideration, so that we may write

(11.3)

R (cr + er ) 1 2 R (cr er ) = 2 Rn er

or

( cr + er ) ( cr er ) = 4ner

2er = 4ner

(11.4)

which gives n = 0.5 . So the frequency of whirl is half the rotational frequency of journal. The

deviation from the actual case (0.46 to 0.48 ) is due to the assumption made in the analysis

regarding no flow due to pressure variation across the circumference of the bearing.

Example 11.1: Let us consider two identical bearings which are symmetrically supporting a light

symmetrical rotor at its ends. Through measurement the following data were found: the bore of the

journal bearing is 3 cm with the radial clearance of 5 m , and the rotor spin speed is 3000 rpm. The

flow measurement were Qi = 2.827 105 m3/s and Qout = 1.885 105 m3/s. If the rotor is under the

half-speed whirl, obtain the eccentricity ratio of the rotor centre in the journal.

Solution: We have the following data

R = 3 cm,

cr = 5 106 m,

2 3000

= 314.16 rad/s

60

Qin Qout = 2 Rn er

656

er Qin Qout

=

=

= 0.2

cr

2 Rn cr

2 0.03 0.5 314.16 5 106

A stable rotor-bearing may be defined as one that will have a bounded response for all possible

bounded excitations. To investigate the likelihood of oil whirl, attention needs to be given to the

bearing operating characteristics. For oil-film bearings these may be expressed in terms of the eightlinearised stiffness and damping coefficients.

The relationship between the bearing forces and the journal motion is given by the equations of

motion of the journal, which in the case of symmetrical system with a rigid rotor (Fig. 11.2), case are

k xx x + k xy y + cxx x + cxy y = mx

(11.5)

k yx x + k yy y + c yx x + c yy y = my

where x and y are the horizontal and vertical displacements of the rotor, ks and cs are stiffness and

damping coefficients, and m is the half of the rotor mass. Here it is assumed that a rigid rotor is

mounted on two identical fluid-film bearings and has a purely translational motion. If the rotor is

657

momentarily displaced from its equilibrium position by some random input, free vibrations of the

rotor in the horizontal and vertical directions will take the form

x = X 0 e t

and

y = Y0 et

(11.6)

where is a parameter and in general it is a complex quantity with the real part represent the

damping and the imaginary part as the whirl natural frequency; and X 0 and Y0 are the vibration

amplitudes in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Equation (11.6) gives

x = X 0 et ;

y = X 0 et ;

x = X 0 2 et ;

y = X 0 2 et

(11.7)

On substituting equations (11.6) and (11.7) into equation (11.5), and dividing whole equation by et ,

we get

(11.8)

k yx X 0 + k yyY0 + c yx X 0 + c yyY0 = m(Y0 )

2

X 0 ( m 2 k xx cxx ) = Y0 (k xy + cxy )

(11.9)

X 0 (k yx + c yx ) = Y0 (m k yy c yy )

2

cxy + k xy

m 2 + c yy + k yy

X0

=

=

Y0

m 2 + cxx + k xx

c yx + k yx

(11.10)

which gives the frequency equation as

658

(11.11)

+ (k yx cxx + c yy k xx k xy c yx cxy k yx ) + (k xx k yy k xy k yx ) = 0

The most direct approach for investigating the stability of a linear rotor-bearing system is to determine

the roots of the above characteristic polynomial (i.e., the frequency equation). Equation (11.11) has

four roots of . In general the roots of will both real and imaginary parts, indicating that the

transient motion of the journal will take a form of harmonic wave having decaying amplitude when

the system is stable (i.e., when the real parts of all roots of are negative). The imaginary parts of the

roots of indicate the frequency of the resulting vibrations.

Physically to test for the system stability one must examine the motion of the journal which follows a

momentary displacement from its steady running position. Does the journal return to a stable

equilibrium or not? If the journal were to return to a stable equilibrium position then this would be

characterized by values of displacement x and y which decreases with time, that is by negative values

of Re( ). If the journal motion is unbounded with time that means a positive value of Re( ). The

circumstances under which the real parts of all roots of are negative are given by the Routh-Hurwitz

stability criteria. This criterion was developed independently by Hurwitz (1895) in Germany and

Routh (1892) in United States. Two approaches are presented in which the first one determines the

stability of the system with the help of Routh table (Sinha, 1995)) and the second one finds by a set of

dominants.

Method 1: Let the characteristic polynomial be given by

( ) = an +1 n +1 + an n + an 1 n 1 + an 2 n 2 +

+ a4 4 + a3 3 + a2 2 + a1 + + a0

(11.12)

Then the Routh table (Table 11.1) is constructed based on the coefficients of the polynomial. The

Routh-Hurwitz criterion states that the number of roots with positive real parts is equal to the number

of changes in sign in the first column of the Routh table. Hence, for the system to be stable, no sign

changes should take place in the first column of the table.

659

Table 11.1 Routh table for finding the stability of a linear rotor-bearing system

n +1

an +1

an 1

an 3

an

an 2

an 4

n 1

n2

0

Method 2:

bn =

( an an 1 an +1an 2 )

cn =

bn 1 =

an

( bn an 2 an bn 1 )

( an an 3 an +1an 4 )

cn 1 =

bn

an

bn 2 =

( bn an 4 an bn 2 )

( an an 5 an +1an 6 )

an

cn 2 =

bn

( bn an 6 an bn 3 )

bn

hn

For the stability of a linear system the following conditions are to be met (i) all

coefficients of the characteristic equation must have the same sign, and (ii) each of the following

determinants must be positive

R1 = a1 , R2 =

a1

a3

a1

a0

, R3 = a3

a2

a5

a0

a2

a4

a1

a0

a

a1 , R4 = 3

a5

a3

a7

a2

a4

a1

a3

a0

,

a1

a6

a5

a4

a1

a3

a0

a2

0

a1

0

a0

0

0

0

0

0

0

a5

Rn = a 7

a9

a4

a6

a8

a3

a5

a7

a2

a4

a6

a1

a3

a5

a0

a2

a4

0

0

0

a2n2

a 2 n 3

a 2 n4

a 2 n 5

a 2 n 6

an

a 2 n 1

(11.13)

an +1 n +1 + an n +

+ a4 4 + a3 3 + a2 2 + a1 + a0 = 0

(11.14)

Substitution of appropriate values into equation (11.7) then allows the designer to determine whether

a machine is likely to be stable or unstable. It does not indicate how stable (or unstable) a machine

may be. It will be noted from above that system stability depends upon the stiffness and damping of

bearings. Hence, for equation (11.11), we have the following stability conditions

660

m(cxx + c yy ) 0,

(11.15)

(k yx cxx + k xx c yy k xy c yx k yx cxy ) 0,

(k xx k yy k xy k yx ) 0

and

R2 = a1a2 a0 a3

= ( k yx cxx + k xx c yy k xy c yx k yx cxy )( mk xy + mk yy + cxx c yy cxy c yx ) m( k xx k yy k xy k yx )(cxx + c yy ) 0

(11.16)

2

Example 11.2 For a rigid rotor of mass 10 kg is supported on two identical fluid film bearings with

the following properties: kxx = 20 MN/m, kyy = 15 MN/m, kxy = -1.5 MN/m, kyx = 25 MN/m, cxx = 200

kN-s/m, cxy = 150 kN-s/m, cyx = 140 kN-s/m and cyy = 400 kN-s/m. Find the stability of the rotor.

Solution: Half of the mass of the rotor m = 5kg. On substituting the given rotor and bearing properties

in equation (11.11), we get

+ (25 200 + 20 400 + 1.5 140 25 150) 109 + (20 15 + 1.5 25) 1012 = 0

(a)

25 4 + 3 106 3 + 5.91 1010 2 + 9.46 1012 + 3.38 1014 = 0

(b)

a4 4 + a3 3 + a2 2 + a1 + a0 = 0

(c)

Method 1: The Routh table for the above characteristic equation is given in Table 11.2. Since the

degree of polynomial is 4 (n + 1 = 4), hence n = 3. It can be observed that there is no sign change in

the first column of the Routh table and hence the system is in stable condition.

Table 11.2 Routh table for finding the stability of a linear rotor-bearing system (n = 3)

661

a4 = 25

a2 = 5.911010

a0 = 3.381014

a3 = 3106

a1 = 9.461012

a1 = 0

b3 =

( a3 a2 a4 a2 )

a3

b2 =

( a3 a0 a4 a1 ) = a

b1 =

( a3 a2 a4 a3 ) = 0

( b3 a1 a3b1 ) = 0

c1 =

( b3 a3 a3b0 ) = 0

= 5.9021010

c3 =

( b3 a1 a3b2 )

b3

c2 =

a3

= 3.381014

b3

a3

b3

= 9.4431012

d3 =

( c3b2 b3c2 )

d2 = 0

d1 = 0

c3

= 3.381014

Method 2: Hence, the first condition of stability is satisfied, i.e., all coefficients of the characteristic

equation must have the same sign. The second condition is that the following determinant must be

positive:

R1 = a1 = 9.46 10 ,

12

a1

R3 = a3

a5

a0

a2

a4

0 9.46 1012

a1 = 3.00 106

a3

0.00

a

R2 = 1

a3

3.38 1014

5.91 1010

25.00

a0 9.46 1012

=

a2

3.00 106

3.38 1014

= 5.58 1023 ,

10

5.91 10

0.00

9.46 1012 = 1.67 1030

3.00 106

It can be see that all determinants are positive, hence, the rotor-bearing system is stable.

Example 11.3 For a rigid rotor of mass 10 kg is supported on two identical fluid film bearings with

the following properties: kxx = 2.1 MN/m, kyy = 1.5 MN/m, kxy = 1.0 MN/m, kyx = -10 MN/m, cxx = 200

kN-s/m, cxy = 150 kN-s/m, cyx = 150 kN-s/m and cyy = 200 kN-s/m. Find the stability of the rotor.

Solution: Half of the mass of the rotor m = 5kg. On substituting the given rotor and bearing properties

in equation (11.11), we get

25 4 + 2 106 3 + 1.7513 1010 2 2.5 1011 + 1.30 1013 = 0

Equation has the following form

(a)

662

a4 4 + a3 3 + a2 2 + a1 + a0 = 0

(b)

Method 1: The Routh table for the above characteristic equation is given in Table 11.3. Since the

degree of polynomial is 4 (n + 1 = 4), hence n = 3. It can be observed that there is sign change in the

first column of the Routh table and hence the system is in unstable condition.

Table 11.3 Routh table for finding the stability of a linear rotor-bearing system (n = 3)

a4 = 25

a2 = 1.75131010

a0 = 1.301013

a3 = 2106

a1 = -2.51011

a1 = 0

( a3 a2 a4 a2 )

b3 =

a3

b2 =

( a3 a0 a4 a1 ) = a

b1 =

( a3 a2 a4 a3 ) = 0

( b3 a1 a3b1 ) = 0

c1 =

( b3 a3 a3b0 ) = 0

= -1.751010

c3 =

( b3 a1 a3b2 )

c2 =

b3

a3

= -1.04108

b3

a3

b3

= -2.501011

d3 =

( c3b2 b3c2 )

d2 = 0

d1 = 0

c3

= -1.04108

Method 2: Hence, the first condition of stability is satisfied, i.e., all coefficients of the characteristic

equation (a) must have the same sign, which is not same. The second condition is that the following

determinant must be positive:

R1 = a1 = 2.5 10 ,

11

R2 =

a1

a0

a3

a2

= 4.404 10 ,

21

a1

R3 = a3

a0

a2

0

a1 = 8.81 1027

a5

a4

a3

It can be see that all determinants are also not positive, hence, the rotor-bearing system is unstable.

In previous method the oil-whirl prediction based on eight linearalised fluid-film coefficients (and

also mass of the rotor). Linearised fluid-film coefficients are valid for small displacements of the

journal around its static equilibrium position. But fluid-whirl implies large amplitude of vibrations. So

fluid-whirl instability analysis with fluid-film non-linearity is more relevant. Fluid-film forces are

663

determined by solving the Reynolds equation as discussed in Chapter 3. The fluid-film forces due to

momentarily displacement of the journal around its static equilibrium position is also obtained using

the Reynolds equation with time dependent terms retained in the equation.

Taking components of fluid forces and other forces (Figure 11.3) such as journal weight, unbalance

and inertia forces in the direction of radial and tangential, we get

and

(11.17)

with

f r (t ) =

L

0

2

0

p( , z ) cos d dz

and

ft (t ) =

L

0

2

0

p( , z ) sin d dz

(11.18)

where, fr and ft are the radial and tangential fluid forces to be obtained from the solution of Reynolds

equation for the pressure variation, p( , z), of fluid-film over the circumference of the bearing (refer

Chapter 3), R is the radius of the rotor,

surface, W = mg is the weight of the rotor per bearing, er is the eccentricity of the shaft centre with

the bearing centre, , is the altitude angle of the shaft centre with respect to the bearing centre, me is

the rotor unbalance and m is the effective mass of the rotor at each bearing. Terms m (er er 2 ) and

m(er + 2er ) are the radial and tangential accelerations of the shaft centre (i.e., er is the radial

664

acceleration of the centre of the rotor due to linear motion, er 2 , is the centripetal radial acceleration

due to rotational motion, er , is the tangential acceleration due to rotation, and 2er is the Coriolis

component of acceleration due to linear and angular motions). The unknown in equations (11.17) are

er and , and its derivatives. The differential equations may be integrated using Euler or Range-Kutta

method to obtained er and for some momentary disturbances. Thus it is possible to determine the

journal position, described by er and at various time instances following the initial disturbance of

the system. For stable condition with unbalance in the system the path of the journal (journal orbit) for

a momentary disturbance will settle down to an elliptical shape (or an orbit with a fixed shape) after

sufficient iterations (Figure 11.4a).

(a) Stable

(b) Unstable

Fig. 11.4 Journal center path due to perturbation

For no unbalance in the system it should converge to a point. For unstable system whirl orbit will not

be on ellipse (or an orbit with a fixed shape) but the whirl amplitude will increase with time (Figure

11.4b), indicating subsequent destruction of the bearing and then the rotor system itself.

For multi-DOF rotor-bearing systems the stability analysis will also be similar to what discussed here,

i.e., (i) Routh Herwitz criteria, (ii) eigen value analysis, and (iii) plotting of the orbit for momentary

disturbances. However, last two methods are more practical to implement.

When the shaft rotates at about twice the speed associated with the first critical speed of the system,

the oil whirl takes place at the half the rotational speed and hence equal to the first critical speed of the

system. This condition is called oil-whip. In these circumstances very severe unstable vibrations

indeed are introduced and the situation is the most undesirable. The effect of vibration associated with

oil whirl combines with a system critical speed to produce most excessive vibration. It is the cross-

665

coupled stiffness (kxy and kyx) of the fluid-film bearing which destabilizes the rotor-bearing system.

Although the damping in fluid-film bearings is high, it is not sufficient to suppress the oil whip at high

rotor speeds. In this situation bearings will be in unstable operating regime. Muszynska (1986)

explained the difference between the oil whip and oil whirl. The oil whirl is stable and its frequency is

always around half the rotor speed, whereas, the oil whip is unstable and it has fixed frequency of

twice the first critical speed of the system. Oil whirl and oil whirl are nonlinear vibration phenomena

and cannot be described as such by linear vibration analysis.

As shown in Figure 11.5 in zone A: No oil whirl is present and only significant vibration is associated

with the unbalance at 1 shaft rotation. In zone B: Oil whirl is present at

effect. In zone C: When the oil-whirl vibration corresponds to system resonant frequency and one

having extremely high amplitude. In zone D: Oil-whirl subsides and only out of balance response will

be present.

Figure 11.5 Journal vibration frequency spectra showing the oil-whirl and the oil-whip

Example 13.3 A rigid rotor of mass 10 kg is supported by two identical fluid film bearings with the

following properties: kxx = 20 MN/m, cxx = 2 kN-s/m. Obtain the frequency of oil whip.

Solution: The undamped natural frequency of the rotor-bearing system, with mass of m and effective

support stiffness of 2kxx, is

666

nf =

2k xx

2 20 106

=

= 2000 rad/s

m

10

with

2c

2 2 103

=

= 0.1

2 mnf 2 10 2000

Hence, the oil whip will take place when the rotor is at resonance and the frequency of the oil whip

will be 995 rad/s (i.e., at the half of the resonance frequency).

Engineering materials show some resistance to their deformation which is a function of their rate of

deformation. Such a material property may be represented by damping force when modeling the

material behaviour. The damping effect also produced by the friction forces between mating

components of a shaft when the shaft deflects and the components move relative to each other. These

forces are particularly significant where interference fit components are present (Fig. 11.6).

When shaft elongates at the location of the interface AA (Figure 11.6b), the friction force opposes the

shaft deformation, these forces provide a hysteretic damping effect. Similar effect will be there at

interface BB. This kind of damping can be modeled as force proportional to the rate of shaft

deformation, as compared to the viscous damping which is proportional to absolute velocity of the

rotor.

667

Figure 11.7 The rotor motion with respect to the fixed and rotating frame of references

From Figure 11.7, we have

CF = x = DO ,

CD = y = FO

CG = = EO ;

CE = = GO ;

(11.19)

(11.20)

and

Let

s = x + jy

(11.21)

= + j

(11.22)

and

= (cos t + jsin t ) + ( sin t + jcos t ) = e jt + j e jt = ( + j )e jt

Noting, equation (11.22), we get

s = e j t

(11.23)

668

Equation (11.23) is the transformation between stationary and rotating coordinate systems, where

is the spin speed of the shaft. On taking the first and second differentiations of equation (11.23) gives

s = e jt + ( j )e jt = ( + j )e jt

(11.24)

s = e jt + ( j )e jt + ( j )e jt + ( j ) 2 e jt = ( + 2 j 2 )e jt

(11.25)

and

mx + cV x + kx = 0

and

my + cV y + ky = 0

(11.26)

where cV is the viscous damping. On combining equation (11.26), noting equation (11.21), we get

ms + cV s + ks = 0

(11.27)

m( + 2 j 2 ) + cV ( + j ) + k = 0

(11.28)

m( 2 2 ) + cV ( ) + k = 0

(11.29)

m( + 2 2 ) + cV ( + ) + k = 0

(11.30)

and

Fig. 11.8 The hysteretic damping force in a rotor in the rotating coordinate system

669

Now with the hysteretic damping, c H , also (Fig. 11.8), hysteretic damping forces act along and

directions with values of cH and cH , respectively. Hence, equations (11.29) and (11.30) can be

modified as

m( 2 2 ) + cH + cV ( ) + k = 0

(11.31)

m( + 2 2 ) + cH + cV ( + ) + k = 0

(11.32)

and

m( + 2 j 2 ) + cH + cV ( + j ) + k = 0

or

m + (2 jm + cH + cV ) + ( k m 2 + jcV ) = 0

(11.33)

where is the complex displacement and for the asynchronous whirl can be defined as

= 0 e j t

(11.34)

which gives

= j 0 0 e j t

0

= 0 02 e j t

and

(11.35)

where 0 is the complex whirl amplitude in rotating coordinate systems, 0 is defined as the relative

whirl frequency (or the whirl frequency in the rotating coordinate system -) of the rotor ( 0 =

) and

is the whirl frequency in the stationary coordinate system x-y. It should be noted that for

0 = 0 , we have the synchronous whirl condition ( = ) and for such case there will not be any

hysteretic damping, since the shaft whirls as rigid body in the bend configuration. On substituting

equations (11.34) and (11.35) in equation (11.33), it gives

m02 + {2 m + j ( cH + cV )} 0 + ( k m 2 ) + jcV = 0

A general form of equation (11.36), a quadratic polynomial with complex coefficients, is

(11.36)

670

(11.37)

For which the Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria are (which is of different form as described previously

in Section 11.2)

a0

a1

b0

b1

>0

and

a0

a1

a2

b0

0

b1

a0

b2

a1

b0

b1

0

0

>0

a2

b2

(11.38)

as the conditions for the imaginary part of 0 to be negative (that is, for the amplitude of to

decrease with time). On comparing equations (11.36) and (11.37), we get

a0 = m , b0 = 0 ,

a1 = 2 m , b1 = cH + cV ,

a2 = k m 2 , b2 = cV

(11.39)

2m

cH + cV

>0

m ( cH + cV ) > 0

(c

+ cV ) > 0

(11.40)

m 2 m

0 cH + cV

0

m

0

0

k m 2

cV

2 m

cH + cV

0

0

>0

k m 2

cV

(11.41)

cH + cV

m m

0

cV

2 m

cH + cV

0

k m 2 > 0

cV

or

m ( cH + cV )

2 m

cH + cV

c

k m 2

(m)(m) V

cH + cV

cV

0

cV

>0

671

or

or

with

nf2 = k / m

or

(c

2

or

2 <

c

1+ V

cH

c2

1 + V2

cH

nf2

(11.42)

< 1+

cV

nf

cH

(11.43)

To summarise conditions of the stability of the rotor system with the hysteretic damping from

equations (11.40) and (11.43), it can be written as

cH + cV > 0

and

< 1+

cV

nf

cH

(11.44)

with

nf2 = k / m

(11.45)

The second condition indicates that system is always stable, even in the presence of hysteretic

damping, below the critical speed nf . For the present case, both cV and cH are assumed to be

positive. In presence of viscous damping, however, has the effect of raising the speed at which the

system becomes unstable, so that if sufficient viscous damping is designed into the system then the

instability threshold speed (i.e., the speed below which the rotor has always stable operation) due to

hysteretic damping can be raised beyond the normal operating speed range of the machine, however,

the shift would be marginal.

672

Example 11.3 For a Jeffcott rotor, with mass disc of 2 kg, and a shaft of diameter of 0.01 m and

length of 0.6 m. It is found that the ratio of the coefficients of viscous and hysteretic damping to be

0.2. For the shaft take E = 2.1 1011 N/m2. Find the speed of the instability threshold.

Solution: The stiffness of the shaft is given as

k=

=

= 2.29 104 N/m

l3

0.63

nf =

k

=

m

2.29 10 4

= 107.03 rad/s

2

Hence the speed of instability threshold from equation (11.44) is : 107.031.2 = 128.43 rad/s. It can

be observed that for the present case, from equation (11.42), we get 128.40 rad/s, which is very close

to the above approximate value.

Example 11.4 For a Jeffcott rotor, with mass disc of 2 kg, and a shaft of diameter of 0.01 m and

length of 0.6 m. It is found that the ratio of the coefficients of viscous and the hysteretic damping to

be 0.2. The viscous damping ratio in the system is 0.01. For the shaft take E = 2.1 1011 N/m2. Plot the

response in time domain for some initial condition at following speeds (i) = 0.2nf (ii) = 0.9nf

(iii) = 1.6nf and (iv) = 1.2nf , where nf is the undamped natural frequency.

Solution: From equation (11.33), the equation of motion of the rotor in rotating coordinate system

with the viscous and hysteretic dampings, we have

m( + 2 j 2 ) + cH + cV ( + j ) + k = 0

(a)

= se- jt

(b)

so that

= ( s j s ) e- jt

and

= ( s 2 j s 2 s ) e - j t

(c)

673

On subsisting equations (b) and (c) in equation (a), we get

ms + cH ( s j s ) + cV s + ks = 0

(d)

mx + ( cH + cV ) x + kx + cH y = 0

(e)

my + ( cH + cV ) y + ky cH x = 0

(f)

and

It should be noted that equations (e) and (f) are linear coupled ordinary differential equations. For

obtaining the response both equations have to be integrated simultaneously by any direct numerically

integration technique. Typical vibration responses for some initial conditions have been generated at

following speeds (i) = 0.2nf (ii) = 0.9nf (iii) = 1.6nf and (iv) = 1.2nf and are shown in

Figs. 11.9-11.12, respectively. Figures contain free responses in time domain and its orbit plots (i.e.,

x-y plot). It can be seen that for the first three cases the system is stable (Figs. 11.9-11.11) and for

fourth case it is unstable (Fig. 11.12). It should be noted that for large oscillations linear theory would

cease to be valid and response then would be governed by nonlinear behaviour of the system to

Displacement (mm)

Time (s)

Fig. 11.9 (a) The rotor free vibration response in time domain for = 0.2nf

674

Fig. 11.9 (b) The rotor orbit response for a short time interval for = 0.2nf

Displacement (mm)

Fig 11.9 (c) The rotor orbit response for a long time interval for = 0.2nf

Time (s)

Fig. 11.10 (a) The rotor free vibration response in time domain for = 0.9nf

675

Fig. 11.10 (b) The rotor orbit response for a short time interval for = 0.9nf

Displacement (mm)

Fig 11.10 (c) The rotor orbit response for a long time interval for = 0.9nf

Time (s)

Fig. 11.11 (a) The rotor free vibration response in time domain for = 1.6nf

676

Fig. 11.11 (b) The rotor orbit response for a short time interval for = 1.6nf

Displacement (mm)

Fig 11.11 (c) The rotor orbit response for a long time interval for = 1.6nf

Time (s)

Fig. 11.12 (a) The rotor free vibration response in time domain for = 1.2nf

677

Fig 11.12 (b) The rotor orbit response for a long time interval for = 1.2nf

In many machines the lateral stiffness of the rotor is different in two orthogonal directions. For

electrical motor or generator, the rotor (Figure 11.13) may have slots containing electrical windings

on some, but not all, parts of its surface.

For such rotors the stiffness about x-axis will be less as compared to y-axis (i.e. the shaft deforms

more when x-axis is horizontal as against when y-axis is horizontal, due to gravity load). In some case

to make the stiffness in two directions closer, stiffness-compensating slots in pole face are made. But

in several cases it cannot be assured the same stiffness in all transverse directions of the shaft.

678

Fig. 11.14 Asymmetric rotor with the stationary and rotating coordinate systems

Equations of motion can be developed on the similar lines as pervious section with the consideration

of stiffness in and direction as k and k ((i.e., with respect to rotating frame of reference

as shown in Fig. 11.14).

k = m ( 2 2 )

k = m( + 2 2 )

and

or

m 2m + ( k 2 ) = 0

and

m + 2m + ( k 2 ) = 0

(11.46)

The resulting motion will be periodic and will take the form

(t ) = 0 e t

and

(t ) = 0 e t

0

(11.47)

where 0 and 0 are complex amplitudes in rotating coordinate systems and 0 is the relative whirl

frequency in rotating coordinate system. On substituting equation (11.47) into equation (11.46), it

gives

0 0

20 0 + (2 2 ) 0 } e 0t = 0

(11.48)

and

0 0

+ 2 0 0 + (2 2 ) 0 } e 0t = 0

(11.49)

with

2 = k m

and

2 = k m

(11.50)

679

Equations (11.48) and (11.49) can be combined in a matrix form as

[ A]{ X } = {0}

(11.51)

with

[ A] =

(02 + 2 2 )

(20 )

20

( + )

2

0

and

{X } =

0

0

04 + (2 + 2 + 2 2 )02 + (2 2 )(2 2 ) = 0

(11.52)

be in general complex. The real part of 0 is if negative then the system is stable and if positive the

system is unstable. As discussed previously that for a negative value of the real part of 0 , (as well

as ) decreases exponentially, and is given as

(t ) = e t ( A cos t + B sin t )

with

0 = i

(11.53)

Alternatively stability may be investigated using the Routh-Hurwitz criteria for a polynomial of 4th

degree in 0 , i.e., equation (11.13) (or quadratic in 02 ). With either approach it is found that there is

a potential region of instability defined by (all the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial must

be of the same sign)

(2 2 )(2 2 ) < 0

for instability

< <

for <

which gives

(11.54)

In practice, there may be sufficient damping in the system to inhibit unstable vibration. The previous

analysis is based upon the assumption that the shaft vibration frequency corresponds to the

machine running speed (unbalance). This is a satisfactory assumption since in most cases the

predominant vibration frequency component is that associated with machine unbalance. However, in

the case of rotors with stiffness polar asymmetry, which are mounted, horizontally there is a

component of vibration frequency at twice machine running speed.

680

Figure 11.15 A rotor with asymmetry due to gravity load (a) less sag (b) more sag

The second moment of area about x-x in case (a) will be greater than for case (b) in Figure 11.15. For

this reason there will be greater sag of the rotor due to gravity for the latter rotor position as compared

with the former. Since the major and minor axes of the rotor section change orientation twice per

revolution, there will be a strong rotor vibration frequency component at twice the machine running

speed. For this reason there will be an unstable machine operating frequency range, for the

horizontally mounted rotor, defined by

< v <

or

< 2 <

(11.55)

This can be arrived using the previous analysis with excitation frequency as in the previous case it

was v = due to unbalance only.

Example 11.4 An elliptical shaft with the length of 1 m, and the major and minor axes of 0.01 m and

0.009 m, respectively. The shaft carries a disc of mass 2 kg at the mid-span. For the steel shaft take

E = 2.1 1011 N/m2. Find the zones of the instability in the rotor system due to asymmetry of the shaft

cross-section.

Solution: The stiffness of the shaft in two principal directions are given as

k =

with

I =

and

48 EI

l3

ab 2

4

= 8.02 105 N/m

3

1.0

0.005 0.00452

4

= 7.952 108 m4

681

k =

with

I =

48 EI

l3

ba 2

4

= 8.91 105 N/m

0.63

0.0045 0.0052

4

= 8.836 108 m4

Now, we have

k

m

8.02 105

= 633.25 rad/s

2

8.91 105

= 667.46 rad/s

2

and

k

m

Hence, the rotor will be unstable in speed range 633.25 rad/s to 667.46 rad/s and in speed range of

316.67 to 333.73 rad/s.

Let us consider a rotor as shown in Figure 11.16 with uniform distribution of mass. It could be

assumed as a large number of thin discs uniformly distributed along the shaft with an infinite number

of discs as the limiting case (Tondl, 1965).

Let E be the modulus of elasticity of the shaft material, I1 and I2 are the principal area moments of

inertia of the shaft section, 2mk 2 is the polar mass moment of inertia per unit length of the shaft

element (e.g., thin disc) with respect to axis of rotation, mk 2 is the diametral mass moment of inertia

per unit length of the shaft element (e.g., thin disc) with respect to diametral axis, m is the mass per

unit length of shaft, k is the radius of gyration of the shaft element, is the angular velocity of the

shaft, x and y are the angular displacements about the x and y axes, respectively; and these are

chosen positive in accordance with right hand axis convection as shown in Figures 11.17. Let us first

682

derive equations of motion for I1 = I 2 , then asymmetry of the shaft cross-section would be

introduced subsequently.

Figure 11.18 Positive directions of slopes and angular displacements (left) z-x plane (right) y-z plane

Equations of Motion: The angular displacement of the shaft element (denoted by x and y ) are given

by (see Figure 11.18)

x =

y ( z , t )

z

and

y =

x( z , t )

z

(11.56)

where x and y are linear displacements. It should be noted that the positive direction of angular

displacement, x , is opposite to the positive slope, dy/dz, direction; and the positive direction of

angular displacement, y , is same to the positive slope, dx/dz, direction. So that the angular velocity

and acceleration can be written as

683

x =

2 y

zt

and

y =

2 x

zt

(11.57)

x =

3 y

zt 2

and

y =

3 x

zt 2

(11.58)

and

Figure 11.19 Gyroscopic and inertia moments on the shaft element (a) z-x and (b) y-z planes

Moment due to inertia forces of elements (taking moments in the y-z and z-x planes, and respective

directions positive in directions of x and y ) are given as (see Figure 11.19)

M zx M g y I d y = 0

and

(11.59)

684

M zy + M g x I d x = 0

(11.60)

M g y = I P x

and

M g x = I P y

(11.61)

where M zx and M zx are moments which are applied to the rotor (disc) by the shaft. It should be noted

that in plane z-x the change in angular momentum over the time interval considered is I P x and so

the gyroscopic couple which must be applied to produce this change, equal to the rate of change of

angular momentum, is given by I P x . In Figure 11.19(a) the gyroscopic couple applied to the shaft

through the rotor, I P x , must act about y-axis corresponding to the orientation of the vector

( I p ) in y-z plane (i.e., in the negative y-axis direction). Hence, the rotor will get a reactive couple,

M g y = I P x . Similarly, in the plane y-z the change in angular momentum over the time interval

considered is I P y and so the gyroscopic couple which must be applied to produce this change

equal to the rate of change of angular momentum, is given by I P y . In Figure 11.19(a) the

gyroscopic couple applied to the rotor , I P y , must act about x-axis corresponding to the orientation

of the vector ( I p ) in z-x plane (i.e., in the positive x-axis direction). Hence, the rotor will get a

reactive couple, M g x = I P y . Equations (11.59) and (11.60), can be written as

M zx = I d y + I P x

(11.62)

M zy = I d x I P y

(11.63)

and

For the shaft element (i.e., thin disc) we have, I d = mk 2 dz and I p = 2 I d = 2mk 2 dz ; and noting

equations (11.57) and (11.58), from equations (11.59) and (11.60), we get

M zx = ( mk 2 dz )

3 x

2 y

3 x

2 y

2

2

2

mk

dz

mk

dz

+

2

(

) zt

zt 2

zt 2

zt

(11.64)

M yz = ( mk 2 dz )

3 y

2 x

3 y

2 x

2

2

+

2

mk

dz

mk

dz

(

) zt

zt 2

zt 2

zt

(11.65)

and

685

Figure 11.20 A positive sign convention for the bending moment and the shear force

and its effect on a beam

For the bending moments of the elastic forces M y and M x in z-x and y-z planes, respectively, we

have

M y = EI

2 x

z 2

and

M x = EI

2 y

z 2

(11.66)

and

M x

3 y

= EI 3

z

z

(11.67)

which gives

M y

z

= EI

3 x

z 3

The sign in above equations has been chosen such that it is consistent with the choice of coordinate

axes in Figure 11.18 and the definition of positive bending moment as that which produces curvature

concave upwards (Figure 11.20). For coordinate axes as shown in Figure 11.18, we see that when the

curvature is concave upwards, the slope dx/dz algebraically increases continuously (from left to right

even after the zero slope) with z and hence d 2 x / dz 2 is positive. Likewise, when the curvature is

concave downwards (negative bending moment), the slope dx/dz is algebraically decreasing with z

and hence d 2 x / dz 2 is negative. Thus d 2 x / dz 2 has always same in sign to bending moment.

Similarly, the slope dy/dz algebraically increasing with z and hence d 2 y / dz 2 is positive.

686

Applying conditions for equilibrium of moments in plane z-x (Figure 11.21a), we get

M y + M y +

M y

z

dz + M zx + mdzx(dz 2) S x dz = 0

(11.68)

or

M y

z

dz + M zx + 0.5mxdz 2 S x dz = 0

(11.69)

Mx Mx +

M x

dz + M yz mdzy (dz 2) + S y dz = 0

z

(11.70)

or

M x

dz + M yz 0.5mydz 2 + S y dz = 0

z

(11.71)

On substituting equations (11.59) (11.66) in equations (11.68) and (11.71), neglecting terms

containing dz 2 , we get

EI

3 x

3 x

2 y

2

+

2

Sx = 0

mk

z 3

zt 2

zt

(11.72)

687

and

EI

3 y

3 y

2 x

2

mk

Sy = 0

z 3

zt 2

zt

(11.73)

EI

S

4 x

4 x

3 y

2

mk

+

2

x =0

4

2

2

2

z

z t

z t

z

(11.74)

EI

S y

4 y

4 y

3 x

2

mk

=0

4

2

2

2

z

z t

z t

z

(11.75)

and

From the condition for the equilibrium of forces acting on the element we have

Sx Sx +

S x

2 x

dz = mdz 2

z

t

or

S x

2 x

= m 2

z

t

(11.76)

Similarly, we have

Sy Sy +

S y

z

= m

2 y

t 2

or

S y

z

= m

2 y

t 2

(11.77)

On substituting equations (11.76) and (11.77) into equations (11.74) and (11.75), we get

EI

4 x

4 x

3 y

2 x

2

mk

+

2

+

m

=0

z 4

z 2 t 2

z 2 t

t 2

(11.78)

EI

4 y

4 y

3 x

2 y

2

+

=0

mk

m

z 4

z 2 t 2

z 2 t

t 2

(11.79)

and

4

( y jx )

4 ( x + jy )

2 ( x + jy )

2 ( x + jy )

mk

+

2

+

m

=0

z 4

z 2 t 2

z 2 t

t 2

3

EI

(11.80)

688

which can be written as

EI

4 s

4 s

3s

2 s

2

mk

2

j

+

m

=0

z 4

z 2 t 2

z 2 t

t 2

(11.81)

Let the complex displacement in the rotating coordinate system ( ) as shown in Figure 11.22 be

defined as

( z , t ) = ( z , t ) + j ( z , t )

(11.82)

The transformation from the stationary coordinate system (x-y) to the rotating coordinate system

( ) is given as

s( z, t ) = ( z, t )e jt

(11.83)

s = ( + j )e jt ;

) (

(11.84)

(11.85)

s = + j + j + j2 2 = + 2 j 2 e jt

and

s = e jt ;

s = ( + j )e jt ;

s = + 2 j 2 e jt

Transforming equation (11.81) into the rotating co-ordinate system ( ) by substituting equations

(11.83) and (11.84), we get

689

EI

4

mk 2 + 2j 2 2 j ( + j ) + m + 2 j 2 = 0

z 4

{(

} (

(11.86)

EI

2

4

4

2

2

2

mk

+

+

m

+ 2 j

= 0

4

2

2

2

2

z

z t

z

t

t

(11.87)

Separating the real and imaginary parts and introducing the unequal moments of inertia I 1 and I 2 ,

along and directions, respectively, we get

EI1 '''' 2

k + 2 + 2 2 = 0

m

(11.88)

EI 2 '''' 2

k ( + 2 ) + + 2 2 = 0

m

(11.89)

and

Boundary Conditions & Frequency Equation: For simply supported shaft corresponding boundary

conditions are

(0, t ) = ( L, t ) = (0, t ) = ( L, t ) = 0

for displacements

(11.90)

and

(0, t ) = ( L, t ) = (0, t ) = ( L, t ) = 0

(11.91)

Equations of motion (equations (11.88) and (11.89)) and boundary conditions (equations (11.90) and

(11.91)) then satisfy the following solution

= A sin

n z

cos 0t

L

and

= B sin

n z

sin 0t

L

(11.92)

where A and B are constants, n = (1, 2, 3, ), L is the length of the shaft, is the natural frequency in

the stationary coordinate system (x, y, z) and 0 = is the natural frequency in the rotating

coordinate system ( , , z ) .

= A0 sin

n z

sin 0t ,

L

= B0 sin

n z

cos 0t

L

690

n z

cos 0t ,

L

= A02 sin

= A

n

L

sin

n0

= A

L

= A

n

L

= B02 sin

n z

cos 0t ,

L

= B

n

L

n0

= B

L

n z

sin

cos 0t ,

L

n z

sin

cos 0t ,

L

= B

n

L

n z

sin 0t

L

2

sin

n z

sin 0t

L

sin

n z

sin 0t

L

sin

n z

sin 0t

L

(11.93)

On substituting assumed solutions from equation (11.92) and its derivatives from equation (11.93) in

equations of motion (equations (11.88) and (11.89)), we get

EI1

n

A

m

L

n0

L

k2A

n0

L

k2B

n

L

k 2 2 A

n

L

k 2 2 B

+ ( A02 ) 2 B0 2 A sin

n z

cos 0t = 0

L

and

EI 2

n

B

m

L

+ ( B02 ) + 2 ( A0 ) 2 B sin

n z

sin 0t = 0

L

which simplifies to

2 2

EI1 4 n 4

n z

2 n

k

2 2 ) ( 02 + 2 ) A + ( 20 ) B sin

cos 0t = 0

4

2 ( 0

m L

L

L

(11.94)

2 2

EI 2 4 n 4

n z

2 n

k

sin 0t = 0

2 2 ) ( 02 + 2 ) B sin

4

2 ( 0

m L

L

L

(11.95)

and

( 20 ) A +

For a non-trivial solution, the determinant of coefficients of linear homogeneous equations (11.94)

and (11.95) must be zero

691

EI1 4n4 2 2n2 2

k

2 ) ( 02 + 2 )

4

2 ( 0

m L

L

20

20

k

( 0 2 ) ( 02 + 2 )

m L4

L2

=0

(11.96)

2 2

EI 2 4 n 4

2 n

k

( 02 2 ) ( 02 + 2 )

m L4

L2

2 2

EI1 4 n 4

2 n

k

( 02 2 ) ( 02 + 2 ) ( 20 )2 = 0

m L4

L2

or

6 6

6 6

4 4

2

E 2 I1 I 2 8 n8

EI1 4 n 4 2

2 EI1 n

2

2

2

2 EI 2 n

2

2

4 n

+

k

2 2 )

)

)

)

2

8

6 ( 0

4 ( 0

6 ( 0

4 ( 0

m

L

m L

m L

m L

L

+k 2

2n2

L2

4

0

4 )

2 2

2

EI 2 4 n 4 2

2

2

2 n

4 4 ) + ( 02 + 2 ) ( 20 ) = 0

+

+

k

(

)

0

4

2 ( 0

m L

L

or

k2

2 n2

L2

+ k 2

+ k4

4 n4

L4

+ k2

2n2

L2

+ 1 04

6 6

4 4

EI1 6 n6 EI1 4 n 4

EI 2 4 n 4

2 EI 2 n

4 n

2

k

2

k

+ 2 2 4 2 02

m L6

m L4

m L6

L4

m L4

6 6

6 6

4 4

E 2 I1 I 2 8 n8

EI1 4 n 4 2

2 EI1 n

2

2 EI 2 n

2

4 n

+

k

+

k

+

k

4

m2

L8

m L6

m L4

m L6

L4

+ k 2

2 n2

L2

2 2

EI 2 4 n 4 2

2 n

k

4 + 4 = 0

m L4

L2

or

k4

4 n4

L4

+ k 2

+ 2k 2

2n2

L2

+ 1 04

4 4

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 6 n 6 E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

4 n

2

k

2 2 2 02

6

4

4

m

L

m

L

L

6 6

2 2

4 4

E 2 I1 I 2 8 n8

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4 2

2 E ( I1 + I 2 ) n

2

2 n

4

4 n

+

2

+

k

k

4 + 4

m2

L8

m

L6

m

L4

L2

L4

=0

692

or

2

k 2 2 n 2

1+

L2

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

k 4 4 n 4

k 2 2 n 2

2 1+

2 +

1+

4

4

L

2m

L

L2

4

0

k 2 2 n 2

+ 1

L2

2

0

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

k 2 2 n 2

E 2 I1 I 2 8 n 8

2

1

=0

+

m

L4

L2

m2

L8

(11.97)

Denoting

k n

1+

L

= an

k n

1

L

and

= bn

(11.98)

Whirl Natural Frequencies & Critical Speeds: Equation (11.97) gives the relative natural frequency as

(0 ) 2 =

1

2

2 an

1+

k 4 4 n 4

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

2

+

an

L4

2m

L4

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

k 4 4 n 4

2

1+

+

an

L4

2m

L4

4an2 bn2 4

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

E 2 I1 I 2 8 n8

2

b

+

n

m

L4

m2

L8

(11.99)

To simplify equation (11.99), let us take terms within the square bracket separately and expand as

k 4 4 n 4

4 1+

L4

4 + 2 1+

k 4 4 n 4 E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

E 2 ( I1 + I 2 ) 2 8 n8 2

2

a

+

an

n

L4

2m

L4

4m 2

L8

(11.100)

4 ( an2 bn2 ) 4

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4 2

E 2 I1 I 2 8 n8 2

2

+

a

b

an

n

n

m

L4

m2

L8

or

4 1+ 2

+4

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4 2

k 4 4 n 4 k 8 8 n8

k 4 4 n 4 E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

2 2

4

+

a

b

+

4

2

1

+

a

+

an bn 2

n n

n

L4

L8

L4

2m

L4

m

L4

E 2 ( I1 + I 2 ) 2 E 2 I1 I 2 8 n8 2

an

4m 2

m2

L8

(11.101)

693

From equation (11.98), we can have

an bn = 1 +

k 2 2 n 2

L2

k 2 2 n 2

k 4 4 n 4

=

1

L2

L4

(11.102)

and

k 2 2 n 2

a b = 1+

L2

2 2

n n

k 2 2 n 2

1

L2

k 4 4 n 4

= 1

L4

=1 2

k 4 4 n 4 k 8 8 n8

+

L4

L8

(11.103)

4 1+ 2

k 4 4 n 4 k 8 8 n8

k 4 4 n 4 k 8 8 n8

+

1

+

2

4

L4

L8

L4

L8

+4 2 1 +

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

E 2 ( I1 I 2 )2 8 n8 2

k 4 4 n 4 E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

k 4 4 n 4

2

a

+

1

a

+

4

an

n

n

2m

4m 2

L4

L4

m

L4

L4

L8

(11.104)

or

4

E ( I1 + I 2 )

E 2 ( I1 I 2 ) 2 4 n 4 2

k 4 4 n 4

4

2

4

+

2

a

+

an

n

L4

mk 4

4m 2

k 4 L4

(11.105)

(0 )1,2,3,4 =

1

an

1+

k 4 4 n 4

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

2

+

an

L4

2m

L4

k 2 2 n 2

L2

2 E ( I1 + I 2 )

E 2 ( I1 I 2 ) 2 4 n 4 2

2

4 +

a

+

an

n

mk 4

4m 2

k 4 L4

1/ 2

(11.106)

= (0 )1, 2 ,3, 4 +

(11.107)

Case I: 0 = 0 so that = i.e. the whirl frequency is thus equal to the angular velocity, which

gives the synchronous forward precession or whirl. Equation (11.97) gives (for 0 = 0 )

694

E ( I1 + I 2 ) n 4 4 2 E 2 I1 I 2 n8 8 1

+

=0

m

L4 bn

m2

L8 bn2

E ( I1 + I 2 ) n 4 4 1

=

2m

L4 bn 2

2

E ( I1 + I 2 ) n 4 4

bn m

L4

n 4 4 E ( I1 + I 2 ) 1 n 4 4 E

2mbn

2 L4 bn m

L4

E n 4 4

[ I1 + I 2 ( I1 I 2 )]

2mbn l 4

{( I

2

1

(11.108)

E 2 I1 I 2 n8 8 1

m2

L8 bn2

+ I 22 + 2 I1 I 2 ) 4 I1 I 2 =

E n 4 4

I1 + I 2 ( I1 I 2 ) 2

4

2mbn L

which gives

n* =

2 n2

2

1 EI1 2 n 2

EI1 / m

= 2

bn m

L

1 k 2 2 n 2 / L2

(11.109)

1 EI 2

bn m

(11.110)

and

n** =

2 n2

2

where n = 1, 2, 3,

For n* and n** to be always real, we have

k 2 2 n 2

<1

L2

or

n<

L

k

(11.111)

Equation (11.111) will give the number of critical speeds, so finite number of synchronous forward

whirl critical speeds are possible.

Case II: For 0 = 2 ( hence, it gives = that means the synchronous backward whirl or the

anti-synchronous precession. Thus, for 0 = 2 from equation (11.97), we get

695

an (16 4 ) 2 1 +

n 4 k 4 4

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

2

2

2 4

+

a

(4

)

+

b

bn 2

n

n

4

4

4

L

2m

L

m

L

E 2 I1 I 2 8 n 8

=0

m2

L8

(11.112)

16an 8 1 +

4 E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

E 2 I1 I 2 8 n 8

n 4 k 4 4

+ bn2 4 +

=0

an

bn 2 +

4

4

4

L

m

L

m

L

m2

L8

(11.113)

speeds of anti-synchronous whirl exit for all value of n. So there are infinite number of critical speeds

exits for the present case.

Case III: For moment of inertia forces and gyroscopic effect are negligible i.e. k = 0 . The

characteristic equation (11.97) will reduce to

04 2 2 +

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4 2

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4 2 E 2 I1 I 2 8 n8

4

+

=0

0

2m

l4

m

l4

m2

l8

04 2 2 +

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

2m

l4

02 + 2

E I1 4 n 4

m

l4

EI2 4n4

m

l4

=0

(11.114)

n* k =0 = n =

n 2 2

l2

EI1

m

and

n** k =0 = n =

n 2 2

l2

EI 2

m

(11.115)

In this case we obtain an infinite number of critical speeds and an infinite number of intervals of

instability, (n , n ) with n = 1, 2,

696

1,2,3,4 =

2 +

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4 2 n 2

2

2m

L4

L

2

2 +

n + n

2

2 E ( I1 + I 2 ) 2 E 2 ( I1 I 2 )2 4 n 4

+

m

4m 2

L4

2

2

2

2

1

2 2 (n + n ) + (n n )2

4

(11.116)

where n and n are given as in equation (11.115). Equation (11.116) will give infinite number of

graphs of plotted as a function of (n = 1, 2, 3, ) and infinite number of intervals of instability.

Stability Analysis of Asymmetric Shaft with Gyroscopic Effects: Noting equation (11.98),

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

E ( I1 + I 2 ) 4 n 4

E 2 I1 I 2 8 n 8

2

2 4

2

a

+

b

+

=0

n

0

n

n

2m

L4

m

L4

m2

L8

an2 04 + 2 an bn 2 +

(11.117)

an2 04 + 2 an bn 2 +

an EI1 4 n 4 EI 2 4 n 4

+

2 m L4

m L4

02 + bn 2

EI1 4 n 4

m L4

bn 2

(11.118)

bnn* =

EI1 4 n 4

m L4

EI 2 4 n 4

=0

m L4

bnn** =

and

EI 2 4 n 4

m L4

(11.119)

{(

} (

an2 04 + an bn n* + n** + 2 2 02 + 2 n*

)(

n** = 0

(11.120)

For the case of single disc with massless shaft or the case of polar asymmetry the characteristic

equation (equation (11.52)) is

04 + (2 + 2 + 2 2 )02 + (2 2 )(2 2 ) = 0

(11.121)

(2 2 )(2 2 ) < 0

or

< <

(11.122)

697

Since we have k < k and on comparing characteristic equation (11.120) and (11.121), on the similar

line we can obtain the condition of instability as

n *

)(

n** < 0

(11.123)

The above condition of instability is fulfilled only inside the interval ( n* , n** ) (it is assumed here

that n** > n* , i.e., I 2 > I 1 ). Thus we have finite number of intervals of instability. It may happen

that two intervals overlap, i.e. that they merge into a single interval of instability. The condition for

this to happen is, that

(11.124)

Example 11.1: Consider a rotor system with the following rotor parameters: m = 0.981 kg, k = 3 cm,

I1 = 5 cm4, I 2 = 10 cm4, L = 100 cm and E = 2.1 1011 N/m2. Obtain the instability plots up to third

mode and tabulate all the frequency range of instability. Obtain the critical speeds for (i) synchronous

whirl with gyroscopic effect (ii) anti-synchronous whirl with gyroscopic effect, and (iii) without

gyroscopic effect.

Solution: For the case when k 0 , n < L / ( k ) = 100 / ( 3) = 10.6 , so that n = 10. The gyroscopic

effect thus causes the intervals of instability to be reduced to a finite number (i.e., 10 for the present

case). Hence, we have 10 intervals of instability { (n* , n** ), n = 1, 2, , 10} as given in the second

and third columns in Table 11.4 for the synchronous whirl. No instability intervals overlap (or merge)

for the synchronous whirl. Figures 11.23 and 11.24 show variation of the forward whirl natural

frequency with the spin speed for the first mode and up to third modes, respectively. The shaded

frequency interval represent the instability zones, in Fig. 11.24 it can be seen that these zones are

distinct and no overlap is found in the instability zones up to third modes. Table 11.4 also lists

instability zones for anti-synchronous whirl in fourth and fifth columns. It can be seen that for the

anti-synchronous whirl the overlap of instability interval exist for different neighbouring modes.

Table 11.4 also lists first 10 instability zones for the case of no gyroscopic effect, i.e. k = 0 and the

overlap of instability interval exist for different neighbouring modes.

698

300

200

n=1

50

**

=101.44

100

= 143.5

n=1

150

250

0

-400

-300

-200

-100

100

200

300

400

Figure 11.23 Variation of whirl frequency with the spin speed for first mode

(Plot of equation (11.97) for n = 1)

- Vibrations Using MatlabUploaded bySam
- Vibration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.pdfUploaded byahmadherisetiyawan
- Dynamics 1Uploaded bynicholasomoding
- vibration 2.docxUploaded byraymark deguzman
- DampingUploaded byDanyal Shahzad
- Vibrations Solutions Section2 7Uploaded byMani Kumar
- Ijret - Investigation of Behaviour of 3 Degrees of Freedom Systems for Transient LoadsUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- DynamicsUploaded byAtif Syed
- Mechanical VibrationsUploaded bykhaerul_naim
- Rtiwari Rd Book 10Uploaded bymghgol
- 2974_1.pdfUploaded byNanditha Mandava Chowdary
- MECH257Lab1Uploaded byTyranid hunter
- Design of Foundations for Dynamic LoadsUploaded byJose Luis Velasco Cadavid
- art3A100Uploaded byTomislav Šimag
- 4 Hysteretic DampersUploaded byAditya Mishra
- Mass Proportional Damping in Nonlinear Time-history AnalysisUploaded byEvgeny Shavelzon
- Zm 212350359Uploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- Active Vibration Reduction of Rigid Rotor ByUploaded bypeter_control
- Dynamics of Machinery NotesUploaded byrajapraty
- Design of Microstrip Log Periodic Patch Antenna with The Help of HFSS SoftwareUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- T3-5_Suspension_system.pdfUploaded byGunjan Trivedi
- 173559760 Dynamics of Machinery 2 Marks All 5 UnitsUploaded byMartin De Boras Pragash
- 1580_ch01Uploaded byAdrianArino
- Chapter 05Uploaded byGupta GurunadhGupta
- TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE EFFECT OF DISCHARGE PIPING ON PUMP PERFORMANCEUploaded byAnonymous MB5YbaLrBE
- VORTEX-INDUCED VIBRATION OF MARINE cables.pdfUploaded byAnonymous Vi1lrH
- Application of Turned Mass Dampers for Bridge DecksUploaded byHiep Truong Tuan
- Seismic Response of Adjacent Buildings Connected With Nonlinear Viscous and Viscoelastic DampersUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Bowyer_2013_Applied-Acoustics.pdfUploaded byWael Fawzy Mohamed
- A Comparison Beetween a New Semi Active Tuned Mass Damper and and Active Tuned Mass DamperUploaded byMarcelo Guajardo

- Ejercicio. Aplicación de Las Ecuaciones DiferencialesUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- 2002-Un Método de Balanceo de Rotores AsimétricosUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- SOMIM-MarzoUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- Program16.m - Free Open Source Codes - CodeForgeUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- Schaum Williama Nashresistenciademateriales 120524202211 Phpapp01Uploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- 2011- On the Finite Element Modeling of the Asymmetric Cracked RotorUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- Centro Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo TecnológicoUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- Chasis cortadora de chilesUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- Optimum Bearing & Support Damping for Unbalance Response and Stability - Barrett, Gunter,--, - 1978Uploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- A1_112Uploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- Dynamics of Asymmetric Rotors using Solid ModelsUploaded byJhon Don
- Dynamics of Asymmetric Rotors using Solid ModelsUploaded byJhon Don
- Pendulo InvertidoUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- ECUACIONES DE MOVIMIENTO DE LEVASUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- Plan EstudiosUploaded byEmmanuel Hernandez Bau
- Calculo diferencial e integral - Piskunov(vol2).pdfUploaded byRonaldIZcardoPoma
- Perspectiva IsométricaUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- Distribucion de La PlantaUploaded byGermancillo Sponchs
- CaratulaUploaded byCristian Gualan JImenez
- Instalacion DFSUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- manual metodos numericosUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- Instructivo Para AutoresUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- Secuencia DidácticaUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- CRUCIGRAMAUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- KICHIKUploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- 2._Vigas_hiperestaticasUploaded byDaniel Andonegui
- Zyglo ZL-2C, ZL-27A, ZL-37Uploaded byOlivia Mendoza
- 1321Uploaded bypamemin
- Cap5Uploaded byroanramo

- MA134 - Geometry & MotionUploaded byRebecca Rumsey
- Multivariable Calculus Review SheetUploaded bySteven Walker
- Teaching Plan DMFD 2823 Statics and Dynamics_201314Uploaded byNara Chan
- Piaget Origins rUploaded byplamen0
- PolyhedronUploaded byIIRemmyII
- Ash Complex Variables With Hyper LinksUploaded byTu Shirota
- bansal-classes-maths- By EasyEngineering.net.pdfUploaded byHarsh kumar Meerut
- THE THEORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGUploaded bycocotess
- Javaplex TutorialUploaded byphonon77
- Perspective 2Uploaded byAngelos Lakrintis
- Physics 242 Lab 1 Data AnalysisUploaded byAndrew Suiter
- metodezadaciUploaded byŠejla Hadžić
- MIT Multivariable Calculus Exam A SolutionsUploaded by15kla
- Theory of Projections [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byParitosh Chaudhary
- 11_sm_2017_math_eng-1Uploaded bynehabehl
- Everything Forever SampleUploaded byRob Bryanton
- 12_redance1Uploaded byAlessandro Menichelli
- Surface Area and Volume of 3d FiguresUploaded byapi-3731257
- -PHY10T2KINEMATICSCALULUSUploaded byChristiana Mae Padilla
- 0580_w10_ms_41 mathUploaded byKhaled Said
- Conceptual Design of UAV AirframesUploaded bymohibookavimit
- Bernard Tschumi - Architecture and DisjunctionUploaded byIlya Smirnov
- Neutrosophic Soft Normed Linear SpacesUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- 1Uploaded byjambu99
- NAKED Singularities - PenroseUploaded byLeandro Fosque
- 20 questions week 25 kwhlUploaded byapi-294079637
- Toplis Mechanics of Laplace 1814Uploaded bykatevazo
- GeneralRelativity_syllabusUploaded byaaalberteeeinstein
- 0607_s13_qp_43.pdfUploaded bySurya
- Signal SpaceUploaded bybattihome