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1.

Terminal conditions and MTD


Fluid being cooled
T1 =

149

Fluid being heated

104

t2 =

R=

T1-T2/(t2-t1) =

T2 =

104

t1 =

86

2.5

P=

P and R has no names and are used to calculate corrrection factor Fn


LMTD
LMTD = (T1-t2)-(T2-t1)/ln((T1-t2)/(T2-t1)) (For counter flow)
LMTD =
Fn =
MTD =
MTD =

29.46663
0.8 Ns =
Np =
Fn(LMTD)
23.5733

1
1

Fig 2 of DP IX-D
It must be greater than 0.8, IF not then look
BULK TEMPERATURES
Tube side
TTin (t1) =
86
TTout (t2) =
TT are inlet and outlet temperatures of tube side fluid.
TTb=

TTin+TTout/2 =

TTb = Bulk temperature of tube side fluid, F

95

104

shell side
TSin =

149

TSout =

104

TS are shell side inlet and outlet temperatures.


TSb=
Tsbin+Tsbout/2 =
126.5
TSb = Bulk temperature of shell side fluid, F

Estimated wall temperature Tw =


Tw =
PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
Tubes
=
b
Cp
k
w

TTb+0.6(TSb-TTb)
113.9

shell
62
0.74
1
0.358
0.69

46.8
0.8
0.54
0.072
0.81

= Density, lb/ft3
b = Viscosity at bulk temperature, centipoise
Cp = Heat capacity, Btu/lb-F
k = Thermal conductivity of fluid, Btu/hr-ft2-F/ft
W = Viscosity at wall temperature, centipoise

FLOW RATES AND NAMES

Name/phase
Total mass rate
W = Total mass rate/Np

Tube
WATER
/LIQUID
268000 lb/hr
268000 lb/hr

Np =
1
Assume number of shell is parallel, Np = 1, for the first trial

FOULING FACTORS
ri =
ro =

0.002 hr-ft2-F/Btu
0.003 hr-ft2-F/Btu

ri = Inside fouling factor referred to inside surface area, hr-ft2-F/Btu


ro = Shell side fouling factor, hr-ft2-F/Btu
Fouling factors can be seen in figure 3 of DP IX-B on page 21

MECHENICAL DESIGN FEATURES


Design temperature
Design pressure
nozzle size

DTNI =
DTNO =

tubes
166.4
100 psig
5.76 in
5.76 in

DTNI = Tube side inlet nozzle I.D., in.


DTNO = Tube side outlet nozzle I.D., in
EXCHANGER GEOMETRY
Tube
Tube
Tube
Tube

O.D (DO) =
I.D (DI) =
pitch PT =
wall thickness = (DO-DI)/2

0.75
0.62
1
0.065

The following tube diameters and wall thicknesses are preferred in exchangers fabricated by rolling tu
for the service indicated:
1. Water Service - Nonferrous tubes 3/4 in. OD, 0.065 in. wall thickness; Ferrous tubes 1 in. OD, 0.083

thickness.

Tube length L =

20 ft

Tube lengths upto 24 ft are readily awailable worldwide however, either 16 ft or 20ft tube length is com
Tube flow length (LI), ft
LI = (24) for U tubes

240 ft

LI = (12) for all others


TEMA exchanger type

AES

for exchanger types, see pages 5,6 and 9 of DP IX-C

Single tube area/length, AT

0.19635 ft^2

It can be seen in the table above or can be calculated from the formula

Baffle spacing (LBCC) =


LBCC selected =
Baffle type
segmental

6.6 in
7 in

Cross baffles support the tubes, restrain tub


generally used: segmental, double segmen

Baffle cut defines the segment of the baffle


baffles, this is expressed as the ratio of the
about 25%, although the maximum practic
Bundle Diameter (DOTL) =

Shell Diameter (DS) =

31.25 in

33 in

Number of tube side passes (NTP) (for U tubes


minimum number is 2)

it can be taken 4 in the

To calculate the shell dia this chart can be used

Iteration, Tube Side


a. Heat Duty Q =

WCp(Del)T
Q=

b. Assumed value of Uo =
c. A = Q/Uo (MTD)

4824000
80 Btu/hr-ft^2F

A=

2557.9782931 ft^2

d. As = A/NT
As =
2557.978 ft^2

NT =

A = Total effective heat transfer area


As = Effective heat transfer area per shell,
NT = Total number of shells
e. Tube Metal = CuNi
kw=
18 Btu/hr.ft^2.F
kw = Thermal conductivity of tube wall at average tube temperature

DO =

0.75 in

DI =

f. Tube Pitch (PT) and Layout =

1 in

g. rio = (DO/DI) ri

h. rw = /12 kw =

0.0003009259 hr.ft^2.F/Btu

0.62 in

square

0.002419 hr.ft^2.F/Btu

rio = Inside fouling factor referre

rw = Resistance of tube wall at average wa

i. NTT =

NTT =

668.086 =

j. N = NTT/NTP
N=

115

690 if U is taken to be 77

NTT = Number of tub

N = Number of tube passes

k.

Vt = Fluid velocity in tubes

Vt =

4.9825563584 ft/sec

l. Heat Transfer Coefficient

Re =

32094.13

hio =

1066.315 1066.3147805

(3) Fluids other than water

where

Pr = Pr = Prandtl Num
P = Viscosity correc

If Re<10,000

Tw = Average wall temperature,


= Coefficient of thermal expan
Gr = Grashof Number, dimensio

b.
Pr =
hio =

c
1

5.002235
978.6661

(del)T =
(del)T =
2 =

P =
P =
P =

1.011752
21.56091
1

tw-TTb
18.9
0.0001933992

x =

61.94

y =

avg =
3 Gr =
d
* =
=
=
=

62.048

252558.29573

1
1
1.031
1

hio =

1623.539

(hio)turb@Re =10000 from b

385.0296

(hio)lam@Re=2000 from d

590.6804

= 1.25 - Re/8000
=
-2.761766
hio =

(hio )lam + (1 )(hio )turb


-182.9297

m
pressure drop
1) nozzle pressure drop
Vn =
=

0.051W/DTNI*DTNO*
6.644592 ft/sec

Vn = Tube side average nozzle fluid velocity,

(del)Pn = Vn^2/5152
(del)Pn =

0.531315 psi

The nozzle pressure drop can be taken as 0.5 psi without calculat

Pn = Tube side nozzle pressure drop,


2) Entrance, Expansion, and Turn-around
(a) From Table 4 determine Ke
Ke =

9.6

(b) Pe = Ke**Vt^2/9274
Pe =
1.59331 psi
Pe = Tube entrance, expansion, and turnaround pressure drop,

Ke = Tube side pressure drop co


(3) Frictional Pressure Drop
(a) From Figure 1.8 evaluate fis
fis =
0.007
fis = Isothermal friction factor, dimensionless

(b) From Figure 1.9 evaluate


=

= Viscosity correction for wall temperature

(c) From Figure 1.10 evaluate


=
1
= Natural convection correction factor, dimensionless
f =fis
f=

0.007

f = Non-isothermal friction factor, dimensionless

Pt =

10.823085354

Pt = Tube side frictional pressure drop,

(4) (Pt ) nn =Ns[Pn + Pe + (Ft ) (Pt )]


(Pt )nn = 14.78764 psi
get value of Ft from Table 4.

Ft =

(Pt)nn = Total tube side nozzle pressure drop,

1.17

The value of drop is higher than 10 psi but it can 15 psi in some cases

9. Iteration, Shell Side


Tube row spacing factor
a = 1.0 for Square Pitch
a = 0.867 for all others
a=

Pitch Ratio (PR) = PT/DO


PR =

1.3333333333

Baff. Space to Bundle Dia. Ratio (n)


n = LBCC/DOTL
n=

0.224

Shell side flow factor (m)


m = 0.5 for J shell
m = 2.0 for F shell
m = 1.0 for E shell

0.2112

m=

Baffle flow factor (p)


p = 1.0 for segmental baffles
p = 0.5 for double-segmental baffles

p=

Baffle Correction Factor ()


= 1.0 for segmental baffles
= 0.8 for double-segmental baffles
=

Estimated tube wall temperature (Tw)


Tw = TSb 0.3 (TSb TTb )
Tw =
117
Wall viscosity correction ()
=(b / w )^ 0.14
=

0.998262

Total cross flow mass velocity (Gxt )

(Gxt ) =
(Gxt ) =

522441.87429
522442 lb/hr.ft^2

Total flow Reynolds Number (Rext)

(Rext) =
(Rext) =

16889.29
16889

Nominal Crossflow fraction (FFBn) Figure 1.1

(FFBn) =

0.545

Baffle Spacing Correction (SC) Figure 1.2


(SC) =

0.75

Reynolds Number Correction (RC) Figure 1.3


(RC) =
1
for Renold number >10000, its 1

Cross flow fraction for pressure drop (FFBp)


FFBp = (FFBn) (SC)(RC)
(Maximum = 1.0)
FFBp =
FFBp =

0.40875
0.409

Cross flow Reynolds Number for P (Rexp)


(Rexp = (Rext)(FFBp)
(Rexp) =
(Rexp) =

6907.601
6908

Shell side friction for factor (f) Figure 1.4


f=

0.09

Cross flow fraction for heat transfer (FFBh)


FFBh = FFBp + 0.125
FFBh =
0.534

(Maximum = 1.0)

Cross flow Reynolds Number for heat transfer (Rexh)


Rexh = (Rext)(FFBh)
Rexh =
9018.726

Shell side heat transfer factor (j) Figure 1.4

j=

0.009

Shell side film coefficient (hs)

hs =

170.1143 Btu/hr.ft^2.F

Shell side Fraction Term (HF)

HF =

0.972001

(Fs from Table 4)


Fs =

1.15

Shell side momentum term (HM)

HM =

0.011434

Shell side pressure drop without Nozzle (Ps)

Ps =

2.878354 psi

Shell side nozzle pressure drop (PSN),


(PSN) =

0.6 psi

Total shell pressure drop (Pexch)


Pexch =NS [PS + PSN]
Pexch =

3.478354

It can be calculated with the help of the frormula

Using calculated value of correct hs & PS

10. Overall calculations


Inside resistance referred to outside area (Rio)
Rio = 1/ hio
Rio

0.000938 hr.ft^2.F/Btu

Outside resistance (Ro),


Ro = 1/ hs
Ro =
0.005878 hr.ft^2.F/Btu
Total clean resistance (Rc)
Rc = Rio +Ro + rw
Rc =

rw = Resistance of tube wall at average wall temperat


rw =
0.0003

0.007117 hr.ft^2.F/Btu

Calculated overall clean coefficient (Uc)


Uc =1/Rc
Uc =

140.506 Btu/hr.ft^2.F

Calculated overall fouled coefficient (UD)

UD =

79.76715 Btu/hr.ft^2.F

Tubesheet thickness (TTT)

C1 = 0.625 for U-tubes, 1.0 for all others


P = higher of shell side or tube side design pressure.

C1 =

STT = Tube sheet material allowable stress at design temperature, lb/sq in.

TTT =

0.46 ft

Effective tube length (Le )

Le = L TTT
Le =

19.54 ft

Effective heat transfer area per shell (As)


As = (NTT)(Le ) (AT )
As =

2647.302 ft^2

Total effective heat transfer area (A)


A = (As ) (NT )
A=

NT = Total number of shells

2647.302 ft^2

Overall duty coefficient (Uo)

Uo =

77.30068 Btu/hr.ft^2.F

3.190745338 %

T1-T2 =

45

t1-t2 =

18

T2-t1/(T1-t1) =

0.285714

0.8, IF not then look for multiple shell passes, There should be multiple passes in series

TUBE SIDE FLOW

Whichever fluid appears higher on the following list will ordinarily be passed through the tubes:
1. Cooling water.
2. Corrosive fluid (especially those requiring higher alloy materials) or a fluid likely to deposit coke, se
3. A fluid which is fouling.
4. The less viscous of the two fluids.

5. The fluid under higher pressure [for extremely high pressures, 1000 psi (6900 kPa gage), it may be
item as Number 1 on this list].
6. The hotter fluid.
7. The fluid of less volume.

Several exceptions to this list are:


1. Condensing vapors are normally passed through the shell.
2. Condensing steam is normally passed through the tubes.
3. If the temperature change of one fluid is very large [greater than approximately 300 to 350F ( 165
usually passed through the shell, rather than the tubes, if more than one tube pass is to be used. This
construction problems caused by thermal expansion. Also, to avoid thermal stress problems, fluids wit
350F (195C) temperature change cannot be passed through the shell side of a two-pass shell (GP 64. If one of the fluids is clean [fouling factor 0.0010 hr-ft2-F/Btu (0.00018 m2-C/W) or less] and is som
the Refinery Construction Materials Manual), this fluid is passed through the tubes and U-tube constru
is typically more economical to alloy up the tubeside versus the shellside to easily handle the corrosiv

Ws = Total mass rate/Np

shell
HCBN/LIQUID
198410 lb/hr
198410 lb/hr

shell
193.7
200 psig

in
in
in
in

bricated by rolling tubes into the tubesheets

ubes 1 in. OD, 0.083 or 0.109 in. wall

0ft tube length is common preference.

6 and 9 of DP IX-C

he tubes, restrain tube vibration and direct fluid flow on the shell side. Three types of baffles are
ntal, double segmental, and rod baffles.

egment of the baffle cut" away to provide for fluid flow past the chord of the baffle. For segmental
ed as the ratio of the segment height to shell diameter in percent. Segmental baffle cuts are usually
he maximum practical cut for tube support is approximately 45%.

an be taken 4 in the start and then can be optimized with pressure drop

0.065 in

L=

fouling factor referred to outside surface area

e wall at average wall temperature

TT = Number of tubes in a bundle

20 ft

r = Pr = Prandtl Number, dimensionless


P = Viscosity correction for wall temperature

e wall temperature, F
ent of thermal expansion used in Grashof Number
f Number, dimensionless

"Type
equation
here."

for liquids
for heating gases
for cooling gases

62.156

tx =

104

ty =

86

All the densities ar in lb/ft^3 and temperatures are in

id velocity,

5 psi without calculating for the ease.

de pressure drop coefficient, dimensionless

Table 4

(5) This value may be increased for extremely dirty service.


(6) Use a larger number if vapors are known to be fouling.

erage wall temperature

P=

200 psig

STT =

hrough the tubes:

likely to deposit coke, sediment or other solids.

900 kPa gage), it may be economical to treat this

ately 300 to 350F ( 165 to 195C)], that fluid is


e pass is to be used. This minimizes the
tress problems, fluids with greater than
of a two-pass shell (GP 6-1-1).
-C/W) or less] and is somewhat corrosive (see
ubes and U-tube construction is used since it
asily handle the corrosive fluid.

r segmental
s are usually

12337