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Original Title: 2011- On the Finite Element Modeling of the Asymmetric Cracked Rotor

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jsvi

cracked rotor

Mohammad A. AL-Shudeifat n

Aerospace Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi, UAE

a r t i c l e i n f o

abstract

Article history:

Received 1 October 2011

Received in revised form

8 November 2012

Accepted 24 December 2012

Handling Editor: H. Ouyang

Available online 24 January 2013

The advanced phase of the breathing crack in the heavy duty horizontal rotor system is

expected to be dominated by the open crack state rather than the breathing state after a

short period of operation. The reason for this scenario is the expected plastic deformation

in crack location due to a large compression stress eld appears during the continuous

shaft rotation. Based on that, the nite element modeling of a cracked rotor system with

a transverse open crack is addressed here. The cracked rotor with the open crack model

behaves as an asymmetric shaft due to the presence of the transverse edge crack. Hence,

the time-varying area moments of inertia of the cracked section are employed in

formulating the periodic nite element stiffness matrix which yields a linear timeperiodic system. The harmonic balance method (HB) is used for solving the nite element

(FE) equations of motion for studying the dynamic behavior of the system. The behavior

of the whirl orbits during the passage through the subcritical rotational speeds of the

open crack model is compared to that for the breathing crack model. The presence of the

open crack with the unbalance force was found only to excite the 1/2 and 1/3 of the

backward critical whirling speed. The whirl orbits in the neighborhood of these

subcritical speeds were found to have nearly similar behavior for both open and

breathing crack models. While unlike the breathing crack model, the subcritical forward

whirling speeds have not been observed for the open crack model in the response to the

unbalance force. As a result, the behavior of the whirl orbits during the passage through

the forward subcritical rotational speeds is found to be enough to distinguish the

breathing crack from the open crack model. These whirl orbits with inner loops that

appear in the neighborhood of the forward subcritical speeds are then a unique property

for the breathing crack model.

& 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Structural health monitoring

Cracked rotor modeling

Damage detection

Rotor damage

1. Introduction

Rotordynamic systems have wide application in power generation, aircraft engines, compressors, pumps and in many

other industrial elds. They mostly operate in a heavy loading environment where damage due to fatigue cracks or failure

is always expected to occur. Finding an efcient technique that helps in detecting damage in its early phase is a promising

area of research. This may help in preventing further damage to occur and in saving life and equipment. In the literature,

damage has mostly been characterized by propagating cracks. The breathing and the open transverse crack models are

considered as the main causes of the damage in rotor systems. Identifying the vibration signature of the damaged rotor

E-mail address: mohd.shudeifat@kustar.ac.ae

0022-460X/$ - see front matter & 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2012.12.026

2796

system requires nding efcient tools for modeling the different types of the cracks which may help in studying the actual

dynamic behavior of the cracked system. If the dynamic behavior of the cracked rotor system can be identied via a correct

theoretical model that can be experimentally veried then the vibration signature in the real life applications can be

approximated. In this study, efforts have been made to add improvements for the previous models to achieve the common

goal for nding more efcient techniques in damage detection.

The common technique for formulating the nite element stiffness of the cracked rotor is the exibility matrix method

[19]. This technique was used in [1] for studying the effect of the coupling between the longitudinal and bending

vibration of a cracked rotor system with an open transverse crack. It was also used in [2] for studying the same issue of a

cracked rotor system with two breathing cracks. Similarly, the nite element stiffness matrix of the cracked element of a

cracked rotor was determined in [39] using the exibility matrix method. As a result, the nite element model (FEM) was

formulated and solved for studying the dynamic behavior of the cracked rotor system.

Another form for the nite element stiffness matrix, which is similar to that of an asymmetric rod in space in [10], was

used in modeling the cracked rotor with a breathing crack model in [1116]. As a result, the time-varying stiffness matrix

of the cracked rotor was formulated based on the use of the classical breathing function that proposed in [17]. The Finite

element model was solved by the harmonic balance method for the vibration amplitudes, whirl orbits and the shift in the

critical and the subcritical rotational speeds.

The dynamic behavior of the whirl orbits in the neighborhood of the subcritical rotational speeds or during the passage

through these speeds was studied in [16,1826] for a cracked rotor with a breathing crack model. The transfer matrix

method was used in [18,19] for deriving the stiffness matrix of the cracked rotor. The whirl orbit reversal during the

passage through the critical and the subcritical rotational speeds was noticed in [19]. The whirl orbit with one inner loop

appears during the passage through 1/2 of the critical rotational speed and it was found to be sensitive to the unbalance

force direction [16,2426]. A review of some previous techniques for modeling the open and the breathing crack models

and the different methods of solution were introduced in [27].

The nite element modeling of the open crack is addressed here. This crack model could be a cut or an advanced phase

of a breathing crack. The crack starts to propagate at a location where the elastic properties of the shaft at that location are

subjected to change. This leads to a reduction in the stiffness where the synchronous breathing of the crack between

compression and tension stress elds on the crack faces of contact may lead to a permanent plastic deformation by which

the breathing mechanism becomes dominated by the permanently open crack state. This change in the crack state to a

permanently open state changes the crack signature which is expected to be distinguished from the breathing crack

signature.

The time-varying nite element stiffness matrix of the cracked element is derived here based on the transformation of

the constant stiffness matrix of the rod in space in [10] from the rotating coordinates into the xed coordinates. The timevarying transformation matrix is also derived for performing this transformation. The resulting time-varying stiffness

matrix of the cracked element was found to include the effect of the time-varying cross-coupling stiffness. The results of

including the time-varying cross-coupling stiffness are compared with the results when the cross-coupling stiffness is

ignored where it is found that ignoring this cross-coupling stiffness signicantly affects the whirl orbits behavior during

the passage through the subcritical speeds.

The open crack model of the cracked rotor is compared in this study with the breathing crack model in the literature

based on the whirl orbits behavior at the neighborhood of the subcritical rotational speeds. It is found that the whirl orbit

behavior for the breathing crack model is necessarily enough to distinguish between the open crack and the breathing

crack models during the passage through the forward subcritical rotational speeds.

The nite element method is employed in formulating the equations of motion of the rotor system shown in Fig. 1.

The nite element equations of motion of the N-elements rotor with N 1 nodes are given in matrix form as [16, 2830]

C G qt

_ Kqt Fu t Fg

M qt

(1)

y

i

where qt qT1 qT2 . . .qTi . . . qTN 1 T is the 4(N 1) 1 dimensional nodal displacement vector, qTi t ui vi jxi j is the

single node displacement vector of the translational and rotational displacements about the stationary axes in the bearing

center for i 1,2,y,N 1, Fu(t) is the 4(N 1) 1 unbalance force vector, and Fg is the 4(N 1) 1 gravity force vector

[15,28,29]. The M, K, C and G are the global mass, stiffness, damping, and gyroscopic matrices, respectively, of the intact

shaft where each is of dimension 4(N 1) 4(N 1) as in [15,28,29]. Each rigid disk is placed at the selected node and its

...

N1

2797

center has the same nodal displacement vector of the node. The bearings can be either journal or ball bearings. The nodal

equations of motion of the disk and the equations of forces for the bearing nodes are also found in [15,28,29].

The open transverse crack is modeled as shown in Fig. 2 where the dashed segment represents the crack segment. The

crack is assumed at angle f relative to the xed negative Y-axis at t 0 as shown in Fig. 2a. As the shaft rotates the crack

angle with the negative Y-axis changes with time to f Ot as shown in Fig. 2b, where O is the rotational speed of the rotor.

The angle f is selected to be equal to zero in the following analysis.

The area moments of inertia of the cracked element about its centroidal x- and y-axes are constant quantities during the

rotation of the shaft while the area moments of inertia of the cracked element about its xed centroidal X- and Y-axes are

time-varying quantities during the rotation of the shaft. The axes X and Y remain parallel to the stationary X- and Y-axes

during rotation. The cracked element stiffness matrix in the rotating x- and y-axes can be written in a form similar to that

of the asymmetric rod in space in [10].

The centroidal area moments of inertia of the cracked element about the X- and Y-axes are IX t and IY t, respectively.

From [10], the time-varying area moments of inertia IX t, IY t and IX Y t about the centroidal X- and Y-axes during the

shaft rotation are given in terms of centroidal area moments of inertias Ix and Iy in the rotating x- and y-axes as [10]

IX t

Ix Iy Ix Iy

cos2Ot Ix y sin2Ot

2

2

(2a)

I Y t

Ix Iy Ix Iy

cos2Ot Ix y sin2Ot

2

2

(2b)

I X Y t

Ix Iy

sin2Ot Ix y cos2Ot

2

(2c)

where Ix Ix Ace e2 , Iy Iy , Ix and Iy are the area moments of inertia of the cracked element cross-section about the rotating

x- and y-axes, Ace is the area of the cracked element cross-section and e is its centroid location on the y-axis. Since y is the

axis of symmetry of the cracked element cross-sectional area during rotation, then Ixy 0. The quantities Ace and e have

been derived in [16] as

p

(3a)

Ace R2 pcos1 1m 1m m2m

2R3

m2m3=2

3Ace

(3b)

Fig. 2. Schematic diagrams of the cracked element cross-section (a) before rotation, (b) after shaft rotates. The dashed area represents the crack segment.

2798

The area moments of inertia Ix and Iy of the cracked element cross-section about the rotating x- and y-axes, respectively,

have also been derived in [16] for 0 r m r1 as

Ix

pR4

4

pR4

R4

1m2m2 4m 1g sin1 1m

4

(4a)

R4

1m 2m2 4m3 g 3sin1 g

12

(4b)

4

q

where g m 2m , m h/R is the non-dimensional crack depth and h is the crack depth in the radial direction of

the shaft.

The nite element stiffness matrix of the rod in space in [10] is used to express the jth cracked element stiffness matrix

in the rotating coordinates as

2

3

12Ix

0

0

6lIx

12lIx

0

0

6lIx

6 0

12Iy

6lIy

0

0

12Iy 6lIy

0 7

6

7

6

7

2

2

6

7

6lIy 4l Iy

0

0

6lIy

2l Iy

0 7

6 0

6

7

6

7

2

2

6lIx

0

0

4l Ix

6lIx

0

0

2l Ix 7

E6

j

7

kR 3 6

(5)

6

0

0

6lIx

12Ix

0

0

6lIx 7

l 6 12lIx

7

6

7

12Iy

6lIy

0

0

12Iy

6lIy

0 7

6 0

6

7

6

7

2

2

6 0

6lIy 2l Iy

0

0

6lIy

4l Iy

0 7

4

5

2

2

6lIx

0

0

2l Ix

6lIx

0

0

4l Ix

Iy

the cracked element stiffness matrix kF in the xed coordinates is found via the transformation

j

kF WT kR W

(6)

where W is the transformation matrix of dimension 8 8. This transformation matrix is derived based on the coordinate

transformation shown in Fig. 3.

For the nodal displacement vector qT(t) [u v jx jy] of the left node of the element j in the rotating coordinate system

Oxyz, jx and jy have the following relationships [28, 29]:

jx

@vy

,

@w

jy

@ux

@w

(7)

the coordinate system OXYZ is rotated by Ot about z-axis which yields the rotating coordinate system Oxyz. Hence, u and v

in the xed coordinate system OXYZ can be written as

u ux cosOtvy sinOt

(8a)

v ux sinOt vy cosOt

(8b)

hence, j and j in the xed coordinate system have the following relationships:

jX

jY

@vy

@v

@ux

sinOt

cosOt jx cosOt jy sinOt

@w

@w

@w

@vy

@u

@ux

cos Ot j

sinOt jx sinOt jy cosOt

@w

@w

@w

Fig. 3. The xed and rotating coordinate systems at jth rotor element (left node).

(9a)

(9b)

2799

as a result, the transformation matrix that transforms the stiffness from the rotating x- and y-axes to the xed X- and Yaxes in Fig. 3 or the rotating x- and y-axes to the xed X- and Y-axes in Fig. 2 is given as

2

cosOt

6

6 sinOt

6

6

0

6

6

0

6

W6

6

0

6

6

6

0

6

6

0

4

0

sinOt

cosOt

cosOt

sinOt

sinOt

cosOt

cosOt

sinOt

7

7

7

7

0

7

7

0

7

7

7

0

7

7

0

7

7

sinOt 7

5

cosOt

0

sinOt

cosOt

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

cosOt

sinOt

(10)

the application of Eq. (6) with Eq. (10) yields the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked element in the xed X- and

Y-axes which is given as

j

kF ka kb

(11)

where

2

12IX t

6

0

6

6

6

0

6

6

6 6lI t

6

E

X

j

ka 3 6

6

l 6 12lIX t

6

0

6

6

6

0

6

4

6lIX t

2

0

6 12I t

6

XY

6

6 6lI t

6

XY

6

6

0

E6

j

kb 3 6

6

0

l 6

6

t

12I

6

XY

6

6

6 6lIXY t

4

0

6lIX t

12lIX t

12IY t

6lIY t

12IY t

6lIY t

4l IY t

6lIY t

6lIX t

6lIY t

2l IY t

4l IX t

6lIX t

6lIX t

12IX t

12IY t

6lIY t

12IY t

6lIY t

6lIY t

2l IY t

6lIY t

4l IY t

2l IX t

6lIX t

0

6lIXY t

12IXY t

0

6lIXY t

0

12IXY t

0

12IXY t

7

7

7

7

0

7

7

2

2l IX t 7

7

7

6lIX t 7

7

7

0

7

7

7

0

7

5

2

4l IX t

0

0

2

6lIXY t

0

4l IXY t

6lIXY t

6lIXY t

4l IXY t

6lIXY t

2l IXY t

12IXY t

6lIXY t

12IXY t

6lIXY t

6lIXY t

12IXY t

6lIXY t

0

6lIXY t

2l IXY t

2l IXY t

6lIXY t

4l IXY t

3

0

6lIXY t 7

7

7

2

2l IXY t 7

7

7

7

0

7

7

7

0

7

7

6lIXY t 7

7

7

2

4l IXY t 7

5

0

(12)

(13)

where IX t, IY t and IX Y t have the same formulas in Eqs. (2a)(2b). In addition, the cracked element stiffness matrix in

the xed X and Y coordinates in Eq. (11) can be rewritten as

j

kF k1 k2 cos2Ot k3 sin2Ot

j

(14)

2

12I1

6

6 0

6

6 0

6

6

6lI1

E6

j

k1 3 6

6

l 6 12lI1

6

6 0

6

6 0

4

6lI1

6lI1

12lI1

12I1

6lI1

12I1

6lI1

2

6lI1

4l I1

6lI1

2l I1

0

0

0

0

4l I1

6lI1

6lI1

12I1

0

0

0

0

12I1

6lI1

12I1

6lI1

6lI1

2l I1

6lI1

4l I1

6lI1

2l I1

6lI1

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

2

2l I1 7

7

6lI1 7

7

7

0 7

7

0 7

5

2

4l I1

0

(15a)

2800

12I2

6

6 0

6

6 0

6

6

6lI2

E6

j

k2 3 6

6 12lI2

l 6

6

6 0

6

6 0

4

6lI2

2

6lI2

12lI2

6lI2

12I3

6lI3

12I3

6lI3

2

6lI3

4l I3

6lI3

2l I3

4l I2

6lI2

6lI2

12I2

12I3

6lI3

12I3

6lI3

6lI3

0

2l I3

0

0

2

2l I2

0

6lI2

6lI3

0

4l I3

0

12I2

6lI2

12I2

6lI2

7

7

7

0 7

7

7

2

2l I2 7

7

6lI2 7

7

7

0 7

7

0 7

5

2

4l I2

0

(15b)

6

7

0

0

6lI2

12I2

0

0

6lI2 7

6 12I2

6

7

2

2

6 6lI2

0

0

4l I2 6lI2

0

0

2l I2 7

6

7

6

7

2

2

0

6lI2 4l I2

0

0

6lI2

2l I2

0 7

E6

j

7

(15c)

k3 3 6

6

6lI2

0

0

12I2 6lI2

0 7

12I2

l 6 0

7

6

7

6 12I2

0

0

6lI2

12I2

0

0

6lI2 7

6

7

2

2

6 6lI

0

0

2l I2 6lI2

0

0

4l I2 7

2

4

5

2

2

0

6lI2 2l I2

0

0

6lI2

4l I2

0

where I1 1=2 Ix Iy , I2 1=2 Ix Iy , I3 I2, Ix and Iy are all constant quantities during the rotation of the cracked

j

shaft. The matrix k3 includes the effect of the cross-coupling area moment of inertia IX Y t on the cracked rotor.

As a result, the FEM equations of motion of the rotor-bearing-system with an open crack model are rewritten as

C^ qt

_ K1 K2 cos2Ot K3 sin2Otqt F1 cos Ot F2 sin Ot Fg

M qt

(16)

j

k1

where K1 is the 4(N 1) 4(N 1) stiffness matrix of which the entries of the cracked element stiffness matrix

are

merged instead of the uncracked element entries of element j in K [15,28,29], K2 and K3 are 4(N 1) 4(N 1) stiffness

j

j

matrices of zero entries except at the cracked element where the entries are equal to k2 in K2 and k3 in K3, F1 and F2 are

^

the vectors of the unbalance force amplitudes [15], and C G C is a combination of the gyroscopic and damping matrices.

The solution of the system in Eq. (16) is expressed as a nite Fourier series as

qt A0

n

X

Ak coskOt Bk sinkOt

(17)

k1

2

K1

6 O

6

6

6 O

6

6

6 K2

6

6

6 K3

6

6

6 O

6

6

6 O

6

6

6 O

6

6

6 O

6

6 ^

6

6

6 O

4

O

H m, O

0:5K2

0:5K3

C2

C3

C1

1 C3

C1

1 C3

C1 C2

C3

C2

C2

C2

1

C2

C3

&

C2

C2

1

C3

C2

&

C2

C3

C3

C3

1

&

C3

C2

C3

1

C3

&

C2

C2

C3

C4

C4

1

&

C3

C3

C2

C4

1

C4

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

C2

C3

Cn

C3

C2

Cn

1

2

3 2 3

A0

Fg

O 7

76

6 7

7 6 A1 7

F

7 6 17

7 6 7

O 7

76

6 7

B1 7

76

6

7 6 F2 7

O 7

6

6 7

7 6 A2 7

60 7

7

76

7 6 7

7

^ 76 B 2 7 6 0 7

7 6 7

76

6

7 6 7

O 7

A3 7 6 0 7

76

6

76 7

76

6 7

B3 7

C3 7

7 60 7

76

7 6 7

76

6

60 7

7

A

4

C2 7

7 6 7

76

7 60 7

76

B

47

6 7

O 76

7 6 7

76

6 ^ 7 6 ^ 7

6

6 7

7

O 7

76

6 7

74 An 7

5 40 5

7

Cn

1 5

Bn

0

Cn

(18)

where C2 (1/2)K2, C3 (1/2)K3, C(j) K1 (jO)2M and C1j jOC^ for j 1,2,. . .,n, and n is the number of harmonics used.

Eq. (17) is solved for A0, Ak and Bk for k 1,2,. . .,n.

4. Theoretical results for the open crack model

The rotor-bearing-disk system is divided into 12 elements as shown in Fig. 4 where the crack location is assumed to be

in element 3 where the length of this cracked element is equal to 60.3 mm. The damping matrix of the shaft is assumed to

be equal to zero while the damping of the bearings in Table 1 is the only damping included for simulation. Two disks are

attached to nodes 3 and 11. The mass unbalance me is attached to the left disk at an angle b relative to the positive X-axis

2801

at distance d from the shaft centerline. The values of the physical parameters of the system are given in Table 1. The HB

solution is used to generate the results for the whirl orbits and the shift in the critical and subcritical speeds.

To distinguish between the critical forward and backward whirling rotational speeds, anisotropic bearings are used

for the system in Fig. 4 with kxx 5 107 N/m and kyy 7 107 N/m. The anisotropic bearings are only used here for the

results in Fig. 5 while isotropic bearings are used for all following cases. It is clear from Fig. 5 that the critical forward whirl

speed of1 2884.5 rev/min appears before the critical backward whirl speed ob1 3043 rev/min when anisotropic

bearings are used. Similarly, as the crack starts to appear for the asymmetric shaft with a transverse open crack and

isotropic bearings of kxx kyy 7 107 N/m the critical backward speed is also excited at ob1 3043 rev/min when m-0 as

shown in the waterfall plot in Fig. 6. For the asymmetric cracked shaft with isotropic bearing or the symmetric intact shaft

with anisotropic bearings, the rst forward and backward whirl speeds have been excited by the unbalance force.

The appearance of the open transverse crack is found to only excite the 1/2 and 1/3 of the rst backward critical speed

and as shown in Figs. 79. The rst pair of the critical forward and backward whirling rotational speeds and their

corresponding subcritical rotational speeds are shown in Fig. 8 for m 0.3 where the signicance of including K3 which

include the effect of IX Y in the cracked element stiffness matrix is shown. If K3 is not included in the cracked element

stiffness matrix, extra sub-harmonics appear as shown in Fig. 8 which are more familiar with the breathing crack model

than the open crack model [16]. These extra harmonics do not appear when IX Y is included in the crack element stiffness

matrix even at high crack depth as shown in Fig. 9.

The whirl orbits during the passage through the 1/2 and 1/3 of the rst backward critical speed which are excited by the

open transverse crack are plotted in Figs. 10 and 11. The whirl orbit with three outer loops appears in the neighborhood of

the 1/2 of the rst backward whirl speeds reverses its direction during the passage through this subcritical whirl speed.

The whirl orbit with four outer loops that appears during the passage through 1/3 of the backward critical speed is found

Table 1

Physical parameters of the rotor-bearing-disk system.

Description

Value

Description

Value

Radius of the rotor, R

Density of rotor, r

Modulus of elasticity, E

Bearing stiffness (kxx kyy)

Bearing damping (cxx cyy)

0.724 m

7.9 mm

7800 kg/m3

2.1 1011 N/m2

7 107 N/m

5 102 N s/m

Disk inner radius, Ri

Density of disk, r

Mass of the disk, md

Mass unbalance, med2

Mass unbalance angle, b

76.2 mm

7.9 mm

2700 kg/m3

0.571 kg

10 3 kg m2

p/2 rad

Fig. 5. The rst critical forward and backward whirling rotational speeds of the bearing-disk-system with anisotropic bearings of kxx 5 107 N/m and

kyy 7 107 N/m based on the vibration amplitudes at node 7.

2802

b1

f1

Fig. 6. Waterfall of the shift in the forward and backward critical whirling speeds of the rotor-bearing-disk-system versus crack depth for

med2 5 10 4 kg m2 based on the vibration amplitudes at node 7.

1

1

3

b1

b1

Fig. 7. Waterfall of the shift in the 1/2 of the rst backward critical whirling speed and 1/3 of the rst forward critical whirl speed of the rotor-bearingdisk-system versus crack depth for med2 5 10 4 kg m2 based on the vibration amplitudes at node 7.

f1

1

b1

4

1

b1

3

1

f1

2

b1

1

b1

2

Fig. 8. The vibration amplitudes of node 2 versus the rotational speed for m 0.3, b p/2 and med2 5 10 4 kg m2 based on the vibration amplitudes at

node 7 where 6 harmonics are used in the HB solution.

1

b1

3

1

b1

2

f1

b1

Fig. 9. The vibration amplitudes of node 2 versus the rotational speed for m 0.75, b p/2 and med2 5 10 4 kg m2 based on the vibration amplitudes

at node 7 where 6 harmonics are used in the HB solution.

to be rotated by 451 during the passage through this subcritical speed. These orbits have nearly similar behavior and shape

to those of the breathing crack model in [16,19] during the passage through these subcritical backward whirl speeds.

Unlike the breathing crack model in [16,19,2226], the open crack model is found to be not exciting the subcritical forward

whirl speeds. Hence, the whirl orbits with inner loops which appear during the passage through the forward subcritical

speeds are unique signature for the breathing crack model compared to the open crack model.

=1482 rpm

=1485 rpm

=1488 rpm

=1491 rpm

2803

=1494 rpm

Fig. 10. The whirl orbits of node 2 during the passage through the subcritical backward whirl speed 1/2ob1 1488 rev/min for med2 5 10 3 kg m2,

m 0.3 and b 0.

=978 rpm

=984 rpm

=988 rpm

=992 rpm

=998 rpm

Fig. 11. The whirl orbits of node 2 during the passage through the subcritical backward whirl speed (1/3ob1 988 rev/min) for med2 5 10 3 kg m2,

m 0.3 and b 0.

=2975 rpm

=2985 rpm

=2990rpm

=2995 rpm

=3005 rpm

Fig. 12. The whirl orbits of node 2 during the passage through the rst critical backward whirl speed ob1 2990 rev/min for med2 5 10 3 kg m2,

m 0.3 and b 0.

med2=0.01 kg.m2

med2=0.005 kg.m2

med2=0.001 kg.m2

med2=104 kg.m2

med2=104 kg.m2

Fig. 13. The effect of the unbalance mass on the whirl orbit of node 2 during the passage through the 1/2 rst critical backward whirl speed at

O 1482 rev/min for m 0.3 and b 0.

The whirl orbits during the passage through the rst backward critical whirl speed are plotted in Fig. 12. It is interesting

to notice that these orbits have the same shape and behavior as the whirl orbits at the 1/3 of this critical backward whirl

speed as previously shown in Fig. 11.

The effect of the unbalance mass on the three outer loops whirl orbit that appear during the passage through the 1/2 of

the rst critical backward whirl speed is shown in Fig. 13. It is shown that these loops disappear at relatively high

unbalance force as shown in Fig. 13a and b where the whirl orbit has nearly an egg-shaped. In addition, for small

unbalance mass, the centers of these loops converge to main center of the whole whirl orbit as shown in Fig. 13e.

The initial crack angle f at t 0 has no effect on the whirl orbit as long as the relative angle Dy b f between the

crack orientation and the unbalance force direction remains constant during the rotation. For a xed crack angle f the

whirl orbits are sensitive to the change in the unbalance force direction as shown in Fig. 14. If the unbalance force angle b

2804

= /2

= /4

=0

= /4

= /2

Fig. 14. The effect of the unbalance force angle b on the whirl orbit of node 2 at O 1482 rev/min for m 0.6 and med2 5 10 3 kg m.

Fig. 15. The MFS-RDS Spectra-Quest rotordynamic simulator used for experimental analysis.

is changed to b 7 x the whirl orbit rotates by 72x from its original position as shown in the gure. This behavior is also

observed in [26] for the whirl orbit of a cracked system with two open transverse cracks. This observation may help in

detecting the crack based on the sensitivity of the orbits in the neighborhood of the subcritical rotational speeds to the

unbalance force direction.

The Spectra-Quest MFS-RDS rotordynamic simulator, shown in Fig. 15, was used for nding the experimental time

histories for the whirl amplitudes and orbits near to node 2 and node 11 of the nite element model shown in Fig. 4 in the

neighborhood of the critical and subcritical whirl speeds. The physical parameters of the MFS-RDS rotordynamic simulator

have been previously given in Table 1. Two sets of proximity probes have been installed. The rst set of two perpendicular

proximity probes is installed at the left side of the shaft near to the left bearing (close to node 2) while the other set is

installed at the right side of the shaft near to the right bearing (close to node 11) as shown in the picture in Fig. 15. These

sets measure the horizontal and vertical displacements at each side of the shaft. The whirl amplitude is calculated as

q

2

2

Z u^ v^ where u^ is the reading of the rst probe while v^ is the reading of the second probe which is perpendicular to

the rst one in the same set. The readings of the proximity probes were collected at a frequency of 10 kH for 10 s of shaft

rotation at a xed rotational speed.

The wavelet transform [31] is used to explore the frequency content in the signal in the neighborhood of the rst

critical speed and its corresponding subcritical speed ( 1/2 of this critical speed). For a rotor speed O 2906 rev/min in

the neighborhood of the rst critical speed for m 0.36, the experimental data of the whirl amplitudes obtained by the left

set of the proximity probes are plotted in Fig. 16a where no ltration was used for these data. The corresponding frequency

contents in Fig. 16b are normalized to the rotor speed itself (O 2906 rev/min). It is clear from this gure that the sub and

super harmonic frequency components of 1/2, 2/2, 3/2 and 4/2 of O appear in the signal due to the appearance of

the open crack.

For a rotor speed O 1537 rev/min in the neighborhood of the 1/2 of the rst critical speed for m 0.36, the

experimental data of the whirl amplitudes obtained by the right set of the proximity probes are plotted in Fig. 17a where

no ltration was used for these data. The corresponding frequency contents in Fig. 17b are also normalized to the rotor

speed itself (O 1537 rev/min). It is clear from this gure that the sub and super harmonic frequency components of 1/2,

2/2, 3/2, 4/2 and 5/2 of O appear in the signal due to the appearance of the open crack. Even though the data of the

right set of the proximity probes at O 1537 rev/min has a big noise as shown in Fig. 18a, the corresponding wavelet

transform in Fig. 18b still capable to capture similar frequency content to that in Fig. 17b which is for the data with a very

small noise. As a result, the wavelet transform is found to perform well even with data of big noise.

The experimental whirl orbits in Fig. 19 were found to be very close to the theoretical egg-shape whirl orbit that

previously shown in Fig. 13a and b in the neighborhood of 1/2 of the critical backward whirl speed. In addition, the whirl

orbit reversal during the passage through the 1/2 of the rst critical whirl speed is clearly noticed in Fig. 19f and g. Hence,

the 1/2 of the rst critical backward whirl speed is experimentally expected to be between O 1444 rev/min and

O 1500 rev/min for m 0.48. As a result, the open crack model is found theoretically and experimentally to excite the 1/2

of the subcritical backward whirl speed.

2805

Fig. 16. (a) Time histories of the vibration amplitudes of the signal in the neighborhood of the rst critical whirl speeds measured by the left side

proximity probes and (b) the corresponding wavelet transform of the normalized frequency contents for m 0.36 and med2 1 10 3 kg m2.

Fig. 17. (a) Time histories of the vibration amplitudes in the neighborhood of 1/2 of the rst critical whirl speeds measured by the left side proximity

probes and (b) the corresponding wavelet transform of the normalized frequency contents for m 0.36 and med2 1 10 3 kg m2.

Fig. 18. (a) Time histories of the vibration amplitudes in the neighborhood of 1/2 of the rst critical whirl speeds measured by the right side proximity

probes and (b) the corresponding wavelet transform of the normalized frequency contents for m 0.36 and at med2 1 10 3 kg m2.

6. Conclusions

In this study the nite element model of the time-varying stiffness matrix is introduced for a cracked rotor with an

open transverse crack. The harmonic balance method is used here for solving the time-varying nite element equations of

motion of the cracked rotor for critical and subcritical harmonic analysis. The well-known whirl orbits with inner loops

that appear in the neighborhood of the subcritical forward whirl speeds with the breathing crack model are not observed

here for the open transverse crack model. The appearance of the open crack is found to excite the backward critical and

subcritical whirl speeds where the whirl orbits with the outer loops appear during the passage through these subcritical

speeds. In addition, the whirl orbit reversal is observed theoretically and experimentally during the passage through the 1/2

2806

=1444 rpm

=1481 rpm

=1500 rpm

=1519 rpm

=1406 rpm

=1444 rpm

=1500 rpm

=1538 rpm

Fig. 19. Experimental whirl orbits of node 2 in the neighborhood of the 1/2 backward critical whirl speed for unbalance med2 1 10 3 kg m2, f 0 rad,

b p/2 rad, (a)(d) for m 0.36, (e)(h) for m 0.48.

of the critical backward whirl speed for the open crack model. Hence, the experimental results have shown that the open

crack model excites the backward subcritical whirl.

Furthermore, the whirl orbits in the neighborhood of the critical backward whirl speed are also found to have the same

shape and behavior of those appear in the neighborhood of the 1/3 of this critical backward whirl speed. However, it is

veried here that the whirl orbits with inner loops are a unique signature for the breathing crack rather than the

open crack.

In addition, the whirl orbits in the neighborhood of the subcritical backward whirl have the same shape and behavior

for both breathing and open crack models. These whirl orbits are found to be sensitive to the unbalance force direction. For

a constant relative angle between the crack orientation and the unbalance force direction, the initial orientation of the

crack has no effect on the orientation of the whirl orbits, the shift in the critical and subcritical speeds and the vibration

amplitudes during rotation.

Acknowledgment

Prof. Alexander Vakakis group at the University of Illinois at Urban-Champaign is highly acknowledged for the help in

using the wavelet Matlab code in this paper.

Appendix A

For the 12 elements model, previously shown in Fig. 3, the cracked element length was 60.3 mm. For the 24 elements

model the cracked element length is maintained to be 60.3 mm which reduces the total number of elements to 23 as

shown in Fig. A1 since this crack length spans through two elements of the 24 elements model. Fixing the crack element

length while increasing the number of elements to greater than 12 elements has found to have slight effect on the

convergence as shown in Fig. A2 where the critical forward and backward whirling amplitudes are plotted versus the shaft

rotating speed for m 0.3.

2807

Fig. A2. The vibration amplitudes of node 2 versus the rotational speed for m 0.3, b p/2 and at med2 1 10 3 kg m2 for the 12 and 13 elements

models.

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