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~l9.~ Finance


~-2-~ ~l 9 .~ Finance IELTS Listening Section 1 Pre-listening 1 Work in groups. Look at

IELTS Listening Section 1 Pre-listening


Work in groups. Look at the picture of someone conducting a survey. What do you think she is asking questions about?


Discuss at least two of these statements.

  • 1 Cash is used more than cards nowadays.

  • 2 Younger people prefer paying for items electronically.

  • 3 It is better to have only one currency worldwide.

  • 4 Buying goods online is popular among all ages.

  • 5 People use only credit cards when they travel abroad.


Skim questions 1-10 below and describe the topic of the listening section. Give reasons and examples .



0Bll Follow the in s tructions and answer questions


Questions 1-10: Completing a form

Complete the form below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Travel questionnaire

O...!CJ.r!f.e. . ..... .. .. .... .... Survey On behalf of Trips abroad Last three
O...!CJ.r!f.e. . ..... .. .. .... ....
On behalf of
Trips abroad
Last three months:

Currency bought

First trip:

300 euros


Second trip:



Travel abroad

between four and


a year


No Yes




Currencies held




at least 4




Cash and cards Cash to pay for:

taxis, newspapers and 6


Cards to pay for:



Promotional literature

It's 8

Contact details Doesn't want to give out:


Mobile telephone:


Speaking 1

IELTS Speaking Part 1

  • 1 Work in pairs. Make questions about your home country using the words in 1-5.

    • 1 like / travel/overseas

    • 2 countries / popular /y oung

    • 3 often / trips / abro a d

    • 4 people / pay/ electronically/ now / past

    • 5 cash / popular / cr e dit cards


Do peop le

in your home country like trave llin g o ver seas?

  • 2 ~ Listen to s tudent s asking and answering the questions in exercise 1. Circle the part of the sentence where the candidate makes the mistake in the answers below.

    • 1 It depends on age .

    • 2 I think they probably mainl y go to Australia.

    • 3 At least three times a year.

    • 4 I'm sure the y do .

    • 5 The latter are more popular among young than older people.

  • 3 Work with a different partner. Take turns to ask each other the questions in exercise 1. Ask additional questions using these words and phrases.

  • Why/Why not

    .. .









    .. .


    Can you give me

    .. .


    • 4 Give each other feedback about one mistake that you noticed .

    Vocabulary 1

    Words and phrases related to pay

    • 1 Look at the sentences. Match the statements 1 and 2 to the explanations of the u se of pa y and pay for , a and b.

      • 1 I use credit cards to pay for hotels, if they are not paid for in advance, a nd m eals.

      • 2 I use credit cards to pay hotel bills, if they are not pa id in adva nc e, and meals. a You use it when y ou talk about a service. b You use it when y ou talk about an item.


    Look at the diagram for the word pay a nd answer the questions 1-9 . Use a dictionary if necessary.

    2 Look at the diagram for the word pay a nd answer the questions 1-9 .

    a payment

    2 Look at the diagram for the word pay a nd answer the questions 1-9 .


    2 Look at the diagram for the word pay a nd answer the questions 1-9 .

    p ay

    2 Look at the diagram for the word pay a nd answer the questions 1-9 .


    2 Look at the diagram for the word pay a nd answer the questions 1-9 .

    for uni ve r sity e du ca tion

    we ll /by cas h / in cas h / el ec tronic a lly I online

    • I What noun can yo u make from the ver b pay?

    • 2 Do you put pay before or after the wor d ri se? Which verb goes with this phrase: receive or make?

    • 3 What prepositions follow the word pay?

    • 4 What a d ver b s can yo u u se with pay? Give a se ntence as an example.

    • 5 pay for a service like univ ers ity education or just pay university

    Do you


    • 6 Do you pay bills or pay for bills?

    • 7 Do you pay cash or payfor cash?

    • 8 Which phrase in the diagram relates to currency?

    • 9 Wh ich phrase in the diagram relates to amo unt?

    • 3 Comp let e the se nt ences

    using these phra ses .

    pay for goods such as Ae'<lvspapers

    improve pay and conditions

    cash payments wi l l disappear

    pay too much for entertainment

    By cash

    safe genera lly to pay for goods online

    wil l pay for everything electronically

    students pay uni v ersity fees

    job that pays we ll

    pay for small items


    How do people




    S :3.l1(;.fl.CJ.S.



    .!3.Y .C.CJ.S.h


    or credit card?

    • I 'Is a good salar y important to y oung people? ' 'It depends. Some want a




    . ............. .. .....



    an d s ome want job sa tisfaction:

    'S hould

    ........ ...... ......... .... ..

    ?' 'N ot at all. University education sho uld be free:

    ' When do people generally u se cash?' 'Whe n the y ....

    ..... .... .. ........... .. .... .. ..



    'Is it

    ....... .. .... .... .... ... .. .. ...... .. ..

    need to

    b e careful:

    ?' 'Mos t of the time it's safe on the Internet, but people


    'Do you think

    .. .... ................................

    in the future? ' 'Yes, s oon people

    • 6 '18'it'j)()'88ihie

    . There will b e no cash:



    .for all workers to make working life better? '

    'I don' t see why not:


    'Do you think people

    .... .... .... .... .... .... .. .. ... .......

    compared to the past? ' 'Yes, but there

    i s more entertainme nt available no wa days:

    • 4 Work in groups and answe r the que s tion s in exercise 3. Develop the answers in your own way, giving examp le s and reasons.

    IELTS Speaking Part 2 Speaking 2 1 Tick the adjectives that describe how you fee l
    IELTS Speaking Part 2
    Speaking 2
    Tick the adjectives that describe how you fee l about the jobs below. Compare yo ur
    answers with other student s. Give reasons and examples.
    being a pilot
    being a computer engineer
    working in the business
    Match the reasons a-e to the jobs in exercise 1.
    a becau s e
    b because being
    would pay very well
    would give me a chance to travel
    would give me a lot of job satisfact ion
    because I'd be able to travel a lot
    because meeting different people would be very interesting
    Make notes for the Task Card below. Then take turns to talk about the card , using
    the reasons
    in exerci s e 2 where possible.
    Part 2
    Describe a job or career that you would like to
    You should
    say :
    what the job or career is
    where you would like to work
    what type of work is involved in the job
    and explain why you would like to have the job
    or career.
    Give each other feedback about the reasons you gave. Could you improve the
    Complex sentences: Concession
    Language focus
    Look at this statement. Does the speaker think that promotional literature is OK?
    h e / s h e agree to receive

    Although Idon 't think there's anything wrong with promotional literat ure, I try receiving thi ngs to a minimum.

    to keep

    • 2 Look at this statement. How is it different from the statement in exercise 1? Use the Grammar on page 155 to help you.

    Ill/ JI /I Ill m

    rnoso2 02ao?o



    Id on't th ink t here's anythi ng wrong with promotional lite rat ure, but I t ry t o keep receiving thi ngs to a minimum.


    You can a l so use while/ whilst/ neverthe l ess/ though in stead of although/ but. Which words can replace but and whic h a lthough? Do yo u n eed to change the punctuation?

    • 4 Some of the clauses in italics below are in the wrong place. Write out the se nt e nc es putting the clauses in the right place.

      • 0 Although credit cards are becoming more commo n , but there is s till po ve rty everywhere . older people still use them less th an yo ung


    • 1 Even thoug h the workforce in my country is better e du cat e d than in the p as t , the economy is not performing well.

    • 2 While mathematics is taught at schoo l , olde1 people still ttse them less them yott1igpeople.

    • 3 Whereas energy costs are ri sing year by year, pay rises are not increasing at the s ame pace.

    • 4 My home city is certainly richer good at managing their.finances.

    than ever before, it doesn't mean that people are

    • 5 Cash is st ill u sed by many people to make small an d l arge p ayme nts. Neverthe less, there is sti ll a shortage of s kill ed workers.

    • 6 More and more young people are now taking vocational qualification s. Though , this situation is likely to change in the near future.

    • 7 People in some countries are generally richer. They are still not happi er than previou s generations.

    • 5 Rewrite the sen t ences in exercise 4 using these wor d s .

    • 0 but

    • 4 although

    • 1 nevertheless

    • 5 while

    • 2 but / st ill

    • 6 whereas

    • 3 nevertheless

    • 7 may / bu t

    0 Credit card s are becoming more commo n, but older people st ill use them less than young peop le.

    • 6 Make questions u sing the first part of eac h se nten ce in exercise 4. Ask yo ur questions to at l east one other student. Develop yo ur answers in your own way.

    Writing 1

    'Do you t 'Yes, but

    hink credi t cards are older people still use

    becoming more common?'


    less t hem yo ung people.'

    IELTS WritingTask 2

    • 1 Work in gro up s . Look at th i s Task 2 question and decide which of the sta tements 1-5 are true. Teaching financial education at secondary school is the best way to help children understand the increasingly complex financial world we live in. To what extent do you agree or disagree? What other measures do you think might be effective? Give reasons for your answer and inc lude any relevant examp l es from your own knowledge and experience .

      • 1 The task asks you to write about one so lution.

      • 2 The task asks you to write about the solution in the rubric and other s olution s .

      • 3 You can ignore the so lu tion mentioned and write a bout oth er s olution s.

      • 4 The task asks you to state your opinion.

      • 5 The question asks you to gh-:e the causes of the problem.

    2 Here are some other ways to help children understand finance. Apart from 1, w h
    • 2 Here are some other ways to help children understand finance. Apart from 1, w h at are the two best ideas? Explain why.

      • I teaching finance in schools

        • 2 encourag in g parents to teach their chi ldr en abou t money

        • 3 h aving competitions

    between schools

    • 4 start in g money clubs

    in secondary schoo l s

    • 5 introducing business clubs

    • 6 enco ura gin g parents to b ecome involved in the clubs

    • 7 savings incentives for children and families

    • 3 Write an introduction for the essay task in exercise 1, u sing these notes. Add yo ur own words.

    modern world/complex/people 3eneralf!J/fom fn ancial point of v iew/ teachil1!J finance/school/important/other e1ua lf!J important measures

    • 4 Labe l the paragraph with these words. Draw arrows to the correct part of the t ext.

    topic sentence

    examp l e (x2)




    topic sentence

    Teaching finance in schoo ls is undeniably important because people need to make

    more financial decisions in their liv es than in the past. For example , if children are

    taught how to manage money from an early age , it

    w ill help them in later life . While

    children may not have a lot of money, even pocket money, they can still create virtual

    scenarios where imaginary mon ey is used. They can , for instance , set up scenarios on the computer to manage household finances or create im aginary shops. As a result, they will be better prepared for the real world .

    • 5 Choose the best alternative a orb to develop the next paragraph. Paragraph2 Topic sentence: Another possible measure is to create finance or money clubs in

    every school. 1









    Although these clubs are part of the school, they can be run by the students


    themselves. These clubs are part of the school , they can be run by the students


    themselves . Students can organize the activities they want to do. The best way to learn is


    to be involved in something. For example, students can organize the activities they want to do, because


    the best way to learn is to be involved in something. Moreover, they can hold competitions. They can set up pretend companies.


    Moreover, they can hold competitions with other schools and even set up


    pretend companie s with business plans , etc. This is useful because it helps prepare students for the real world.


    It can help prepare students for the real world .

    • 6 Now write your own paragraph about parents teaching their children about money. Use these phrases to

    help you .

    Although teaching financial education in schools and running money clubs are important, ...

    Parents can also help

    So ...

    .. .

    because children may receive money from their parents.

    For examp le , if children receive pocket money / If children are given too much money



    Speaking 3

    IELTS Speaking Part 3 : Complex sentences

    • 1 Work in pair s . Underline the part of the answer where the candidate agrees with the examiner. Circle the part where the candidate adds something new.


    5 Choose the best alternative a orb to develop the next paragraph. Paragraph2 Topic sentence: Another

    Do you think money plays a significant role in our lives?


    Yes, for some people it does. But, although it is of great importance, there are other things like happiness and job satisfaction which are equally important.

    • 2 Answer the examiner's question. Use these notes to help you.


    5 Choose the best alternative a orb to develop the next paragraph. Paragraph2 Topic sentence: Another

    sktlls and education


    important --7 but --7 mone.!f vita l

    mone.!f important --7 but --7 skills and education vital


    • 3 Take turns to ask and answer the questions below. Give each other feedback about the complex sentences you use.

      • 1 Some people think money is the root of all evil. Do you agree?

      • 2 What are the advantages of teaching finance at school?

    Vocabulary 2

    Vocabulary 2 Opinion 1 Look at these statements from Speaking 3. The p h rase I


    • 1 Look at these statements from Speaking 3. The p h rase I think has been adde d . Do


    statements work better because they contain I think? Why / Why not?


    I think for some people it does .

    I think there are other things like happiness and job satisfaction which are equa lly



    • 2 Work in pairs. Decide which two statements are NOT opinions and exp lain w h y.

      • 1 Education is an invaluable tool in the fight against poverty.

      • 2 In my opinion, standards.

    basic literacy and numeracy p lay a key role in improving living

    • 3 There are poor people even in the richest countries of the world.

    • 4 Setting up a bu sines s could be a very effective way oflearning about peop l e and the world.

    • 5 Personally, I feel that the wealth of the richest countries should be shared wit h the poorest.

    • 6 It seems to me that giving aid is only a temporary

    so lution to a problem.

    • 7 There are many currencies in the world.

    • 3 Underline the words that indicate opinion in exercise 2. What other expressions to give opinion do you know?

    • 4 Work in groups. Discuss one or more of the statements in exercise 2, giving your opinion .

    Writing 2

    IELTS Writing Task 2

    • 1 Work by yourself. Look at the Writing Task 2 be l ow and fo ll ow these steps.

      • 1 Decide whether you agree or disagree with the stateme n t in the task.

      • 2 Alternatively, decide whether you agree that the measure in the statement is important , but it is not the best.

      • 3 List two or three other measures.

    • 4 of synonyms for the

    Make a list

    word measures: so lu t ions,


    • 5 three topic sentences for


    your main paragraphs. See Writ i ng 1, exercises

    4 and 5 on pages 107 and 108.

    • 6 your introduction, paraphrasing



    essay quest ion .

    So me p e ople thin k that t he b est way t o sol ve t he

    problem of pove rty in many countr ies

    is t o se t

    up bu s in esses and impro ve tra de links with r ich countries .

    To wha t

    exten t d o you agree o r disagree?

    Wh a t oth er m eas ures d o y ou think might be effective?

    Give rea so ns for your an swer and in clude any re levan t exa mples fro m y ou r own kno w le dg e and experi en ce.

    • 2 Write at least 150 words about the task question in exercise 1.

    • 3 Work in pairs. Take turns to exp l ain your opinion about the writing task i n exercise 1. Ask each other questions.

    Why d o yo u t hink so? Ca n yo u exp lain a littl e more? Can yo u give me anoth er example / reaso n/res ult ?



    • 1 Work in groups. Make a list of the types of numbers you use each day (eg, telephone numbers) and explain what you use them for.

    • 2 Scan the reading passage and answer these questions.

      • 1 Which number

    i s the passage about?

    • 2 Who deveoped the first counting system?

    • 3 What does ' O' mean in the number 1025?

    • 4 Who did Egyptians pass on knowledge of maths to?

    • 5 What do 'sunya' and ' kha' mean?

    • 6 When did ' zero' reach Europe?


    • 3 Follow the instructions and answer questions 1-13.

    The st o ry o f zero

    The Sumerians in Mesopotamia were

    there is no definite evidence to say the

    the first to develop a counting system

    sy mbol

    even existed in their language.

    to keep an account of their goods

    It was the Indians who began to

    - cattle, horses, and donkeys, for

    understand zero both as a symbol and

    example. The Sumerian system was to

    as an idea.

    do with position; that is, the placing

    of a particular symbol in a particular

    place showed its value. The Sumerian

    system was handed down to the

    Akkadians around 2500 BC and then

    to the Babylonians in 2000 BC. It was

    the Babylonians who first thought

    of a mark to signify that a number

    was absent from a column; just as

    0 in 1025 signifies that there are no

    hundreds in that number. Although

    zero's Babylonian ancestor was a good

    start, it would still be centuries before

    the symbol of zero as we know it


    Brahmagupta, around 650 AD,

    was the first to formalize arithmetic

    operations using zero. He used dots

    underneath numbers to indicate

    a zero. These dots were alternately

    referred to as 'sunya', which means

    empty, or 'kha', which means place.

    Brahmagupta wrote standard rules for

    reaching zero through addition and

    subtraction as well as the results of

    operations with zero. The only error

    in his rules was division by zero, which

    would have to wait for Isaac Newton

    and G.W Leibniz.

    The renowned mathematicians

    among the Ancient Greeks, who

    learned the basics of their math from

    the Egyptians, did not have a name

    for zero, nor did their system have

    a placeholder as did the Babylonian

    one. They may have pondered it , but

    But it would still be a few centuries

    before zero reached Europe. First, the

    great Arabian voyagers would bring

    the texts of Brahmagupta and his

    colleagues back from India along with

    spices and other exotic items. Zero

    had reached Baghdad by 773 AD and

    Glossary renowne d - famou s a n d admir e d for a sp ec


    renowne d - famou s a n d

    admir e d for a sp ec ia l

    s ki l l or

    achi ev e ment

    forma l i ze -

    to mak


    som ething offic ia l

    dots -

    v e ry s mall s pot s

    of ink or colour equat i ons - in maths, statement that two sets of numbe r s, lett e r s or sym b ol s are e qu a l assets and li a b i l itie s - possessions and debt s


    Th e Mesopotamian city -state of Sumer hosted t h e f i rst p laceho l der in recordin g numbers .

    appea r ance of t h e concep t of zero as a

    would be develop ed in th e Middle


    Italian mathematician, Fib o n acci,

    East by Arabian mathematicians

    built on Al-Khowar izm i 's work w ith

    who wo ul d base th e ir numbers on

    algorithms in hi s b oo k Li ber A baci , or

    t h e Indian system . In the ninth

    "Abacus b ook," in

    1202. U ntil th a t


    b een

    th e mo st

    perform ari thm eti c

    centur y, Mohamm ed ibn-Mu sa al-

    time , the abac u s

    Khowarizmi wa s the

    fir st

    to work

    common too l to

    on equations that equaled zero, or algebra as i t h as com e to be known . He also developed quick method s for multip lying and dividing numbers known as algorithms (a corruption of hi s name) . Al - Khowarizmi call ed

    operations . F ib onacci's d evelopm e nt s were q ui ckl y n ot ice d by Italian merchants and Germa n b a nk e rs, especially t h e u se of zero. Acco unt a nt s knew their books were bal an ce d w h en the pos i tive a nd nega t ive a mount s of

    zero 'sifr', from which our ciph er

    their assets an d li a bili t ies equal ed ze ro .

    comes. By 8 7 9 AD , zero was written almost as we now know it, an oval -

    But governments were st ill of Arabic n u merals beca u se

    s u sp ic iou s of th e ease

    bu t in t h is case small er than the other

    with whic h i t was possi bl e to change

    n um b ers . And thanks to the conquest

    one symbo l into a n o th


    Thou gh

    of Spain by the Moor s, zero final ly

    forbidden, merchants co ntinu ed to

    reached Europ e ; by th e middle of the

    u se zero in secret messages,

    thu s th e

    twelfth century, translations of Al- Khowar izm i ' s work had arrived in England.

    origin of t h e word cipher, m ea nin code, from th e Ara bi c sift.


    Questions 1-5: Completing a summary Complete the summary using the list of words, A- I, below.

    The early history of zero

    The purpose of the Sumerian counting system was to record their 1 It was , however, the Babylonians who first used a 2 a number was not present in a column. It then took a 3

    .. .. ..... ... ..... .. .. ..... .. ...... ...

    ..... .. ... ....... .. .. .. .. .. ......

    to show that before

    ........ .... ... ..... .............. .. ..


    the arrival of the modern symbol of zero. Unlike the Babylonians, Ancient Greek

    mathematicians did not use a 4


    in their counting system. It is

    possible that they con sidered using a placeholder, but no 5

    .. ........ ....




    A sign

    B belongings




    hundreds of years





    G considerable time





    Questions 6-9: Identifying writer's claims -Yes/No/Not Given

    Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage? Write


    if the statement agree s with the claims of the writer


    if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer


    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

    • 6 The Indians were the first to understand both the concept of zero and the




    • 7 Brahmagupta u s ed a

    symbol very similar to the modern zero



    • 8 All ofBrahmagupta's rules about achieving zero were


    • 9 The history of the origins of zero needs to be re-examined .


    Questions 10-13: Matching sentence endings Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.


    Knowledge of zero was first spread by




    The knowledge from India about zero was advanced by


    • 12 Algebra was invented by


    • 13 Fibonacci's work was noticed by



    A Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khowarizmi B Arabian mathematicians

    • C Indians

    • D his colleagues

    E Arabian travellers F governments G Italian merchants and German bankers

    Reading discussion

    • 4 Work in groups. Discuss how

    important numbers are in our live s . Think about

    whether it is easy to function today without numbers, and the importance of money and financial systems in our lives.

    Study skills


    When you study you need to know as much about common wo rd s as possible. It is better than learning words you will probably never see again . You can focus on a word like pay and make a summa ry of the word.

    Study skills TIP When you s tudy you need to know as much about common wo

    Vocabulary: Word association

    • 1 You can build a picture by thinking of wor d s that yo u associate with a word. Write down words that you associate with these words .

    • 1 spend:


    • 2 .......................... .... ............................ ................... .......... ..... ............. ....... ..... .. ....... .. ..... ......... ... ....... ...... ...... ...........


    • 3 finance:


    • 2 You can make a summ ary of a word. Use the di agra m to make a s ummary of the word mon ey. Use a dictionary and add thi s inform at ion to the

    diagram .

    common verbs you use before the word money

    two common adjectives

    two idioms

    two meanings of money, eg, cash

    a noun you can put after the word money


    verb t ha t you use

    after the word money

    Study skills TIP When you s tudy you need to know as much about common wo


    Th ere are simil ariti es in the structure and the skil ls required for IELTS Speaking Part 3 and Writing Task 2. In both, you need to be ab le to use English fluently, and compare and juggle ideas in a flexible way. When you

    writ e, for examp le,


    co mplex sent enc e using although, always th ink

    of at least two other ways of writing it.

    Speaking and writing: Rewriting sentences

    • 1 How many ways can you rewrite the sente nce b e low?

    Although money is an essential part of our lives nowadays, job satisfaction and happiness are also very important.