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The Design and Properties

of Steel Castings
PART III Properties
W.J. JACKSON
-

In Part 111of this series the properties


of steel castings and their implications
for design are discussed.

Engineering Properties
The effect of carbon content and
heat treatment on the tensile properties of plain carbon steels is illustrated in Fig. 1. Typical properties
available from low-alloy steels are
indicated in Fig. 2 (a) and (b); it is
apparent from these diagrams that for
this class of steel, quenching and
tempering can produce higher strengths

1000

- - - - - -

and a superior combination of mechartical properties than normalising and


tempering. A summary of minimum
specified mechanical properties and
typical physical properties is given
in Table 1 for some steels to BS 3100.
Steels for pressure-containing castings
are similar to those in BS 3100, but
are covered by BS 1504. A typical
application for a high strength steel
is shown in Fig. 3 -- how else could
such a combination of strength,
aesthetic and functional design be
achieved, other than by a steel casting?

go(

50(

,o~-

ANNEALED
NORMALIZED

<

40

~o

BO

'~<EDUCTION

OF AREA
-

750

30

10

50

~k~

TENSILE STRENGTH

800
TENSILE STRENGTH N mm 2

Z
"1"

600

.~,"

'~%

k-

i
1000

Fig. 2 (a) Tensile properties of low


alloy cast steels (normalised and tempered).

500
-30

Z
w
p-

-20

~:
z
<
z
0

250

q
YIELD STRENGTH

I
0.1

I
0.2

ELONGATION

I
0.3

I
0.4

I
0.5

10

I
0.6

CARBON. %

Fig. 1 Variation in tensile properties with carbon content and heat treatment,
for plain carbon cast steels.

M A T E R I A L S IN ENGINEERING, Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

For cast steels the endurance ratio


(i.e. the ratio of endurance limit to
tensile strength) varies from approxirnately 0.40 to 0.50 depending on the
tensile strength which in turn depends
upon chemical composition and heat
treatment. The more rapid the cooling
rate from heating the higher will be
the fatigue properties and this is
illustrated for the annealing and
normalising of plain carbon steels in
Fig. 4. In general, the endurance
ratio is slightly higher for low- and
medium-alloy steels than for plain
carbon steels. Some typical fatigue

310

Table 1 (a) Specified Minimum Mechanical Properties and Physical Properties of some commonly-used
Carbon and Low-Alloy Cast Steels
BS 3100
Steel Type

A1
0.25%C

A2
0.35%C

A3
0.45%C

AW2
0.5%C

AW3
0.6%C

430

490

540

620

690

230

260

295

325

370

22
120 a
1.5t ab
25 a
-

18
90 a
1.5tab
20 a
-

14

12

18 c

not specified

not specified

not specified

A, N or
NT

A, N or
NT

A, N or
WQT
7.81
7.85
A
A, N or
460
460
A
A
50C 100C 50C 100C
44.38 42.7 43.96 47.7

A, N or
WQT
7.84
A or WQT
460

A, N or
QT
7.9 7.8
A
460

A, N or
QT
7.8
A
460

50C 100C
43.54 43.12

50C
& 100C

Mean Coefficient of
Thermal Expansion
(c~) x 106/C
20C-100C

A
N
12.8 12.5

A
N
12.5 12.5

13.1 12.9

12.7 12.6

20C-300C

13.4 13.3

13.1 13.4

20C-400C

13.6 13.8

13.5 13.7

13.8 14.1

13.9 14.0

14.1 14.5

14.3 14.4

A
N
12.5 11.8
QT 11.9
12.8 12.2
QT 12.4
13.2 12.8
QT 12.9
13.7 13.2
QT 13.3
14.1 13.7
QT 13.8
14.4 14.2
QT 14.3

A
11.78

20C-200C

A
N
10.8 11.4
WQT 11.7
12.2 12.2
WQT 12.4
12.2 12.6
WQT 12.8
13.4 13.1
WQT 13.2
13.9 13.5
WQT 13.8
14.2 13.9
WQT 14.1

Minimum Specified
Properties
Tensile Strength (Rm)N/mm 2
Yield Stress (ReL) or
0.2% Proof Stress (RpO.2)
N/mm 2
Elongation on 5.65x/A %
Angle of Bend
Radius of Bend
Charpy V-notch Impact, J
Brinell Hardness
Final Heat Treatment

Representative Physical
Properties
Specific Gravity
Specific Heat (c)
J/Kg C at 29C
Thermal Conductivity (k)
W/mC

20C-500C
29C-600C
Electrical Resistivity
(/9) microhm m at 20C
Youngs Modulus (E)
N/mm 2

Modulus of Rupture
N/mm 2
Modulus of Rigidity
N/mm2
Endurance Limit
N/mm 2
Notched
Un-notched

311

AorN

A
A
2,290
2,288
AorN
AN or WQT
203,864-207,725 209,579-211,587 210,815
214,212
A
494
A
73,360
N
75
N
230

2,354
A 209,019
N 213,205
QT 2 1 3 , 7 4 9

A
544
A
79,538

A
544
A
79,538

A
547
A
75,677

A
208

ANT
179 193
ANT
229 259

A
208

12.36
13.04
13.36
13.74
14.14
A
2,457
A 208, 374
N 212, 741
QT 216,734

MATERIALS IN ENGINEERING, Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

A4
1%%Mn

A5
1%Mn

B1
C-%Mo

B2
1%Cr-Mo

B3
2%Crl%Mo

B5
5%Cr-Mo

BT1

540

620

460

480

540

620

69O

320

370

260

280

325

420

495

16
-

18
120 a
1.5tab
20 a
_

17
120 a
1.5tab
30 a
140-212 d

17
120 a
3tab
25 a
156-235 d

13
90 a
3tab
25 a
179-255 d

11

30
152-270 d

13
_
25
179-229 d

35 f
201-255 d

201-255NT d

N, NT or
QT

N, N t o r
QT

NT

NT

NT

NT or
QT

QT

A, NT or
QT

WQT

WQT

NT

WQT

ANT

7.83

7.82

7.85

7.8

BW2
C-l~r

7.86

7.85

7.88

7.80

460 e

460 e

460 e

50C 100C
42.1 42.7

50C
& 100C

460 e
_
NT
WQT
50C 1 0 0 C 5 0 C 100C
30.1 30.6
39.7 39.9

WQT
13.04

WQT
12.4

12.4

11.8

11.8

NT
11.8

WQT
12.5

NT
12.50

12.32

12.8

12.8

12.5

12.3

12.0

12.7

12.98

13.83

13.3

13.1

12.6

12.6

12.3

13.0

13.26

14.44

13.9

13.4

13.3

12.9

12.5

13.4

13.39

14.92

14.6

13.8

13.7

13.4

12.7

13.9

13.49

16.28

15.0

14.2

14.0

13.8

13.0

14.4

13.53

WQT
203,015

WQT
207,571

2,421

2,870

205,910

207,100

213, 200

NT
3,720
NT
213,980

WQT
2,767
WQT
209,580

NT
212,514

565

602

86,480

81,850

NT
653
NT
81,080

WQT
661
WQT
83,400

WQT
639
WQT
83,930

NT QT
218 258
334 403

255

M A T E R I A L S IN ENGINEERING, Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

WQT
309

312

L;

O
~De~

o
o

o
o

,.-.

o
o
o

r~,.O
O

e~

~,

o
o

~"1

t""-

,d,d

o~

6
=.

t~

O'
o

E
8

e'q

'~

E
o~

0
o

o
I

r-:~--

.0
0

0",

O~
O 0

o
00

0 0 0 ~

o
o
o

O~
o

0o

O
e'q

a~

g
~
~

,-n

N
N

"~
"
eN
o

O'
O

o
o

r--

or ~
0

"~
O

o
o

O ,-~
e'~ .,.,

[-O'
O

o~.

~0ol

e~
~ ' ~
0 . .

['4

~
. .

0
=

mN

~
~

~m

313

MATERIALS

0 0 0 0 0 0
~
~
~

IN ENGINEERING,

V01.2,

~ O ~

DECEMBER

1981

Legend to Table 1 A and B


A
N
T
Q
SR
WQ
OQ
H
a
b
c
d
e
f

Annealed.
Normalised.
=
Tempered.
=
Quenched.
=
Stress Relieved.
= Water Quenched.
=
Oil Quenched.
=
Air Hardened.
Either Charpy or bend test may be specified.
t=
Thickness of test piece
Impact test is mandoatory only if specified by purchaser.
BrineU hardness is only required if requested by the purchaser and stated on the order.
25C.
Where due to design of casting, it is not practicable to liquid quench the casting it may not be possible to achieve the specified impact
properties. In such cases the values to be obtained should be agreed between the manufacturer and purchaser at the time of enquiry
or order.
-60C.
Not applicable to free machining steel.
Free machining specification in brackets.
Provision is made for supply of this steel with specified impact at low temperatures (-196C) if stated on order, if agreed between
manufacturere and purchaser.
=
=

g
h
k
m

2~

................................

o,ou0h,
c,,,

:~ .............
oo
."

1oc~o

zX.~l

lO4

i iiiiiI

lO 5

i i IiiiJ

i i ilJlJ

to 6
CYCLES T(] FAILUHF

,,i

Fig. 4(b) S-N curves for plain carbon


cast steel, normalised and
tempered and comparison

with wrought steel.

Fig. 3
I
800

I
1ooo

I
12oo

/
I aoo

T~NS~LE STRENGTH N mm 2

Fig. 2(b)

Bruce Anchor, cast in high

strength steel (Courtesy of


Bruce Anchor Ltd.).

16oo

Tensile properties of low


alloy cast steels (quenched
and tempered).

L
Plain c a r b o n , annealed
Unnotched
Wrought
Cast

test results are given in Table 21 .


Machined castings for use in marine
and slow speed diesel engines are
shown in Fig. 5.
The presence o f a notch reduces the
endurance limit o f b o t h cast and
wrought steels. Apart from notches,
surface condition has an important
bearing on fatigue properties. For
example, when t h e casting surface
remains, the endurance limit is lowered
b y 30%, compared with a polished
surface. The as-cast surface, however,
gives fatigue properties superior to asroiled or as-forged surfaces.
For design purposes, as mentioned

Notchea

prediction o f service life. Recently


generated data on these parameters
are summarised in Table 3 2, 3, 4
Fracture toughness data, mainly generated b y SCRATA, that can be used
in conjunction with the fatigue propagation data, are summarised in
Table 4.

Factors Affecting Mechanical


Properties

O
C3

The element in cast steel that influences properties more than any

2OO

lOa

Fig. 4(a)

,IJ~ll

lOs
lO6
CYCLES TO F A I L U R E

lo ~

S-N curves for plain cast


steel (annealed) and comparison with wrought steel.

earlier in the text, it is important to


k n o w crack initiation and crack
propagation data, which can be used
in a truly quantitative manner for

MATERIALS IN ENGINEERING, Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

other is carbon. In general, increasing


the carbon content will raise the hardness, yield stength, and tensile strength
o f a steel, while simultaneously
ductility is decreased. For a steel o f a
given carbon content, heat treatment
can produce a wide range o f properties,
and this range becomes wider as carbon
content increases.
Alloying elements exert their influence on properties b y altering the form
and dispersion o f carbon in the steel.
They allow for greater hardness and
strength, without the loss in ductility

314

Table 2 Fatigue Properties of Typical Cast Steels in Different Conditions


of Heat Treatment with Notched and Un-Notched Test Pieces
Steel
Specification
and Type

Heat
Treatment*

Tensile
Strength
N/mm

Yield
Strength
N/mm

Reduction
of Area, %

Elongation
L=4D,%

BS 3100 A3
0.4%C

A900C
N900 o, T650C

576
649

340
386

46.7
52.2

27.5
24.5

BS 3100 A5
11/2%Mn

N900 T425C
N900 , T650C
Q845 , T620C

669
684
843

437
428
731

58.5
58.5
55.6

26.0
24.0
20.5

BS 3100 BT1
Cr-Mo

N900 , T650C
Q845 , T635C

777
1010

596
903

43.1
35.8

18.0
14.0

BS 3100 BT2
Ni-Cr-Mo

N900 , T650C
Q845 v, T650C

761
948

590
865

53.7
34.5

19.0
14.8

BS 3100 BT3
Ni-Cr-Mo

N900 , T605C
Q830 , T550C

871
1160

692
1075

50.2
17.8

14.5
9.5

Steel
Specification
and Type

Brinell
Hardness
Number

Endurance
Limit~
N/mm
UnNotched
Notched

UnNotched

Notched

Notch
Sensitivity
factor,
q

Endurance
Ratio

BS 3100 A3
0.4%C

156
187

229
259

179
193

0.40
0.40

0.31
0.30

0.23
0.29

BS 3100 A5
1% Mn

201
201
269

287
333
403

215
218
258

0.43
0.49
0.48

0.32
0.32
0.31

0.28
0.44
0.48

BS 3100 BT1
Cr-Mo

223
311

354
423

230
279

0.45
0.42

0.30
0.28

0.45
0.43

BS 3100 BT2
Ni-Cr-Mo

223
286

372
448

229
266

0.49
0.47

0.30
0.28

0.53
0.57

BS 3100 BT3
Ni-Cr-Mo

262
375

434
534

241
332

0.50
0.46

0.28
0.29

0.68
0.51

* A = Annealed; N = Normalised; Q = Liquid Quenched; T = Tempered.

which would occur if a similar hardness


were obtained by increasing the carbon
content. In the main, their purpose is
to increase hardenability in thicker
sections. This is done by altering the
thermal transformation characteristics
of the steel, with the result that more
complete hardening can take place in
thicker sections. The depth-of-hardening capabilities of a steel are measured
by the Jominy end-quench test, typical
results being given in Fig. 6 for a
1% Mn-Mo steel, and a similar steel
with a boron addition s . The top curve
for the steel containing boron shows
that high hardness is maintained at
much greater depths in the testpiece.
Alloying additions in excess of those
required for minimum hardenability
can result in some deterioration in
properties. This is possibly due to
increased segregation effects and the
presence of retained austenite 6 .

315

The section size or mass of any


metal part will affect mechanical
properties by virtue of its influence
on freezing rate and cooling rate after
heat treatment. In steel castings, the
effect of mass on mechanical properties
is due to such factors as segregation,
non-metallic
inclusions,
microstructure, and density. In studies on
the effect of mass, it has been found
that, with increasing mass, there was a
decrease in strength and ductility
measured at the centre of a section,
a decrease in density and carbon content, and a slight decrease in notchedbar impact strength 7 .
The effect of hardenability on the
mechanical properties of three section
sizes of a Ni-Cr-Mo steel is shown in
Fig. 7. The ductilities of the 30, 75
and 150mm sections do not differ
greatly from the normalised and
tempered to the quenched and temp-

ered conditions. However, the smaller


sections exhibit greater strengths and
uniformity than the larger pieces. The
bigger difference in strength from edge
to centre in the quenched steel is
merely due to the outer layers having
been fully hardened by quenching.
The important point is that the properties at the centre of each section
have been improved by quenching and
tempering, and the yield/tensile
strength ratios are considerably higher.
The fatigue test results in Fig. 8
show that, for a given steel and section
size, the fatigue properties also tend to
be lower in the centre of the section.
Since tensile strength tends to follow a
similar pattern, the change in endurance
ratio is not large. Among factors
contributing to the slight decrease in
endurance ratio are an increase in grain
size, an increase in inclusion size,
and microstructural irthomogeneity
associated with inter-dendritic segregation. This slight reduction in endurance ratio is probably of negligible
importance with regard to the performance of the section as a whole in
bending fatigue, as the outer layers
invariably are the most highly stressed.
A similar decrease in endurance ratio
at the centre of a heavy section is
also exhibited by wrought steels.
Nevertheless, reasonable uniformity
of properties can be obtained in
castings of fairly complex configuration, provided that they are properly
designed from the foundry point of
view. This mainly involves running
and feeding considerations, but heat
treatment also plays a part.

Low Temperature Properties


Heat treatment, by its effect on
microstructure, has a major influence
on impact strength and the effect is
of particular importance with ferritic
steels for low temperature service.
This is clearly illustrated by the
results of annealing, normalising, and
annealing plus normalising, for a lowcarbon steel shown in Fig. 9 s .
The transition temperatures of hardened a, ~l tempered low- and mediumalloy steels are markedly influenced by
the tempering temperature used. In
general, the effect of decreasing the
tempering temperature (i.e. raising the
hardness and tensile strength) is to
raise the impact and fracture appearance transition temperatures. In addition, the maximum impact values at
the higher testing temperatures are
lowered by decreasing the tempering

MATERIALS IN ENGINEERING, Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

Table 3 Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation Data for Cast Steels
Steel
Specification
and Type
BS 3100 A2
0.3%C
BS 3100 A2
0.3%C
BS 3100 A2
0.3%C
BS 3101/A2
0.3%C
BS 3100 A2
0.3%C
BS 3100 A2
0.3%C
BS 3100 A2
0.3%C
BS 3100 A2
0.3%C
BS 3100 A2
0.3%C
BS 3100 A2
0.3%C
BS 3100 A2
0.3%C
BS 3100 A2
0.3%C
BS 3100 A4
1%M n

BS 3100 B7
Cr-Mo-V
BS 3100 BT2
Ni-Cr-Mo
BS 3100 A4
1% Mn
BS 31/)0 B7
Cr-Mo-V
BS 3100 BT 1
Mn-Ni-Cr-Mo

R value
min. stress
max. stress

Test Block Type


Heat Treatment* and/or Size mm

0.2%
Proof Stress
N]mm 2

125 x 32 x 300

587

2 0 0 x 100 x 450

5541o576

200 x 200 x 201/

A Ko
MN/m J/ 2

2.11

8.03 X 10- 8

-10.1

3.43 x 1038

10

2.90

5 X 10-9

-18.65

3.85 x 1067

542 to 574

10

3.32

1.26X 10-8

-24.04

6.09 x 1085

125 x 32 x 3110

619

10

2.01

9.9 X 10-8

-9.67

1.58 x 1037

200 x 100 x 450

588 to 604

2.64

1.1 X 10-8

-18.25

4.45 x 1066

200 x 200 x 200

565 to 608

3.06

2.29 x 10-9

-17.21

2.38 x 1063

125 x 32 x 3011

2.11

8.03 x 10- 8

-9.93

8.98 x 1035

200 x 1011 x 4511

554 to 576

0.5

2.90

5 x 10.9

-8.02

6.02 x 1029

2110 x 200 x 2011

542 1o 574

0.5

3.32

1.26 x 10- 8

-8.26

6.3 x 1030

125x32x300

619

I).5

2.1)1

9.9 x 10- 8

-12.29

3.59 x 10 `*2

200 x 100 x 451)

588 to 604

0.5

2.64

1.1 x 10- 8

-9.11

5.38 x 1033

N
A 960C,
N 960C,
A 960C,
N 975C,
T 700C
A 900C,
OQ 9 0 0 C ,
Y 640C
A 960C,
N 960C
A 950C,
N 980C,
T 680C
SR 6 8 0 C ,
WQ 9 3 0 C ,
T 6 0 0 C and

200 x 200 x 20(1

565 to 608

0.5

3.06

2.29 x 10-9

-4.98

1.63 X 1021

2011 x 1110 x 4511

411

9.9

2.29

3 . 5 9 x 10-8

-9.93

2.42 X 1038

21111 x 100 x 4511

545

11

I 1.2

2.13

5.27 x 10- 8

-16.35

7.78 X 1060

21)(I x 100 x 4511

774

11.1

1.49

6.26 x t0- 7

-15.79

1.34 x 1059

31111 x 1011 x 132

430

2.07

10-7

-3.53

101515

31111 x 100 x 132

5011

2.11

10-6. 5

-4.02

10166

31111 x 100 x 132

7411

10-5.7

-4.76

10197

31111 x 1011 x 132

6611

1.94

10- 7.t

-4.25

101765

A 900"C,
OQ 8 8 0 C ,
T 640C

30(I x 100 x 132

8511

1.80

10-6.7

-5.0

1020.8

A 900C

3011 x 100 x 132

360

2.09

10-6.9

-3.17

1013"6

587

1).5

wo
A 900C,
WQ 9 0 0 C ,
T 5 0 0 C and
WQ Re-tempered 610(" and

BS 3100 BTI
1% Mn-M~

wo
BS 3100 BT2
Ni-Cr-Mo
BS 3100 AW3
Cr-C

* A = Annealed: N = Normaliscd; SR = Stress Relict" Annealed; WQ = Water Quenched" OQ = Oil Quenched: T = Tempered

temperature. These effects are illustrated in Fig. 10 for a 2% Ni-Cr-Mo


steel tempered to three hardness
levels s .
Austenitic stainless steels usually
retain a high toughness at very low
temperatures, although impact strength
can rapidly decrease as the temperature
is lowered. A fully austenitic structure
or a low magnetic permeability is not
necessarily a guarantee of good lowtemperature properties, although large
amounts of delta ferrrite in 18/8

types of steel will lower impact


properties. Other factors, e.g., grain
size or distribution of carbides, can
also have an effect. Non-stabilised
18/8 type steels are markedly superior
to the titanium and niobium-stabilised
steels. In general, for optimum lowtemperature properties, carbon and
stabilising additions should be kept to
a very low level.
To summarise the applicability of
the various types of steels, it may
generally be said that low-carbon

MATERIALS IN ENGINEERING, Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

cast steel is satisfactory at temperatures down to 4 0 C or -50C, lowand medium-alloy steels at temperatures down to -60C; at lower temperatures, austenitic steels are required.
Elevated Temperature Properties

Steel castings are widely used in


environments where the temperature is
above that of normal room temperature. In cases where the temperature
is not very greatly higher, no distinction
is made between the properties at that

316

Table 4 Room Temperature Fracture Toughness Data for a Variety of Cast Steels

Material
Specification
and Type

Heat Treatment*

Section
Size mm

0.2~
Proof
Stress
N/mm 2

KIC 3/~
MN/m ~;

COD**
tSi or ~c
mm

(N/mm 3/2)

K~C/Oy
m

BS 3100 B2
Plain Carbon

A 950C

25

323

0.04 to 0.08

BS 3100 A4
1V2%Mn

A 960C ,
N 960C

25

427

0 . 1 8 to 0.29

BS 3100 A4
1%M n

A 960C ,
N 960C

50
20

412

0.129 to 0.173
0.095 to 0.155

BS 3100 BTI
Mn-Ni-Cr-Mo

SR 6 8 0 ~
WQ 930C,
T 6 0 0 C and WQ

25

742

BS 3100 BT2
Ni-Cr-Mo

A 900C ,
OQ 8 8 0 C
T 640C

25

853

BS 3100 BT2
Ni-Cr-Mo

A 950C ,
SR 6 0 0 C ,
N 920C ,
T 600C

40

750 to
820

66 to 96
(2086 to
3034)

BS 3100 BT2
Ni-Cr-Mo

A 900C ,
OQ 880C,
T 640C

30

715 to
740

85
(2686)

BS 3100 BT2
1%Mn-Mo

A 930t)C ,
WQ 8 9 0 C ,
T 6 5 0 C and WQ

30

640 t()
758

BS 3100 BW2
1% Cr-C

A 920C ,
N 870C ,
T 635C

60

419

59
(1860)

0.02

0.14

BS 3100 BW2
1% Cr-C

A 920C ,
N 870C ,
T 635C

25

46(1

48
(1517)

0.02

0.1

BS 3100 B7
%Cr-%Mo-%V

A 950C ,
N 980C ,
T 6 8 0 C and
T 700C

25

504

46
(1454)

0.01

0.09

BS 3100 B7
%Cr-%Mo-%V

A 1000C,
N 1000C,
T 680C

60

367 It)

54 to 69
(1706 to
2180)

0.016 to 0.03

0.11 to 0.15

BS 3100 B7
%Cr-%Mo-%V

A 960C ,
N 975C ,

50

52 to 71
(1643 Io
2244)

0.024 to 0.07

0.09 to 0.12

72
(2275)

0.018 to 0.026

0.097

0.026 to 0.050
0.021 to 0.11

20

0.084 to 0.122

0.058 to 0.07

550
520 to
585

0.066 to 0.117

0.1

0.057 to 0.133

T 700C

20

BS 3100 AW3
0.5%C

A 900C

25

360

0.05 to 0.09

BS 3100 410C21
13%Cr

A 1050C,
N 1050C,
T 680C

60

366 to
446

0.04 t o 0.08

0.032 to 0.05

* A = Annealed; N = Normaliscd; SR = Stress Relief Anncalcd; WQ = Water Quenched; OQ = Oil Quenched; T = T c m p c r c d .


** The nomenclature for COD measurements varies according to the behaviour of the test piece. An explanation is
containcd in BS 5762.

temperature and room temperature


properties. However, at temperatures
of the order of 300C, the strength
properties deteriorate, as shown for
various steels in Fig. 11. While it is
obviously important to know the
instantaneous or short-time strength
properties of a steel at its operating
temperature, creep properties are
frequently more important for design
purposes. This is particularly true in
the case of engineering components
operating at temperatures up to about

317

750C, such as valve parts, nozzle


segments, turbine housings, impellers,
and accumulators. At temperatures
ranging up to 750C, oxidation
resistance is of secondary importance
to creep resistance but, as operating
temperatures exceed this order of
temperature, the order of importance
is reversed, and here furnace and kiln
parts may be quoted as examples.
For any given instance it may be
important to know the short-time,
long-time, and scaling properties of a

cast steel. An example is given of a


stator ring (Fig. 12(a)) used in the
Rolls Royce Olympus engine (Fig. 12

(b)).
For many applications the design
life of the component is much longer
than a practical laboratory test and it
becomes necessary to extrapolate the
experimental data. There are several
methods for data extrapolation, the
most common being based upon timetemperature parameters, which enable
a master curve to be constructed from

M A T E R I A L S IN E N G I N E E R I N G , Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

expected value, rather than average


values and in recent years an internationally agreed method has been
evolved for deriving the former values
from test data. Many standards however still contain elevated temperature
proof stress minima based upon the
wide experience of the steel industry,
and this sometimes leads to confusion, as to the design safety factors
to be applied. Typical minimum 0.2%
proof stress properties for 2%
Cr-Mo and % Cr-% Mo-% V low
alloy steels are given in Figs. 14 and
15 together with average tensile
properties.

Magnetic Properties
Because of their excellent combination of strength and suitable magnetic
properties, steel castings are very
widely used in electrical plant and
machinery. Examples of the use of
high-permeability steel castings include
electromagnetic clutches and brakes,
yokes for electromagnets, and stator
housings and armatures for electric
motors and dynamos.
To obtain high permeability, the
carbon content of the steel should be
very low. However, for many applications in electrical engineering, strength
is an additional requirement of some
importance. Consequently, in BS 3100
there are two steels, AM1 having a
lower carbon content and better
magnetic properties than AM2 which
in turn has the better strength. The
effect of carbon content is typified
in Fig. 169 . Manganese acts in the
same way as carbon in impairing magnetic properties, and it is for this reason
that the maximum amount permitted in

Fig. 5 Selection of steel castings for the marine industry. (Courtesy of British
Steel Corporation).
which stress rupture properties can be
determined at temperatures other than
the original test temperatures. There
are several ways of presenting the
stress rupture data, one of the most
common being plots of stress vs
temperature for lines of constant
rupture life. These curves are frequently plotted on the same diagram
with curves showing the proof stress
results from short-time tensile tests,
thus giving a complete description
of the mechanical properties over wide
temperature ranges. A typical graph of
this type for a 1% Cr-Mo steel is
shown in Fig. 13.
Although the tensile strength
provides useful information, the parameter used in designing components is
the proof stress. The proof stress
values in current use are the 0.2% for
carbon and low alloy (ferritic) steels,

and the 1.0% for austenitic steels. The


designer is interested in the minimum
20

10

30

40

b()

60

,,.n

800
700
>
I

600

500

~"~.,

,~ 400
"r"

~'~.

172'/,, Mn Mo

300
200

12

15

18

21

24

27

30

33

36

39

42

DISTANCE FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR, 1/16in.

Fig. 6 Jominy end-quench hardenability curves for lY2%Mn-Mo steels with and
without boron.

MATERIALS IN ENGINEERING, Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

318

Ni-Cr-Mo STEEL, N & T


30mm(11/.in 1
O SECTION~

100(]

TENSILE STRENG'~H
rl 7~mm(3in) SECTION

!150mm (6in)
A SECTION

800

E 600
Z

~ 600

40C ~
50
40-

30-

~ 20-

0.

10
40
I

30Z

'-30 mm( 1v,dn)


,_

75

mm(3in)

150 mm (6in)

-I

Fig. 7(a) Distribution of tensile properties across a 150mm (6 in.) section of


Ni-Cr-Mo cast steel, after normalising and tempering.
these steels is U.5 per cent I o
When selecting the grade required
for a particular application, a compromise must be made between these
opposing factors. If, however, a
material of very much higher strength
is required, the carbon content may be
raised or alloying additions may be
made. Of the usual alloying elements,
carbon is preferred since it gives the
most favourable relationship between
gain in yield strength and loss in
magnetic induction 11.

(e.g. less than 0.25%) 1 o , 1 2 , 1 3


Aluminium, which is very necessary
for deoxidation of low carbon steels
also has no significantly adverse
effect upon magnetic properties, when
used in normal amounts (e.g. not more
than 0.2% added weight) 12 . Nonmetallic inclusions, when small and
evenly distributed, have no significant effect on magnetic properties 14.

In applications where there is an


alternative magnetic field, it is important to know the hysteresis curve of
Silicon and residual elements (S, P, the steel, as wide hysteresis loops
Cr, Ni, Mo, Cu, Pb, Sn, V) have only represent considerable energy loss.
small effects upon magnetic properties, For carbon contents between 0.10
and are insignificant when the steel is and 0.34%, hysteresis loss varies from
of normal commercial carbon content 9,600 to 11,600 ergs/cc/cycle for a

319

flux density of 1.9 tesla. For applications


involving
intermittently
applied magnetic fields, such as in
magnetic brakes and clutches, the
residual magnetism should be low 1 s
Designers of electrical apparatus
sometimes require non-magnetic cast
steels. For this purpose, cast austenitic
manganese steel is excellent, as not
only is it virtually non-magnetic with
a permeability of 1.002 to 1.003,
but also it is able to withstand severe
wear16. Where improved machinability
on non-magnetic steel is required, the
composition may be modified by
lowering the carbon content to 0.2%,
lowering the manganese content to
10.0%, and adding approximately
7.0% of nickel.
For other purposes, non-magnetic
corrosion-resisting steels may be required. Austenitic chromium-nickel
steel is occasionally found to be
slightly magnetic, whether in worked
or cast form. This is because of the
presence of a small amount of ferrite,
resulting from a particular balance of
alloying elements 17.
Section thickness can also influence magnetic properties, as illustrated by the data I 8 in Table 5.
With regard to the general corrosion
resistance of 18/8 type steel at normal
temperatures, magnetic properties have
no relation to the applicability of the
casting. Furthermore, non-magnetism
is not necessarily a criterion when
considering the possibility of embrittlement at elevated temperatures
by sigma phase. Consequently, very
low magnetic properties of steel
castings need only be a requirement
in electrical applications where nonmagnetic material is essential.

Wear-Resisting Properties
The replacement of steel parts
that wear in service can be an expensive
item and may form a major part of
the cost of the process being carried
out. Apart from the actual cost of
replacements, down-time on the
machine can represent a considerable
loss.
Resistance to abrasion by nonmetallic materials is a function not
only of the steel, but also of the
environmental
conditions.
Three
general types of wear have been
recognised, i.e. gouging abrasion,
grinding or high-stress abrasion, and
scratching or low-stress abrasion. In
any particular service, more than one
of these types of wear may operate,

MATERIALS IN ENGINEERING, Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

Ni-Cr-Mo STEEL, WQ & T


30mm (1'/4in) TEN7SlLI~ STRENGTH I
O SECTION
[]
mn~ (3in) SECTIC~N
~
,"'t"3~ ~ C ~ ,

,I

but it is usually possible to isolate the


dominant type.
Gouging abrasion is actually a
cutting process that occurs when rocks
or other lump materials cut into a
wearing surface. It can occur at high
or low velocities, and can be accompanied by severe impact, which can be
the main factor deciding the selection
of a suitable wear-resistant material.
Grinding or high-stress abrasion occurs
when two surfaces rub together in the
presence of an abrasive material, e.g.,
when gritty materials are crushed
between the two surfaces. While
overall loads may be low, the stress
on individual areas is very high.
Scratching or low-stress abrasion or
erosion occurs when loose particles
move freely on the wearing surface.
In this type of abrasion, impact forces
are low, so that relatively brittle
materials can be used.

150mm
Z~ (6m)
SECTION

:N

_E
E 80

z
tj ? "

10oo-

( :.t' Y I F L D STRENGTH

800

50

REDUCTION OF AREA

40 -

3o
~
20
3.
lo
40

ELONGATION

IN 5 0 m n

(2inl

3o

-3-.- 2O
,

~0
I

150 m m (6in)

SECTION SIZE

Fig. 7(b) Distribution of tensile properties across a 150mm (6 in.) section of


Ni-Cr-Mo cast steel, after quenching and tempering.
Table 5 Magnetic Permeability of Thick and Thin Sections of 18/8 Steel
Castings in Relation to Ferrite Content

Thin Section, 20ram

Thick Section, 75mm

Magnetic

Ferrite

Magnetic

Permability

(%)

Permeabifity

1.005
1.010
1.084
1.150
1,316
1.659
2.829

0
0
0.7
1.8
3.2
8.0
16.2

1.005
1.025
1.105
1.615
1.665
2.315
3,753

MATERIALS IN ENGINEERING, Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

Ferrite
(%)
0
0.4
2.3
7.5
7.0
I0.0
19.0

320

% FIBROUS FRACTURE

CHARPY V-NOTCH IIVIPACT ENERGY(J)


, 0

~Zr~

,=k

~.
.-~
.-t

X,\, X~,,

~1~

\~

!J! \

I
I
I

~3

r;'==

o o =

I
I

I
I

I
< m

o
r~

=~

o_
B
=

=.

ml
t~

321

MATERIALS IN ENGINEERING, Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

0
--

I
I
I
I
|

0
to-

o
O

x,

\
\

o~

\
x
,~~,,,,,,\'\" \\
\

U,I

e~

\\

a
z

h-

e-

I--

r-

t0

<

\
\

>-

~ o
o

0
0

0
L~

oW

3EIfIIC)VU=I snoEI813 %

(r) AE)EI~IN3 IOVdlAII H~)ION-A AdEI~H3

Q;

E
eC13

o=N

.I

< ....

E
0
-

.
tO

r-

t0

~ .5 .5

E E
E E

E
E

P3 t'~

~ - - ~

!?)

63~

U.J

.E

O
N

cO
o

m,
Z

~J
O0

r-

oc]~

~uJUJlN 111/~17 30NVEInQN3

MATERIALS IN ENGINEERING, Vol. 2, DECEMBER 1981

322

ro~
60
.40--

7oo

7O

320-300--

REDUCTION
OF AREA

TENSILE
STRENGTH

780F
760-

z 500

00
<

5o

50000 h

?4t
2~t

~. 400
^

<

18[

3o _g
Min02,proofstres

~ ~

J,o

200

:c

ELONGATION

1or

ii!

too

2o0

t
3O0

400

500

60

TEMPERATURE, C
1

100

200

I.

300

400

500

600

Fig.

TEMPERATURE. C

Mean values and typical minimum 0.2% proof stress for


2%Cr-Mo cast steel (BS
1504-622).

14

Fig. 13 Typical minimum 0.2% proof


stress and average stress rupture values for 1%Cr-Mo
Cast steel (BS 1504-621).
;~oo

/.o
<

rt r~SILE STHENGTH

,o

1oo

ELONGATION

....

NORMALfSED

- -

AN.ea~eo

~ %
I

loo

MAGNETI~NG FIELD ~ A~

rl

,o'o

2~o

'

300

'

4OO

"

5 0

'

60O

.......~ ......

Fig. 16 Magnetisation curves for 0.10% and 0.34% carbon steels in the annealed
and normalised conditions.

Fig. 15 Average values and typical


minimum 0.2% proof stress
for ~%Cr-~%Mo-%V cast
steel (BS 1504-660).

323

MATERIALS

IN E N G I N E E R I N G ,

Vol. 2, D E C E M B E R 1981