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Yale University Department of Music

Enumeration of Synthetic Musical Scales by Matrix Algebra and a Catalogue of Busoni Scales
Author(s): Robert M. Mason
Source: Journal of Music Theory, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Spring, 1970), pp. 92-126
Published by: Duke University Press on behalf of the Yale University Department of Music
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/843038
Accessed: 21-12-2015 07:52 UTC
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92
Enumeration

Synthetic

by

of

Musical

Scales

Matrix

Algebra

I have made an attempt to exhaust the possibilities


of the
arrangement of degrees within the seven-tone scale; and
succeeded, by raising and lowering the intervals, in estabThese
lishing one hundred and thirteen different scales.
113 scales (within the octave C-C) comprise the greater
part of our familiar twenty-four keys, and, furthermore,
a series of new keys of peculiar character.
But with these
the mine is not exhausted, for we are at liberty to transpose each of these 113, besides the blending of two such
keys in harmony and melody. *1
Ferruccio

Busoni (1866-1924)

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93

and

Catalogue

of

Busoni

Scales

ROBERT M. MASON
Busoni's

Problem

In 1966 the musical world celebrated the 100th anniversary of


the birth of Ferruccio Busoni. Although he is better known, of
course, as a composer and performing artist whose creative
life spanned the transitional period between the romantic and
modern styles, Busoni is recognized also for his pioneering
contributions to musical theory. As a theoretician he must be
given credit for posing a sparkling little problem in applied
combinatorial analysis - a problem of musical scale synthesis
that later intrigued J. Murray Barbour. *2

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94
As almost everyone knows, the seven letters from A to G, arranged in the order C, D, E, F, G, A, B, denote that sequence
of tones and intervals referred to as the "one-octave, ascending scale of C major", or commonly, the "C major scale".
scales by
Busoni's proposal for forming synthetic musical
or
of
the
C
scale
was
studied
tones
by
major
flatting
sharping
Barbour in his 1929 paper. Since a sharp (#) or a flat (6) is a
musical sign telling the performer to raise or lower a tone one
applications of sharps and
halfstep in pitch, indiscriminate
flats to the C major scale might, in the equitempered system,
lead to tonal duplication (exemplified by G#Ab) or to overlapping
(exemplified by ElFL), which are prohibited. Barbour circumvented both of these complications by rephrasing the conditions
of Busoni's problem in terms of a particular musical instrument - the harp - and the way in which its natural scale can be
modified by pedal settings.
Usually the note C is marked as the starting point or entrance
to the scale of C major. If some other letter is chosen instead
to signify the "keynote", and the remaining letters are rotated,
the resulting cyclic rearrangement of the notes of the C major
scale is termed a "modal variant" of the C major scale. Having
decided to exclude modal variants, Barbour counted the scaletunings of the harp subject to this criterion by determing first
the number of two-tone fragments, then the number of threetone fragments, and so on, until he reached complete scales.
He found that Busoni's count of synthetic musical scales starting on C is somewhat less than the true number (155) of such
scales formed in accordance with Busoni's declared method.
In his 1949 paper, which was presented before the Acoustical
Society of America, Barbour elaborated on his earlier results.
He observed that "not all [sixty-six]
heptatonic scales can be
notated with seven letter names unless double sharps and flats
are used. "
Although retaining the general pattern of Barbour's approach,
the present study systematizes
the enumeration by using the
a method well adapted to digital compualgebra of matrices,
ters.
By employing standard mathematical procedures as a
framework within which to carry out the required enumeration,
rather than the less-familiar
harp tunings used by Barbour,
the present construction readily permits an extension of the
solution to five inflections (x, #, , 6,6
, ). An examination of the
catalog of Busoni scales (see Table 1) accompanying this enumeration demonstrates the correctness
of Barbour's observations.
Yet, such an examination reveals that six inflections

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95
are needed in order to write down all sixty-six
in every key.

heptatonic scales

Moreover, putting the matter in terms of musical intervals and


their relationships
avoids the introduction of Barbour's conIt also demonstrates that
cepts of duplication and overlapping.
an enharmonic mapping of the literal alphabets onto the twelve
tones of the equitempered system is not essential to solving
Until an enharmonic mapping is made in
Busoni's problem.
the concluding section, observe that Fb is not equal to E, and
Cx (C#a) is not equal to D. This is true for the simple reason
that no assumption has been made to the contrary.
Synthetic Musical Scales
It will be helpful in the beginning if certain terminology,
explained in detail in a recent paper by the present author *3, is
stated once more in brief summary.
Thus, a "musical interval" is made up of two tones whose corresponding frequencies
are recognizable as an accepted musical interval relationship.
Such an interval relationship always can be expressed by the
traditional terms:
"perfect, major, minor, augmented, diminished, first, second, third, and so on." This provides assurance that no matter which two notes are chosen from the
musical staff, the resulting interval will be a musical interval.
To give several extreme examples, D#F### forms an augmented third, C6E6b6 forms a diminished third, and FbbBx
forms a quintuply augmented fourth.
By definition adopted here, an interval is "disconnected" and
the associated interval relationship is "partitioned" by inserting
one or more note names in between the endnotes.
For example, the interval CC, whose endnotes are in an octave-interval
can be disconnected in many ways. One familiar
relationship,
way would be to split it into seven smaller intervals: CD, DE,
EF, FG, GA, AB, BC. So, the C major scale CDEFGABC may
be considered to arise from disconnection and to correspond
to a partition of the octave into seven interval parts.
The simple idea of octave partitioning suggests a very general
concept, to be called a "synthetic musical scale". A "synthetic
musical scale" is a partition of the octave into smaller musical
interval relationships.
From this general point of view, the
final interval of any given synthetic musical scale closes a circuit to bring the melodic path back to the keynote, and if the
octave CC momentarily is considered to be indistinguishable
from the unison CC, the melodic path may be said to return to

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95
its starting point. To illustrate, various musical intervals can
be connected to form a chain beginning with C, as follows:

CD + DE + EF + FG + GA + AB + "BC" = CC.

(1)

The interval "BC" is enclosed in quotation marks to indicate


that it is the final interval required to complete the synthetic
In 1929 Barbour measured these intervals in
musical scale.
which is equivalent to restating equation 1 as:
semitones,

2+2+

1 +2+2+2+

1 = 12.

(2)

Thus, equation 2 must be interpreted


equitemperament.
For present purposes,
2 + 2 + (-5)+2

from the standpoint of

it is better to re-express

+ 2 + 2 + (-5) = 0,

equation 2 as:
(3)

in order not to introduce equitemperament.


The zero on the
right-hand side of equation 3 now represents the octave CC in
the same fashion as a zero residue represents an integer mulNow some
tiple of the modulus in an arithmetic congruence.
of the integers in equation 3 bear algebraic signs. This results
from the fact that equation 3 refers to a series of tones in Pythagorean temperament and is therefore not the same as equation
2 in equitemperament.
Recalling that the Pythagorean system is based upon the octave
and the fifth using the ratios 2:1 for the octave and 3:2 for the
fifth, it is possible to express the frequency ratio f(T) of an
arbitrary Pythagorean tone T as the number f(T) = 2s(3/2)t:1=
2s(3/2)t, where s and t are suitably chosen integers and the
basic reference frequency is unity. The set of all tones bearing
the same note name T has the set of associated frequencies:
2-2(3/2)t,
2-1(3/2)t,
(3/2)t, 21(3/2)t , 22(3/2)t
....
.....
This set forms an equivalence class with respect to the relation
of octave congruence, so that the whole class can be represented
by a single member, which for convenience is takento be (3/2)t.
In other words, the appropriate variable factor 2s is suppressed
while the tones with the same value of t are lumped together.
Hence, the frequency ratio of a given interval XY can be written
as:
R = f(Y)/f(X)

= (3/2)m:(3/2)n

= (3/2)m-n:1,

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97
where m and n are suitably chosen integers.
The numbers that
appear in equation 3, so-called "I-values" (see Reference 3),
are defined to be the logarithm on the base 3/2 of this ratio,
that is to say,

I = m - n.

Although it has just been demonstrated that equation 3 is deeply


rooted in the Pythagorean system,
the physical significance
attached to I-values is not vital, and in fact is restrictive
to
the present outlook. Rather, consider these values as numerical labels that have been attached to the various names of musical interval relationships
without regard to temperament,
Then, the
simply to help mechanize the enumeration process.
door remains open for assigning any physical interpretation to
the resulting scale notations that will be useful, without mental
encumbrance.
Accordingly,
enlarging upon ideas found in the
first paragraph of Section 5 of Reference 2a, "Busoni scale"
may be defined independently not only of the C major scale but
also of both the Pythagorean and equitempered systems as being
any synthetic musical scale of eight degrees that comprises a
chain of undiminished seconds.
Of course the synthetic scale
restriction
Since
implicitly assumes a 2:1 octave ratio still.
the undiminished seconds can be shown to correspond to I-values -5, 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, and so on (see Reference 3), an
equivalent definition may be stated as follows: A Busoni scale
is any ascending sequence of eight tones whose adjacent notes
bear interval relationships
with I-value labels equal to -5, 2,
9, 16, 23, 30, and so on.
reRestating the conditions of this definition mathematically
veals that the Busoni scales are related to, and in fact structurally specified by solutions of the following partition equation:
O

= N1(-5)

+ N2(2) + N3(9) + N4(16)+

N5(23)+

N6(30)

....

(4)
where the coefficients of the I-values (that is, the Ni) are nonnegative integers that together total seven. Obviously, for the
major

scale,

N1 = 2, N2 = 5, and for i> 2, Ni = O.

But there

are other solutions to this partition equation corresponding to


other Busoni scales.
Interest consequently centers on allpossible sets of coefficients
Ni that will satisfy equation 4.
To find these solution sets it is best to start out by giving successive integral values to N1 beginning with the smallest admissible.
It is soon obvious that no solution exists for N1

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93
equal to either O"or 1. It follows that all Busoni scales must
contain at least two minor seconds.
Also evident is the fact
that no solutions are possible for N1 greater than 6. Consequently all Busoni scales are devoid of intervals stretched beyond the quadruply augmented mark. (See Reference 2b.)
Each row of Chart 1 contains a set of coefficients
Ni that balances the partition equation, equation 4. To illustrate the
meaning of the entries in this chart, the fourth solution says
that
4(5-)

+ 2(2) + 1(16) = 0.

This equality implies that many different Busoni scale struc= 105)
tures or modes exist (the exact number being 7!/(4!2!)
that are formed by arranging four minor seconds (m 2nd), two
major seconds (M 2nd), and one doubly augmented second (++
2nd) in every possible way. The factorial expressions
on the
right state the number of interval permutations that are possible for each combination of intervals
specified by the N's.
Barbour established the total to be 462 heptatonic modes. As
a check, this result can be shown to agree with the coefficient
of the zero-th power term in the expansion of the associated
generating function: *4
-5

(u

+u

+u

+u

16

+u

23

+u

30

).

(5)

The number of different Busoni scale structures,


462, when
divided by the number of modal variants for a heptatonic scale,
7, yields the number of harmonically distinct seven-tone scales
that are theoretically possible, 66.
Before attempting to count the Busoni scales themselves,
it is
advisable to digress briefly for a discussion of literal notation
and a review of matrix algebra.
Literal Notation
Consider two sets, a set of letters

A, B, C, D, E, F, G called L
, 66, ...
called I. Modern
musical notation is based on a new set made up of ordered
pairs produced by choosing the first element of the pair from
L and the second from I, in that order. This so-called "Cartesian product" set, written L x I (read "L cross I"), is termed
a literal alphabet. If the set I is restricted to an odd number
of inflections centered on b, the resulting truncated literal aland a set of inflections

..,

x,x,.

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99
CHART
1

Heptatonic Scale Family

I
1949)l

Classification

Nmber ofBusoni

(Barbour,

IScale Structures

Class
I 2 5=
I7
3

Class
II

Class
III
Class IV

114
4

3! 140

1--1

Class VII

1!

++ 2nd

+++ 2nd

+++- 2nd

m 2nd

M 2nd

+ 2nd

7!

412!

105
105

----1

Relationshi
p1
Intervalship

=3!

4I2--'!=

Class
V 5 01 1
Class VI

21

5!2!

5.!

5!

=42
= 42

7 =
6!

Total: 462

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100
phabet is said to be "balanced".
The musical symbolism required for the remainder of this discussion is customary and consists of two balanced literal alphabets that are obtained by taking two particular subsets of
L x I. These subsets are based on three and five inflections
and contain twenty-one and thirty-five literals,
respectively.
Graphically, the two literal alphabets may be depicted as sets
of points on a planar lattice, as shown in Figure 1.
The following brief review of the simple mathematical elements
called "matrices" is included here to facilitate the mathematically untrained musical reader's understanding of the subsequent material.
Matrix Algebra
First of all, a matrix P is defined as a rectangular
numbers p, which may be represented as follows:

array of

* "
P11 P12
'Pln
* *
P21 P22
P2n
P ~.

(6)

Pm1 Pm2

"

Pmn

By convention the first subscript on p denotes the row in which


that p occurs, the second subscript denotes the column. The
next paragraph explains what is meant by "matrix multiplication".
Provided that the matrix Q has exactly as many rows as the
matrix P has columns, the product of P and Q may be defined
to be another matrix R:
R = PQ.

(7)

Otherwise, the operation of matrix multiplication is undefined.


The element rij appearing in the ith row and jth column of the
product matrix R is obtained as follows:
Multiply the first
element in the ith row of P by the first element in the jth column of Q, then the second element in the ith row of P by the
second element in the jth column of Q, and so on. The sum of
all these products,

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101
FIGURE
I

zz0

Literal Alphabets

-0--0-j--o0
0

35 LITERAL ALPHABET
21 LITERAL ALPHABET

0O
0

"I

FF

D
o
LET TERS
LETTERS

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102
r.

n
=

Pil1j

+Pi 2q2j ++..

+P innj=1

ikqkj '

(8)

is the element required to occupy the ith row and jth column of
the product matrix R.
This definition implies that matrix multiplication is associative
and distributive, but not commutative.
These terms mean that
for any three matrices for which multiplication
is possible,
say U, V, W, it is always true that:
U(VW) = (UV)W

ASSOCIATIVE LAW

(9a)

U(V + W) = UV + UW

DISTRIBUTIVE LAW

(9b)

and it is often true that


UV

VU

FAILURE OF COMMUTATIVE LAW

(9c)

If P and Q denote the same matrix, then formula 8 gives its


second power or square. In this case, however, the number
of rows m must equal the number of columns n for the multiplication to be defined (see equation 6). The square of the matrix P is denoted by
P2 = (P)P

= P(P).

Successively
higher positive integral
be defined recursively,
so that
P3=

(2)p=

powers of a matrix

can

p(p2)

and, in general,
Pv= (Pv-1
Precedence

)=p(pv-1).

(10)

Matrices

In general a precedence matrix" is defined to be a square array (m = n) of zeros and ones, such that the entry in the ith
row and the jth column equals 1 if a corresponding precedence
relation holds, and the entry equals 0 otherwise.
A precedence
matrix P is a mathematical way of showning, for example, how
certain
ordered

events (the soundings


in time (when a scale

of tones) E1, E2 .....,


En are
If tone Ei is struck
is played).

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103
immediately before tone E in any scale, then the element in
the ith row and the jth column of P, i. e., pij, is set equal to
one. If tone Ei is not struck immediately before tone Ej, this
element is assigned the value zero.
Now if a 1 appears in the ith row and the jth column of a given
precedence matrix, then a 0 must appear in the jth row and ith
column of the same matrix, since usually if something immediately precedes something else, it cannot also immediately
follow. By the same token, all the elements in the ith row and
the ith column (that is, the elements P11' P22
Pii*
*....
....
something
Pnn) must be zero, because in normal circumstances
cannot immediately precede itself.
Example
Consider the direct precedences defining the ascending C major
scale (see equation 1), which constrain the scale steps to be
taken in a fixed order. Thus, if "<" denotes "must immediately
precede", the C major scale is defined by these precedence
relations
C<D, D<E, E<F, F<G, G<A, A<B, and B<C.

(11)

The precedence matrix for the C major scale, therefore,


is
constructed as follows.
(Recall that an entry of 1 is going to
indicate that the note designating the row in which the 1 appears
immediately precedes the note designating the column in which
the same 1 appears.)
Columns
CDEFGAB
C

0100000

0010000

0001000

0000100

0000010

0000001

1000000

(12)

The 1 at the intersection of the C row and the D column of expression 12 means that in the corresponding C major scale

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104
"note C immediately precedes note D"; the 1 at the intersection
of the F column and the E row means that in this same scale
"note F immediately follows note E".
The Three-Inflectional

Case

To apply the previous ideas to Busoni's problem, it is necesThe matrix P for the threesary to work with larger matrices.
inflectional
case (see Figure 2) is constructed
as follows.
First, the twenty-one literals of the alphabet are listed both
across the top and down the left-hand side of the matrix. A
given literal designates the same row and the same column.
For example, D6 designates row four and column four in the
chosen matrix.
the literals
Subject to this single restriction,
may be assigned arbitrarily. *5 From Barbour's point of view,
these twenty-one designations are the various notes of the harp.
Second, each pair of literals having a direct precedence is entered into the matrix by the following rule of construction:
Whenever the interval relationship between the lower note (labeling row i) and the upper note (labeling column j) is an undiminished second, the element pij occuring in the ith row and
the jth column of the matrix P is assigned the value 1; otherwise this element is assigned the value zero.
Precedence matrices are useful not only because they represent
the sequence in which steps must be taken, but also because
their powers have an interesting interpretation.
To illustrate,
if Z denotes a precedence matrix, the entry in the ith row and
the jth column of Z2 gives the number of second-order precedences implicit in Z. The next few paragraphs describe the
formation of P2.
A precedence matrix is squared by multiplying it by itself using
the row-by-column rule given before for ordinary matrix multiplication (see equation 8). As it now stands, however, the
matrix P (Figure 2) is too large to handle conveniently.
Luckily
the calculation can be simplified by a mathematical trick. The
details of the trick are as follows: Let x and y denote the following submatrices of P:

x =

and y =

0 1 1

(13)

matrix
the P may be written follows:01
more compactly as
11Then
Then the matrix

P may be written

more

compactly

as follows:

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105
FIGURE
The P matrix - a precedence matrix for Busoni scales based on a twenty-one
literal alphabet. (Zero elements are suppressed.)

111

C
C

II1

1 1 1
Db
D

I1l
1 1
1 1

Eb,1
E

1 1 1
1I1 1 1

F
E
Fb,1
EG

1
I

1 11
1 1

G
G

l1l
11
A

Ab
A1

11I 1

Bb, 1 1 1
B
11

B$t

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100
Ox00000
0000
00x

000y000
P =

0000

x 00

(14)

00000x0
000000x
yO000000
The resulting seven by seven "partitioned matrix" is a symbolic expression of the original twenty-one by twenty-one matrix (Figure 2). Note that each 0 in the compact expression
really stands for a submatrix of zeros:
000

0=

0 0 0 .

(15)

000
Partitioned matrices are multiplied in the normal way by treatFor multiplicaing the submatrices as if they were elements.
tion of partitioned matrices to be possible, the first matrix
must be partitioned as to columns in the same way that the
second matrix is partitioned as to rows. By matrix multiplication, successive powers of P, in its partitioned form, can
be determined easily.
When the precedence matrix P is squared, the elements in the
resulting product matrix show the number of Barbour's threetone fragments.
For clarity,
0 x 000002
00

x 000

000

0 0

y 000

x 00
0 0 0 0 0 x 0
x

000000

the particular

x2=

111
111
011

0
0

Ox2

xy

Oyx

y 000000
where

Oxy

0000

Ox2

Oyx
0

0x2

submatrices

are calculated

111
111
011

233
233,
122

(16)

0,

as follows:

(17a)

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107
xy =

yx=

111
1 1 1
011

111
0 1 1
001

111
011

111
111

001

011

123
1 2 3
012

(17b)

233
122,

(17c)

011

(Note from equations 17b and 17c that yx xy; this illustrates
the behavior expressed in 9c.) As an example of the interpretation of 17a, consider the position of x2 in the top part of P2:
CT
C

C#

Eb E E#
2
2
1

3
3
2

3
3
2

This portion of P2 shows that there are just two three-tone


fragments connecting note C to note Eb. These are, of course,
CDbEb and CDEb. (See Reference 2a; in particular, Table 1.)
The corresponding entry of P3 must be zero because there are
no four-tone fragments connecting note C to note Eb. The product matrix p3 is multiplied again by P and the process continues until the seventh power is formed.
Discussion of these
powers is postponed until a later section.
The Five-Inflectional

Case

The precedence matrix Q for Busoni's problem in the fiveinflectional case is shown in Figure 3. Let x and y now stand
for the following submatrices of Q:
11111
1 1 1 1 1
x =

0 1 1 1 1

0 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 1 1

and y =

Then Q has the form symbolic


can be determined easily.

11111
0 1
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0

1 1
1 1

(18)

1 1
0 1

of P and its first seven powers

in both P and Q, because


Technically there are inconsistencies
in every Busoni scale the penultimate tone leads once again to
the starting tone. *6 As an example, the leading tone B of the
scale of C major returns to the tonic C, which was the starting
These inconsistencies
are permissible
because such
point.
loops are legitimate and it is only in the seventh powers of P

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1o08
themselves

and Q that they manifest


Complete

of Busoni

Listing

for the first

time.

Scales

of the 1254 Busoni


Table 11t gives an exhaustive
presentation
The 363 synthetic
scales
with five inflections.
musipossible
cal scales counted by Barbour are embedded in this catalog and
are marked by asterisks.
indicates
Each arrowhead
the enstructure
and the beginning of a family
trance of a new scale
of heptatonic
These 66 Busoni
scales related by transposition.
are categorized
scale families
inby the following
completely
dex, which gives the line number 1 of the first scale in each
h for every characteristic
harfamily to have the designation
seven. *7
mony of cardinality
h
127
191
223
239
247
251
253
319
351
367
375

1
0003
0370
0209
1086
0952
0759
0175
0129
0843
0403
0564

h
379
381
415
431
439
443
445
463
471
475
477

1118
0057
0234
1220
0306
0899
0439
0972
1016
0648
0034

h
487
491
493
499
501
505
607
623
631
635
637

1029
1213
1154
0711
0111
0825
0325
0539
1047
0479
0350

h
671
687
695
699
701
719
727
731
733
743
747

1
0864
1178
0945
0800
1246
0590
1195
0257
0392
0674
0287

h
749
755
757
823
827
829
847
855
859
861
871

0935
0990
0473
0627
0601
1069
0779
1143
0912
0683
0513

h
875
877
885
925
939
941
949
981
1367
1371
1387

0875
0737
0155
1107
0427
1239
1188
0197
0092
0452
1252

Tables 2 and 3 contain numerical


data about the many scales
listed
in Table 1.
These data were found by evaluating
the
P and Q. Table 2 displays
successive
the
powers of matrices
sum

+ P

S21 =P+P

+ P

+ P

+ P

obtained by adding the corresponding


elements
seven matrices.
Table 3 displays
Similarly,
S35 = Q + 02
By summing
power matrix

in this way,
is condensed

(19)

p7

of each of these
the sum
(20)

Q4 + Q5 + Q6 + Q7
the information
contained
without disturbance.

in

each

There are three kinds of numbers


in Tables 2 and 3. Those
along the main diagonal (bold) show at a glance the number of

All Tables

have been placed

at the end of the article.

- ed.

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109
FIGURE
The Q matrix - a precedence matrix for Busoni scales based on a thirty-five
literal alphabet. (Zero elements are suppressed.)

C~)1

1 1 1 1
1111
1 11
1 1

C
Cs
Cx

Db

11 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1111

Dfr
D
Dx
EbC1
E
E

1 1

El
Ex
FbC
FC
F
Ft
Fx
Gb,
Gfr
G
Ge
Gx

1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1111
1 1
1

A~lP
Afr

Ab

AW
Ax
B
Bf
B
Bt
Bx

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
111
1
1

1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1111
1

11

1 1
1 1 1 1 1
I 1! 1 1
111
1 1
I

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110
complete Busoni modes that correspond to the row or column
label. Those in boxes along the main diagonal (italic), excluding
main diagonal entries (bold), relate to two-octave Busoni scales
And those
and thus should be regarded as spurious solutions.
situated elsewhere (roman) reveal the number of fragments
that radiate from the corresponding row label as keynote or
lead into the corresponding column label as endnote.
Focusing attention on Table 2, the sequence of entries reading
from left to right along the bottom row of S21 states that there
is a unique two-tone fragment from B# to C#. Building upon
that, there is a single three-tone fragment ending on D and another ending on D#. Continuing in the same direction, there
is just one four-tone fragment from B# to Eb, although there are
two of them from B# to E and from B# to E#. Moreover, there
are a total of nine five-tone fragments with keynote B#. (Actually 1 + 3 + 5 is a row sum of p4; column sums have a meanthere are 22 six-tone
ingful interpretation too. ) Likewise,
fragments starting on B#, of which four terminate on G6, and
there are 57 seven-tone fragments starting on B#, of which 13
terminate on Ab. Again, there are 92 attempts (35 + 57) to
form Busoni scales starting on B# that failed because the endnotes (B6 and B, respectively) do not match the keynote. Finally, there are 57 successful
attempts to form Busoni scales
starting on B#.
The numbers (bold) generated along the main diagonals of Tables
2 and 3 - that is, along a straight line extending from the top
left to the bottom right corner of S21 and S35 - comprise an
enumeration of complete Busoni modes originating and terminating at notes labeling the row or column in which they appear.
If these diagonal elements are summed the result is called a
"trace". In mathematical
notation the trace of either S21 or
S35 may be represented by the same formula,
n

tr S =

k=1

Skk,

or

tr S =

i= 1,

s ij.

(21)

j=i
Since tr S21 = 2541 = 7 X 363, there are 2541 Busoni modes
and 363 Busoni scales based on the twenty-one literal alphabet.
Similarly, since tr S35= 8778= 7 X 1254, there are 8778 Busoni
modes and 1254 Busoni scales based on the thirty-five literal
alphabet.

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111
Busoni Mode Names
The first family of scales set off by arrowheads in Table 1 occupies lines 0001 to 0029 inclusive.
Undoubtedly the scales in
this first section are harmonically equivalent because they are
modal variants of the major scale. To speak in precise terms,
when the tone in the r-th column of the first section is taken to
be the keynote of the scale, the scales in this equivalence class
are named as follows:
r

mode

Lydian,

Mixolydian,

Aeolian,

Locrian,

Major,

Dorian; and

Phrygian.

Convenient mode names for the remaining scales of Table 1


(that is, lines 0030 to 1254) can be created simply by attaching
the prefix "co-" to the mode name for section one corresponding
to the column containing the keynote. For example, the C harmonic scale (line 0488, r = 3) would be in the co-Aeolian mode.
Conclusion
The Basoni scales within the first section are enharmonically
identical in accordance with the collowing chart.
0001
0002
0003
0004
0005
0006
0007
0008
0009
0010
0011
0012

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0013
0014
0015
0016
0017
0018
0019
0020
0021
0022
0023
0024

=
=
=
=
=

0025
0026
0027
0028
0029

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112
Referring again to Table 1, it is apparent that within any section listing more than twelve Busoni scales those scales in
lines N and N + 12 are enharmonically identical. A close look,
however, shows that not all sections list thirteen or more
Some Busoni scales remain to be found.
scales.
As previously indicated, several conclusions
an inspection of Table 1.

can be drawn from

(a) An alphabet having only three inflections 0,


(#,
b) - as
implicit in Barbour's earlier study - is insufficient to yield
a Busoni scale to represent each of the sixty-six possible
harmonically distinct classes of heptatonic scales.

6 ), al(b) An alphabet having five inflections (x, #, b6,


though sufficient to yield at least five representatives,
nevertheless
is insufficient to ensure that all twelve enharmonically distinct Busoni scales in each such class appear at least once in the list.
(c) An extension of Table 1 to alphabets having six or more
inflections is trivial.
Enlarging upon conclusion (c), the shortest section in Table 1
extends from line 1250 to line 1254 inclusive.
As this section
is incomplete, it readily suggests seven harmonically equivalent heptatonic scales that cannot be written as Busoni scales
using only a thirty-five literal alphabet. An example of such a
scale, which is of interest because it cannot be written with
just the five inflections x, #, 4, 6, bb without having to use some
one of the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G more than once, is to be
found by taking, say, the seven leftmost tones of Figure 4.
Obviously the letter A cannot appear in any trial spelling of
this scale, and therefore, of necessity,
one of the remaining
letters must be repeated.
By introducing a sixth inflection,
say a triple sharp, * = x# = ###, a definitive solutionto Busoni's
problem can be obtained. This small luxury permits the last
section of Table 1 to be continued in the manner shown in Chart
2. *8 Other short sections can be continued in the same way.
The remarks of the preceding
two theorems.

paragraph

lead to the following

THEOREM 1: An alphabet having six inflections is both necessary and sufficient to ensure that all twelve enharmonically
distinct Busoni scales in each of the sixty-six possible harmonically distinct classes of heptatonic scales appear at least

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113
FIGURE

Enharmonic mapping of the thirty-five


equitempered system.

literal alphabet onto the twelve-tone

Tones

0 1_2f3 4 5 6 7
-

Bx

Cx

Dx

B
B$
C

C
C

Ebb

F?

Ex

Fx

E$

F$

Ab

FE

10111

9]

Gx

Ax

G$

A
-

A
-

B
C

B
C
-

CHART
2

1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1254+i
1254+2i
1254+3i
1254+4i
1254+5i
1254+6i
1254+7i

FO
COO
G b
DI0
AO
FD

BO
FO
CO
GO
Df
AO

Gx
Dx
Ax
Ex
Bx
F*
C*

GO
D*.

A.
E*
B3

A$
E$
SB
Fx
Cx
Gx
Dx
Ax
Ex
Bx
F.
C*

B
F$

C$
G$
D$
A$
E$
SB
Fx
Cx
Gx
Dx

C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
AS
E$

Di
AO
EO
BS
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$

EOO
Bp
FO
CO
GO

DW
AO
EO
Bs
F
C
G

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114
once in the list analogous to Table 1.
THEOREM 2: Every scale that has seven or fewer tones can
be written without using any letter more than once, although to
do so may require as many as six inflections.
Thus, it may be said that harmonies
distinct tones are "weakly diatonic'.

containing seven or fewer

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115
TABLE
1

BUSONISCALES
W0001

0002
0003
0004
0005
0006
0007
0008*
0O09
00100
00110
00120
00130
0014*
0015*
0016*
00170
0018*
0019
0020
0021
00220
0023
0024
0025
0026
0027
0028
0029
W0030
0031
0032
0033
0054
0035
0036
007*
00380
0039
00400
00410
00420
0043*
0044*
00450
0046*
00470
0048
0049
0050
0051
0052
0053
0054
W0055
0050
0057
0058
0059
0060
0061
00620
00630
00640
0065'
0066o
00670

FOO GOO AOC


COO DOO EOO
S
GOO A3 BOO
DO EOt FO
BOO CO
A,
EO FO GO
BOO CO DO
FO GO AS
DO ES
CS
GO AS BO
DO ES F
AS BO C
F
G
ES
D
BO C
A
F
G
D
C
E
B
A
G
D
E
F$
B
A
C$
E
F$
G$
3
B
D$
C$
A$
G$
F$
C$
D$
E$
B$
G$ A$
D$ E$
Fx
Cx
A$ B$
E$
Fx
Gx
Dx
B$
Cx
Fx
Gx Ax
FO GOO A3C
COO DO EOO
GOO A3S BOO
DO ESF0 GF
A3S BOO CO
EO FO GO
BOO CO DO
FO GO AS
DO ES
CS
GO AS BO
DO ES F
AS BO C
G
ES F
BO C
D
F
A
G
D
C
E
B
G
A
D
E
F$
B
A
C$
E
G$
F$
B
D$
C$
A$
G$
F$
E$
D$
C$
G$ A$ B$
Fx
D$ E$
FSS GOS ASS
S
COO DO
ESS
GOS ASS BOS
DOS ESS FO
ASS BOO CO
DE
FO GO
DO
BSS CS
FO GO AS
CS
DO ES
Gk AS BO
DO ES F
AS BS C
G
Eb F

BOO
DD COO E
FO GOO AOO
CO DOO EOO
GO At, BOO
DO EOO FO
AS BO CO
ES FO GO
DO
BO CS
F
GO AS
DO ES
C
AS BO
G
D
F
ES
B3
C
A
F
G
E
D
B
C
G
A
F$
E
C$ D
B
G$ A
D$ E
F$
A$ B
C$
E$
F$
G$
B$ C$
D$
Fx
G$ A$
Cx D$
E$
Gx A$
B$
Fx
Dx E$
Ax B$
Cx
Ex Fx
Gx
Bx Cx
Dx
BOO COO DO
FO GOO A
CO DOO EO
AGO BA
DO EOO F
AS BO C
cG
F
ES
B3 CS D
F
GO A
DO E
C
AS B
G
D
ES
F$
B3
A
C$
E
F
G$
B
C
D$
G
A$
F$
E$
C$ D
B$
G$ A
Fx
D$ E
A$ B
Cx
Gx
E$
F$
B$
C$ Dx
Fx
G$ Ax
Cx D$ Ex
Bx
Gx A$
BOS CS DSS
FO GO AS
CS DO ESO
GO AS BOO
FO
DO ES
AS BO CS
ES F
GO
DS
BS C
F
G
AS
C
D
ES
A
BS
G
F
D
E
A
B
C

0068"
00690
00700
0071*
0072*
00730
00740
0075
0076
0077
0078
0079
0080
0081
W0082
0083
0084
0085
0086
0087
0088
0089*
00900
0091*
00092
0093*
0094*
0095*
00960
00970
00980
0099*
0100
0101
0102
0103
0104
0105
0106
W0107
0108
0109
0110
0111
0112
0113
01140
0115*
0116*
01170
0118*
011O
B$
Fx
0120
Cx
0121
ESS
0122
BOS
0123
FO
0124
CS
0125
01206
Gk
W0127
DO
AS
0128
ES
0129
BS
0130
F
0131
C
0132
G
0133
D
0134'
(TableContinues)

EOO
BOO
FO
CO
GO
DO
AS
ES
BO
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
A$
E$
B$
Fx
Cx
Gx
Dx
Ax
Ex
EDO
3
BOO
FO
CS
GO
DO
AS
ES
B3
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
A$
E$

D
BO C
E
A
B
F
G
D
C
E
F$
A
B
G
C$
D
E
G$
F$
A
B
C$
D$
E
F$
G$ A$
B
E$
D$
C$
A$ B$
F$
G$
Fx
C$
D$
E$
Cx
G$ A$ B$
Fx
Gx
E$
D$
Cx
Dx
A$
B$
Fx
Ax
Gx
E$
FOO GOO A3S BOO
COO DSS ESS FO
GO A S BO CO
DSS ESS FO GO
DO
AS B3O CS
EO FO GO AS
BOO CO DO ES
B3
FO GO AS
DO ES F
CS
C
GO AS B3
F
G
DO ES
D
C
AS B3
A
G
ES F
D
BO C
E
B
F
A
G
D
C
E
F$
A
B
G
C$
D
E
G$
F$
B
D$
A
C$
E
G$ At
F$
B
D$
E$
C$
A$ B$
G$
F$
Fx
C$
D$ E$
Cx
G$ A$ B$
Fx
Gx
D$ E$
FOO GOO AOO BOO
COO DOO EOO FO
GOO A3S BOO CO
DOO EOO FO GO
DO
ASS B3O CS
E O FO GO AS
BOO CO DO ES
BO
FO GO Ap
DO ES F
CS
GO AS BO C
F
G
DO ES
D
BO C
At
A
F
G
ES
D
E
C
Bt
A
B
F
G
D
C
E
F$
B
A
C$
G
G$
D
E
F$
D$
B
C$
A
E
At
G$
F$
FSS GOS ASS BO
COO DOS ESS F
GoS AS B3P C
S ESS FO G
DO
D
ASS BOS CS
FO GO A
D
BOO C5 DO E
B
FO GO AS

F$
C$
G$
D$
A$
E$
Bt
Fx
Cx
Gx
Dx
Ax
Ex
Bx
CO
GO
DO
AS
ES
BO
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
A$
E$
Bt
Fx
Cx
Gx
Dx
Ax
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
A$
E$
B$
Fx
Cx
Gx
Dx
Ax
Ex
Bx
CS
GO
DO
AS
ES
BO
F
C

G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
A$
E$
B$
Fx
Cx
DO
AS
ES
BO
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
A$
E$
B$
Fx
Cx
Gx
Dx
Ax
Ex
Bx
DD
AS
ES
B3
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
A$
E$
B$
Fx
Cx
DSS
AS
ESS
BOS
FO
CS
GO
DO

A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
A$
E$
B3
Fx
Cx
Gx
Dx
EOO
BOO
FO
CS
GO
DO
AS
ES
B3
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
A$
E$
B$
Fx
Cx
ESS
B3O
FO
CS
GO
DO
AS
ES
BO
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
ESS
BOS
FO
CS
GO
DO
AS
ES

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116

01355
01360
01S70
0138
01Si9
0140
01410
0142
0143
0144
0145
0146
0147
0148
w0149
0150
0151
0152
0153
0154
0155
0156
01570
015
0159
016o
01l10
012
01630
0104
0165
010
0107
0108
0169
0170
w0171
0172
0172
0174
0175
0176
0177
0178*
01790
01W8
01810
018o
0185*
0184
015
0136
0187
0188
0189
0190
W0191
0192
0193
0194
0195
0196
0197
01960
0199
0200
0201

s5
020S
04

Cb

DO
Eb
F$
Gi
Ab Bb C$
L
F
D
EL
G$
AO Bi
C
D$
LE F
G
A$
D
SBi
C
E$
A
F
G
B$
C
Fx
D
E
Cx
B
G
A
D
Gx
E
F$
A
B
C$ Dx
E
G$ Ax
F$
Ex
B
D$
C$
A$ Bx
G$
F$
AiS Bi
Fii Gii
Dii EiO F
Cii
Gii AiD BOi C
G
Di Ei i Fi
D
Aii BOi Ci
Fi
Gk A
Ei
E
Di
BOi C
Fi
Gk Ai B
Di
Ei
Ci
F$
C$
Gk Ai Bi
F
G$
DO Ei
Di
C
Ai
D$
F
G
A$
Ei
D
C
SBi
El
A
B$
F
G
Fx
D
E
C
Cx
A
B
G
Gx
D
E
F$
Dx
B
A
C$
E
G$ Ax
F$
B
D$ Ex
C$
F$ G$ A$ Bx
Fii
Gii Au SBi
DWI Ei Fi
Ci
Gii Aii BOi C
Dii EOi Fi
G
AiO BOi Ci
D
Fi
Gi
Ei
A
DO E
Bii C
Ai
Fi
Gi
B
D
Ei
Ci
F$
Ai
G
Bi
C$
F
DO Ei
G$
Di
C
Ai
D$
G
F
Ei
A$
C
D
Bi
E$
A
F
G
B$
D
E
C
Fx
A
B
Cx
G
D
E
F$ Gx
Dx
A
B
C$
E
F$ G$ Ax
AiO i
Fii
Gii
Cii
DOi Ei
$F
Gk Ai i B
C$
DiB Ei i Fi
G$
AuO mu Ci
DI
'F
Ei
Gk At
Bii Ci
Di
E$
Fi
Ai
Gi
B$
Di
Ei
Fx
Ci
Ai
Gi
Bi Cx
F
Gx
DO Ei
A
Dx
SOi C
F
G
Ax
Ei
D
Ex
BS C

G
D
A
E
B
F$
Cl
G$
D$
A$
E$
B$
Fx
Cx
C-

Gk
Di
Ai
Ei
SB
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
A$t
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(Tabk Continues)

This content downloaded from 130.126.162.126 on Mon, 21 Dec 2015 07:52:00 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

117

0275
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( Table Continues)

This content downloaded from 130.126.162.126 on Mon, 21 Dec 2015 07:52:00 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

11i8

0415
0416
0417
W0418
0419
0420
0421
0422
0423
0424
04250
04260
04270
0428
0429
0430
0431
0432
0433
0434
,0435
0436
0437
0438
0439
0440
0441
04420
04435
04440
0445
0446
0447
0448
0449
0450
0451
W0452
0453
0454
0455
056
04,7
0458
0459"
0460
0461
0462
0463
0464
0465
0466
W0467
0468
0469
0470
0471
0472
0473
0474
0475
0476
W0477
0478
0479
0480
0481
0482
0483
0484*

F
C
G

G
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0487*
04890
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04920
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05190
05200
0521
0522
3
0525
0524
0525
0526
0527
0528
0529
0530
0551
05352
053355
0534
05355
05360
0537*
0538*
0539*

0540*
054M1
05420
0543
0544"
09545*
0546"
0547
0548
0549
0550
0551
0552
0553
30554

F
ES
C
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F
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ESS

(Table (ontinues)

This content downloaded from 130.126.162.126 on Mon, 21 Dec 2015 07:52:00 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

119

0555
0556
0557
0558
0559
0560
05610
05620
0563
0564*
05650
0566
0567
0568
0569*
0570
05710
0572
0575
0574
0575
0576
0577
0578
W0579
05880
0581
0582
D11
05815
0584
0s
0565
05870
0584
0588
05891

05900
05110
0592
0595
0594
0595
0596
0597
0598
W0599
0600
0601
0602
0605
0604
0605
0606
0607*
0608*
06090
06100
0611*
06120
06153
0614
0615
0616
0617
0618
0619
0620
0622
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0625
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0625
0626
0627
06289
0629*
06s0*
06351
06352
06533
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0650
0656
0657
06538
0659
0640
0641
0642
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0644
0645
0644
0647
0648
0649
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06510
06520
06250
06540
06550
0656
0657
0658
0630
0660
0661
0662
0665
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0664
0665
0666
0667
0668
0669
06700
0671
0672
0675
0674
0675
0676
0677
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0679
0680
0681
0682
0683
0684
06850
0686O
0687*
0688*
06900
0689*
06920
0691"
0693*

( Table Conhtiues)0690"

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This content downloaded from 130.126.162.126 on Mon, 21 Dec 2015 07:52:00 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

120

0695
0696
0697
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0700
0701
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0703
0704
0705
0706
0707
0708
0709*
0710
0711*
07120
0713*
0714*
0715*
07160
0717*

07189
0719
0720
0721
0722
0723
0724
0725
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0727
0728
0729
0720
0751
0752
0733*
0734*
0735*
07360
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0739*
073
07400
07410
0742
0743
0744
0745
0746
0747
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0751
0752
0753
0754
0755
0756
0757*
0758*
07W5

07600
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07627
0765"
0764*

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(Tabl

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0760
0767
0768
0769
0770
0771
$0772
0773
,774
0775
0776
0777
0778
06779
0790
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0782
0783*
0784*
0780
0760*
0787
0788
0789
0790
6791
0792
0793
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0795
07096
0797
0708
0799
0900
0901*
0mT02*
0905*
0w04*
050s*
0o06*
0807*
08*'
06m
0810
0811
0812
0815
0814
0815
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0817
0818
0819
0620
0821
0622
026m*
0824*
082P
0826*
027*
M092*
0820
06W
0831
0832
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122

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This content downloaded from 130.126.162.126 on Mon, 21 Dec 2015 07:52:00 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

123

1115
1116
1117
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1122
1123*
1124*
1125*
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
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1134
1135
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1137
1138
1139
1140
1141*
1142*
1143
1144
1145
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1147
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1149
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1151
1152
1153
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1155
1156
1157
11580
11590
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
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1166

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1186
1170
1171
1172
1173
11740
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
81182
1183
1184

F
Gx
A$
A
FO G
COO D
E
B
GOi A
Dii E
F9
B
A
C$
EOO F$
G$
BDO C9
D$
Fi
G$ A9
CO D$ El
Gk A9 B3
DO El
Fx
AO B$ Cx
Gx
EL Fx
Dx
BD Cx
F
Gx
Ax
C
Dx
Ex
G
Ax
Bx
Fii G
A
COO D
E
GOO A
B
DOO E
F$
Au B
C$
EOO F$
G$
BOO C
Db$
Fi
G$ A9
Ci
D$ El
Gk A$ B$
Di El
Fx
AO B3
Cx
EL Fx
Gx
BD Cx
Dx
F
Gx
Ax
C
Dx
Ex
G
Ax
Bx
A
Fii G
E
COO D
B
GOi A
DOO E
F$
AD B
C$
EOO F$ G$
BOO C$
D$
Fi
G$ Al
CO D$ El
Gk A
B3$
Fx
Di El
AO B$ Cx
EL Fx
Gx
BD Cx
Dx
F
Gx
Ax
C
Dx Ex

G Ax

Fu G
COO D
A
DO E
AO B
EOO F$
BOO C$
Fi G$
Ci D$
Gi Al
DO EL
Ai 3B
EL Fx
BD Cx
F
Gx
Fii G
Cii DF%
Gik A

Bx
BD
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F9
C9
G$
D9
A9
El
B9
Fx
Cx
BD
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
CQ
G$
D$
A$
El

B$

Fx
Cx
BD
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C9

G$
D$
Al
EL

B$

Fx

E
D$
DOO EOO
BOO
DO EOi Fi
AO BDO CO
EL Fi
Gk
BD CO DO
F
Gk Ai0
C
L
D
Ei
G
A
D
BO
D
EL F
A
BD C
F
G
E
B
C
D
A
F$ G
C9
D
E
B
G$ A
D9 E
F$
Ci
DO ELi
D
O
BDO
Gk A
DO EL FO
AO BD CO
EL F
Gk
Di
BD C
F
G
Ai
C
D
EL
G
A
BD
D
E
F
A
B
C
E
F9
G
B
D
C$
F9
G$ A
C9
D$ E
G9
A9 B
F9
D$
El
C
DO ELP
G
Ai
BDO
D
EL FO
A
BD Co
E
F
Gk
C
DO
B
G
AO
F$
CQ D
Ei
G$ A
Bi
DL E
F
B
C
Al
F$ G
El
B3 CQ D
Fx
G$ A
Cx D$ E
Gx Al
B
Cx
CO

Gk Au

x Cx Dx E
B
C
Di

A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
Al
EL
B3
Fx
Cx
Gx
Dx
Ax
A$
El
3l

F$
C$
G$
D$
Al
El
B3
Fx
Cx
Gx
Dx
Ax
Ex
Bx
B
C9

G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G$
D$
Al
EL
B3
Fx
Cx
C
G
D

A
EL
DB
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
Ft
C$
G$
DS
Di
Ai
EL

FI

ELi
BOO
FO
C
Gi
Di
Ai
EL
BD
F
C
G
D
A
E
EuO
ii
Fi

1185

1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
81216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
81228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235

1236

1237
1238
1239
--1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
-1250
1251
1252
1153
1254

E
AOO B
EOi F9
BOO C$
Fi
G$
CO D$
Gk A9
Fui G$
COO D$
GO A$
Dii El
Aub Bi
EuO Fx
BOO Cx
Fi
Gx
CO Dx
Gk Ax
DO Ex
AO Bx
Fui G$
COO D$
GO A$
Dii El
AOBi$
EOO Fx
BOO Cx
Fi Gx
Ci Dx
Gk Ax
DO Ex
AO Bx
Fii G$
COO D$
GO A$
DOO El
AuO B3
ELi Fx
BDO Cx
Fi
Gx
Ci
Dx
GO Ax
DO Ex
AO Bx
Fui G$
COO D$
GO At
Dii EL
Aii B$
EO Fx
BO Cx
Fi Gx
DOO

Fx

G$

Cx
Gx
Dx
Ax
Ex
Bx
A
E
B

DO
A9

F$
C$
G$
D$
A9
E9
B$
Fx
Cx
A
E
B
F$
C$
G9
DO
A9
El
B$
Fx
Cx
A
E
B
F9
C$

Fx
Cx
BD
F
C

CD
A
E
B
F$
C9
G$

D$
BD
F
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
CQ

G$

D$
BD
F
C
G
D
G$ A
DO E
B
A$
ElG$ F
B$
C$
Fx
G$
Cx
D$
B
A
E
F$
B
Cl
F$
G$
CS DL
G$ Al
El
DS B$
Al

Ci Dx El

GO Ax
Di Ex
AO Bx
FiG
$
COO D$
GOO Al
DO El
Aki BI
EOi Fx
BOO Cx
Fi
Gx
Ci
Dx
Gi Ax
Fii Gx
Cii Dx
Gii Ax
Dii Ex
Ai ix

E$
B$

B$

Fx
Cx
Al
El
Bl
Fx
Cx
Gx
Dx
Ax
Ex
Bx
A$
El
B3
Fx
Cx

A
E
B
F9
C$

G$
D$
CO

Gk

DO
AO
EL
BD
F
C
G
D
A
E
Ci

BD

CO

F
C
G
D
A
E
Dii
AOO
EL
BDO
Fi
CO

Gk

D
A
EL
BD
F
DO
Gk AO
DO EL
AO BD
Ei
F
BD C
F
G
C
D
G
A
D
E
A
B
E
F9
C
Di
G
Ai
D
EL
A
BD
F
E
B
C
G
F$
D
C$
A
D$ E
B
Al
F$
El
C
DD
G
Ai
D
EL
A
BD
F
E
B
C
G
F$
D
C$

D$
Al
EL
C
G
D
A
E
B
F$
C$
G9
DL
C
G
D
A
E

Gk
DO

Gk AO

Fx BG A

Cx
Gx
Dx
B
F$
C$
G$
DL
Al
El
B3
Fx
Cx
B
F$
C$
G9
D9

DO
AO
Ei
BD
F
Eu
BOO
FO
CO

E
B
F$
Di
Ai
Ze
BD
F
C
G
D
A
E
Di
Ai
EL
BD
F

L
Ei
D
BO
F
C
G
ELi
BOi
FO
CO

Gk

DO
Ai
EL
BD
F
C
G
ELi
BDO
FO
CO

Gk

Di
Ai
EL
BD
F
C
G
EL
BOO
FO
Ci

Gk
Di
Ai
EL

DB

F
C
G
E
BDO
FO
CO
Gi
Di
Ai
EL
BD
F
Eu
BDi
Fi
Ci
Gi

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124
TABLE
2

THE MATRIXS%
C0

Ck 59 155
C
59 155
92
C 35
Dk 24 63
D
24 63
DM 11 29
13 34
E,
8 21
E
3
8
E1
5
13
F0
F
5 13
3
8
Ff
Gk 2
5
G
2
5
1
3
G#
2
AO 1
A
1
2
0
1
A$
1
1
B
3
0
1
0
0
B5

C$ DW D

DI

Ek

E4 Fk

Ft

Gk G

G# Af

A#

Bk

B$

251
1
1
1
2
3
3 2
5
8 7
15 15 22 37 37 59 96 96
251
1
1
1
2
3
3 2
5
8 7
15 15 22 37 37 59 96 96
1
1
1
2
2 1
149 0
3
4
9
5
9 13 22 22 35 57 57
102 87 189 189
1
2
3 3
1
1 1
6
6
9 15 15 24 39 39
102 87 1N 189
2
3 3
1
1
1 1
6
6
9 15 15 24 39 39
47 40 87 87
0
1
1 0
1
2 1
3
3
4
7
7 11 18 18
55 47 102 102 14 251 251 1
1
1 2
3
3
5
8
8 13 21 21
34 29
63 63 92 155 155 0
1
1 1
2
2
3
5
5
8 13 13
13 11 24 24 35 59 59 0
0
1 0
1
1
1
2
2
3
5
5
21 18 39 39 57 96 966 57 153 249 1
2
3
1
5
1
3
8
8
21 18 39 39 57 96 966 57 153 249 1
1
1
2
3
3
5
8
8
13 11 24 24 35 59 59 35 94 153 0
1
1
1
2
2
3
5
5
8 7 15 15 22 3
1
1
1
2
37 22 59 96 81 177 177
3
3
8 7
15
22 37 37 22 59 96 81 177 177
1
1
1
2
3
3
5 4
9
9 13 22 22 13 35 57 48 105 105
1
0
1
1
2
2
3 3
6
6
9 15 15 9 24 39 33 72 72 105 177 177
1
1
1
3 3
6
6
9 15 15 9 24 39 33 72 72 105 177 177
1
1
1
2
1
3
3
4
7
7 4 11 18 15 33 33 48 81 81
0
1
1
12
3
3
5
8
8 5 13 21 18 39 39 57 96 96 153 249 249
1
2
2
3
5
5 3
8 13 11 24 24 35 59 59 94 153 153
1 0
1
1
1
2 1
2
3
5 4
9
9 13 22 22 35 57 57

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THE MATRIXS33
COO CO

CxDWO

D
DO

Dx

ErO EO

FO

Ex

Ff

El

Fx

GOO GO G

Gx

G$

AOO A

COO 76 254 583 1063 1543


19 7
1630
49
C
76 254831063
15431 11 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 2 5 9 14 19
7 16 30 49 4949 2323 55
C 48 16438270210220 1 1 11 1 1 21 23 43 45 45 21 35 69 14
10
14
1
49234
20
34
74181341501 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 3 0 1 3 6 9 1 4 10 9349
1934 516
Cq 20
Cx
6
26 69 135 201
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
D0
DO

28
28

90201
90201

361
361

14
5
1
14
9
4

48 112
20 51
6 18
42 89
28 61
1433

206
98
37
155
108
61

D$
Dx
Ef

E)
E

0
1
2
2
521
1
3196801201
1
1
1
1
521 118
1
1
118 319 680 1201 1201
1
1
1
1201
300
680680
0
1
1
1
1
62174380
145 25
76 174 319 319
0
0
1
1
1
56
7 25 62 118
0
0
0
1
1
221 56 145 300 521 521
118 201 501 1022 1543 1543
155 37 98 206 361 361 135 341 702 1063 1063
89 18 51 112 201201
69181
382 583 583

47 19 47
Fx5 1428
660
1 9 6 16
6 66
206
0

141

14

28

28

20

48

19

47

94

160

160

66

160

320

Ex

!
14

F$
S

3
0
0

9
02

FI,

66

28

GA

G$

0
0
1

A$

6
6

10
10

0
0
0
1
0
0

1
0
0
1
1
0

2
1

3
2
1
1
1
1

4
3
2
1
1
1

1
0

3
1

6
3
1
4

76

76

480

480

329
178
76

32943
17820
76

19
14

10

47

26

16
10

30
20

1 4
10
041 6 0 1
4
6
10

13

2
3

149
34

49
34
19
6

53
34

102
68

151
102

15

34

53

115

115

151
102

1
9

5
9
11
4

14

53
23

23
9

234
10

0
2

3
2 3
2

00

Bx

0
1
!
0

49
30
16

!
!

1 2

3
0

0!1

10
6
3

10
6

4
1

5
4
3 4

5
4
4

1
1

0
5

01

1026 1506
3
86
697
150
1026
74 190 368
546
26 74 150 226

76 16
178
48

28
14
5

54
20
62
34
15

10
4

5
2

1
0

329

48099

218
107

320

62

43

160
66
160

25
7
7

1111
64
31

94

16
0

0
0

277 606

206

1
9
9

145
1

41

3
0

2
0

9
15
15

226

23

9
349
16

178

716
1086

1086
S

716

79 186
27
70
99 210

136
370

346
136
37016

52

210

210

70

99

99

27

79

18

116

4752
Bt

9
15
15

546

6
23
14

19

0
1
1
1

66

14

0
!1
2

4
4

0
3
3

3
3

5
5
5

2
2

48480
"226
1 01 1 11 2
746102681506

111 111 43
3
264
107 218
47
62 20 54 116
1 15 3 34 6962
19
4
3
410 51
109
28
4
914 1 0 5 1 14 3 28 5 28
6 20
48
0

129 33

Gx

47

1
1

0
0

186

19
9

28
14

15

34

62

62

20

54

28
9

28
9

14
4

20

0
!

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

126
E

RE

ES

Entwurf einer neuen Aesthetik der Tonkunst (1907). EngBusoni, Ferruccio.


lish trans. by Th. Baker (New York: G. Schirmer, Inc., 1911), pp. 29-30.

Barbour, J.M.
(a) "Synthetic Musical Scales"'
(March

1929).

The American

Mathematical

Monthly, 36

pp. 155-160.

(b) "Musical Scales and their Classification", The Journal of the Acoustical
Society of America, 21/6 (Nov. 1949), pp. 586-589.
3

Mason, R. M. "A Formula, Monogram, and Tables for Determining Musical


Interval Relationships", Journal of Research in Music Education, 15/2 (Summer
1967), pp. 110-119.

By substituting x = u7 and using the identity:


1

n2 1 +x+ x2 +...

1-x

+xnn-1

the generating function may be put in the form:


x-5(1

x6)7

(1- x)7
Now by using the identity:
1 + (n)x + n+2 )x2

(1
- x)=

+ ...,

Ixl<1,

the problem is reduced to finding the coefficient


(1 - x6)7
r= 0

of x5 in the expansion:

7+r-1)xr
r

If the first factor of this expression is expanded, all but the first term has x to
a higher power than 5 and can be neglected. Therefore, the required coefficient
is (

) = 462.

In order to generate the elements of the matrix more easily on a digital computer, an arrangement of the literals as they occur in a chain of perfect fifths
would be favored. Alternatively, the present arrangement is suitable for hand
calculation and leads to a more readable tabular presentation.

Harary, Frank. "On the Consistency of Precedence Matrices*,


Association for Computing Machinery, 7(1960), pp. 255-259.

Mason, R. M. "An Encoding Algorithm and Tables for the Digital Analysis of
Harmony", Journal of Research in Music Education: (I) 17/3 (Fall 1969), pp.
286-300; (II) 17/4 (Winter 1969), pp. 369-387.

The imaginary unit i has been introduced here merely to obtain additional numerical labels with which to identify the many Busoni keys (that is, Busoni
modes at fixed pitch-levels) that are not explicitly listed in, but rather fall logically between certain lines of, Table 1. To elaborate, the Busoni key defined
by the literal sequence Cx D$ E F Gb Abb Bbbb would be labeled in accordance
with this scheme by the expression "1250 - i, co-Mixolidian", where the prior
"-" is a minus sign.

Journal of the

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