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# Module 1 : Introduction : Review of Basic Concepts in Mechanics

Lecture 1 : Introduction
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Introduction to structural mechanics, with respect to previous courses of engineering.
Solid mechnics; scope of structural mechanics, example of different structure types and load types.
1.1 Introduction
Structural Mechanics can be briefly described as the study of the behaviour of structures using the knowledge of
mechanics. Such a description needs some understanding of the terms structure and mechanics. Structures
include a wide variety of systems, such as buildings, bridges, dams, aircrafts, etc., that are built to serve some
specific human needs (for example, habitation, transportation, storage, etc.). Students of Structural Mechanics
should already have some basic knowledge of mechanics through the prerequisite courses of Engineering
Mechanics (or Rigid-body Mechanics or Vector Mechanics) and Solid Mechanics (Mechanics of Deformable Solids
or Mechanics of Materials). In Structural Mechanics, we apply our knowledge of the mechanics of rigid bodies and
of deformable solids to the understanding of the behaviour of engineered structures.
In Structural Mechanics, we mostly deal with mechanics of solids (i.e. deformable bodies). However, here we
move on from studying the behaviour of structural members/materials (as in a course of Solid Mechanics) to
studying the behaviour of real structures, or parts thereof. For example, instead of dealing with a beam or a
column, we study how a building frame (Figure 1.1), composed of several beams and columns, behaves. In a
similar way, we first learn about the loads that are applied to the whole structure, and not to individual
members. Our knowledge of Structural Mechanics enables us to find the forces that act on individual members
based on the loads that are acting on the whole structure. Stresses, strains, internal forces and deformations in
members, then, can be obtained by using what we have already learned about the behaviour of deformable
solids.

## Fig. 1.1 Frame in a building

Contents of this course of Structural Mechanics will focus on Civil Engineering structures only. Such structures are
classified into various categories depending on the system/mode of classification:
(a)On the basis of its intended function/usage: Buildings, bridges, dams, industrial sheds, cable ways,
chimneys, etc. (Figure 1.2)
(b)On the basis of its form/load transfer mechanism: Beams, columns, floor slabs, arches, shells, trusses,
frames,footings, etc. (Figure 1.3)
(c) Considering the analysis perspective: 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional, determinate, indeterminate, etc.
(Figure 1.4)

(a) Building

(b) Bridge

(c) Dams

## (e) Cable ways

(f) Chimneys
Figure 1.2 Various types of structures

## (c) Trussed Bridge

Figure 1.3 Various structural forms

## Figure 1.4 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional model of structures

Similarly loads are also put into different categories, based on various criteria:
stress, etc.
a(b) Based on the direction of action: Gravity loads, lateral loads, etc. (Figure 1.5)
a(c) Based on time-variation: Static, dynamic, impulse, pseudo-static, etc.
a(d) Based on the mode of action/analysis point-of-view: Concentrated or point load, distributed load, moment,
pressure, aaaaetc. (Figure 1.6).

Figure 1.5 Load types based on direction of action

## (a) Concentrated or point loads on

a simply supported beam

(b)

supported beam

## (c) Pressure acting on inner surface of a cylinder

Figure 1.6 Load types based on analysis point of view

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following

## Introduction to structural mechanics, with respect to previous courses of engineering.

Solid mechnics; scope of structural mechanics, example of different structure types and load types.

## Module 1 : Introduction : Review of Basic Concepts in Mechnics

Lecture 2 : Equilibrium
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Review of the concepts of equilibrium.

## Concept of free body diagrams.

1.2 Equilibrium
The concept of equilibrium is the most central one in the subject of Statics. When the net effect or the resultant
of all the forces (and couples) acting on a system is zero, the system is said to be in equilibrium. Thus, based on
the resultant of all the forces R , and the resultant of all the moments (couples) M , the vector equations of
equilibrium are

(1.1)

The two vector equations of equilibrium can be expressed alternatively as scalar equations of equilibrium for a
system of forces in 3 dimensions ( x , y & z ), as
(1.2)
(1.3)
Here,

represents the algebraic summation of components of all the forces in x-direction. This summation

## is same as the resultant (net effect) of all the forces in x-direction.

This set of six equilibrium equations can be narrowed down to three scalar equations in case of a planer force
system (forces acting in two dimensions only)
(1.4)
Figures 1.7 & 1.8 illustrate how resultants are obtained for a two-dimensional (planer) force system.

## Figure 1.8 Obtaining resultants for a cantilever system

These equations provide the necessary and sufficient forces to keep a system in equilibrium. The omission of a force
that is acting on a system or the inclusion of a force that is not acting on the system produces erroneous results in
analyzing the behaviour of the system. Hence, it is of utmost importance to understand exactly what the mechanical
system under consideration is and the forces that are acting on the specific system. A system is a body or a
combination of connected bodies. The bodies can be either rigid or deformable (even fluids can be treated as body).
For Structural Mechanics, we will restrict ourselves to the study of rigid and deformable solids only. For the
important task of identifying the forces (and couples) acting on a system, we take the help of Free Body Diagrams.
Thus, drawing a free body diagram becomes the first and foremost task in solution of problems in mechanics.
The free body diagram of a body (or its part, or a connected system of bodies) is obtained by isolating it from the all
other surrounding bodies. The diagram detaches the system in consideration from all mechanical contacts with other
bodies and sets it free . The other bodies are not shown in the diagram, but they are replaced by the forces (and
couples) that they apply on the system for which we are drawing a free body diagram. The following examples show
how to obtain the free body diagram for a system and also the equilibrium equations for the same system.

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Review of the concepts of equilibrium.

## Module 1 : Introduction : Review of Basic Concepts in Mechnics

Lecture 3 : Constitutive Relations and Compatibility Conditions
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Review of the concept of constitutive relations.

Stress-strain diagrams.
Definitionof prameters related to material properties : - Modulus of elasticity, poison's ratio, shear modulus
etc.
Hooke's law.

## Review of the concepts of compatibility conditions; Interpretation as boundary conditions.

1.3

Constitutive Relations

Equilibrium equations help us obtain the forces that are acting, both internally and externally, at various parts of
a body. However, for deformable solid bodies, understanding their deformation behaviour under the given
stress/loading condition (based on the equilibrium) is of primary importance. The deformation behaviour in such
a system is studied through various parameters, such as strain, displacement, rotation, etc. These deformation
parameters are obtained based on the stress-strain relations of the material which the deformable solid is made
of. These are known as Constitutive Relations and are material-specific. The stress-strain diagram for ductile
steel (Figure 1.9) based on a tension test is an example of constitutive relations. It gives us a relation between
) and engineering (tensile) strain (
) for ductile steel at different stress (or
the engineering (tensile) stress (
strain) values.

## Figure 1.9 Stress-strain diagram for ductile steel

Similar stress-strain diagram can be obtained (through experiments) for different materials (aluminium, wood,
tool steel, concrete, etc.) and for different types of deformation (uniaxial tensile and compressive, shear,
transverse, dilatational, etc.). For the ease of use, these relations are idealized into simple mathematical rules.
In Structural Mechanics, we will limit ourselves to linear elastic isotropic homogeneous materials only.
A material is called linear elastic if its stress-strain relation is linear and if when the material is unloaded it
traces back the same stress-strain (loading) path. In other words, stress is a single-valued linear function of
strain. The behaviour of ductile steel from point O to A (Figure 1.9) is a linear elastic one. A material will be
isotropic if its constitutive relations are non-directional (same for any direction in space, x , y or z ) and it will be
homogeneous if it displays the same properties (e.g. a constitutive relation) at any point of the system (same
] and [
]). Some basic constitutive relations for a linear elastic isotropic
properties at [
homogeneous material are briefly discussed in the following sections.
1.3.1 Modulus of Elasticity
Hooke's Law provides us the relation for uniaxial stress
(1.5)

The constant of proportionality is called the elastic modulus , modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus . Since
).
dimensionless the unit of E is same as that of uniaxial stress (e.g.

is

## 1.3.2 Poison's Ratio

Uniaxial forces case strains not only in its direction, but also in the transverse/lateral directions. For a tensile strain
in the axial direction, there will always be compressive strains in the lateral directions, and vice versa. Poisson's
Ratio ( ) relates the lateral strains to the axial strain

(1.6)

## 1.3.3 Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion

Linear thermal strain (

## ) is obtained by using this coefficient (

(1.7)
has units of per degrees Centigrade (or Fahrenheit)
1.3.4 Shear Modulus
For shear stress (
stress and strain.

## ), we have a constitutive relation similar to the Hooke's Law for linear

(1.8)

The constant of proportionality ( G ) is known as the shear modulus or modulus of rigidity . It has same units as
modulus of elasticity ( E ). It can be proved that:
(1.9)
1.3.5 Dilatation and Bulk Modulus
Dilatation ( e ) is defined as the change of volume per unit volume
(1.10)
If a three-dimensional body is subjected to uniform hydrostatic pressure p , then the ratio of this (compressive)
pressure to the dilatation is known as the bulk modulus ( k )
(1.11)
k is also called the modulus of compression .
1.3.6 Generalized Hooke's Law
This is an extension of the Hooke's Law to three dimensions considering both linear and shears deformations. It is
based on the generalized definitions of strain. As for the Hooke's Law for linear strain/deformation, the equations for
Generalized Hooke's Law are applicable for linear elastic isotropic homogeneous materials only. The 6 equations for
linear and shear strains are:

(1.12a)

(1.12b)

(1.12c)

(1.12d)

(1.12e)

(1.12f)
which can also be expressed alternatively as expressions for stress:

(1.13a)

(1.13b)

(1.13c)
(1.13d)
(1.13e)
(1.13f)

where

and

are the Lame parameters which are related to the Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio

(1.14)

These equations can also be expressed as relation between the stress and strain tensors

Stress tensor
Note that, in a strain tensor, the shear strain (e.g.

Strain tensor
) is replaced by the pure or irrotational shear strain (

).
1.4 Compatibility Conditions
Compatibility conditions represent restriction on deformations at specific locations in a system. The location can
be both inside the system and at its boundary. The deformations in a system have to be compatible with the
geometry of the surrounding (both external and internal), and this compatibility is assured through these
conditions. In other words, compatibility conditions specify that deformations in a member/part of a system have
to be compatible with the support conditions (external), as well as with other members/parts of the system
(internal). For example, in the case of bar ABC in (Figure 1.10), various compatibility conditions on horizontal
displacements are:

(1.15)

(1.16)

(1.17)

Where

## is the deflection of bar AB at point B.

The deformation behaviour of a structural element is usually expressed through differential equations and the
associated compatibility conditions are represented as boundary conditions for those equations.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Review of the concept of constitutive relations.

Stress-strain diagrams.
Definitionof prameters related to material properties : - Modulus of elasticity, poison's ratio, shear modulus
etc.
Hooke's law.

## Module 1 : Introduction : Review of Basic Concepts in Mechnics

Lecture 4 : Static Indeterminacy of Structures
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Review of the concepts of determinate and indeterminate structures.

Unstable systems.

## Degree of static indeterminacy : - External and internal.

1.5 Static Indeterminacy of Structures
If the number of independent static equilibrium equations (refer to Section 1.2) is not sufficient for solving for all
the external and internal forces (support reactions and member forces, respectively) in a system, then the system
is said to be statically indeterminate . A statically determinate system, as against an indeterminate one, is that for
which one can obtain all the support reactions and internal member forces using only the static equilibrium
equations. For example, for the system in Figure 1.10, idealized as one-dimensional, the number of independent
), while the total number of unknown support reactions are 2 (
static equilibrium equations is just 1 (
), that is more than the number of equilibrium equations available. Therefore, the system is considered
statically indeterminate. The following figures illustrate some example of statically determinate (Figures 1.11a-c)
and indeterminate structures (Figures 1.12a-c).

## Figure 1.12 Statically indeterminate structures

In Section 1.2, the equilibrium equations are described as the necessary and sufficient conditions to maintain the
equilibrium of a body. However, these equations are not always able to provide all the information needed to obtain
the unknown support reactions and internal forces. The number of external supports and internal members in a
system may be more than the number that is required to maintain its equilibrium configuration. Such systems are
known as indeterminate systems and one has to use compatibility conditions and constitutive relations in addition to
equations of equilibrium to solve for the unknown forces in that system.
For an indeterminate system, some support(s) or internal member(s) can be removed without disturbing its
equilibrium. These additional supports and members are known as redundants . A determinate system has the exact
number of supports and internal members that it needs to maintain the equilibrium and no redundants. If a system
has less than required number of supports and internal members to maintain equilibrium, then it is considered
unstable .
For example, the two-dimensional propped cantilever system in (Figure 1.13a) is an indeterminate system because it
possesses one support more than that are necessary to maintain its equilibrium. If we remove the roller support at
end B (Figure 1.13b), it still maintains equilibrium. One should note that here it has the same number of unknown
support reactions as the number of independent static equilibrium equations. The unknown

reactions are

and

## (Figure 1.13c) and the equilibrium equations are:

(1.18)

(1.19)

(1.20)

An indeterminate system is often described with the number of redundants it posses and this number is known as its
degree of static indeterminacy . Thus, mathematically:

## Degree of static indeterminacy = Total number of unknown (external and internal)

forces
- Number of independent equations of equilibrium

(1.21)

It is very important to know exactly the number of unknown forces and the number of independent equilibrium
equations. Let us investigate the determinacy/indeterminacy of a few two-dimensional pin-jointed truss systems.
Let m be the number of members in the truss system and n be the number of pin (hinge) joints connecting these
members. Therefore, there will be m number of unknown internal forces (each is a two-force member) and 2 n
numbers of independent joint equilibrium equations (
body diagram). If the support reactions involve r unknowns, then:
Total number of unknown forces = m + r
Total number of independent equilibrium equations = 2 n
So, degree of static indeterminacy = ( m + r ) - 2 n

and

## Figure. 1.14a Determinate truss

1.14a: m = 17, n = 10, and r = 3. So, degree of static indeterminacy = 0, that means it is a statically determinate
system.

## Figure 1.14b (Internally) indeterminate truss

1.14b: m = 18, n = 10, and r = 3. So, degree of static indeterminacy = 1.

## 1.14c: m = 17, n = 10, and r = 4. So, degree of static indeterminacy = 1.

It should be noted that in case of 1.14b, we have one member more than what is needed for a determinate system
(i.e., 1.14a), where as 1.14c has one unknown reaction component more than what is needed for a determinate
system. Sometimes, these two different types of redundancy are treated differently; as internal indeterminacy and
external indeterminacy . Note that a structure can be indeterminate either externally or internally or both externally
and internally.
We can group external and internal forces (and equations) separately, which will help us understand easily the cases
of external and internal indeterminacy. There are r numbers of external unknown forces, which are the support
reactions components. We can treat 3 system equilibrium equations as external equations. This will lead us to:
Degree of external static indeterminacy = r - 3.
The number of internal unknown forces is m and we are left with (2 n -3) equilibrium equations. The 3 system
equilibrium equations used earlier were not independent of joint equilibrium equations, so we are left with (2 n - 3)
equations instead of 2 n numbers of equations. So:
Degree of internal static indeterminacy = m - (2 n - 3).

Please note that the above equations are valid only for two-dimensional pin-jointed truss systems. For example, for
three-dimensional ( space ) pin-jointed truss systems, the degree of static indeterminacy is given by ( m + r - 3 n
). Similarly, the expression will be different for systems with rigid (fixed) joints, frame members, etc.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Review of the concepts of determinate and indeterminate structures.

Unstable systems.

## Module 1 : Introduction : Review of Basic Concepts in Mechanics

Lecture 5 : Symmetry and Antisymmetry
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Concept of symmetry, asymmetry and antisymmetry in structures.

## 1.6 Symmetry and Antisymmetry

Symmetry or antisymmetry in a structural system can be effectively exploited for the purpose of analyzing
structural systems. Symmetry and antisymmetry can be found in many real-life structural systems (or, in
the idealized model of a real-life structural system). It is very important to remember that when we say
symmetry in a structural system, it implies the existence of symmetry both in the structure itself including
the support conditions and also in the loading on that structure. The systems shown in Fig. 1.15 are
symmetric because, for each individual case, the structure is symmetric and the loading is symmetric as
well. However, the systems shown in Fig. 1.16 are not symmetric because either the structure or the

## Figure 1.16 Non-symmetric (asymmetric) structural systems

For an antisymmetric system the structure (including support conditions) remains symmetric, however, the
loading is antisymmetric. Fig. 1.17 shows examples of antisymmetric structural systems .

## Figure 1.17 Antisymmetric structural systems

It is not difficult to see that the deformation for a symmetric structure will be symmetric about the same
line of symmetry. This fact is illustrated in Fig. 1.18, where we can see that every symmetric structure
undergoes symmetric deformation. It can be proved using the rules of structural mechanics (namely,
equilibrium conditions, compatibility conditions and constitutive relations), that deformation for a symmetric
system is always symmetric. Similarly, we always get antisymmetric deformation for antisymmetric
structural systems, as illustrated in Fig. 1.19.

## Figure 1.19 Deformation in antisymmetric systems

Let us look at beam AB in Fig. 1.20(a), which is symmetric about point C. The deformed shape of the
structure will be symmetric as well (Fig. 1.20(b)). So, if we solve for the forces and deformations in part AC
of the beam, we do not need to solve for part CB separately. The symmetry (or antisymmetry) in
deformation gives us additional information prior to analyzing the structure and these information can be
used to reduce the size of the structure that needs to be considered for analysis.

Figure 1.20 Symmetric beam system AB and its deformation under load
To elaborate on this fact, we need to look at the deformation condition at the point/line of symmetry (or
antisymmetry) in a system. The following general rules about deformation can be deduced looking at the
examples in Fig. 1.18 and Fig. 1.19:

## 2. For an antisymmetric structure: deflection at the point/line of symmetry is zero.

These information have to be incorporated when we reduce a symmetric (or antisymmetric) structure to a
smaller one. If we want to reduce the symmetric beam in Fig. 1.20 to its one symmetric half AC , we have to
integrate the fact the slope at point C for the reduced system AC will have to be zero. This will be a necessary
boundary condition for the reduced system AC . We can achieve this by providing a support at C, which restricts
any rotation, but allows vertical displacement, as shown in Fig. 1.21 (Note: this specific type of support is
known as a shear-release or shear-hinge). Everything else (loading, other support conditions) remains
unchanged in the reduced system. We can use this system AC for our analysis in stead of the whole beam AB .

## Figure 1.21 Reduced system AC is adopted for analysis for beam AB

Similarly, let us consider an antisymmetric system, a simply-supported beam AB which is antisymmetric about
the mid-point C (Fig. 1.22(a)). We know that the deformed shape will also be antisymmetric (Fig. 1.22(b)), and
the displacement at point C will be equal to zero. Therefore, for the reduced system, we consider one
antisymmetric half AC , with a support condition at C which allows rotation but does not allow vertical
displacements there (Fig. 1.22(c)). Everything else remains same as in AB .

Figure 1.22 (a) Antisymmetric simply-supported beam AB ; (b) Antisymmetric deformation pattern
for AB ; (c) Reduced system AC is used for analysis
Having a priory knowledge about symmetry/antisymmetry in the structural system and in its deformed shape

helps us know about symmetry/antisymmetry in internal forces in that system. (Symmetry in the system implies
symmetry in equilibrium and constitutive relations, while symmetry in deformed shape implies symmetry in
geometric compatibility.) Internal forces in a symmetric system are also symmetric about the same axis and
similarly antisymmetric systems have antisymmetric internal forces. Detailed discussion on different types of
internal forces in various structural systems and on internal force diagrams are provided in the next module
(Module 2: Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures). Once we know about these diagrams we can easily
see the following:
1. A symmetric beam-column system has a symmetric bending moment diagram.
2. A symmetric beam-column system has an antisymmetric shear force diagram.
3. An antisymmetric beam-column system has an antisymmetric bending moment diagram.
4. An antisymmetric beam-column system has a symmetric shear force diagram.
Symmetry/antisymmetry for internal forces can be appreciated in a better way after we go through Module 2 .
However, two examples are illustrated in Fig. 1.23 for internal forces in symmetric and antisymmetric systems.

Figure. 1.23 Internal force diagrams for a) a symmetric system, and b) an antisymmetric system
One should remember that although the examples shown here are for (primarily) one-dimensional (or linear)
systems, the concept and use of symmetry/antisymmetry is not only limited to these systems. It is applicable to
two- and three-dimensional systems as well. Therefore, we will also find line of symmetry and plane of
symmetry in addition to point of symmetry. However, these concepts are complex and are not explored in
detail in this course.

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following

## Module 1 : Introduction : Review of Basic Concepts in Mechanics

Lecture 6 : Tutorial Problems
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Some tutorial problems related to this module.

TUTORIAL PROBLEMS

T1.1

Find the degree of static indeterminacy in the following truss. What are the degree of internal
and external indeterminacy?

Figure T1.1

T1.2

Find the degree of static indeterminacy in the following truss. What are the degree of internal
and external indeterminacy?

Figure T1.2

T1.3

What is the bending moment at the base of the column CD in Figure T1.3? (Hint: Consider
symmetry/antisymmetry)

Figure T1.3

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
You have learned some tutorial problems related to this module.
T1.1

Total = 3,
Internal = 2,
External = 1.

T1.2

Total = 0,
Internal = 1,
External = 1.

T1.3

Ans: 0

## Module 2 : Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Lecture 1 : Internal Force on a System
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
The concept of internal forces in a system.

## Understanding internal forces in a solid body.

2.1 Internal Force on a System

Internal forces (or moments) are generated within a solid body (or structural system) when it is acted upon
by external forces (including support reactions and other contact forces as well). To illustrate how internal
forces are generated or why they exist, let us consider a three-dimensional solid body (Figure 2.1a),
,
and
are external loads applied on the system. To study the
supported at points A and B.
equilibrium of the whole body, we draw its free body diagram (Figure 2.1b). The supports are replaced by
and
in the free body diagram. We consider an internal surface by taking an arbitrary cut
reactions
through the system (Figure 2.1c). For equilibrium of the part at the right of the section, there has to be
and
(Figure 2.1d).
and
forces acting on the internal surface which balance the external loads
are internal forces acting on the surface of the cut.

## Figure 2.1 Internal forces at a cross-sectional surface of a solid body

It is important to know the internal forces acting at different sections of a system. The material, of which
the body is made, should be strong enough to carry these forces. Otherwise the system fails (by crushing,
The general procedure of obtaining internal forces includes these following steps:
Obtain the system configuration (dimension and support conditions) and external loadings applied on it.
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

## Draw a free body diagram of the whole system.

Find the support reactions by using equations of (static) equilibrium.
Take a cut through the body where internal forces have to be obtained.
Consider equilibrium of the part of the system at any one side of the cut by drawing a free body
diagram of that part.
Obtain the unknown internal forces acting on the cut surface by solving these equilibrium equations .

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
The concept of internal forces in a system .

## Module 2 : Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Lecture 2 : Internal Forces Acting on Typical Structural Members
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Internal forces in different types of structural members.

## Categorization of internal forces in 2D and 3D systems.

2.2 Internal Forces Acting on Typical Structural Members
It is mentioned in Section 1.1 that one method of classifying structural systems is on the basis of their load
transfer mechanisms. To elaborate, a system (or a structural member) is identified based on the
predominant types of internal forces carried by it. Thus we have: bars , cables , beams , columns , arches ,
etc. Below is a list of such members along with the predominant internal forces that they carry. Cable : A
cable or wire can carry axial tension only. Internal forces in cables are not discussed in this chapter
because cables are very different from all other systems due to their flexible geometry. Internal forces and
geometry of cable systems are discussed in detail in chapter 3.

1. Cable : A cable or wire can carry axial tension only. Internal forces in cables are not discussed in this
chapter because cables are very different from all other systems due to their flexible geometry.Internal
forces and geometry of cable systems are discussed in detail in chapter 3.
2.Bar : A bar carries only axial forces tension and compression both. That is why it is also known as
3.Beam : A beam's primary function is to transfer lateral loads applied externally on the beam. These loads
produce bending moments and shear forces on beam a cross-section.
4.Column : The predominant internal force in a column is axial compression.
5.Beam-Column : A beam-column, as the name suggests, carries all kinds of internal forces that are
produced in a beam or a column, which include: bending moment, shear force and axial force.
6.Arch: An arch is a curved member which carries primarily axial compression under lateral loads applied
externally.
There is no difference in the shapes of a beam, a column, a beam-column or a bar. All are straight
longitudinal members (one dimension is much larger than the other two) and we will not be able to
distinguish one from the other unless we know the load transfer mechanism. Figure 2.2 illustrates this
issue.

## Figure 2.2 Different member types having similar shapes

All the members discussed above are primarily one-dimensional geometrically. Two-dimensional members
are also categorized similarly, such as: plates , shells ( thin & thick ), slabs , etc. We also have specific
names for systems formed by combination of members, such as a truss or a frame . A frame is a
combination of beams and columns, whereas all the members in a truss are axially loaded bars.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Internal forces in different types of structural members.

## Module 2 : Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Lecture 3 : Axial Force, Shear Force and Bending Moment
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Three primary types of internal force, based on their orientation.

## Definitions of axial force, shear forces and bending moments.

2.3 Axial Force, Shear Force and Bending Moment
We will restrict our discussions to primarily one-dimensional members (in reality these are threedimensional structural members, but the other two dimensions are relatively much smaller). When the
loading on such a member is on a plane same as the member itself, we call it a two-dimensional (planar)
case (see Figure 2.3a for example). In such cases, the internal forces also lie on the same plane. The
internal forces on any cross-section can be expressed with two orthogonal force components and one
,
, M in Figure 2.3b). We can align x -axis along the centroidal axis
of the member and we can also align one of the forces, let's say

## , along this centroidal axis (along the

primary dimension). Then this internal force will be known as the axial force (Figure 2.3c). In general, we
consider an internal surface perpendicular to the centroidal axis (transverse cross-section, also called the yzacts tangentially to this surface and it is known as
plane or x-plane ). Then the other force component
the shear force . The internal moment, which is acting on the transverse cross-section, is known as the
bending moment .

Figure 2.3 Axial force, shear force and bending moment on a cross-section of a two-dimensional
(planar) system

For a three-dimensional case, that is when the loading is not restricted to one plane, we have three
orthogonal force components and three orthogonal moment components on an internal surface (Figures 2.4
a & b).
We align the centroidal axis of the member along, say, x -axis, and consider an internal surface
perpendicular to it (Figures 2.4c). Then
is the axial force and
and
are the two shear forces .
Moments

and

## is known as torsion . This set of

forces is the most generic case of internal forces for such structural members.

Figure 2.4 Axial force, two shear forces and two bending moments for three-dimensional
systems
Note that these internal forces are defined according to their orientation respective to the structural
member. The axial force acts along the centroidal axis of the member. The shear forces act in a plane which
is perpendicular to this centroidal axis and the bending moments act along directions perpendicular to this
axis as well. The torsion acts along the centroidal axis.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following

## Module 2 : Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Lecture 4 : Sign Convention and Notations for Internal Forces
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Standard sign conventions and notations for internal forces through illustrations.
2.4 Sign Convention and Notations for Internal Forces
The sign convention for internal forces depends on the internal surface on which these forces are being
considered. So, we need to define the internal surface first. Let us assume that the centroidal axis of a
longitudinal structural member is aligned along the x -axis, and we consider the internal forces on an xplane (or x-surface ). If this cross-section is facing positive x -direction, then it is called a positive x surface, and vice-versa. Figures 2.5a & b show the positive internal forces on positive and negative x surfaces, respectively.

Figure 2.5 Direction of positive internal forces on a positive x -surface (a) and a negative x surface (b)
This sign convention is followed throughout this course and relations involving these forces (and other
parameters, such as stresses and deformations) are derived based on this sign convention. It will not be
illogical to adopt any other sign convention for internal forces. However, in that case one will have to

develop the equations involving these forces independently following the new sign convention.
Let us restrict our discussion to planer loading (that is, two-dimensional) cases with no torsion. For an
internal segment of a member, we can show the internal forces both on the positive and the negative
internal surfaces. Positive directions for each internal force (an axial force, a shear force and a bending
moment) are shown individually in Figure 2.6. This is an easy and standard way of defining sign conventions
for two-dimensional cases, and students are encouraged to define (for each specific case) their adopted sign
convention similarly.

Fig. 2.6 Defining sign convention for internal forces in a planar system
Notations that we follow for these internal forces are: P for axial force, V for shear force, and M for bending
moment. However, please note that in a three-dimensional case, we need suffixes to distinguish between
the two shear forces and also between the two bending moments. General notation for torsion is T .
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Standard sign conventions and notations for internal forces through illustrations.

## Module 2 : Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Lecture 5 : Obtaining Internal Forces in a System: General Procedure
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
How to obtain internal forces using equilibrium conditions.
2.5 Obtaining Internal Forces in a System: General Procedure
The general method of obtaining internal forces at certain cross-section of a system under a given loading
(and support) condition is by applying the concepts of equilibrium (Lecture 2). To illustrate, let us consider
the beam-column AB in Figure 2.7 for which we have to find the internal forces at section a - a . As we have
learned earlier, equilibrium conditions are best studied through free body diagrams. We can find the
reactions at supports A and B using a free body diagram of the whole beam-column AB (Figure 2.8). We
solve the three equations for static equilibrium for this free body:

## Figure 2.8 Free body diagram of AB

If a system is in static equilibrium condition, then every segment of it is also in equilibrium. So, we can
consider the equilibrium for each of AC or CB independently. Let us consider the equilibrium of part AC , and
draw its free body diagram (Figure 2.9). In addition to externally applied forces and the support reaction
and

, this free body is acted upon by forces P , V and M on the surface a - a . These are nothing but the

internal forces (axial force, shear force and bending moment, respectively) acting at the cross-section a - a
of AB . Note that these forces are drawn in their respective positive directions in order to avoid sign
confusion. Solving the three static equilibrium equations for AC we find these internal forces:

## Figure 2.9 Free body diagram of part AC

Thus we obtain the internal forces at section a - a . These could also be obtained by considering the
equilibrium of the part at the other side of section a - a , that is of part CB . Figure 2.10 shows the free
body diagram of CB . Again, the internal forces are drawn in their positive directions on surface a - a , which
is a negative x-surface for this free body. Solving the three equations we find the values for these internal
forces:

## Figure 2.10 Free body diagram of part CB

Note that these values match exactly with the values obtained previously by considering the equilibrium of
segment AC . This is true for any system because there is always a unique set of internal forces on an
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
How to obtain internal forces using equilibrium conditions.

## Module 2 : Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Lecture 6 : Internal Force Diagrams
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Why we need internal force diagrams for structural members.

## The use of internal force diagrams in structural analysis and design.

2.6 Internal Force Diagrams
Let us consider the beam-column AB of the previous example with the same loading condition, but a
different cross-section b - b (Figure 2.11). Following the same procedure as in the previous example we can
find the internal forces at b - b . The values of internal forces at b - b are not same as of those at a - a.

## Figure 2.11 Cross-section b - b of beam column AB

A structural member should be able to carry the internal forces at each section without failure so as to
perform its intended function. So, in order to check the integrity or effectiveness of a structural member,
one needs to check its capacity against internal forces at its each and every cross-section. This makes the
study of the variation of internal forces in a member very important to Structural Mechanics. Such a study is
best done through internal force diagrams, which provide, at one glance, several critical information on
these internal forces.
We use individual diagrams for each type of internal force. Thus we have axial force diagram,shear force
diagram and bending moment diagram for a beam. For the beam-column AB of Figure 2.7, we can find
internal forces at each cross section and obtain the internal force diagrams. Figure 2.12 shows three internal
force diagrams for this beam.

Figure 2.12 Axial force (a), shear force (b) and bending moment (c) diagrams for AB
Note that, we have marked +ve and ve signs in these diagrams and also put our sign convention to define
the direction of the internal force under consideration. In addition to that, it is also important that we label
these diagrams with values at key points (that means, the maximum positive and negative value points,
zero-value points, points where the variation changes, for example from linear to parabolic).
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Why we need internal force diagrams for structural members.

## Module 2 : Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Lecture 7 : Internal Force as a Function of x
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following

How to express an internal force as a function of the distance measured along the length of the member.
Use of this function in obtaining internal force diagrams.

## 2.7 Internal Force as a Function of x

Another alternative of studying internal force variations in a structural member is to express the internal
force as a mathematical function of the longitudinal dimension ( x ). Thus, the axial force, shear force and
bending moment at a section are expressed as P ( x ), V ( x ) and M ( x ), respectively, where x is the
distance measured along the primary dimension from one end of the member (Figure 2.13). For this course,
we will consider the left end of the member as origin unless otherwise specified. Note that equations
involving these internal forces change if the direction for positive x or its origin changes.

## Figure 2.13. Internal forces at a distance x from the origin

Considering the example of Figure 2.7 again, let us obtain these internal force functions for the whole
length. After obtaining the support reactions, we can investigate internal forces at different sections. Let us
first consider the portion x = 0 6 m . Since no force or moment is acting between these two points, the
internal force functions will be continuous in this section. We draw the free body diagram of the beam upto a
distance x from the left end of the beam (Figure 2.14a). Using equilibrium equations, we can find the
internal forces:

Figure 2.14 Free body diagrams upto a distance x from the origin
Similarly, we can find out the internal forces in the portions x = 6 m
12 m (Figure 2.14c). For x = 6 m 10 m :

and for x = 10 m

12 m :

## If we look at these expressions carefully, we see that:

We measure x always from the same origin and in the same direction. As noted earlier, it is not absolutely
necessary to follow this convention, but it is easier this way.
The internal force expressions change at points where concentrated forces/moments (including support

reactions) act. We will see later that these forces also change if a distributed force changes its distribution.
Using singularity functions , we can combine different expressions for different segments of the beam
together into a single expression, which we will discuss later.
We need to obtain mathematical expressions of internal forces first in order to plot the force variation
diagrams. Although these expressions provide adequate information on variation of internal forces, a pictorial
representation is always very useful.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
How to express an internal force as a function of the distance measured along the length of the member.

## Module 2 : Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Lecture 8 : Internal Force Diagrams for Various Systems
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following

The different types of internal force diagrams that are needed for different types of structural member.
2.8 Internal Force Diagrams for Various Systems

We have discussed the general procedure for obtaining internal force variations in a planer system. We can
apply that procedure for various types of structural system. Here, we discuss the significance of internal
forces (and internal force diagrams) for different structural system types.
Truss : A truss members carries only axial force (tension or compression) and no shear force or bending
moment. The axial force comes from loads applied only at the two ends of a member. Therefore, the axial
force remains constant along the length of a single truss member. So, we do not really need to plot
diagrams or express axial force as function of length ( x ) in case of a truss member.
Cable : A cable is similar to a truss member except for that it carries only axial tension. For further detail
on internal forces in cables, see chapter 3.
Axially Loaded Bar : Only axial force exists in these members (such as columns ). However, unlike a truss
member a bar may be acted upon by external forces along its length. Hence, it is important to study the
variation of axial force through diagrams/mathematical expressions.
Beam and Beam-Column : A beam carries shear force and bending moment and if it carries axial force as
well, then we call it a beam-column. It is for these structural members that internal force diagrams are most
important, because deformation and failure behaviour of these members can be directly linked to these
diagrams.
Frame : Frames are two/three-dimensional structural systems made of beams and columns. A frame
member, in general, carries internal forces similar to a beam-column. Therefore, it is equally important to
obtain internal force diagrams for these systems. Note that for a frame, we may need to specify sign
convention for each member individually, as these members may have different orientations.
Arch : Arches can be treated as curved beams (or beam-columns). We will discuss later (in Section 2.12)
how to deal with a curved centroidal axis, and with orientations of axial and shear forces.
In the next few sections we will discuss specific cases of determining forces in different types of statically
determinate systems, such as trusses, beams, arches, etc.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
The different types of internal force diagrams that are needed for different types of structural member.

## Module 2 : Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Lecture 9 : Example for Trusses,Beams,Frames and Arches
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Some examples of trusses.

Example 2.1 (a) Find the forces in AB , AD and AC in the following Figure E2.1.
(b) Find the forces in EG , FG and FH in the following Figure E2.1.

Figure E2.1
Solution:
FBD of the whole system:

(a)

## Force in AB = 22.5 kN (Compression).

Force in AD = 37.5 kN (Tension).
Force in AC = 30.0 kN (Compression).
(b) Take a section through EG , FG , FH and consider the equilibrium of part at the right side

## Force in EG = 36.0 kN (Compression).

Force in FG = 22.5 kN (Tension).
Force in FH = 18.0 kN (Compression).
Example 2.2 Find the forces in all members in the Figure E2.2.

Figure E2.2
Solution:
From equilibrium of the whole body

Looking at joint A :

## AB is a zero-force member and

Looking at joint B :

## Both BC and BD are zero-force member.

Looking at joint D :

## Both CD and DF are zero-force member.

Looking at joint C :

## CF is a zero-force member and

Equilibrium of joint E :

and

Equilibrium of joint F :

and

Equilibrium of joint H :

## Sign convention: Tension +ve, compression ve.

Note that we have not obtained the support reactions before finding the member forces. It was not necessary for this
specific problem. Find out these reactions at supports G and H and check if joint equilibrium is satisfied at these two
joints with the member forces that we have found already.

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Some examples of trusses.
Example of Beams
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Some examples of beams.

Example 2.3 Obtain internal force diagrams for the beam in Figure E2.3.

Figure E2.3
Solution:
FBD of the whole system:

## Consider a section at a distance x from A :

(

The two sets of equation can be written in a combined form by using singular function

where

for

for

for

## Note that bending moment is zero at the internal hinge location B .

Example 2.4 Obtain internal force diagrams for the beam in Figure E2.4.

Figure E2.4
Solution:
FBD of AE :

(

as well, because

## Combining the expressions using singular functions:

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Some examples of beams.
Example of Frames

Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Some examples of frames.

Example 2.5 Obtain internal force diagrams for the frame in Figure E2.5.

Figure E2.5
Solution:
FBD of the whole system:

## Take a section at a distance

from A along AB :

These expressions for internal force are valid from point A to B , using which we can obtain the internal force
diagrams for AB . Using these we can find the internal forces at point B (
) from which we also get the
forces applied on member BD .
At

Internal forces on BD can be obtained from its free body diagram. Let us take a section at a distance
along BD .
For

from B

For

Example 2.6 Obtain internal force diagrams for the frame in Figure E2.6.

Solution:
FBD of the whole system:

For member AB :

For member BC :

For member CD :

For Member DE :

## If we draw bending moments on tension side for the whole system

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Some examples of frames.
Example of Arches
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following

## Example for Arches

In this section we consider only three-hinged arches . A three-hinged arch has two hinges at the ends and one
internal hinge along its curved span as shown in Figure 2.15. If we draw the free body diagram of the whole system,
we have four unknown support reactions (
,
,
&
). Using the three static equilibrium conditions and the
internal hinge condition (total moment about that hinge is equal to zero), in addition, we can solve for these four
reactions. Therefore, three-hinged arches are statically determinate structures.

## Figure 2.15 A three-hinged arch and its free-body diagram

Unlike other types of structural member we have dealt with so far, the centroidal axis of an arch is curvilinear.
Therefore, the direction of axial force, which is aligned along the centroidal axis, does not remain same along the
span with respect to global coordinates. This is true for the direction of shear force as well. However, bending
moment does not get affected due to the curved nature of the centroidal axis. In case of circular arches, the
as shown in
problem with axial and shear force directions can be easily handled with circular coordinates
Example 2.7. The alternative is to consider internal forces in global x and y directions (

and

## forces axial and transverse directions ( P and V ), as shown in Example 2.8.

Example 2.7 Obtain the internal force diagram ( AFD , SFD and BMD ) for the arch in Figure E2.7.

Figure E2.7
Solution:
FBD of the whole system:

(i)
(ii)

(iii)
FBD of part BC :

(iv)
From Equation (iii) and (iv):

## Internal forces at an angle

in AB :

At point B :

Internal forces in BC :

For curved structures, for example an arch, internal forces are often expressed as x and y components instead of
axial and shear forces. Note that bending moment remains same.

Following same procedure as before we can obtain the variation of these internal forces as well, Try to find out
diagrams for
,
for the same arch. The next example illustrates such internal force diagrams.
Example 2.8 Obtain the internal force diagram (
Figure E2.8.

Figure E2.8
Solution:
FBD of the ABC :

## It is a symmetric structure, so we need to consider only half of the system, either AB or BC .

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Some examples of arches.

## Module 2 : Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Lecture 10 : Tutorial Problems
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Some tutorial problems related to this module.

TUTORIAL PROBLEMS
Find the forces in EC , EF and HF in the following Figure T2.1.

Figure T2.1
Find the forces in all members in the following Figure T2.2.

Figure T2.2
Find the internal force at moment A in Figure T2.3.

Figure T2.3
T2.4 Find Bending Moment Diagram (BMD) and Shear Force Diagram (SFD) of the beams in Figure
T2.4.

Figure T2.4
T2.5 Find the shape ( y as a function of x ) of the parabolic three hinges arch for which bending
moment will be zero at every section.

Figure T2.5
T2.6 Find the bending moment under the load for the circular three hinged arch.

Figure T2.6
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
You have learned some tutorial problems related to this module.
T2.1

T2.2

T2.3

T2.4

T2.5
T2.6

Module 3 : Cables
Lecture 1 : Introduction
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Introduction to cables, how cables are different from other structural components.

## Use of cables in structural systems.

3.1 Introduction

Cables are flexible wire-like systems having no flexural (bending) stiffness, and they can carry only axial
tension and no other type of force. Being fully flexible against bending the shape of a cable is determined by
the external forces that are acting on the cable. Figure 3.1 illustrates how the shape of the cable between two
and
.
supports A and B depends on the location and magnitude of the external forces

## Figure 3.1 Shape of a cable is determined by external loads

A cable is unable to carry bending moment, shear force, torsion or axial compression. Nevertheless, cables can
be very effectively used in achieving long-span light-weight systems, such as bridges or roofs for large arenas.
Two kinds of bridge structural systems where cables are used are the suspension-cable systems and cablestayed systems . Figures 3.2 and 3.3 show examples of suspension-cable bridge and cable-stayed bridge,
respectively.

Figure 3.2 A suspension-cable bridge (Golden gate bridge, San Francisco , USA)

## Figure 3.3 A cable-stayed bridge (ANZAC bridge, Sydney , Australia )

Cables are usually made of multiple strands of cold-drawn high-strength steel wires twisted together.
Generally, they have strength four to five times that of structural steel and practically inextensible under
operating loading conditions. Since cables carry only axial tension, full potential of the cable cross-section
can be utilized in transferring forces. Therefore, cables are able to carry the same amount of force with a
much smaller cross-section compared to other structural systems. This high strength-to-weight ratio makes
cables very useful where light-weight systems are needed. On the other hand, a beam over a very long
span would require a very large (and deep) cross-section, and most of its potential will be used in carrying
internal forces due to its own weight. If we use cables replacing this beam or in combination with a beam in
The primary disadvantage with cables is due to their flexible geometry. As the loading on a cable system
changes (as in the case of moving loads on a bridge) there can also be large change in the cable geometry,
and subsequently on forces acting in the cable. Unexpected forces may destabilize a cable system, causing
excessive deformations. A designer should be very careful on this regard while designing a cable system,
along with other issues such as, large forces at the anchors, large oscillations, etc.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Introduction to cables, how cables are different from other structural components.

## Use of cables in structural systems.

Module 3 : Cables
Lecture 2 : The General Cable Theorem
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Statement and derivation for the general cable theorem.
3.2 The General Cable Theorem
The general cable theorem helps us determine the shape of a cable supported at two ends when it is acted
upon by vertical forces. It can be stated as: At any point on a cable acted upon by vertical loads, the
product of the horizontal component of cable tension and the vertical distance from that point to the cable
chord equals the moment which would occur at that section if the loads carried by the cable were acting on
an simply-supported beam of the same span as that of the cable.

Figure 3.4 Explanation of the general cable theorem: (a) Cable under vertical loads, and
(b) Simply supported beam with equal span under the same set of loads
To explain, let us consider the cable AB in Figure 3.4a, which is acted upon by the vertical loads
and

at known locations. The line AB joining the two supports is known as the chord of the cable and the

horizontal distance between the supports is known as its span . The vertical distance between the chord and
the cable at any cross section is known as the dip . This is vertical distance that is mentioned in the general

cable theorem . The cable in Figure 3.4a has a span L and the dip at a distance x from A is y . The
horizontal reactions at supports A and B have to be equal to satisfy static equilibrium, and let it be H . The
vertical reactions at supports A and B are
and
, respectively. Figure 3.4b shows a simply-supported
beam AB of same span ( L ) and acted upon by the same set of forces as the cable AB in Figure 3.4a.
For moment equilibrium about support B for the cable:
(3.1)
where,

## is the summation of moments due to external forces (

and

. Since the cable is totally flexible against bending, bending moment at any cross-section is zero. By
equating bending moment at a distance x from A to zero, we get:
(3.2a)
(3.2b)

or,
where,

## about section x . Substituting

, and

to the left of x )

## from Equations 3.1 and 3.2b:

(3.3)

Now, let us consider the simply-supported beam in Figure 3.4b. From moment equilibrium about support B ,
we get the vertical reaction at support A :
(3.4)
So, the bending moment at a distance x from A is:
(3.5)
which, is same as the right side of Equation 3.3. Therefore:
Moment at x for the simply-supported beam

(3.6)

## which is the claim as per the general cable theorem .

Note that the horizontal component of the axial force at any section of a cable (under vertical external
forces only) is same as the horizontal reaction ( H ) at the end supports. This can be proved considering the
equilibrium of horizontal forces on any segment of the cable.
We can solve internal forces in a cable using the general cable theorem, and also we can obtain for the
shape of the cable. If the cable length (not the span) is known to us, we can express this length in terms of
the dip y . Using this information along with the general cable theorem we can solve for both the unknowns
H and y . Alternatively, the dip at a certain point, instead of the total length of the cable, may be known to
us. This information, along with the general cable theorem helps us solve for both H and y .
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Statement and derivation for the general cable theorem.

Module 3 : Cables
Lecture 3 : Application of the General Cable Theorem for Distributed Loading
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following

We have seen that we can apply the general cable theorem to find the cable geometry under vertical loading
cases. The theorem also applies for distributed loading, since bending moment definitions for the
corresponding simply-supported beam (

and

## distributed load w , we have:

(3.7)
Let us consider the specific case of a cable AB under uniformly distributed loading w , with the cable's
supports being at the same horizontal level (Figure 3.5). Note that the system is symmetric about its midspan where the cable has its maximum dip. Let the span of the cable be L and its dip at the mid-span (point
. We can find, from the equilibrium of vertical forces and from symmetry, that the vertical support
C ) be
reactions at both A and B are wL/2. Now, applying the general cable theorem (Equation 3.7) at point C , we
get:
(3.8)

Figure 3.5 Free body diagram of a cable under uniformly distributed load
Due to symmetry, we can see that the cable tension (axial force) is horizontal at the mid-span. This can be
observed also if we draw the free body diagram of either the right or the left half of the cable (Figure 3.6).

Figure 3.6 Free body diagram of the right half (CB) of the cable
We can also use Equation 3.8 to define a general shape of the cable in terms of the mid-span dip,

. Thus,

the dip y at a (horizontal) distance x from the left support now is:
(3.9)
Let T be the axial tension in the cable at a distance x . This axial tension acts along the tangent of the cable
geometry. Let us measure the length of the cable by s , which is measured along the cable curve. Therefore
(3.10)
dy / dx is the slope of the cable and it can be obtained from Equation 3.9 which defines the shape of the cable.
Substituting in Equation 3.10, we get:
(3.11)
This equation also shows that the maximum tension occurs at the end supports, that is at x = 0 and x = L ,
which is also where the slope of the cable is maximum. The minimum tension occurs at the mid-span and is
equal to H .
The shape, as defined in Equation in 3.9, can be used obtain the total length of the cable ( S ) as well.

(3.12)

The expression simplifies if the dip becomes very small compared to the span, that is,

(3.13)
One should remember that Equations 3.8 to 3.12 are valid for only cables with both end supports at the same
horizontal level.
The shape of a flexible cable supported at two ends and hanging only under its self-weight is known as a
catenary . It is the shape that a cable attains under uniformly distributed vertical load (self-weight, in this
case). Therefore, the shape of the cable should be a parabola as per Equation 3.9 and this was what Galileo
claimed. However, Leibniz and other scientists later found the proper equation for a catenary to be different
from a parabola. This is because the self-weight of the cable is uniform along its curved length and not along
its span. The distributed loading w that we have considered for obtaining Equation 3.9 is uniform along the
span ( x ) and not along its curved shape ( s ). The equation of a catenary is:
(3.14)

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following

Module 3 : Cables
Lecture 4 : Examples
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Some examples of cable systems.

Example 3.1 A 35 m cable is supported at ends A and B which are at the same horizontal level and are 25 m apart.
A vertical load of 25 kN is acting at point C which is at a distance of 9 m from A . Find the horizontal reaction at A
and the dip at C .

Figure E3.1

Solution:
Free body diagram of the cable :

Where

and

Therefore

## Note: Using the static equilibrium conditions we can find that:

Example 3.2 A light cable (that is, self weight of cable is negligible compared to external loads) is carrying
uniformly distributed load of 30 kN / m . The span of the cable is 75 m and its length is 77 m , where the
supports are at same horizontal level. What will be the percentage change in minimum tension if there is a rise
of temperature by 35 C? Coefficient of thermal expansion of the cable material is (12 10 -6 / C).
Solution: if

## Differentiating equation 3.8

decrease
This is the change in horizontal reaction, that is, in minimum tension in the cable.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following

## Some examples of cable systems.

Module 3 : Cables
Lecture 5 : Tutorial Problems
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Some tutorial problems related to this module.

TUTORIAL PROBLEMS

T3.1 A light cable with span 40m is under uniformly distributed load of 1 kN / m . If the support are at the same
level and the maximum tension allowed in the cable is 30 kN . what is the maximum allowable dip of the cable?
T3.2 Find the tension in the cable at point B for the cable shown in Figure T3.1 .

Figure T3.1
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
You have learned some tutorial problems related to this module.
T3.1

8.94 m

T3.2

74.56 kN

## Module 4 : Deflection of Structures

Lecture 1 : Moment Area Method
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Importance of computation of deflection.

## Computation of deflection using moment area method.

4.1 Introduction
When a structure is subjected to the action of applied loads each member undergoes deformation due to
which the axis of structure is deflected from its original position. The deflections also occur due to
temperature variations and lack-of-fit of members. The deflections of structures are important for ensuring
that the designed structure is not excessively flexible. The large deformations in the structures can cause
damage or cracking of non-structural elements. The deflection in beams is dependent on the acting bending
moments and its flexural stiffness. The computation of deflections in structures is also required for solving
the statically indeterminate structures.
In this chapter, several methods for computing deflection of structures are considered.
4.2 Moment Area Method
The moment-area method is one of the most effective methods for obtaining the bending displacement in
beams and frames. In this method, the area of the bending moment diagrams is utilized for computing the
slope and or deflections at particular points along the axis of the beam or frame. Two theorems known as
the moment area theorems are utilized for calculation of the deflection. One theorem is used to calculate the
change in the slope between two points on the elastic curve. The other theorem is used to compute the
vertical distance (called tangential deviation) between a point on the elastic curve and a line tangent to the
elastic curve at a second point.
Consider Figure 4.1 showing the elastic curve of a loaded simple beam. On the elastic curve tangents are
drawn on points A and B . Total angle between the two tangents is denoted as
. In order to find out
, consider the incremental change in angle

## over an infinitesimal segment

located at a distance

from point B . The radius of curvature and bending moment for any section of the beam is given by the
of
usual bending equation.
(4.1)

where R is the radius of curvature; E is the modulus of elasticity; I is the moment of inertia; and M denotes
the bending moment.
The elementary length
and the change in angle
are related as,
(4.2)

(4.3)

## can be obtained by integrating Eq. (4.3) between points A and B which

is expressed as

(4.4a)

or,
Area of M / EI diagram between A and B

(4.4b)

The difference of slope between any two points on a continuous elastic curve of a beam is equal to the area
under the M / EI curve between these points.
The distance dt along the vertical line through point B is nearly equal to.
(4.5)

(4.6)

## since the quantity M

/EI represents an infinitesimal area under the M /EI diagram and distance
from that
area to point B, the integral on right hand side of Eq. (4.6) can be interpreted as moment of the area under the
M/EI diagram between points A and B about point B . This is the second moment area theorem.
If A and B are two points on the deflected shape of a beam, the vertical distance of point B from the tangent
drawn to the elastic curve at point A is equal to the moment of bending moment diagram area between the
points A and B about the vertical line from point B , divided by EI .
Sign convention used here can be remembered keeping the simply supported beam of Figure 4.1 in mind. A
sagging moment is the positive bending moment diagram and has positive area. Slopes are positive if
indicates that the point B lies above the tangent
measured in the anti-clockwise direction. Positive deviation
from the point A .
Example 4.1 Determine the end slope and deflection of the mid-point C in the beam shown below
using moment area method .

Solution: The M / EI diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 4.2(a). The slope at A ,
computing the

can be obtained by

## using the second moment area theorem i.e.

(clockwise direction)
The slope at B can be obtained by using the first moment area theorem between points A and B i.e.

(anti-clockwise)
(It is to be noted that the

## direction. As per sign convention a positive slope is in the anti-clockwise direction)

The deflection at the centre of the beam can be obtained with the help of the second moment area theorem
between points A and C i.e.

(downward direction)
Example 4.2 Using the moment area method, determine the slope at B and C and deflection at C of
the cantilever beam as shown in Figure 4.3(a). The beam is subjected to uniformly distributed load
over entire length and point load at the free end.
Solution: The moment curves produced by the concentrated load, W and the uniformly distributed load,w are
plotted separately and divided by EI (refer Figures 4.3(b) and (c)). This results in the simple geometric shapes
in which the area and locations of their centroids are known.
Since the end A is fixed, therefore,

## (negative sign is due to hogging moment)

(clockwise direction)

The slope at B can be obtained by applying the first moment area theorem between points B and C i.e.

(clockwise direction)

The deflection at C is equal to the tangential deviation of point C from the tangent to the elastic curve at A (see
Figure 4.3(d)).
= moment of areas under M / EI curves between A and C in Figures 4.3(b) and (c) about C

(downward direction)

Example 4.3 Determine the end-slopes and deflection at the center of a non-prismatic simply supported
beam. The beam is subjected to a concentrated load at the center.
Solution: The M/EI diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 4.4(b).

## Applying second moment-area theorem between points A and B ,

(clockwise direction)
Applying first moment area theorem between A and C .

(anti-clockwise direction)
Applying second moment area theorem between A and C

(downward direction)
Example 4.4 Determine the slope and deflection at the hinge of the beam shown in the Figure 4.5
(a).

## Since the end A is fixed, therefore,

(refer Figure 4.5(c))

## . Applying the first moment-area theorem between points A and B

(clockwise direction)

## Applying second moment area theorem between points A and B ,

(downward direction)
Applying second moment area theorem between points B and D ,

(anti-clockwise direction)
From the first moment area theorem between points B and D

(clockwise direction)
Example 4.5 Determine the vertical deflection and slope of point C of the rigid-jointed plane frame shown in
the Figure 4.6(a).

Solution: The M/EI and deflected shape of the frame are shown in the Figures 4.6(a) and (b), respectively. As
the point A is fixed implying that
. Applying first moment area theorem between points A and B ,
(looking from the left side)
(anti-clockwise direction)
Applying second moment area theorem between points B and C

## The vertical displacement of point C

(downward direction)
Applying first moment area theorem between point B and C

(anti-clockwise direction)
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Importance of computation of deflection.

## Module 4 : Deflection of Structures

Lecture 2 : Conjugate Beam Method
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Computation of deflection using conjugate beam method.
4.3 Conjugate Beam Method
The conjugate beam method is an extremely versatile method for computation of deflections in beams. The
(4.7)
where M is the bending moment; V is the shear; and w ( x ) is the intensity of distributed laod.
Similarly, we have the following
(4.8)
A comparison of two set of equations indicates that if M / EI is the loading on an imaginary beam, the
resulting shear and moment in the beam are the slope and displacement of the real beam, respectively. The
imaginary beam is called as the conjugate beam and has the same length as the original beam .
There are two major steps in the conjugate beam method. The first step is to set up an additional beam,
called "conjugate beam, and the second step is to determine the shearing forces and bending
moments in the conjugate beam.
The loading diagram showing the elastic loads acting on the conjugate beam is simply the bendingmoment diagram of the actual beam divided by the flexural rigidity EI of the actual beam. This elastic load is
downward if the bending moment is sagging.
For each existing support condition of the actual beam, there is a corresponding support condition for the
conjugate beam. Table 4.1 shows the corresponding conjugate beam of different types of actual beams. The
actual beam as well as the conjugate beam are always in static equilibrium condition .
The slope of (the centerline of) the actual beam at any cross-section is equal to the shearing force at
the corresponding cross-section of the conjugate beam. This slope is positive or anti-clockwise if the
shearing force is positive to rotate the beam element anti-clockwise in beam convention . The
deflection of (the centerline of) the actual beam at any point is equal to the bending moment of the
conjugate beam at the corresponding point. This deflection is downward if the bending moment is
positive to cause top fiber in compression in beam convention . The positive shearing force and bending
moment are shown below in Figure 4.7.

## Table 4.1 Real and Conjugate beams for different structures

REAL SRUCTURE

CONJUGATE STRUCTURE

Example 4.6 Determine the slope and deflection of point A of the of a cantilever beam AB of length L and
uniform flexural rigidity EI. A concentrated force P is applied at the free end of beam.

Solution: The conjugate beam of the actual beam is shown in Figure 4.8(b). A linearly varying distributed
upward elastic load with intensity equal to zero at A and equal to PL/EI at B. The free-body diagram for the
conjugate beam is shown in Figure 4.8(c). The reactions at A of the conjugate beam are given by

The slope at A ,

## equal to the shearing force

Figure 4.8(d).

at the free end A of the actual beam in Figure 4.8(d) are respectively,

Note that

## causes tension in bottom fiber of the beam at A (i.e. sagging

moment)
Example 4.7 Determine the slope at A and deflection of B of the beam shown in Figure 4.9(a) using
the conjugate beam method.

## The bending moment at any point X at a distance x from A is given by

varies parabolically with maximum value as
The slope at A ,

in the original beam will be equal to the shear force at A in the conjugate beam, thus,

(clockwise direction)
The deflection of B in the real beam will be equal to the bending moment at B in conjugate beam i.e.

(downward direction)
Example 4.8 Determine the deflection at the free end of the beam shown in Figure 4.10 using conjugate beam
method and verify by moment area method.

Solution:
(a) Conjugate beam method
distributed load with maximum value of

(sagging type)

## Hence, the deflection of point C will be equal to

(b) Verification by moment-area method

## in the downward direction.

Applying second moment area theorem between points A and B will give the slope at A i.e.

## Further, applying moment area theorem between point A and C

(clockwise direction)
Since

(downward direction)
Recap

## In this course you have learnt the following

Computation of deflection using conjugate beam method.

## Module 4 : Deflection of Structures

Lecture 3 : Principle of Virtual Work
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Computation of deflection using principle of virtual work ( PVW ).

## Application of PVW to beams and frames.

Simplified PVW for beams and frames using multiplication of bending moment diagram.
4.4 Principle of Virtual Work
Consider a structural system subjected to a set of forces (

## referred as P force) under stable

equilibrium condition as shown in Figure 4.11(a). Further, consider a small element within the structural
.
system and stresses on the surfaces caused by the P forces are shown in Figure 4.11(b) and referred as

## Let the body undergoes to a set of compatible virtual displacement

. These displacements are imaginary
and fictitious as shown by dotted line. While the body is displaced, the real forces acting on the body move
through these displacements. These forces and virtual displacements must satisfy the principle of
conservation of energy i.e.
(4.8)
(4.9)
This is the principle of virtual work
If a system in equilibrium under a system of forces undergoes a deformation, the work done by
).
the external forces ( P ) equals the work done by the internal stresses due to those forces, (
In order to use the above principle for practical applications, we have to interchange the role of the forces
and displacement. Let the structure acted upon by a virtual force is subjected to real displacements then the
Eq. (4.9) can be written as
(4.10)
This is the principle of complimentary virtual work and used for computing displacements.
Consider a structure shown in Figure 4.12(a) and subjected to P force and it is required to find the
displacement of point C in the direction specified. First apply a virtual force
at C in the required

direction. Next apply the external (real) loads acting on the structures as shown in Figure 4.12(a) with the
and the internal
virtual force remain in the position. The displacement of C in the required ditection be
. Using Eq. (4.10)
elements deform by an amount
(4.11)
The left hand side of Eq. (4.11) denotes the external work done by the virtual force
moving through the
real dispolacement
. On the other hand, the right hand side of Eq. (4.11) represents the internal work
.
done by the virtual internal element forces d f moving through the displacement
Since

## =1 (i.e. unit load). The Eq. (4.11) can be re-written as

(4.12)

where f denotes the internal force in the members due to virtual unit load.
The right hand side of Eq. (4.12) will directly provide the displacement of point C due to applied external
forces. This method is also known as unit load method.
Similarly for finding out a rotation,
take place as

## at any point of a loaded structure, the corresponding Eq. (4.12) will

(4.13)
where
interested

denotes the internal force in the members due to virtual unit moment applied in the direction of
.

## 4.4.1 Application to Pin-Jointed Structures

Consider a pin-jointed structure as shown in Figure 4.13 and subjected to external force P 1 , P 2 and P 3 .
Let the vertical displacement of point C ,
is required. Under the action of the real external load, let
the axial force in typical member be

(L

## and AE are the length and axial rigidity of typical member).

Apply a unit vertical load at C and substituting in Eq. (4.12) leads to

(4.14)
The basic steps to be followed for finding the displacements of the pin-jointed structure are
1. Compute the axial force in various members (i.e.
2. Compute the axial force in various members (i.e.

## ) due to applied external forces.

) due to unit load applied in the direction of

## required displacement of the point.

3. Compute the product
4. The summation

## for all members.

will provide the desired displacement.

5. The axial force shall be taken as positive if tensile and negative if compressive.
6. The positive

implies that the desired displacement is in the direction of applied unit load

and negative quantity will indicate that the desired displacement is in the opposite direction of the
applied unit laod.
Example 4.9 Find the horizontal and vertical deflection at joint C of the pin-jointed frame shown in Figure
4.14. AE is constant for all members.

Solution: Calculate

forces i.e. force in various members of the truss due to the applied loading. These

can be obtained by considering the equilibrium of various joints as marked in Figure 4.14(b).

Table 4.2
Member

Length

AB
BC
CD
DA

L
L
L
L

AC

For

For
L

-P
0
-P
0

0
0
-1
0

0
0
PL
0

L
0
0
-1
0

0
0
PL
0

The computation of

for two desired displacements of pin-jointed frame are shown in Table 4.2.

## Vertical displacement of joint C ,

Example 4.10 For the pin-jointed structure shown in the Figure 4.15, find the horizontal and vertical
and E =200,000
for all the
displacement of the joint D . The area of cross-section, A =500
members.

Table 4.3
For

For

Member

Length L(m)

AB

1920

BC

480

CD

480

DE

120

EF

1080

CE

480

BF

480

= 55.2 mm

= - 8.31 mm

= 8.31 mm

## 4.4.2Application to beams and frames

In order to find out the vertical displacement of C of the beam shown in Figure 4.16(a), apply a unit load
as shown in Figure 4.16(b).

The internal virtual work is considered mainly due to bending and caused due to internal moments
under going the rotation

due to the applied loading. (internal virtual work done by shearing forces and

axial forces is small in comparison to the bending moments and hence ignored). Since the
where

is the moment due to applied loading, the Eq. (4.12) for the displacement of C will take a shape

of

(4.15)
The basic steps to be followed for finding the displacement or slope of a beams and frames are summarized
as
1. Compute the bending moment (i.e.
2. Compute the bending moment (i.e.

## ) due to applied external forces.

) due to unit load applied in the direction of required

displacement or slope.
3. Compute the integral

## provide the desired displacement.

4. The bending moment shall be taken as positive if sagging and negative if hogging (in case of
beams).
5. The positive

## implies that the desired displacement is in the direction of applied unit

load and negative quantity will indicate that the desired displacement is in the opposite direction of
Example 4.11 Determine the slope and deflection of point A of the cantilever beam AB with length L and
constant flexural rigidity EI.

Solution: Deflection under the Load - Apply a vertical unit load at point A of the beam as shown in Figure
4.17(b). Consider any point X at a distance of x from A ,

## The vertical deflection of point A is given by

Slope at the free end: Apply a unit couple at point A of the beam as shown in Figure 4.17(c). Consider any
point X at a distance of x from A .

## The slope at A is given by

Example 4.12. Determine mid-span deflection and end slopes of a simply supported beam of span L
carrying a udl w per unit length.

Solution: Mid-span deflection : Apply a unit load at mid span as shown in Figure 4.18(b). Consider any point
X at a distance of x from A

(0< x < L
)
(0< x < L/2 )
( L /2< x < L )
The vertical deflection of point C is given by

End slopes : Applying a unit couple at A as shown in Figure 4.18(c). Consider any point X at a distance of x
from A

(0< x < L )
(0< x < L/2 )
The slope at A is given by

Due to symmetry

(anti-clockwise direction)

Example 4.13 Determine vertical deflection and rotation of point B of the beam shown in Figure 4.19(a).
The beam is subjected to a couple
at C .

Solution: Vertical deflection of B : Apply a unit load at B as shown in Figure 4.19(b). Consider any point X at
a distance of x from C

(0< x < a + b )
(0< x < b )

(b < x < a + b
)

## (i.e. in the upward direction)

Rotation of B : Apply a unit couple at B as shown in Figure 4.19(c). Consider any point X at a distance of x
from C

(0< x < a + b )
(0< x < a + b )

## The rotation of point B is given by

Example 4.14. Determine horizontal deflection of C and slope at A of a rigid-jointed plane frame as shown
in Figure 4.20(a). Both members of the frame have same flexural rigidity, EI .

## Solution: Horizontal deflection of C : Apply a unit load C as shown in Figure 4.20(b).

Consider AB : ( x measured A )

Consider BC : ( x measured C )

## Rotation at A : Applying a couple at A as shown in Figure 4.20(d).

Consider AB : ( x measured A )

Consider BC : ( x measured C )

## 4.4.3 Moment diagrams multiplication method for beams and frames

Recall the Eq. (4.15) in which the bending deflection of the beams and frames are obtained by the
integration of the two bending moments variations (i.e.
and
) over a length of the members.
However, for a uniform beam section (i.e. EI is constant) such integrals can be readily derived depending
upon the various shapes of the bending moment diagrams. The computation of integral

is

given in the Table 4.A1. The various steps for this method for finding deflections of the beams and frame
are:
1. Draw the bending moment diagram of given beam or frame due to applied external loading (i.e.
diagram).
2. Draw the corresponding bending moment diagram due to unit load applied in the direction of
diagram).
interested deflection (i.e.
3. Compute the desired deflection by computing the

## with the help of results shown in

Table 4.A1.
Example 4.15 Determine the deflection under the load and point D of a simply supported beam with
overhang as shown in Figure 4.21

Figure 4.21
Solution: Bending moment diagram (i.e.

## diagram) due to concentrated load W is shown in Figure

4.21(b).
Deflection under the Load : Apply a vertical unit load in place of W . The bending moment diagram due to
this load is shown in Figure 4.21(c). The vertical deflection under the load is obtained by multiplying the
bending moment diagrams of Figure 4.21(b) and (c) and is given by

## (refer Table 4.A1)

Deflection of the free end : Apply a unit vertical load acting upward at point D of the beam. The bending
moment diagram due to this load is shown in Figure 4.21(d). The vertical deflection under the load is
obtained by multiplying the bending moments diagrams of Figure 4.21(b) and (d) and is given by

## (refer Table 4.A1)

Example 4.16 Using the diagram multiplication method, determine the deflection under the load and end
slopes of a non-prismatic simply supported beam.
Solution: Bending moment (B.M.) diagram (i.e.

## shown in Figure 4.22(b).

Mid-span deflection : Apply a unit load in the downward direction at C . Deflection at C is given by multiplying
the diagrams of Figure 4.22 (b) and (c) as follows

Slope at A : Apply a unit couple at A acting in the clockwise direction and plot the bending moment diagram
of the beam as shown in Figure 4.22(d). The slope at A is given by multiplying the diagrams of Figure 4.22
(b) and (d) as follows

(clockwise direction)

Slope at B : Apply a unit couple at B acting in the anti-clockwise direction and plot the bending moment
diagram of the beam as shown in Figure 4.22(e). The slope at B is given by multiplying the diagrams of
Figure 4.22 (b) and (e) as follows

Example 4.17 Using the diagram multiplication method, determine the horizontal displacement and rotaion
of point C of the rigid-jointed plane frame shown in Figure 4.23. Both the members of the frame have same
EI value.

Solution: The free-body and bending moment diagram (B.M.D.) of the frame due to applied loading are
shown in Figures 4.23(b) and (c), respectively.

Horizontal deflection of C : Apply a horizontal force at C as shown in Figure 4.23(d) and plot the bending
moment diagram as shown in Figure 4.23(e). The horizontal deflection at C is given by multiplying the
diagrams of Figure 4.22 (c) and (e) as follows

Rotation of C : Apply a unit couple at C as shown in Figure 4.23(f) and plot the bending moment diagram as
shown in Figure 4.23(g). The slope at C is given by multiplying the diagrams of Figure 4.22 (c) and (g) as follows

(anti-clockwise direction)
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Computation of deflection using principle of virtual work ( PVW ).

## Application of PVW to beams and frames.

Simplified PVW for beams and frames using multiplication of bending moment diagram.

1/2 K

KiL

1/2 KiL

1/2 KiL

1/3 KiL

1/6 K

1/2 KiL

1/6 KiL

1/6 K

iL

iL

2/3 KiL

2/3 KiL

1/3 KiL

1/2 KiL

1/3 KiL

5/12 KiL

1/4 KiL

1/6(1 + a ) KiL

1/3 KiL

1/4 KiL

1/12 KiL

1/6(1 + b ) KiL

1/3

1/12

1/12

1/6

1/6

1/2

iL

1/3 K

2/3 KiL

1/3 KiL

2/3 KiL

5/12 KiL

1/12 K

2/3 KiL

1/4 KiL

1/12 K

1/3 KiL

1/14 KiL

1/12 K

1/3 KiL

1/12 KiL

1/12 K

1/2 KiL

1/6(1+ a ) KiL

+ (1 + a )

iL
(1 + a )

1/6 KL ((1 + b )

iL

1/6((1 + b )

)iL

8/15 KiL

7/15 KiL

1/5 KiL

7/15 KiL

8/15 KiL

3/10 KiL

1/12(5 - b -

) KiL

7/15 KiL

11/30 KiL

2/15 KiL

1/12(5 - a -

) KiL

1/5 KiL

3/10 KiL

1/5 KiL

1/5 KiL

2/15 KiL

1/30 KiL

) KiL

1/12(1 + a +
) KiL

1/3(1 + ab ) KiL

1/12(1 + a +

KiL

1/12(1 + b +
KiL

1/3 KiL

## Module 4 : Deflection of Structures

Lecture 4 : Strain Energy Method
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Deflection by strain energy method.

## Application of strain energy method for different types of structure.

4.5 Deflection by Strain Energy Method
The concepts of strain, strain-displacement relationships are very useful in computing energy-related
quantities such as work and strain energy. These can then be used in the computation of deflections. In the
special case, when the structure is linear elastic and the deformations are caused by external forces only,
(the complementary energy U * is equal to the strain energy U ) the displacement of structure in the
is expressed by
direction of force
(4.16)
This equation is known as Castigliano's theorem. It must be remembered that its use is limited to the
calculation of displacement in linear elastic structures caused by applied loads. The use of this theorem is
equivalent to the virtual work transformation by the unit-load theorem.
4.5 .1 Calculation of Strain Energy
When external loads are applied on an elastic body they deform. The work done is transformed into elastic
strain energy U that is stored in the body. We will develop expressions for the strain energy for different
Axial Force : Consider a member of length L and axial rigidity AE subjected to an axial force P applied
gradually as shown in the Figure 4.24. The strain energy stored in the member will be equal to the external
work done by the axial force i.e
(4.17)

## Figure 4.24 Member subjected to axial force

Bending Moment: Consider a beam of length L and flexural rigidity EI subjected to a general loading as
shown in Figure 4.25. Consider a small differential element of length, dx . The energy stored in the small
element is given by

(4.18)
The total strain energy in the entire beam will be
(4.19)

## Figure 4.25 Member under bending

Shear Force: The strain energy stored in the member due to shearing force is expressed by

(4.20)

## is the shearing rigidity of the member.

Twisting Moment: The strain energy stored in the member due to twisting moment is expressed by

(4.21)

where T is the twisting moment; and GJ is the torsional rigidity of the member .
Example 4.18 Find the horizontal deflection at joint C of the pin-jointed frame as shown in Figure 4.26(a). AE
is constant for all members.

Solution: The force in various members of the frame is shown in Figure 4.26(b). Calculation of strain energy
of the frame is shown in Table 4.4.

Table 4.4
Member

Length ( L )

Force ( P )

AB

BC

BD
CD

## Horizontal displacement of joint C ,

Example 4.19 A bar of uniform cross-section is bent into a quadrant of circle of radius R . One end of the
bent is fixed and other is free. At the free end it carries a vertical load W . Determine the vertical and
horizontal deflection at A .
Solution:

## Vertical displacement of A : The vertical displacement of A is given by

For evaluation of the total strain energy in the system, consider a small element
The bending moment at this element,

## as shown in the Figure.

. Thus,

Since there is no horizontal force acting at point A , apply a horizontal force, F at A as shown in Figure
4.27(b). From the Castigliano's theorem, the horizontal displacement of A due to applied external load W is
given by

## The bending moment at the small element

displacement of A

is

## . Thus, the horizontal

(i.e. deflection is in

direction)

Example 4.20 Determine the deflection of the end A of the beam as shown in Figure 4.28. The flexibility of
the spring is

## Solution: Reactions at support B and C are

(upward) and
(downward)
Force in the spring = Reaction,
Deflection under the load is given by

where
member AB ;

## is the total strain energy stored in the system;

is the energy stored in the member BC ; and

Thus,

## The deflection of point A,

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Deflection by strain energy method.

## Module 4 : Deflection of Structures

Lecture 5 : Bending Deflection Due to Temperature Variation
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Bending deflection of beams due to temperature variation.
4.6 Bending Deflection due to Temperature Variation
Consider a beam member (refer Figure 4.29) subjected to temperature gradient
such that

(4.22)
where

## = temperature at the bottom of the beam.

The deflection of the beam due to temperature variation is shown in Figure 4.29(b). It is assumed that
is the coefficient of thermal expansion of the
temperature varies linearly through the depth, d and
material.
Consider a small element of length dx . The strain at top and bottom of the small elements are
(4.23a)
(4.23b)
The curvature of the beam is given by

(4.24)
The equation (4.24) can be used for finding out the bending deflection in beams due to temperature
variation. If the beam is restrained from rotation, the moment induced in the beam will be given by

(4.25)

The equation (4.25) is obtained by equating the right hand side of equation (4.24) to

## from the simple

bending theory.
Temperature deflections of a cantilever beam:

over

## the depth. Integrating the equation (4.24)

(4.26)
(4.27)

Boundary conditions: At x = 0,

## and v = 0 will give the values of arbitrary constants as

The slope and deflection of the free end of the cantilever beam are
(4.28a)
(4.28a)
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Bending deflection of beams due to temperature variation.

## Module 4 : Deflection of Structures

Lecture 6 : Maxwell-Betti Law of Reciprocal Deflections
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Maxwell-Betti Law of reciprocal deflection.

## Illustrative examples for proving law of reciprocal deflection.

4.7 Maxwell-Betti Law of Reciprocal Deflections
Maxwell-Betti Law of real work is a basic theorem in the structural analysis. Using this theorem, it will be
established that the flexibility coefficients in compatibility equations, formulated to solve indeterminate
structures by the flexibility method, form a symmetric matrix and this will reduce the number of deflection
computations. The Maxwell-Betti law also has applications in the construction of influence lines diagrams for
statically indeterminate structures. The Maxwell-Betti law, which applies to any stable elastic structure (a
beam, truss, or frame, for example) on unyielding supports and at constant temperature, states:
The deflection of point A in direction 1 due to unit load at point B in direction 2 is equal in the
magnitude to the deflection of point B in direction 2 produced by a unit load applied at A in
direction 1.
The Figure 4.31 explains the Maxwell-Betti Law of reciprocal displacements in which, the displacement
equal to the displacement

is

In order to prove the reciprocal theorem, consider the simple beams shown in Figure 4.32.
Let a vertical force

## at point B produces a vertical deflection

at point A and

at point B as shown

at point A produces a
in Figure 4.32(a). Similarly, in Figure 4.32(b) the application of a vertical force
vertical deflections
and
at points A and B , respectively. Let us evaluate the total work done by the
two forces
Case 1:

and

when they are applied in different order to the zero to their final value.

## (a) Work done when

s
(b) Work done when

in place

(4.29)
Case2:

in place

## Total work done by the two forces for case 2 is

(4.30)
Since the final deflected position of the beam produced by the two cases of loads is the same regardless of

the order in which the loads are applied. The total work done by the forces is also the same regardless of the
order in which the loads are applied. Thus, equating the total work of Cases 1 and 2 give

(4.31)
If

, the equation (4.31) depicts the statement of the Maxwell-Betti law i.e.

The Maxwell-Betti theorem also holds for rotations as well as rotation and linear displacement in beams and
frames.
Example 4.21 Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the direction 1 and 2 of the pin-jointed
structure shown in Figure 4.33(a).

and

Table 4.5

Member

Length

AB

AC

Force P
-(
)

P1

Since

## , hence the Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement is proved.

Example 4.22 Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the cantilever beam shown in Figure
4.34(a).

and

## in the directions 1 and 2, respectively. The total strain energy stored

is calculated below.
Consider any point X at a distance x from B .

Since

## , the Maxwekk-Betti law of reciprical displacement is proved.

Example 4.23 Verify Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacement for the rigid-jointed plane frame with
reference to marked direction as shown in Figure 4.35(a). EI is same for both members.

and

Thus

Since

## , proves the Maxwell-Betti law of reciprocal displacements.

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Maxwell-Betti Law of reciprocal deflection.

## Module 4 : Deflection of Structures

Lecture 7 : Tutorial Problems
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Some tutorial problems related to this module.

TUTORIAL PROBLEMS
T4.1 Using moment area method, determine the end slope and deflection of the mid-span point C in
the beam shown in Figure T4.1.

T4.2 Determine the slope and deflection at the internal hinge of the beam shown in the Figure T4.2.

T4.3 Determine the slope at A and deflection of B of the beam shown in Figure T4.3 using the
moment area method.

T4.4 Find the maximum slope and deflection of the simply supported beam shown in Figure T4.4
using moment area method.

T4.5 Using conjugate beam method determine the ratio P / Q for the beam shown in Figure T4.5 if
(i) slope at C is zero and (ii) deflection at C is zero.

T4.6 Determine the deflection at B for the beam using conjugate beam method. Take EI=710 4 kNm 2 .

T4.7 Determine the mid-span deflection for the beam using conjugate beam method.

T4.8 Determine the expression for the slope and deflection of the free end of the cantilever
beam shown in the Figure T4.8

T4.9 Determine the horizontal and vertical displacement of joint C of the pin-jointed frame as
shown in Figure T4.9. All the members of the frame have uniform axial rigidity (AE) . Use the unit
load method and verify by the strain energy method.

T4.10 Determine the vertical displacements of joint D and E of the pin-jointed frame as shown in
Figure 4.10. All the members of the frame have uniform axial rigidity (AE) . Use the unit load
method and verify by the strain energy method.

T4.11 Determine the vertical displacement of joint C and horizontal displacement E of the pinjointed frame as shown in Figure T4.11. All the members of the frame have uniform axial rigidity
(AE) . Use the unit load method and verify by the strain energy method.

T4.12 Determine the horizontal and vertical displacements of joints C and D of the pin-jointed
frame as shown in Figure T4.12. All the members of the frame have uniform axial rigidity (AE) . Use
the unit load method and verify by the strain energy method.

T4.13 Determine the vertical displacement of joint C and horizontal displacement of joint D of the
pin-jointed frame as shown in Figure T4.13. All the members of the frame have uniform axial
rigidity, AE=1510 3 kN. Use the unit load method and verify by the strain energy method.

T4.14 Determine the vertical displacement of joint D if member BC of the pin-jointed frame as
shown in Figure T4.14 is long by an amount from the original length L . All the members of the
frame have same AE value.

T4.15 Using unit load method and strain energy method, determine the deflection and slope of
point C of the uniform beam shown in Figure T4.15.

T4.16 Using unit load method and strain energy method, determine the deflection at the center of
the beam shown in Figure T4.16 under the distributed load w.

T4.17 Using unit load method and strain energy method, determine the deflection and rotation of
the point B of the beam shown in Figure T4.17. The beam is carrying a uniformly distributed load,
w over the entire length.

T4.18 Using unit load method and strain energy method, determine the deflection under the load
W and horizontal displacement of roller at D of the rigid-jointed plane frame shown in Figure T4.18.

T4.19 Using unit load method and strain energy method, determine the deflection at the center of
AB and horizontal displacement of roller at C of the rigid-jointed plane frame shown in Figure
T4.19.

T4.20 Verify the Maxwell-Betti Law of reciprocal displacements for the structures in Figure T4.20.
The required direction 1 and 2 are marked on the structures.

Figure T4.20
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
You have learned some tutorial problems related to this module.
and

T4.1

T4.2

and

T4.3

and

T4.4

T4.5

(i)

and

T4.6
T4.7

T4.8

T4.9

and

(ii)

T4.10

T4.11

T4.12

T4.13

T4.14

T4.15

T4.16

T4.17
T4.18

T4.19

T4.20

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

## Module 5 : Force Method - Introduction and applications

Lecture 1 : Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Beams
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Introduction to statically indeterminate structure.

Analysis of statically indeterminates beam using moment area and conjugate beam method.
To demonstrate the application of moment area and conjugate beam method through illustrative
examples.
5.1 Introduction
A strucure in which the laws of statics are not sufficient to determine all the unknown forces or moments is
said to be statically indeterminate. Such structures are analyzed by writing the appropriate equations of
static equilibrium and additional equations pertaining to the deformation and constraints known as
compatibility condition.
The statically indeterminate structures are frequently used for several advantages. They are relatively more
economical in the requirement of material as the maximum bending moments in the structure are reduced.
The statically indeterminate are more rigid leading to smaller deflections. The disadvantage of the
indeterminate structure is that they are subjected to stresses when subjected to temperature changes and
settlements of the support. The construction of indeterminate structure is more difficult if there are
dimensional errors in the length of members or location of the supports.
This chapter deals with analysis of statically indeterminate structures using various force methods.
5.2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Beams
The moment area method and the conjugate beam method can be easily applied for the analysis of statically
indeterminate beams using the principle of superposition. Depending upon the degree of indeterminacy of
the beam, designate the excessive reactions as redundant and modify the support. The redundant reactions
are then treated as unknown forces. The redundant reactions should be such that they produce the
compatible deformation at the original support along with the applied loads. For example consider a propped
cantilever beam as shown in Figure 5.1(a). Let the reaction at B be R as shown in Figure 5.1(b) which can be
obtained with the compability condition that the downward vertical deflection of B due to applied loading
shown in Figure 5.1(c)) should be equal to the upward vertical deflection of B due to R (i.e.
(i.e.
shown in Figure 5.1(d)).

Example 5.1 Determine the support reactions of the propped cantilever beam as shown in Figure 5.2(a).

Solution: The static indeterminacy of the beam is = 3 2 = 1. Let reaction at B is R acting in the upward
direction as shown in Figure 5.2(b). The condition available is that the
.

## (a) Moment area method

The bending moment diagrams divided by EI of the beam are shown due to P and R in Figures 5.2(c) and (d),
respectively.

Since in the actual beam the deflection of the point B is zero which implies that the deviation of point B from
the tangent at A is zero. Thus,

or

## (b) Conjugate beam method

The corresponding conjugate beam of the propped cantilever beam and loading acting on it are shown in
Figure 5.2(f).

## The unknown R can be obtained by taking moment about B i.e.

Example 5.2 Determine the support reactions of the fixed beam with internal hinge as shown in Figure 5.3(a).

Solution: The static indeterminacy of the beam is = 4-2-1 =1 Let the shear in the internal hinge be R . The free
body diagrams of the two separated portions of the beam are shown in Figure 5.3(b) along with their M/EI
diagrams. The unknown R can be obtained with the condition that the vertical deflection of the free ends of the
two separated cantilever beams is identical.

## Consider AC : The vertical displacement of C is given by

or
Consider CB : The vertical displacement of C is given by

Equating the

## The reactions at the supports are given by

Example 5.3 Determine the support reactions of the fixed beam with one end fixed and other supported on
spring as shown in Figure 5.4(a). The stiffness of spring is
.

Solution: The static indeterminacy of the beam is = 32 =1. Let the force in the spring be R . The free body
diagram of the beam along with the M/EI diagram and spring are shown in Figure 5.4(b) and (c), respectively.
The unknown R can be obtained with the condition that the vertical deflection of the free end of the beam and
spring is identical.

Using moment area theorem, the deflection of free end A of the beam is

Equating

and

(compressive)

## The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.4(d).

Example 5.4 Determine the support reactions of the fixed beam as shown in Figure 5.5(a). The beam carries
a uniformly distributed load, w over the left half span.

Solution: The static indeterminacy of the beam is = 4-2 =2. Let the reactions at B be the unknown as shown
in Figure 5.5(b).

## (a) Moment Area Method

The free body diagram of the beam is shown below along with their M/EI diagrams. The unknowns

and

can be obtained with the condition that the vertical deflection and slope at B are zero.

Since the change of slope between points A and B is zero (due to fixed supports at A and B ), therefore,
according to the first moment area theorem,

or

(i)

or

(ii)

## (b) Conjugate Beam Method

The corresponding conjugate beam (i.e. free-free beam) and loading on it are shown in Figure 5.5(g).

or

(iii)

or

(iv)

## Solving eqs. (iii) and (iv)

Example 5.5 The end B of a uniform fixed beam sinks by an amount D . Determine the end reactions using
moment area method.
Solution: The degree of indeterminacy is 2. Let end reactions due to settlement at B be
and
as
shown in Figure 5.6(b). The M/EI diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.6(c).

or

(i)

## Applying second moment area theorem between point A and B

or
Solving eqs. (i) and (ii)

## By equilibrium conditions, the reactions at support A are

and
Example 5.6 Determine the support reactions of the continuous beam as shown in Figure 5.7(a).

Solution: The static indeterminacy of the beam is = 3-2 =1. Let the vertical reaction at B be the unknown R
as shown in Figure 5.7(b). The M/EI diagrams of the beam are shown in Figure 5.7(c).

## Because of symmetry of two spans the slope at B ,

As a result

or
or
The vertical reaction at A and C are

## The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.7(d).

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Introduction to statically indeterminate structure.

Analysis of statically indeterminates beam using moment area and conjugate beam method.
To demonstrate the application of moment area and conjugate beam method through illustrative
examples.

## Module 5 : Force Method - Introduction and applications

Lecture 2 : The Force Method
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Concept of force method for analysis of statically indeterminate structure.

## 5.3 The Force Method

The force method is used to calculate the response of statically indeterminate structures to loads and/or
imposed deformations. The method is based on transforming a given structure into a statically determinate
primary system and calculating the magnitude of statically redundant forces required to restore the
geometric boundary conditions of the original structure. The force method (also called the flexibility
method or method of consistent deformation ) is used to calculate reactions and internal forces in statically
indeterminate structures due to loads and imposed deformations.
The basic steps in the force method are as follows:

## (a) Determine the degree of static indeterminacy, n of the structure.

(b) Transform the structure into a statically determinate system by releasing a number of static constraints
equal to the degree of static indeterminacy, n. This is accomplished by releasing external support
conditions or by creating internal hinges. The system thus formed is called the basic determinate structure
.
(c) For a given released constraint j, introduce an unknown redundant force

## and direction of the released constraint.

(d) Apply the given loading or imposed deformation to the basic determinate structure . Use suitable
method (given in Chapter 4) to calculate displacements at each of the released constraints in the basic
determinate structure .
(e)

## ( j =1 to n ) by imposing the compatibility conditions of the original

structure. These conditions transform the basic determinate structure back to the original structure by
finding the combination of redundant forces that make displacement at each of the released constraints
equal to zero.

It can thus be seen that the name force method was given to this method because its primary
through
.
computational task is to calculate unknown forces , i.e. the redundant forces
5.3.1 Selection of the basic determinate structure
There is no limit to the number of different basic determinate structure that can be generated for a given
structure. The choice of structure, however, must ensure that the primary system is stable. In addition, it
is recommended that the basic determinate structure be chosen to minimize computational effort and
maximize computational accuracy.
(a) Stability of Basic determinate structure

It is not sufficient merely to release the correct number of statical constraints in generating a basic
determinate structure. Care must be taken to ensure that the basic determinate structure is stable. This
fact is explained in the Table 5.1 where any arbitrary release of constraint can result into the unstable
basic determinate structure.
Table 5.1 Selection of basic determinate structure
Given indeterminate structure

structure

## Stable basic determinate

structure

The computational effort required in calculating the response of a given structure using the force method
can vary significantly depending on the choice of basic determinate structure. In this regard, there are two
issues to consider:
1. Select the basic determinate structure such as the displacements can be easily computed (i.e. converting
it into simple structure).
2. Select the basic determinate structure to maximize the number of flexibility coefficients equal to zero.
These issues are illustrated in the following examples.
Consider a fixed beam as shown in Figure 5.8(a). The beam is non-prismatic with degree of indeterminacy
2. Three basic determinate structures are shown in Figures 5.8(b), (c) and (d). Among the three structures
the computation effort will be minimum for the beam as in Figure 5.8(b) as the resulting basic determinate
structure consists of two uniform cantilever beams.

The another structure under consideration is a four-span continuous beam as shown in Figure 5.9. The
degree of static indeterminacy of the beam is 3. Two basic determinate structures are illustrated. On the lefthand side of the figure, the basic determinate structure is formed by releasing moment in the beam at the
three interior supports. On the right-hand side of the figure, the basic determinate structure is formed by
releasing the vertical reaction at the three interior supports.
For each basic determinate structure, bending moments

(due to

),

(due to

), and

(due to

## ) are plotted. For

the basic determinate structure on the left-hand side of the diagram, all integrations required for calculating

the deflections can be easily performed using integration tables. In addition, for the left-hand side of the
diagram, several deflection coefficients are zero. On the right-hand side, however, all coefficients are
nonzero. The choice of basic determinate structure on the left allowed the influence of a given redundant
to be restricted to a relatively small portion of the structure (two spans in this particular case). For
force
the structure on the right-hand side, the influence of a given redundant force R j is felt throughout the
structure. It can be concluded that the basic determinate structure on the left-hand side is preferable
because it reduces the computational effort.
Given statically
indeterminate
beam

Basic
determinate
structure

Figure 5.9
Example 5.7 Analyze the continuous beam shown in Figure 5.10(a) using the force method. Also, draw the
bending moment diagram. EI is constant for entire beam.

Solution: The degree of static indeterminacy = 32 =1. The moment at B is taken as redundant R and the
basic determinate structure will be then two simply supported beams as shown in Figure 5.10(b).

## Equating the rotation of point B due to applied loads and R i.e.

or
The reaction at A is given by

## The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.10(e).

Example 5.8 Analyze the uniform continuous beam shown in Figure 5.11(a) using the force method. Also,
draw the bending moment diagram.

Solution: The degree of static indeterminacy of the beam = 4 2 = 2. The moment at A and B are taken as
unknown
and
, respectively.

## Equating the rotation at A due to applied loading and unknown

or

or
Solving equations (i) and (ii)

and

(i)
and

(ii)

## The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.11(d)

Example 5.9 Find the force in various members of the pin-jointed frame shown in Figure 5.12(a). AE is
constant for all members.

Solution: The static indeterminacy of the pin-jointed frame = 1. The vertical reaction at C is taken as
unknown force R . The computation of deflection of point C due to applied loading and R are shown in Tables
5.2 and 5.3, respectively.
Table 5.2
Member

Length

AB
AC

Table 5.3
Member

Length

AB
AC

## The vertical displacement of joint C due to R =

Adding the displacement of point C due to applied loading and R and equating it to zero i.e.

kN

## The force in various members of the frame are as follows

kN (Tensile)

kN (Compressive)

kN (Compressive)

Example 5.10 Find the force in various members of the pin-jointed frame shown in Figure 5.13(a). AE is
constant for all members.

Solution: The static indeterminacy of the pin-jointed frame = 1. The horizontal reaction at B is taken as
unknown force R . The computation of horizontal deflection of point B due to applied loading and R are shown
in Tables 5.4 and 5.5, respectively.
Table 5.4
L

Member

Length(m)

AC

-100.44

3.46

161.912

CD

-96.967

BC

3.46

53.97

BD

-93.48

-200.88
-970.32

-387.869
-323.83

-186.96

-2069.86

Table 5.5
Member

Length(m)

AC

3.46

CD

BC

3.46

L
R

1
R

2R

10.392 R
2

2R
8R
10.392 R

BD

2R

32.784 R
The horizontal displacement of joint B due to R =

Adding the horizontal displacemet of point B due to applied loading and R and equating it to zero i.e.

R = 63.136 kN
The force in various members are as follows
= 37.305 kN

= 52.558 kN
= 29.328 kN
= 55.383 kN

= 30.345 kN
( ve indicates compressive force and +ve indicates tensile force)
Example 5.11 Analyze the non-prismatic fixed beam shown in Figure 5.14(a) using force method.
Solution: Degree of indeterminacy of the system = 2. We choose shear force and moment at section C as
redundant
and
, respectively.

or

(i)

or

(ii)

## The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.14(d)

Example 5.12 Determine the horizontal thrust in a two-hinged trapezoidal arch. EI is constant.

## Figure 5.15(c) BMD due to

Solution: The degree of static indeterminacy = 43 = 1. Let H be the unknown horizontal reaction at A and
B . Let
and
be the vertical reactions at support A and B respectively

Due to symmetry,

Displacement in the direction of H due to applied loading is calculated by multiplication of two bending
moment diagrams of Figure 5.15(c) and (e).

Displacement in the direction of H due to H obtained by multiplying diagram of Figure 5.10(d) and (e).

## Since the net deflection in the direction of H is zero, therefore

or
Example 5.13 Determine the reaction of the propped cantilever beam if the beam is assumed to be
subjected to a linear temperature gradient such that the top surface of the beam is at temperature
lower at

and

. The beam is uniform having flexural rigidity as EI and depth d . The coefficient of thermal

## expansion for beam material is

Solution: The degree of static indeterminacy =1. Remove the support at B and allow the beam deflect freely
under the temperature variation. The deflection of the free end of the beam due to temperature variation
(from eqs 4.28 of Chapter 4).
(i)

Apply the force R at point B such that the deflection in the direction of R is equal to
a cantilever beam due to force R is equal

, therefore

(ii)

Equating the

## The vertical reaction and bending moment at A will be

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following

. Since deflection of

## Module 5 : Force Method - Introduction and applications

Lecture 3 : Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structure
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Energy method for analysis of statically indeterminate structures.

Illustrative examples for analysis of statically indetrminate structures using every method.
5.4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by Energy Method
Let a statically indeterminate structure has degree of indeterminacy as n . On the selected basic
determinate structure apply the unknown forces
,
..... and
. Using the Eq. (4.16) the displacement
in the direction of

is expressed by

( j = 1, 2, .. n)

(5.1)

The equations (5.1) will provide the n linear simultaneous equations with n unknowns
Since the

..... and

is known, therefore, the solution of simultaneous equations will provide the desired

( j =1,

2,., n ).
For structures with members subjected to the axial forces only (i.e. pin-jointed structures), the equation
(5.1) is re-written as

(5.2)

where P is the force in the member due to applied loading and unknown

## are length and axial rigidity of the member, respectively.

For structures with members subjected to the bending moments (i.e. beams and rigid-jointed frames), the
equation (5.1) is re-written as

(5.3)

## element of length dx ; and EI is the flexural rigidity.

Example 5.14 A beam is suspended by three springs as shown in Figure 5.17(a). The flexibility of the
springs AD , BE and CF are
,
and
respectively. The beam carries a load W at the middle of DE.
Determine the force in the spring BE assuming (i) the beam to be stiff in comparison to the springs and (ii)
flexible with flexural rigidity EI .

Solution: The degree of static indeterminacy = 32 = 1. Let the force in the spring BE be R as shown in
Figure 5.17(b). Taking moment about point F , we have

## (i) When beam is rigid

Total energy stored in the system is due to springs only as the beam is rigid. Thus,

Since the displacement of point E is zero in the vertical direction implying that

or

## (ii) When beam is flexible

The total energy stored in the beam

Thus,

## Total strain energy in the system

Hence,

Since

Example 5.15 The free ends of two cantilever beams each of length L and flexural rigidity EI are joined
together with a spring as shown in Figure 5.18(a). The stiffness of the spring is
. Determine the
force in the spring due to a concentrated load W acting at center of the lower cantilever.

Solution: Let the force in the spring be R as shown in Figure 5.18(b). According to the Castigliano's
theorem

and

## Consider the beam AC ,

Since

Example 5.16 Find the expression for the prop reaction in the propped cantilever beam shown in the
Figure 5.19(a).

## The bending moment at any point X at a distance x from A is given by

Since

Example 5.17 Determine the force in various members of the pin-jointed frame shown in Figure 5.20(a).
Length and AE is constant for all members.

Solution: The static indeterminacy of the pin-jointed frame is =12+372 = 1. Let the force in the member
BG be R as shown in Figure 5.20(b). According to the Castigliano's theorem

The computation of

Table 5.6

Member

Length, L ( m )

AB
AG
AF
BC
BG
CD
CG
DE
DG
EF
EG
FG

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

-120 +R
120 -R
-60 +R
-120 +R
-R
-120 +R
120 -R
-60 +R
60 -R
-60 +R
60 -R
60 -R

## Final force (kN)

1
-1
1
1
-1
1
-1
-1
-1
1
-1
-1

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

R- 240
R- 240
R- 120
R- 240
2R
R- 240
R- 240
R- 120
R- 120
R- 120
R- 120
R- 120

-40
40
20
-40
-80
-40
40
20
-20
20
-20
-20

or
R = 80 kN
The final force in various members of the frame is shown in Table 5.6.
Example 5.18 Determine the force in various members of the pin-jointed frame as shown in Figure 5.21(a),
. All members of the frame have same axial rigidity as AE.
if the member BC is short by an amount of

Solution: The static indeterminacy of the pin-jointed frame is =5 + 4 - 24=1. Since the member BC is
, therefore, apply a force R in the member BC such that displacement in the
short by an amount of
. Thus, according to the Castigliano's theorem.
direction of R is

The computation of

## is made in Table 5.7.

Table 5.7
Final force

Member

Length,L ( m )

AB

RL

BC

RL

BD

L
R

RL

AC

CD

or

The final force in various members of the frame is shown in Table 5.7.
Example 5.19 Determine the horizontal reaction of the portal frame shown in Figure 5.22(a) by energy
method. Also, calculate the horizontal reaction when the member BC is subjected to distributed load, w over
entire length.

## Solution: Static indeterminacy of the frame = 1.

Let the horizontal reaction, H at D be the redundant. The reaction at A and D are

Since

## The horizontal reaction due to small incremental load wdx is given by

(using the expression derived earlier for concentrated force and putting P = wdx , a = x and b = L x ).
The horizontal reaction due to entire distributed load

Example 5.20 Analyze the portal frame shown in Figure 5.23 by strain energy method.

Solution: Static indeterminacy of the frame = 2. Horizontal and vertical reactions at A are taken as
redundant.
For the span AB ( x measured from A ),

Since

or

6 V + 4 H = 3 wL

(i)

and

or

32 V + 12 H = 15 wL

## Solving Eqs (i) and (ii) for H and V ,

(ii)

Example 5.21 Determine the support reactions of the continuous beam as shown in Figure 5.24(a) if the
beam is assumed to be subjected to a linear temperature gradient such that the top surface of the beam is at
and lower at
. The beam is uniform having flexural rigidity as EI and depth d . The
temperature
coefficient of thermal expansion for beam material is

Solution: The degree of static indeterminacy =2. Remove the supports at B and C and allow the beam to
deflect freely under the temperature variation. The deflection of the points B and C of the beam due to
temperature variation

(i)

(ii)

and

## at point B and C , respectively. According to Castigliano's theorem

(iii)

(iv)
Consider BC : ( x measured from C )

Thus,

or

(v)

Similarly,

or

(vi)

## Solving eqs. (v) and (vi)

and
The reactions of the beam are shown in Figure 5.24(d).

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Energy method for analysis of statically indeterminate structures.

Illustrative examples for analysis of statically indetrminate structures using every method.

## Module 5 : Force Method - Introduction and applications

Lecture 4 : Three Moment Equation
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Derivation of three moment equation for analysis of continous beams.

## Demonstration of three moment equation using numerical examples.

5.5 Three Moment Equation
The continuous beams are very common in the structural design and it is necessary to develop simplified
force method known as three moment equation for their analysis. This equation is a relationship that exists
between the moments at three points in continuous beam. The points are considered as three supports of
the indeterminate beams. Consider three points on the beam marked as 1, 2 and 3 as shown in Figure
,
and
and the corresponding vertical
5.25(a). Let the bending moment at these points is
displacement of these points are

and

, respectively. Let

and

## be the distance between

(5.4)
From the Figure 5.25(d)

and

(5.5)

where

and

(5.6)

Using the bending moment diagrams shown in Figure 5.25(c) and the second moment area theorem,

(5.7)

(5.8)

where

and

are the areas of the bending moment diagram of span 1-2 and 2-3, respectively

Substituting from Eqs. (5.7) and Eqs. (5.8) in Eqs. (5.4) and Eqs. (5.5).

(5.9)

## The above is known as three moment equation .

Sign Conventions
The

and

are positive for sagging moment and negative for hogging moment. Similarly, areas

and

are positive if it is sagging moment and negative for hogging moment. The displacements

and

## are positive if measured downward from the reference axis.

Example 5.22 Analyze the continuous beam shown in Figure 5.26(a) by the three moment equation. Draw
the shear force and bending moment diagram.

Solution: The simply supported bending moment diagram on AB and AC are shown in Fig 5.26 (b). Since
supports A and C are simply supported

or

= 0)

=-56.25 kN.m

= 41.25 kN
= 41.25 kN
= 120 + 40

## 3 41.25 41.25 = 157.5 kN

The bending moment and shear force diagram are shown in Figures 5.26(c) and (d), respectively

Example 5.23 Analyze the continuous beam shown in Figure 5.27(a) by the three moment equation. Draw
the shear force and bending moment diagram.
Solution: The effect of a fixed support is reproduced by adding an imaginary span
5.27 (b). The moment of inertia,

as shown in Figure

of the imaginary span is infinity so that it will never deform and the

or
Span AB and BC :

and AB :

= 135

(i)

or

## Solving Eqs. (i) and (ii),

= 225

= 45 kNm and

(ii)

= 45 kNm

The shear force and bending moment diagram are shown in Figures 5.27(d) and (e), respectively.
Example 5.24 Analyze the continuous beam shown in Figure 5.28(a) by the three moment equation. Draw
the shear force and bending moment diagram.
Solution: The simply supported moment diagram on AB , BC and CD are shown in Figure 5.28(b). Since the
The moment at D is
.
support A is simply supported,
Applying three moment equation to the span AB and BC :

or
Span BC and CD : (

or
Solving Eqs. (i) and (ii) will give

(i)
)

(ii)
and

The bending moment and shear force diagram are shown in Figures 5.28(d) and (c), respectively.

Example 5.25 Analyze the continuous beam show in Fig. 5.29(a) by the three moment equation method if
support B sinks by an amount of 10 mm. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram. Take flexural
.
rigidity

or

(i)

Span BC and CD :

or

(ii)

and

## The bending moment diagram is shown in Figure 5.29(b).

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Derivation of three moment equation for analysis of continous beams.

## Module 5 : Force Method - Introduction and applications

Lecture 5 : Tutotial Problems
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Some tutorial problems related to this module.
TUTORIAL PROBLEMS
T5.1 Determine the support reactions of the propped cantilever beam as shown in Figure T5.1. Use
moment area method and verify by conjugate beam method.

T5.2 Determine the support reactions of the propped cantilever beam as shown in Figure T5.2. Use
moment area method or conjugate beam method.

T5.3 Determine the shear in the internal hinge and support reactions of the fixed beam shown in
Figure T5.3

T5.4 Determine the force in the spring of the beam shown in Figure T5.4.

T5.5 Determine the reaction at the prop end of the cantilever beam shown in the Figure T5.5.

T5.6 Determine the support reactions of the propped cantilever beam (Figure T5.6) if support A
. Take flexural rigidity of member AB as EI . Member BC is
settle downward by an amount of
rigid.

T5.7 Determine the support reactions of the uniform continuous beam as shown in Figure T5.7. At
B there is an internal hinge.

T5.8 Determine the force in the spring of the beam shown in Figure T5.8. The beam ABC is uniform
with flexural rigidity EI . The stiffness of the spring is
.

## T5.9 Analyze the fixed beam shown in Figure T5.9.

T5.10 Determine the support reactions of the fixed beam shown in Figure T5.10.

T5.11 Determine the support reactions of continuous beam shown in Figure T5.11.

T5.12 Determine the force in various members of the pin-jointed structure as shown in Figure
T5.12. All the members of the frame have the same axial rigidity, AE .

T5.13 Determine the force in various members of the pin-jointed structure as shown in Figure
T5.13, if the temperature in the member BC rises by an amount
. All the members of the
frame have the same length, L and axial rigidity, AE . Take coefficient of thermal expansion as

T5.14 Determine the force in various members of the pin-jointed frame as shown in Figure T5.14.
All members of the frame have same axial rigidity as AE .

Figure T5.14
T5.15 Determine the force in various members of the pin-jointed frame as shown in Figure T5.15.
kN for all members.
Take

T5.16 Determine the support reactions of the rigid-jointed plane frame as shown in Figure T5.16.
Both members of the frame have the same flexural rigidity as EI .

T5.17 Determine the support reactions of the rigid-jointed plane frame as shown in Figure T5.17 if
from the original length. Both the members of the
the member BC is too long by an amount
frame have the same length and flexural rigidity.

T5.18 Determine the support reactions in the rigid-jointed plane frame as shown in Figure T5.18.
Note that the member AB has an
and for member BC the EI =
.

T5.19 Determine the support reactions of rigid-jointed plane frame as shown in Figure T5.19. All
members of frame have same flexural rigidity.

T5.20 Determine the support reactions of the rigid-jointed plane frame as shown in Figure T5.20,
if the member BC is assumed to be subjected to a linear temperature gradient such that the top
and lower at
. The beam is uniform having flexural
surface of the beam is at temperature
rigidity as EI and depth d . The coefficient of thermal expansion for beam material is a .

T5.21 Determine the support reactions of the rigid-jointed plane frame as shown in Figure T5.21.

T5.22 Using theorem of three moment find the reactions of the uniform beam shown in Figure
T5.22.

T5.23 Using theorem of three moments, determine the reactions of the uniform continuous beam
shown in Figure T5.23.

T5.24 Using the theorem of three moments analyze the uniform continuous beam shown in Figure
T5.24.

T5.25 Using the theorem of three moments, determine the support reaction, if support B settles
. Take the flexural rigidity of the entire beam as EI .
down by an amount

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
You have learned some tutorial problems related to this module.
T5.1
and

T5.2

and

T5.3

and

T5.4

T5.5

T5.6

and

T5.7

T5.8

T5.9

and

T5.10

and

T5.11
Member

Force

BD

T5.12

T5.13

DE

BE

CE

Member

Force

AB
BC
BE
CD
CE
T5.14

Member

Force

AB

BC

50 (T)

CD

50 (T)

AC

50

(T)

BD

50

(T)

T5.15

Member

Force

13.585 (T)

BD

58.248 (C)

CD

104.6 (C)

T5.16

and

T5.17

T5.18

and

T5.19

T5.20

and

T5.21

T5.22
T5.23

T5.24

T5.25

and

## Module 6 : Influence Lines

Objectives
In this course you will learn the following

## Introduction to the concept of infulence line as a solution to this problem.

So far in this course we have been dealing with structural systems subjected to a specific set of loads.
However, it is not necessary that a structure is subjected to a single set of loads all of the time. For
example, the single-lane bridge deck in Figure 6.1 may be subjected to one set of a loading at one point of
time (Figure 6.1a) and the same structure may be subjected to another set of loading at a different point of
time. It depends on the number of vehicles, position of vehicles and weight of vehicles. The variation of
load in a structure results in variation in the response of the structure. For example, the internal forces
change causing a variation in stresses that are generated in the structure. This becomes a critical
consideration from design perspective, because a structure is designed primarily on the basis of the
intensity and location of maximum stresses in the structure. Similarly, the location and magnitude of
maximum deflection (which are also critical parameters for design) also become variables in case of
critical response parameters.

## Figure 6.1 Loading condition on a bridge deck at different points of time

Influence lines offer a quick and easy way of performing multiple analyses for a single structure. Response
parameters such as shear force or bending moment at a point or reaction at a support for several load sets
can be easily computed using influence lines.
For example, we can construct influence lines for

(shear force at B ) or

(bending moment at C ) or

(vertical reaction at support D ) and each one will help us calculate the corresponding response

## Figure 6.2 Different response parameters for beam AD

An influence line is a diagram which presents the variation of a certain response parameter due to the
variation of the position of a unit concentrated load along the length of the structural member. Let us
consider that a unit downward concentrated force is moving from point A to point B of the beam shown in
Figure 6.3a. We can assume it to be a wheel of unit weight moving along the length of the beam. The
) will change depending on the location of this unit
magnitude of the vertical support reaction at A (
downward force. The influence line for

## (Figure 6.3b) gives us the value of

the moving unit load. From the ordinate of the influence line at C, we can say that

## for different locations of

when the unit

load is at point C .

## Figure 6.3b Influence line of

for beam AB

Thus, an influence line can be defined as a curve, the ordinate to which at any abscissa gives the value of
a particular response function due to a unit downward load acting at the point in the structure
corresponding to the abscissa. The next section discusses how to construct influence lines using methods of
equilibrium.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following

## Module 6 : Influence Lines

Lecture 2 :Construction of Influence Lines using Equilibrium Methods
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Construction of influence lines using equilibrium conditions.

## Some examples following this method.

6.2 Construction of Influence Lines using Equilibrium Methods
The most basic method of obtaining influence line for a specific response parameter is to solve the static
equilibrium equations for various locations of the unit load. The general procedure for constructing an
influence line is described below.
1. Define the positive direction of the response parameter under consideration through a free body diagram
of the whole system.
2..For a particular location of the unit load, solve for the equilibrium of the whole system and if required,
as in the case of an internal force, also for a part of the member to obtain the response parameter for that
location of the unit load.This gives the ordinate of the influence line at that particular location of the load.
3.Repeat this process for as many locations of the unit load as required to determine the shape of the
influence line for the whole length of the member. It is often helpful if we can consider a generic location
(or several locations) x of the unit load.
4.Joining ordinates for different locations of the unit load throughout the length of the member,we get the
influence line for that particular response parameter.
The following three examples show how to construct influence lines for a support reaction, a shear force
and a bending moment for the simply supported beam AB .
Example 6.1 Draw the influence line for

Solution:
Free body diagram of AB :

Solution:

For

For

Solution:

For

For

## So, the influence of

(bending moment at

## ) for beam AB in Fig. E6.3.

Similarly, influence lines can be constructed for any other support reaction or internal force in the beam.
However, one should note that equilibrium equations will not be sufficient to obtain influence lines in
indeterminate structures, because we cannot solve for the internal forces/support reactions using only
equilibrium conditions for such structures.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Construction of influence lines using equilibrium conditions.

## Module 6 : Influence Lines

Lecture 3 : Use of Influence Lines
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Use of influence line through an example
6.3 Use of Influence Lines
In this section, we will illustrate the use of influence lines through the influence lines that we have obtained
in Section 6.2. Let us consider a general case of loading on the simply supported beam (Figure 6.4a) and
,
and
use the influence lines to find out the response parameters (
containing only one externally applied force.

Figure 6.4 Application of influence lines for a general loading: (a) all the loads, and (b) the

For loading case (A), we can find out the response parameters using the three influence lines. Ordinate of
an influence line gives the response for a unit load acting at a certain point.
Therefore, we can multiply this ordinate by the magnitude of the force to get the response due to the real
force at that point. Thus

## And for case (C),

By the theory of superposition, we can add forces for each individual case to find the response parameters
for the original loading case (Figure 6.4a). Thus, the response parameters in the beam AB are:

One should remember that the method of superposition is valid only for linear elastic cases with small
displacements only. So, prior to using influence lines in this way it is necessary to check that these
conditions are satisfied.
It may seem that we can solve for these forces under the specified load case using equilibrium equations
directly, and influence lines are not necessary. However, there may be requirement for obtaining these
cases, it will be quicker to find only three influence lines and not solve for ten equilibrium cases.
The most important use of influence line is finding out the location of a load for which certain response will
have a maximum value. For example, we may need to find the location of a moving load (say a gantry) on
a beam (say a gantry girder) for which we get the maximum bending moment at a certain point. We can
consider bending moment at point D of Example 6.3, where the beam AB becomes our gantry girder.
, one can say that
will reach its maximum value when the load is
Looking at the influence line of
at point D .
Influence lines can be used not only for concentrated forces, but for distributed forces as well, which is
discussed in the next section.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
Use of influence line through an example

## Module 6 : Influence Lines

Lecture 4 : Using Influence Lines for Uniformly Distributed Load
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
6.4 Using Influence Lines for Uniformly Distributed Load
Consider the simply-supported beam AB in Figure 6.5, of which the portion CD is acted upon by a uniformly
distributed load of intensity w/unit length . We want to find the value of a certain response function R
under this loading and let us assume that we have already constructed the influence line of this response
. If we consider an
function. Let the ordinate of the influence line at a distance x from support A be
elemental length dx of the beam at a distance x from A , the total force acting on this elemental length is
wdx . Since dx is infinitesimal, we can consider this force to be a concentrated force acting at a distance x .
The contribution of this concentrated force wdx to R is:

Therefore, the total effect of the distributed force from point C to D is:

## (area under the influence line from C to D )

Thus, we can obtain the response parameter by multiplying the intensity of the uniformly distributed load
with the area under the influence line for the distance for which the load is acting. To illustrate, let us
consider the uniformly distributed load on a simply supported beam (Figure 6.6). To find the vertical
that we have obtained in Example 6.1. So
reaction at the left support, we can use the influence line for
we can calculate the reaction

as:

## Figure 6.6 Uniformly distributed load acting on a beam

Similarly, we can find any other response function for a uniformly distributed loading using their influence
lines as well.
For non-uniformly distributed loading, the intensity w is not constant through the length of the distributed
load. We can still use the integration formulation:

## However, we cannot take the intensity w outside the integral, as it is a function of x .

Recap
In this course you have learnt the following

## Module 6 : Influence Lines

Lecture 5 : Mller-Breslau Principle
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
The Mller-Breslau principle for influence lines.

## 6.5 Mller-Breslau Principle

The Mller-Breslau principle uses Betti's law of virtual work to construct influence lines. To illustrate the
method let us consider a structure AB (Figure 6.7a). Let us apply a unit downward force at a distance x
and
at supports A and B ,
from A , at point C . Let us assume that it creates the vertical reactions
respectively (Figure 6.7b). Let us call this condition System 1. In System 2 (figure 6.7c), we have the
. Here
is the deflection at point C .
same structure with a unit deflection applied in the direction of

Figure 6.7 (a) Given system AB , (b) System 1, structure under a unit load, (c) System 2, structure with a
unit deflection corresponding to
According to Betti's law, the virtual work done by the forces in System 1 going through the corresponding
displacements in System 2 should be equal to the virtual work done by the forces in System 2 going
through the corresponding displacements in System 1. For these two systems, we can write:

The right side of this equation is zero, because in System 2 forces can exist only at the supports,
corresponding to which the displacements in System 1 (at supports A and B ) are zero. The negative sign
accounts for the fact that it acts against the unit load in System 1. Solving this equation we get:
before

In other words, the reaction at support A due to a unit load at point C is equal to the displacement at point
C when the structure is subjected to a unit displacement corresponding to the positive direction of support
reaction at A . Similarly, we can place the unit load at any other point and obtain the support reaction due
.
to that from System 2. Thus the deflection pattern in System 2 represents the influence line for
Following the same general procedure, we can obtain the influence line for any other response parameter
as well. Let us consider the shear force at point C of a simply-supported beam AB (Figure 6.8a). We apply
a unit downward force at some point D as shown in System 1 (Figure 6.8b). In system 2 (Figure 6.8c), we
. Note that the displacement at point C is
apply a unit deflection corresponding to the shear force,
applied in a way such that there is no relative rotation between AC and CB . This will avoid any virtual work
) going through the rotation in System 2. Now, according to
done by the bending moment at C (
Betti's law:

Figure 6.8 (a) Given system AB , (b) System 1, structure under a unit load, (c) System 2, structure with a

## , (d) System 2, structure with a unit deflection corresponding to

Thus, the deflected shape in System 2 represents the influence line for shear force
want to find the influence line for bending moment

. Similarly, if we

## , we obtain System 2 (Figure 6.8d) by applying a

unit rotation at point C (that is, a unit relative rotation between AC and CB ). However, we do not want any
going
relative displacement (between AC and CB ) at point C in order to avoid any virtual work done by
through the displacements in System 2. Betti's law provides the virtual work equation:

So, as we have seen earlier, the displaced shape in System 2 represents the influence line for the response
parameter
.
Construction of System 2 for a given response function is the most important part in applying the MllerBreslau principle. One must take care that other than the concerned response function no other force (or
moment) in System 1 should do any virtual work going through the corresponding displacements in System
2. So we make all displacements in System 2 corresponding to other response functions equal to zero. For
,
and
are equal to zero. Example 6.4
example, in Figure 6.8c, displacements corresponding to
illustrates the construction of influence lines using Mller-Breslau principle.

and

Solution:

System 2 for

System 2 for

System 2 for
at point D

,

## contributes to virtual work because even though there is rotation

)

The deflected shape in each system 2 provides the influence line for the corresponding response function.
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
The Mller-Breslau principle for influence lines.

## Module 6 : Influence Lines

Lecture 6 : Tutorial Problems
Objectives
In this course you will learn the following
Some tutorial problems related to this module.

TUTORIAL PROBLEMS
T6.1 Draw the Influence Line Diagram (ILD) for R E . Consider B & B and C & C to be at an
infinitesimal distance to each other.

Figure T6.1
T6.2

Draw the Influence Line Diagram (ILD) for M G for the following Figure T6.2.

Figure T6.2
T6.3 Find the maximum shear force at C for the moving load combination in Figure T6.3.

Figure T6.3
Recap
In this course you have learnt the following
You have learned some tutorial problems related to this module.