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Section

18
Telecommunications Structured Cabling
Systems

18.1.0 Introduction
18.1.1 Important Codes and Standards
18.1.2 Comparison of ANSI/TIA/EIA, ISO/IEC, and CENELEC Cabling Standards
18.2.0 Major Elements of a Telecommunications Structured Cabling System.
18.2.1 Typical Ranges of Cable Diameter
18.2.2 Conduit Sizing-Number of Cables
18.2.3 Bend Radii Guidelines for Conduits
18.2.4 Guidelines for Adapting Designs to Conduits with Bends
18.2.5 Recommended Pull Box Configurations
18.2.6 Minimum Space Requirements in Pull Boxes Having One Conduit Each
in Opposite Ends of the Box
18.2.7 Cable Tray Dimensions (Common Types)
18.2.8 Topology
18.2.9 Horizontal Cabling to Two Individual Work Areas
18.2.10 Cable Lengths
18.2.11 Twisted-Pair (Balanced) Cabling Categories
18.2.12 Optical Fiber Cable Performance
18.2.13 Twisted-Pair Work Area Cable
18.2.14 Eight-Position Jack Pin/Pair Assignments (TIA-568A)(Front View of
Connector)
18.2.15 Optional Eight-Position Jack Pin/Pair Assignments (TIA-568B)(Front
View of Connector)
18.2.16 Termination Hardware for Category-Rated Cabling Systems
18.2.17 Patch Cord Wire Color Codes
18.2.18 ANSI/TIA/EIA-568A Categories of Horizontal Copper Cables (Twisted-
Pair Media)
18.2.19 Work Area Copper Cable Lengths to a Multi-User Telecommunications
Outlet Assembly (MUTOA)
18.2.20 U.S. Twisted-Pair Cable Standards
18.2.21 Optical Fiber Sample Connector Types
18.2.22 Duplex SC Interface
18.2.23 Duplex SC Adapter with Simplex and Duplex Plugs
18.2.24 Duplex SC Patch Cord Crossover Orientation
18.2.25 Optical Fibers
18.2.26 Backbone System Components
18.2.27 Backbone Star Wiring Topology
18.2.28 Example of Combined Copper/Fiber Backbone Supporting Voice and
Data Traffic
18.2.29 Backbone Distances
18.2.30 Determining 100 mm (4 in) Floor Sleeves
18.1
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18.2 Section Eighteen

18.2.31 Determining Size of Floor Slots


18.2.32 Conduit Fill Requirements for Backbone Cable
18.2.33 TR Cross-Connect Field Color Codes
18.2.34 TR Temperature Ranges
18.2.35 TR Size Requirements
18.2.36 Allocating Termination Space in TRs
18.2.37 Typical Telecommunications Room (TR) Layout
18.2.38 TR Industry Standards
18.2.39 TR Regulatory and Safety Standards
18.2.40 Environmental Control Systems Standards for Equipment Rooms (ERs)
18.2.41 Underground Entrance Conduits for Entrance Facilities (EFs)
18.2.42 Typical Underground Installation to EF
18.2.43 Equipment Room (ER) Floor Space (Special-Use Buildings)
18.2.44 Entrance Facility (EF) Wall Space (Minimum Equipment and
Termination Wall Space)
18.2.45 Entrance Facility (EF) Floor Space (Minimum Equipment and
Termination Floor Space)
18.2.46 Separation of Telecommunications Pathways from 480-Volt or Less
Power Lines
18.2.47 Cabling Standards Document Summary
18.3.0 Blown Optical Fiber Technology (BOFT) Overview
18.3.1 Diagram Showing Key Elements of BOFT System
18.3.2 BOFT Indoor Plenum 5-mm Multiduct
18.3.3 BOFT Outdoor 8-mm Multiduct
18.3.4 BOFT Installation Equipment

18.1.0 Introduction
Structured cabling is a term widely used to describe a generic voice, data, and
video (telecommunications) cabling system design that supports a multiproduct,
multivendor, and multimedia environment. It is an information technology (IT)
infrastructure which provides direction for the cabling system design based on the
end user’s requirements, and it enables cabling installations where there is little
or no knowledge of the active equipment to be installed.
The following provides an overview of the industry standards.

18.1.1 Important Codes and Standards


■ American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
■ Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
■ Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique (CENELEC)
■ Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
■ Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA)
■ International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
■ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE)
■ International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
■ International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical
Commission Joint Technical Committee Number 1 (ISO/IEC JTC1)
■ U.S. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
■ National Research Council of Canada, Institute for Research in Construction
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.3

(NRC-IRC)
■ Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronic Industries Alliance (TIA/EIA)

18.1.2 Comparison of ANSI/TIA/EIA, ISO/IEC, and


CENELEC Cabling Standards

TABLE 18.1.2*

(continued)
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18.4 Section Eighteen

TABLE 18.1.2 (Continued)*

*Here,
and throughout chapter, indicates that this material is reprinted with permission from BICSI’s Telecommunications Distribution Methods
Manual, 9th Edition.

18.2.0 Major Elements of a Telecommunications


Structured Cabling System.
■ Horizontal pathway systems
■ Horizontal cabling systems
■ Backbone distribution systems
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.5

■ Backbone building pathways


■ Backbone building cabling
■ Work areas (WAs)
■ Telecommunications Outlets (TOs)
■ Telecommunications Rooms (TRs)
■ Equipment Rooms (ERs)
■ Telecommunications Entrance Facilities (EFs)
The data which follows provides key data and details for these major elements.

18.2.1 Typical Ranges of Cable Diameter

TABLE 18.2.1*

18.2.2 Conduit Sizing-Number of Cables

TABLE 18.2.2*
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18.6 Section Eighteen

18.2.3 Bend Radii Guidelines for Conduits

TABLE 18.2.3*

18.2.4 Guidelines for Adapting Designs to


Conduits with Bends

TABLE 18.2.4*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.7

18.2.5 Recommended Pull Box Configurations

18.2.5*
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18.8 Section Eighteen

18.2.6 Minimum Space Requirements in Pull Boxes


Having One Conduit Each in Opposite Ends of the Box

TABLE 18.2.6*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.9

18.2.7 Cable Tray Dimensions (Common Types)

TABLE 18.2.7*
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18.10 Section Eighteen

18.2.8 Topology
ANSI/EIA/TIA-568A specifies a star topology—a hierarchical series of distribution
levels. Each WA outlet must be cabled directly to a horizontal cross-connect {HC
[floor distributor (FD)]} in the telecommunications room (TR) except when a con-
solidation point (CP) is required to open office cabling, or a transition point (TP) is
required to connect undercarpet cable. Horizontal cabling should be terminated in
a TR that is on the same floor as the area being served.
NOTES: Splices are not permitted for twisted-pair horizontal cabling.
Bridged taps (multiple appearances of the same cable pairs at several distribution
points) are not permitted in horizontal cabling.
Cabling between TRs is considered part of the backbone cabling. Such connections
between TRs may be used for configuring “virtual bus” and “virtual ring” cabling
schemes using a star topology.

18.2.9 Horizontal Cabling to Two Individual Work


Areas

18.2.9*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.11

18.2.10 Cable Lengths

TABLE 18.2.10*
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18.12 Section Eighteen

18.2.11 Twisted-Pair (Balanced) Cabling Categories

TABLE 18.2.11*

NOTES:
Categories 1 and 2 are not recognized cables.
Category 4 is not recommended.
Categories 3 and 5e meet ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.1 and B.2.
Categories 6 and 7 specifications are under development in TIA and ISO/IEC.
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.13

18.2.12 Optical Fiber Cable Performance

TABLE 18.2.12*

18.2.13 Twisted-Pair Work Area Cable

18.2.13*
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18.14 Section Eighteen

18.2.14 Eight-Position Jack Pin/Pair Assignments


(TIA-568A)(Front View of Connector)

18.2.14*

18.2.15 Optional Eight-Position Jack Pin/Pair


Assignments (TIA-568B)(Front View of Connector)

18.2.15*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.15

18.2.16 Termination Hardware for Category-Rated


Cabling Systems

TABLE 18.2.16

18.2.17 Patch Cord Wire Color Codes

TABLE 18.2.17
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18.16 Section Eighteen

18.2.18 ANSI/TIA/EIA-568A Categories of


Horizontal Copper Cables (Twisted-Pair Media)

TABLE 18.2.18*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.17

18.2.19 Work Area Copper Cable Lengths to a Multi-


User Telecommunications Outlet Assembly (MUTOA)

TABLE 18.2.19*
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18.18 Section Eighteen

18.2.20 U.S. Twisted-Pair Cable Standards

TABLE 18.2.20*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.19

18.2.21 Optical Fiber Sample Connector Types

18.2.21*

18.2.22 Duplex SC Interface

18.2.22*
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18.20 Section Eighteen

18.2.23 Duplex SC Adapter with Simplex and


Duplex Plugs

18.2.23*

18.2.24 Duplex SC Patch Cord Crossover


Orientation

18.2.24*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.21

18.2.25 Optical Fibers

18.2.25

18.2.26 Backbone System Components

TABLE 18.2.26*
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18.22 Section Eighteen

TABLE 18.2.26 (Continued)*

18.2.27 Backbone Star Wiring Topology

18.2.27*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.23

18.2.28 Example of Combined Copper/Fiber


Backbone Supporting Voice and Data Traffic

18.2.28*
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18.24 Section Eighteen

18.2.29 Backbone distances

18.2.29*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.25

18.2.30 Determining 100 mm (4 in) Floor Sleeves

TABLE 18.2.30*

18.2.31 Determining Size of Floor Slots

TABLE 18.2.31*
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18.26 Section Eighteen

18.2.32 Conduit Fill Requirements for Backbone


Cable

TABLE 18.2.32*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.27

18.2.33 TR Cross-Connect Field Color Codes

TABLE 18.2.33*

18.2.34 TR Temperature Ranges

TABLE 18.2.34*
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18.28 Section Eighteen

18.2.35 TR Size Requirements

TABLE 18.2.35*

18.2.36 Allocating Termination Space in TRs

TABLE 18.2.36*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.29

18.2.37 Typical Telecommunications Room (TR)


Layout

18.2.37*
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18.30 Section Eighteen

18.2.38 TR Industry Standards

TABLE 18.2.38*

18.2.39 TR Regulatory and Safety Standards

TABLE 18.2.39*
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.31

18.2.40 Environmental Control Systems Standards


for Equipment Rooms (ERs)

TABLE 18.2.40*

18.2.41 Underground Entrance Conduits for


Entrance Facilities (EFs)

TABLE 18.2.41*
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18.32 Section Eighteen

18.2.42 Typical Underground Installation to EF

18.2.42*

18.2.43 Equipment Room (ER) Floor Space


(Special-Use Buildings)

TABLE 18.2.43
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.33

18.2.44 Entrance Facility (EF) Wall Space


(Minimum Equipment and Termination Wall Space)

TABLE 18.2.44

18.2.45 Entrance Facility (EF) Floor Space


(Minimum Equipment and Termination Floor Space)

TABLE 18.2.45
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18.34 Section Eighteen

18.2.46 Separation of Telecommunications


Pathways from 480-Volt or Less Power Lines

TABLE 18.2.46
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.35

18.2.47 Cabling Standards Document Summary

TABLE 18.2.47*
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18.36 Section Eighteen

18.3.0 Blown Optical Fiber Technology


(BOFT) Overview
Reprinted with permission of General Cable Corporation (www.generalcable.com).
BloLite is the trademark of BICC, PLC and is used under license.
Blown optical fiber technology is an exciting method of delivering a fiber solution
that provides unmatched flexibility and significant cost savings when compared
with conventional fiber cables. In a blown optical fiber system, the fiber route is
“plumbed” with small tubes. The small tubes, known as microduct, come in 5- and
8-mm diameters and are approved for riser, plenum, or outside-plant applica-
tions. They are currently available as a single microduct, or with two, four, and
seven microducts bundled (straight, not twisted) and covered with an outer
sheath, called multiducts. They are lightweight and easy to handle. Splicing along
the route is accomplished through simple push-pull connectors. These microducts
are empty during installation, thereby eliminating the possibility of damaging the
fibers during installation.

Fiber is then installed, or “blown,” into the microduct. The fiber is fed into the
microduct and rides on a current of compressed air. Carried by viscous drag, the
fibers are lifted into the airstream and away from the wall of the microduct, there-
by eliminating friction even around tight bends.

In a relatively short period, coated fibers can be blown for distances up to 1 km


(3281 ft) in a single run of 8-mm-diameter microduct, up to 1000 ft vertical, or
through any network architecture or topology turning up to 300 tight corners with
90 bends of 1-in radius for over 1000 ft, utilizing 5-mm-diameter microduct.

The practical benefits of BOFT systems translate directly into financial benefits
for the end user. For most installations, a BOFT infrastructure is similar to or
slightly higher than the cost for conventional fiber cabling. Savings can be realized
during the initial installation because (1) it simplifies the cable installation by
allowing the pulling of empty or unpopulated microduct, (2) fewer, if any, fiber
splices may be required, and (3) you only pay upfront for those fibers that you need
immediately. The additional expense of hybrid cables is eliminated.

True cost savings and the convenience of blown optical fiber are realized during the
first fiber upgrade or moves, adds, and changes. An upgrade of an existing fiber
backbone generally will incur workplace disruptions such as removing a ceiling
grid, moving office furniture, and network downtime that requires the work to be
done outside normal business hours. New fibers can be added to a BOFT system
simply by accessing an existing unpopulated microduct and blowing in the fibers.
There is no disruption to the workplace, and the process requires a minimal
amount of time to complete. In the event that there are no empty microducts, the
existing fiber can be blown out in minutes and replaced with the new fiber(s)
immediately.

The flexibility of BOFT makes it particularly amenable to renovation and retrofit


applications.

18.3.1 Diagram Showing Key Elements of BOFT


System (page 18.37)
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.37
18.3.1 Diagram Showing Key Elements of BOFT System
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18.38 Section Eighteen

18.3.2 BOFT Indoor Plenum 5-mm Multiduct

18.3.2
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Telecommunications Structured Cabling Systems 18.39

18.3.3 BOFT Outdoor 8-mm Multiduct

18.3.3
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18.40 Section Eighteen

18.3.4 BOFT Installation Equipment

18.3.4