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ENCE 461
Foundation Analysis and Design

Retaining Walls
Sheet Piling Overview; Cantilever Walls

Overview of Sheet Piling as a


Retaining Wall


Sheet piling is an in-situ type of retaining wall




Do not rely on their mass to retain the soil, as opposed


to a gravity wall

In-situ walls rely on their flexural strength to retain


soil, supported either by their own penetration into the
soil or by an anchoring system

Other types of in-situ walls





Soldier pile walls use H-beams to hold timber or concrete


lagging to retain soil on a temporary or permanent basis
Slurry walls bentonite slurry is injected into a trench after
which reinforcement and concrete are placed into the trench,
forming a wall

Materials for Sheet Piling




Steel



Aluminium


Extruded

Vinyl


Cold formed
Hot rolled

Extruded

Fibreglass


Pultruded

Concrete

Wood

Steel Sheet Piles

Hot rolled



Panel and interlocks rolled in one operation


Traditional form of steel sheet piling

Cold formed




Form rolled cold from steel plate


Common with lighter sheet pile profiles
Interlocks more prone to breakage

Aluminium, Vinyl and


Fibreglass Sheeting





Made for lightweight


and light load
applications
Common substitute for
wood or concrete walls
Require special
handling in setting and
driving
Vinyl sheets can be
obtained in various
colours, but is subject to
long term creep

Concrete and Wood Sheeting




Concrete Sheeting

Wood Sheeting

Sections of Sheet Piling



 




 



 


Z-shaped sheeting
Popular in north America
Usually drive two at a time with split clamp
Wall stiffness developed with each sheet without assumed
assistance from the interlocks

U-shaped sheeting (Larssen, etc.)


Very popular in Europe
Usually driven one at a time
Wall stiffness developed with two sheets and load transferred
using the interlocks (European practice; U.S. practice does not
assume this load transfer)

Sections of Sheet Piling




Flat-web sheeting
Almost exclusively used
for cellular cofferdams
Can be driven singly
or two at a time

Arched shaped
Used for shallower wall
construction
Used in cold formed steel and
aluminium sheeting

Transitional Sections

Interlock Styles
 Hot rolled and extruded

sections
 Ball and socket
 Single or double jaw
 Double hook
 Thumb and finger
 One point contact
 Three point contact

 Cold formed sections


 Hook and grip

Cantilever and Anchored Walls




Cantilever Walls


Walls which have no additional supports, and which


rely on the lateral earth pressures in the lower portion
of the wall to support the earth in the upper portion

Limited in height and soil type

Almost exclusively done with steel piling

Anchored Walls


Walls which have additional supports buried in the


soil

These are usually referred to as tiebacks

Anchored
Walls

Deep-Seated Failure of Sheet


Pile Walls

Rotational Failure due to


Inadequate Penetration of
Sheet Pile Walls

Flexural Failure of Sheet Pile


Walls

Anchorage
Failure in
Sheet
Pile Walls

Active and Passive Pressures

Source: British Steel Piling Handbook, http://www.corusconstruction.com

Design of Cantilever Walls

Simplified Method of Design

Eliminate the bottom triangle which fixes the pile


toe to the wall; F3 replaces the forces at the toe

Use the force triangles for resultant forces F1 and


F2

Increase the penetration by 0.2 * OC to compensate


for simplification (not a factor of safety!)

Example of Cantilever Wall


Design


Given


Cantilever Sheet Pile as


shown

Find


Necessary penetration
to prevent overturning

Suitable sheet piling


for bending moment

Assume


Rankine earth pressure


conditions

Factor of Safety and Earth


Pressure Considerations


Two methods of incorporating factor of safety




Divide the passive earth pressure coefficient by a


factor of 1.5 2 (Coduto)

Increase the toe length by 20 40% (toe length being


distance from excavation level to toe of pile)
(PBSSPDM)

Use Coduto's method




Ka = tan2 (45 /2) = tan2 (45 35/2) = 0.271

Kp = tan2 (45 + /2)/F = tan2 (45 + 35/2)/1.5 = 2.46

Earth Pressure Diagram


(Lateral and Vertical)
260 psf @ 8'
457 psf @ 20'

Hydrostatic Pressures

For this problem, they are balanced, and do not need to be taken
into consideration. They can be a serious factor.

Compute Net Pressures

F1
O
Region of F2 F
2
C

N et
E ffe ctive S tr e ss
A ctive P r e ssu r e
P a ssive P r e ssu r e

Region of F1

Steps to Solve Problem




Find location of Point O

Find magnitude, location of F1

Determine equation for magnitude, location of F2

Check to make sure F3 > 0

Sum moments around Point C to determine location of


Point C


Since F3 is assumed to act at Point C, it does not enter into the


calculations

Increase OC by 20% to determine penetration of sheet


piling

Determine point and magnitude of maximum moment




Size sheet pile based on maximum moment

Location of Point O


Pressure at dredge line


= 457 psf

Slope of line below


dredge line = Kp
Ka = Kp Ka) =
(123 62.4)(2.460.271) = 132.7 psf/ft

O (or z) = 20 +
457/132.7 = 23.44'

Magnitude and Location of F1

8'

20'
23.44'

F1a
F1b
F1c

F1a = (260)(8)/2 = 1040 lb/ft

zF1a = 2*8/3 = 5.33'

F1b = (457+260)(12)/2 = 4302 lb/ft

zF1b = 8'+6.55'=14.55'

F1c = (457)(3.44)/2 = 786 lb/ft

zF1c = 20 + 3.44/3 = 21.15'

F1 = 1040 + 4302 + 786 = 6128 lb/ft

z1 = ((1040)(5.33) + (4302)(14.55) +
(786)(21.15))/6128 = 13.84'

L
(distance from Point 1 for
q 12 q 2  trapezoidal load)
z
3q 1q 2 

Magnitude and Location of F2


23.44'

Pressure at C = Kp
Ka)(C - 23.44) = (123
62.4)(2.46-0.271) =
132.7 (C-23.44) psf

F2 = (132.7) (C
23.44)2 /2

z2 = 23.44 + 2 (C23.44) /3

F2
C

Determine Point C by Summing


Moments
M c F 1 Cz 1 F 2  Cz 2 0
2
132.7C23.44 C23.44
06128C13.84


2
3
C43.66'
Addition for
CO43.6623.4420.22'
Simplified
CO' 1.220.2224.26'
Method
Ltot 23.4424.2647.7'
Toe penetration
F 1 F 2 F 3
of 27.7'
F 2 27127 lb ft
z 2 36.92'
271276128209990 , so F 3 OK

Determination of Maximum
Moment


Maximum moment
takes place at point of
zero shear

Zero shear takes place


at the point where the
active and passive
forces are equal, i.e.,
F1 = F2'

F1
F2 '

Mmax
C

Determination of Maximum
Moment

F1
F2 '

Mmax

F2' = (132.7)(zMmax
23.44)2/2 = F1 = 6128

zMmax = 33.05'

Mmax = 6128 (33.05 13.84) 6128 ((33.0523.44)/3) = 98,089 ftlb/ft of wall

From table, AZ-26


has adequate strength

Assume 120 pcf


 = 8/20 = 0.4
Kp/Ka = 2.46/0.271 = 9.1

Use of Charts
Moment Ratio = 0.75

D/H = 1.25
Kp/Ka

Assume 120 pcf


 = 8/20 = 0.4
Kp/Ka = 2.46/0.271 = 9.1

D/H = 1.25
Moment Ratio = 0.75

Use of Charts

Compute Depth


D = (1.25)(20) = 25' (simplified method gives 27.7',


book gives 34')


Since we used a reduce Kp, we don't need to add an


additional factor of safety; otherwise, proceed as stated in
chart
Note use of submerged weight!

M = (0.75)(60)(0.271)(20)3 = 97,560 ft-lb/ft of wall


(simplified method gives 98,089 ft-lb/ft of wall)

SPW 911

Cantilever Piles in Clay




Two step analysis




Short term, where 



    
   

 

     
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Questions