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1895 Sino-Japanese War

China defeated


November 1908- Death of Guangxu and Cixi
2yr old Pu Yi leader (Prince Chun regent)
Yuan Shikai (commander) dismissed

1900-1 Boxer Rising

Cixi launched campaign against foreign devils in China
Backed anti-western secret societies
Attacks on Foreign missionaries and Chinese Christians
Foreign powers raised army and crushed Boxers, China
had to pay reparations $450 million, Foreign troops in and
around Beijing and fortifications destroyed.

1898- 100 Days reforms

Created in an attempt to divert criticism
Changes in civil service, education, industrial
More people in court opposed them
Cixi took over the government and had
reformers killed or imprisoned

November 1911- Only 3

provinces still loyal to

10th October 1911- Revolution

Wuhan troops disobedient
Mutinies in neighbouring provinces
Local revolutionaries joined in
Yuan Shikai called to command army
Seized rebellious regions but not Wuhan
came to terms with them

November 1911- Delegates in Nanjing

Aimed to establish republic of China
1905-Guomindang formed
Leader Sun Yatsen, formed in Tokyo

1911- Nationalisation of Railways

Depended of Foreign loans to
compensate previous owners

1913- Foreign Loan

Yuan negotiate large loan to finance his
$100 million provided:
they would recognise Britains control of Tibet
and Russias of Outer Mongolia
IF they didnt pay the loan back, the allies could
have control of taxes
China had to put finances under foreign control

1st January 1912- Sun Yatsen President

Yuan Shikai offered military strength for
Presidency promised Yuan a workable
republican constitiution

1913- 2nd Revolution

Republicans condemned harsh terms of Loan
GMD tried to organise armed resistance
Yuans army crushed the resistance
Introduced series of measures designed to
consolidate his power
Suspended parliament
Outlawed parties GMD included
Bought tax revenues under central control
Abolished regional assemblies

March 1916- Yuan renounces the Throne

Dies 3 months later
1915- Japans 21 Demands
Police force must be run by both Japanese and Chinese
Political, Financial and Military areas must contain
influential Japanese people
Chine had to buy a fixed amount of munitions from Japan
(4th May 1919) Japans possession of Province of Shandong
(previously German) would have to be accepted
Yuan appealed to the West for help, Britain agree some
terms were harsh but once they were amended, they said
China should accept the remainder
Yuan accepted the terms- caused strikes through Beijing
and other provincial cities

1917 - Zhang Xun tries to restore

Pu Yi to the throne

1919- Sun declares reformation

of GMD, Guangzhou becomes
main power base

1916- Warlord Era begins

Fighting amoung Beijing army commanders Duan Qirui
becomes Prime Minister from 1916-20 but had little power
Local regions fell under control of Warlords, central
government unable to impose authority on provinces
Feng Guochang in Gansu, Zhang Xun in Shandong, Yan
Xishan in Shanxi (longest surviving Warlord, 1912-49)
12th February 1912Qing Abdication
1913- Sun Yatsen flees to Japan
Begins to restructure GMD


1 January 1916- Yuan becomes Emperor

Resurrects imperial government
Attempts to gain more power
Actually created fiercer opposition, even
army refused to co-operate

1917- Sun sets up GMD to

rival Beijing government

July 1921 Formation of CCP

Li Dazhao Chen Duxui

1920 Warlords
Feng Yuxiang Christian General,
Zhang Zongzhang in Shandong
1922 Washington Naval
Signed by Nine Powers
Restricted armament size
and agreed to recognise each
others Spheres of Influence

1924 Sun plans to unify China

1923- 3 principles of the People
Nationalism, democracy, peoples

1924 Chiang Kaishek becomes C in C

Appointed at Whampoa Military
Academy at Guangzhou

30th May Incident 1925

Shanghai- large crowd march against shooting of
Chinese workers by Japanese factory guards
British commander orders forces to crush protests
12 people were killed
Further strikes and foreign diplomats were

1923 CCP railway stoppage Beijing

Attempted to get rid of Warlord

1923 Comintern agents contact CCP

They urged CCP to join GMD
Adolf Joffe and Michael Borodin offered
money and military supplies

1922- Zhang Zuolin Warlord

of Manchuria/Beijing
Anti republican

1926 Chiang dismisses some

CCP officials and Wang
Jingwei (threat in GMD)

1924 United Front

Wanted Warlords out
Socialism-marxism compatiable
Sun admired Bolsheviks

1924- Whampoa Military Academy founded

Centre dedicated to training GMD army recruits

1926-28- Northern Expedition

United front plans to defeat Warlords: Wu Peifu, Sun
Chuanfang and Zhang Zuolin
Strategy to surround armies and cut off supply lines
After defeating Zhang in 1928 GMD announced it was the
legitimate government Capital became Nanjing
Communist Role: workers sabotages Warlord effort by
organising boycotts, Mao used links with peasant
associations to their advantage
Not all Warlords were crushed; some accepted GMD
authority and others took roles in GMD government

12th March 1925 Sun Yatsen dies

Anti communist forces within GMD released
Chiang took over, believe communism should be

April 1927- White Terror Shanghai Massacre

Chiang intensifies attack on Communists
Zhou Enlai formed trade union move
5000 communists shot or beheaded by GMD
in Shanghai,In Hunan 250,000

Autumn 1927- Autumn Harvest rising

CCP resistance lead by Mao Zedong in Hunan
Defiance of Moscows order, despite White
Terror United front must remain
Mao condemned Chiang for destroying alliance
and betraying Suns memory
Unsuccessful-didnt have enough troops

1929 Encirclement Campaigns by GMD

Chaings attempts to eradicate remainder of the CCP
Hans Von Seeckt suggested strangulation of CCP
armies through encirclement campaigns
First 3 were resisted by Marshal Zhu De and Maos
army but by 1934 Army were exhausted
CCP realised they had to take action for the survival
of the party

September 1931- Mukden Incident Shenyang Incident

Kwantung army planned to invade
Railway bombed (high economic importance)by
Japanese to legitimise invasion of Manchuria- caused
barely any damage
Blamed bombing on Chinese

1928 Nanjing replaces Beijing as Capital

Summer 1927 UF Forces

capture Wuhan and Shanghai

1927-Sun Chuanfangs counterattacks

100,000 launch attacks against Nationalist forces
By 1925 Chiang built pu forces to 250,000 and was
able to overcomes his forces

1928 Zhang Zuolin killed by Japanese

Son Zhang Xueliang takes over
Manchurian Province
1927-37 Nanjing decade
Suns body moved - overlooking Nanjing
Reduced no of soldiers
Chiang had control of the army,and other roles in
government married sister-in-law of Sun Yatsen whose
brother given role as Finance Minister
Spy network and Secret police

1931- Japanese occupation of Manchuria(Machukuo)

Tanaka Memorial 1927- feared Chinese unification
Kwantung army invaded after Mukden incident
Pu Yi put at puppet leader by the Japanese after
League of Nations threatened sanctions

1930 Futian Incident

Mao conducted two month purge against rival
unit within Jiangxi Red Army, killing those he
suspected on being disloyal (GMD) or Supporters
of Li Lisan (Urban Communist)
Ordered torture and execution of nearly

May 1933- Treaty of Tanggu

Chinese accepted occupation of
Manchuria by the Japanese
National humiliation for China

1934-5 Famine and Drought

Flooding of the Yangtze River
Famine killed 30 Million
1935 Zunyi Meeting
Mao believed Urban reds were abandoning
successful Guerilla Tacticsfor pitched battles
Dispute over Red army Route between Zhang
Guotao and Mao, Maos Route more logical- had
good judgement and gained respect within the

1936- Xian Incident

Warlord Zhang Xueliang and CCP
kidnapped Chiang Kiashek after growing
tired of appeasement towards Japanese
He went to Xian to supervise destruction
of Communists
Chiang allowed to leave if he would renegotiate UF and resist the Japanese

1933 Japan walked out of League of Nations

29th January 1932- Bombing of Shanghai

Japanese admiral ordered bombing of Chapei
Marines landed and began firing
Hundreds of civilians killed
70,000 Japanese troops rushed to Shanghai
By February Full scale war broke out

1935- Creation of Yanan Soviet

Attempted to create an alternative form of
Chinese Society
Provided inhabitants with security and welfare
Created a sense of Community
However the system was oppressive

1936- December 9th


1940- 100 Regiments Offensive

400,000 CCP Troops in 100 Regiments
under Peng Dehuai undertook series of
attack on Japanese
Overrun Garrisons, destroyed railways,
roads and bridges

July 1937-September 1941-Sino Japanese War

Building tensions between countries
21 Demands 1915
Japanese help in crushing Boxers
Loss of Korea and Taiwan to Japan 1894
Jealous of Japans defeat of Russia 1905
Japan allowed Shandong
Japan feared Chinese Unification
Mukden Incident
Chinese accepted occupation of Manchuria by the Japanese
National humiliation for China

1940 Publication of Maos New Democracy

Appealed to Chinese to Unite against enemies of the Nation

1941- Russo Japanese non Aggression pact

1941- Russo-Japanese non-aggression pact

Solved fighting on the Manchurian border
between USSR and Japan

1940-4 New Government of China

Wang Jingwei (former GMD) headed new government
He denounced Chiang Kaishek
1940 Wang Jingweis government
Japanese puppet leader who set up government in Nanjing
Wang (traitor) denounced Chiang and the GMD
Wangs government lasted till 1944- his death and had little
power compared to the GMD or CCP

7th December 1941- Pearl Harbour Attack

USA becomes involved in the War
Japan launched Operation Tora Tora- attack
on pacific fleet

1942- Rectification of Conduct Campaign

Kang Sheng (security chief) organised the Campaign
introduced by Mao
Kang imprisoned 1000 CCP members
Political party re-thinking and dissolution of revisionist ideas,
Mao prescribed texts for members of his party to search for
revolutionary truth
Maoism develops- cult status

1945 Soviet-GMD friendship treaty

Chiang allowed Soviet forces into Manchuria, in
return for the USSR recognising the GMD as the
legitimate government in China

1944- Ichigo Offensive

Japanese launched
Battles fought between NRA and Japanese
Japanese seized vast amounts of territory and air field,
also secured a land route to Indo-China
Undermined Chiang

June 1946-October 1949-Chinese Civil War

Struggle for Manchuria
Strong Point Offensive 1947
Liaoshen Campaign September-November 1948
Huaihai Campaign November 1948- January 1949
Pingjin Campaign November 1948- January 1949
GMD lost 3 million
CCP lost 1 million
Civilian Deaths 6 Million

1945 End of the war

After the USA dropped an atomic
bomb on Japan, they devastated
Hiroshima and Nagasaki resulting in
their surrender

1st October 1949 Chinese Peoples Republic declared

Mao Zedong enters the Forbidden City

January 1949 Beijing surrenders to CCP

December 1949 Chiang flees
Chiang went to join remnants of GMD in Taiwan